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Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is a major branch of Protestant
Protestant
Christianity
Christianity
which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Beginning with the Ninety-Five Theses, first published in 1517, Luther's writings were disseminated internationally, spreading the early ideas of the Reformation
Reformation
beyond the influence and control of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
and the Holy Roman Emperor.[1] The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism
Lutheranism
to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation.[2] The divide centered primarily on two points: the proper source of authority in the church, often called the formal principle of the Reformation, and the doctrine of justification, often called the material principle.[a] Lutheranism
Lutheranism
advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition.[3] In addition, Lutheranism
Lutheranism
accepts the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church.[4][5] The Augsburg Confession, a Lutheran statement of belief contained in the Book
Book
of Concord, teaches that "the faith as confessed by Luther and his followers is nothing new, but the true catholic faith, and that their churches represent the true catholic or universal church".[6] When the Lutherans presented the Augsburg Confession to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, they believe to have "showed that each article of faith and practice was true first of all to Holy Scripture, and then also to the teaching of the church fathers and the councils".[6] Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre- Reformation
Reformation
Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of God's Law, the divine grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints, and predestination. Today, Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism. With approximately 80 million adherents,[7] it constitutes the third most common Protestant
Protestant
denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism.[8][b] The Lutheran World Federation, the largest communion of Lutheran churches, represents over 74 million people.[9] Other Lutheran organizations include the International Lutheran Council
International Lutheran Council
and the Confessional Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Conference, as well as independent churches.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Spread into northern Europe 2.2 Schmalkaldic War
Schmalkaldic War
and the Formula of Concord 2.3 Lutheran orthodoxy 2.4 Rationalism 2.5 Revivals

3 Doctrine

3.1 Bible

3.1.1 Inspiration 3.1.2 Clarity 3.1.3 Efficacy 3.1.4 Sufficiency 3.1.5 Law and Gospel

3.2 Lutheran confessions 3.3 Justification 3.4 Trinity 3.5 Two natures of Christ 3.6 Sacraments

3.6.1 Baptism 3.6.2 Eucharist

3.7 Conversion 3.8 Predestination 3.9 Divine providence 3.10 Good works 3.11 Judgment and eternal life 3.12 Comparison among Protestants

4 Practices

4.1 Liturgy 4.2 Missions 4.3 Education 4.4 Church fellowship

5 Throughout the world 6 Lutheran bodies 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Etymology[edit]

Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism

The name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate
Leipzig Debate
in July 1519.[10] Eck and other Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
as Lutherans.[2] Martin Luther
Martin Luther
always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel".[10] The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition
Reformed tradition
also began to use that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran and Evangelical
Evangelical
Reformed. As time passed by, the word Evangelical
Evangelical
was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists
Philippists
and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church.[2] History[edit] Main article: History of Lutheranism Further information: Protestant
Protestant
Reformation Lutheranism
Lutheranism
has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation.[11][12][13] Spread into northern Europe[edit] Lutheranism
Lutheranism
spread through all of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
(also ruling Iceland
Iceland
and the Faroe Islands) and the monarch of Sweden
Sweden
(also ruling Finland) adopted Lutheranism. Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism
Lutheranism
also spread into Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia. Since 1520, regular[14] Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I (1523–33), Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen.[15] During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism
Lutheranism
made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted; "We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore".[16] Frederick's son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway.

Title page of the Swedish Gustav Vasa
Gustav Vasa
Bible, translated by the Petri brothers, along with Laurentius Andreae

The constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, which is the Law and the Gospel".[17] It does not mention the[14] Augsburg Confession. The priests had to[14] understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations. The youths were taught[18] from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life:[14] "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", and "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar.[19] The first complete Bible
Bible
in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published in 1550, with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition; a second edition was published in 1589.[20] Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome
Bishop of Rome
has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God".[14][21] The Reformation
Reformation
in Sweden
Sweden
began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation
Reformation
to Sweden
Sweden
after studying in Germany. They led Gustav Vasa, elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism. The pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa
Gustav Vasa
during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden
Sweden
and the papacy in 1523.[15] Four years later, at the Diet of Västerås (sv), the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this effectively granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas,[15] Lutheranism
Lutheranism
did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsala Synod
Uppsala Synod
declared Holy Scripture the sole guideline for faith, with four documents accepted as faithful and authoritative explanations of it: the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed, and the unaltered Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
of 1530.[22] Mikael Agricola's translation of the first Finnish New Testament
New Testament
was published in 1548.[23] Schmalkaldic War
Schmalkaldic War
and the Formula of Concord[edit]

The University of Jena
University of Jena
around 1600. Jena was the center of Gnesio-Lutheran
Gnesio-Lutheran
activity during the controversies leading up to the Formula of Concord.

After the death of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in 1546, the Schmalkaldic War
Schmalkaldic War
started out as a conflict between two German Lutheran rulers in 1547. Soon, Holy Roman Imperial forces joined the battle and conquered the members of the Schmalkaldic League, oppressing and exiling many German Lutherans as they enforced the terms of the Augsburg Interim. Religious freedom was secured for Lutherans through the Peace of Passau in 1552, and under the Cuius regio, eius religio
Cuius regio, eius religio
(the religion of the ruler was to dictate the religion of those ruled) and Declaratio Ferdinandei
Declaratio Ferdinandei
(limited religious tolerance) clauses of the Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg
in 1555.[24] Religious disputes between the Crypto-Calvinists, Philippists, Sacramentarians, Ubiquitarians and Gnesio-Lutherans
Gnesio-Lutherans
raged within Lutheranism
Lutheranism
during the middle of the 16th century. This finally ended with the resolution of the issues in the Formula of Concord. Large numbers of politically and religiously influential leaders met together, debated, and resolved these topics on the basis of Scripture, resulting in the Formula, which over 8,000 leaders signed. The Book of Concord
Book of Concord
replaced earlier, incomplete collections of doctrine, unifying all German Lutherans with identical doctrine and beginning the period of Lutheran Orthodoxy. Lutheran orthodoxy[edit] Main article: Lutheran orthodoxy The historical period of Lutheran Orthodoxy
Lutheran Orthodoxy
is divided into three sections: Early Orthodoxy (1580–1600), High Orthodoxy (1600–1685), and Late Orthodoxy (1685–1730). Lutheran scholasticism
Lutheran scholasticism
developed gradually especially for the purpose of arguing with the Jesuits, and it was finally established by Johann Gerhard. Abraham Calovius represents the climax of the scholastic paradigm in orthodox Lutheranism. Other orthodox Lutheran theologians include Martin Chemnitz, Aegidius Hunnius, Leonhard Hutter, Nicolaus Hunnius, Jesper Rasmussen Brochmand, Salomo Glassius, Johann Hülsemann, Johann Conrad Dannhauer, Johannes Andreas Quenstedt, Johann Friedrich König and Johann Wilhelm Baier. Near the end of the Thirty Years' War, the compromising spirit seen in Philip Melanchthon
Philip Melanchthon
rose up again in Helmstedt School and especially in theology of Georgius Calixtus, causing the syncretistic controversy. Another theological issue that arose was the Crypto-Kenotic controversy.[25] Late orthodoxy was torn by influences from rationalism, philosophy based on reason, and Pietism, a revival movement in Lutheranism. After a century of vitality, the Pietist theologians Philipp Jakob Spener and August Hermann Francke
August Hermann Francke
warned that orthodoxy had degenerated into meaningless intellectualism and Formalism, while orthodox theologians found the emotional and subjective focuses of Pietism
Pietism
to be vulnerable to Rationalist propaganda.[26] The last famous orthodox Lutheran theologian before the rationalist Aufklärung, or Enlightenment, was David Hollatz. Late orthodox theologian Valentin Ernst Löscher
Valentin Ernst Löscher
took part in the controversy against Pietism. Medieval mystical traditions continued in the works of Martin Moller, Johann Arndt, and Joachim Lütkemann. Pietism
Pietism
became a rival of orthodoxy but adopted some orthodox devotional literature; for example, Arndt's, Christian Scriver's and Stephan Prätorius' which were all Pietistic literature. Rationalism[edit] Rationalist philosophers from France
France
and England had an enormous impact during the 18th century, along with the German Rationalists Christian Wolff, Gottfried Leibniz and Immanuel Kant. Their work led to an increase in rationalist beliefs, "at the expense of faith in God and agreement with the Bible".[26] In 1709, Valentin Ernst Löscher
Valentin Ernst Löscher
warned that this new Rationalist view of the world fundamentally changed society by drawing into question every aspect of theology. Instead of considering the authority of divine revelation, he explained, Rationalists relied solely on their personal understanding when searching for truth.[27] Johann Melchior Goeze
Johann Melchior Goeze
(1717–1786), pastor of St. Catherine's Church, Hamburg, wrote apologetical works against Rationalists, including a theological and historical defence against the historical criticism of the Bible.[28] Dissenting Lutheran pastors were often reprimanded by the government bureaucracy overseeing them, for example, when they tried to correct Rationalist influences in the parish school.[29] As a result of the impact of a local form of rationalism, termed Neology, by the latter half of the 18th century, genuine piety was found almost solely in small Pietist conventicles.[26] However, some of the laity preserved Lutheran orthodoxy
Lutheran orthodoxy
from both Pietism
Pietism
and rationalism through reusing old catechisms, hymnbooks, postils, and devotional writings, including those written by Johann Gerhard, Heinrich Müller and Christian Scriver.[30] Revivals[edit]

A nineteenth-century Haugean
Haugean
conventicle.

Representing the continuation of the Finnish Awakening
Finnish Awakening
to the present, youth are confirmed at the site of Paavo Ruotsalainen's homestead.

A layman, Luther scholar Johann Georg Hamann
Johann Georg Hamann
(1730–1788), became famous for countering Rationalism
Rationalism
and striving to advance a revival known as the Erweckung, or Awakening.[31] In 1806, Napoleon's invasion of Germany
Germany
promoted Rationalism
Rationalism
and angered German Lutherans, stirring up a desire among the people to preserve Luther's theology from the Rationalist threat. Those associated with this Awakening held that reason was insufficient and pointed out the importance of emotional religious experiences.[32][33] Small groups sprang up, often in universities, which devoted themselves to Bible
Bible
study, reading devotional writings, and revival meetings. Although the beginning of this Awakening tended heavily toward Romanticism, patriotism, and experience, the emphasis of the Awakening shifted around 1830 to restoring the traditional liturgy, doctrine, and confessions of the Lutheran church in the Neo-Lutheran movement.[32][33] This Awakening swept through all of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
except for Iceland.[34] It developed from both German Neo-Lutheranism
Neo-Lutheranism
and Pietism. Danish pastor and philosopher N. F. S. Grundtvig
N. F. S. Grundtvig
reshaped church life throughout Denmark
Denmark
through a reform movement beginning in 1830. He also wrote about 1,500 hymns, including God's Word Is Our Great Heritage.[35] In Norway, Hans Nielsen Hauge, a lay street preacher, emphasized spiritual discipline and sparked the Haugean
Haugean
movement.[36] Also in Norway, the Awakening drove the growth of foreign missions to non-Christians to a new height, which has never been reached since.[34] In Sweden, Lars Levi Læstadius
Lars Levi Læstadius
began the Laestadian movement that emphasized moral reform.[36] In Finland, a farmer, Paavo Ruotsalainen, began the Finnish Awakening
Finnish Awakening
when he took to preaching about repentance and prayer.[36] In 1817, Frederick William III of Prussia
Frederick William III of Prussia
ordered the Lutheran and Reformed churches in his territory to unite, forming the Evangelical Church of the Prussian Union. The unification of the two branches of German Protestantism
Protestantism
sparked the Schism of the Old Lutherans. Many Lutherans, called "Old Lutherans", chose to leave the state churches despite imprisonment and military force.[31] Some formed independent church bodies, or "free churches", at home while others left for the United States, Canada
Canada
and Australia. A similar legislated merger in Silesia
Silesia
prompted thousands to join the Old Lutheran movement. The dispute over ecumenism overshadowed other controversies within German Lutheranism.[37] Despite political meddling in church life, local and national leaders sought to restore and renew Christianity. Neo-Lutheran Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe and Old Lutheran free church leader Friedrich August Brünn[38] both sent young men overseas to serve as pastors to German Americans, while the Inner Mission focused on renewing the situation home.[39] Johann Gottfried Herder, superintendent at Weimar and part of the Inner Mission movement, joined with the Romantic movement with his quest to preserve human emotion and experience from Rationalism.[40] Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg, though raised Reformed, became convinced of the truth of historic Lutheranism
Lutheranism
as a young man.[41] He led the Neo-Lutheran Repristination School of theology, which advocated a return to the orthodox theologians of the 17th century and opposed modern Bible
Bible
scholarship.[42] As editor of the periodical Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, he developed it into a major support of Neo-Lutheran revival and used it to attack all forms of theological liberalism and rationalism. Although he received a large amount of slander and ridicule during his forty years at the head of revival, he never gave up his positions.[41] The theological faculty at the University of Erlangen
University of Erlangen
in Bavaria became another force for reform.[41] There, professor Adolf von Harless, though previously an adherent of rationalism and German idealism, made Erlangen a magnet for revival oriented theologians.[43] Termed the Erlangen School of theology, they developed a new version of the Incarnation,[43] which they felt emphasized the humanity of Jesus
Jesus
better than the ecumenical creeds.[44] As theologians, they used both modern historical critical and Hegelian philosophical methods instead of attempting to revive the orthodoxy of the 17th century.[45] Friedrich Julius Stahl
Friedrich Julius Stahl
led the High Church Lutherans. Though raised a Jew, he was baptized as a Christian at the age of 19 through the influence of the Lutheran school he attended. As the leader of a neofeudal Prussian political party, he campaigned for the divine right of kings, the power of the nobility, and episcopal polity for the church. Along with Theodor Kliefoth
Theodor Kliefoth
and August Friedrich Christian Vilmar, he promoted agreement with the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with regard to the authority of the institutional church, ex opere operato effectiveness of the sacraments, and the divine authority of clergy. Unlike Catholics, however, they also urged complete agreement with the Book
Book
of Concord.[44] The Neo-Lutheran movement managed to slow secularism and counter atheistic Marxism, but it did not fully succeed in Europe.[39] It partly succeeded in continuing the Pietist movement's drive to right social wrongs and focus on individual conversion. The Neo-Lutheran call to renewal failed to achieve widespread popular acceptance because it both began and continued with a lofty, idealistic Romanticism
Romanticism
that did not connect with an increasingly industrialized and secularized Europe.[46] At best, the work of local leaders resulted in specific areas with vibrant spiritual renewal, but people in Lutheran areas overall continued to become increasingly distant from church life.[39] By 1969, Manfried Kober complained that "unbelief is rampant" even within German Lutheran parishes.[47] Doctrine[edit] Bible[edit]

Luther's translation of the Bible, from 1534

Moses
Moses
and Elijah
Elijah
point the sinner looking for God's salvation to the cross to find it (Theology of the Cross).

Law and Grace, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. The left side shows humans' condemnation under God's law, while the right side presents God's grace in Christ.

Traditionally, Lutherans hold the Bible
Bible
of the Old and New Testaments to be the only divinely inspired book, the only source of divinely revealed knowledge, and the only norm for Christian teaching.[48] Scripture alone is the formal principle of the faith, the final authority for all matters of faith and morals because of its inspiration, authority, clarity, efficacy, and sufficiency.[49] The authority of the Scriptures has been challenged during the history of Lutheranism. Martin Luther
Martin Luther
taught that the Bible
Bible
was the written Word of God, and the only reliable guide for faith and practice. He held that every passage of Scripture has one straightforward meaning, the literal sense as interpreted by other Scripture.[50] These teachings were accepted during the orthodox Lutheranism
Lutheranism
of the 17th century.[51] During the 18th century, Rationalism
Rationalism
advocated reason rather than the authority of the Bible
Bible
as the final source of knowledge, but most of the laity did not accept this Rationalist position.[52] In the 19th century, a confessional revival re-emphasized the authority of the Bible
Bible
and agreement with the Lutheran Confessions. Today, Lutherans disagree about the inspiration and authority of the Bible. Theological conservatives use the historical-grammatical method of Biblical interpretation, while theological liberals use the higher critical method. The 2008 U.S. Religious Landscape Survey conducted by the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
surveyed 1,926 adults in the United States that self-identified as Lutheran. The study found that 30% believed that the Bible
Bible
was the Word of God and was to be taken literally word for word. 40% held that the Bible
Bible
was the Word of God, but was not literally true word for word or were unsure if it was literally true word for word. 23% said the Bible
Bible
was written by men and not the Word of God. 7% did not know, were not sure, or had other positions.[53] Inspiration[edit] Although many Lutherans today hold less specific views of inspiration, historically, Lutherans affirm that the Bible
Bible
does not merely contain the Word of God, but every word of it is, because of plenary, verbal inspiration, the direct, immediate word of God.[54] The Apology of the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
identifies Holy Scripture with the Word of God[55] and calls the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
the author of the Bible.[56] Because of this, Lutherans confess in the Formula of Concord, "we receive and embrace with our whole heart the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the pure, clear fountain of Israel."[57] The apocryphal books were not written by the prophets nor by inspiration; they contain errors[58] and were never included in the Judean Canon that Jesus
Jesus
used;[59] therefore they are not a part of Holy Scripture.[60] The prophetic and apostolic Scriptures are authentic as written by the prophets and apostles. A correct translation of their writings is God's Word because it has the same meaning as the original Hebrew and Greek.[60] A mistranslation is not God's word, and no human authority can invest it with divine authority.[60] Clarity[edit]

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Historically, Lutherans understand the Bible
Bible
to present all doctrines and commands of the Christian faith clearly.[61] In addition, Lutherans believe that God's Word is freely accessible to every reader or hearer of ordinary intelligence, without requiring any special education.[62] A Lutheran must understand the language that scriptures are presented in, and should not be so preoccupied by error so as to prevent understanding.[63] As a result of this, Lutherans do not believe there is a need to wait for any clergy, pope, scholar, or ecumenical council to explain the real meaning of any part of the Bible.[64] Efficacy[edit] Lutherans confess that Scripture is united with the power of the Holy Spirit and with it, not only demands, but also creates the acceptance of its teaching.[65] This teaching produces faith and obedience. Holy Scripture is not a dead letter, but rather, the power of the Holy Spirit is inherent in it.[66] Scripture does not compel a mere intellectual assent to its doctrine, resting on logical argumentation, but rather it creates the living agreement of faith.[67] As the Smalcald Articles
Smalcald Articles
affirm, "in those things which concern the spoken, outward Word, we must firmly hold that God grants His Spirit or grace to no one, except through or with the preceding outward Word."[68] Sufficiency[edit] Lutherans are confident that the Bible
Bible
contains everything that one needs to know in order to obtain salvation and to live a Christian life.[69] There are no deficiencies in Scripture that need to be filled with by tradition, pronouncements of the Pope, new revelations, or present-day development of doctrine.[70] Law and Gospel[edit] Lutherans understand the Bible
Bible
as containing two distinct types of content, termed Law and Gospel
Law and Gospel
(or Law and Promises).[71] Properly distinguishing between Law and Gospel
Law and Gospel
prevents the obscuring of the Gospel teaching of justification by grace through faith alone.[72] Lutheran confessions[edit]

Title Page from the 1580 Dresden
Dresden
Book
Book
of Concord

The Book
Book
of Concord, published in 1580, contains ten documents which some Lutherans believe are faithful and authoritative explanations of Holy Scripture. Besides the three Ecumenical Creeds, which date to Roman times, the Book of Concord
Book of Concord
contains seven credal documents articulating Lutheran theology
Lutheran theology
in the Reformation
Reformation
era. The doctrinal positions of Lutheran churches are not uniform because the Book of Concord
Book of Concord
does not hold the same position in all Lutheran churches. For example, the state churches in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
consider only the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
as a "summary of the faith" in addition to the three ecumenical Creeds.[73] Lutheran pastors, congregations, and church bodies in Germany
Germany
and the Americas usually agree to teach in harmony with the entire Lutheran Confessions. Some Lutheran church bodies require this pledge to be unconditional because they believe the confessions correctly state what the Bible
Bible
teaches. Others allow their congregations to do so "insofar as" the Confessions are in agreement with the Bible. Justification[edit]

Lutherans believe that whoever has faith in Jesus
Jesus
alone will receive salvation from the grace of God and will enter eternity in heaven instead of eternity in hell after death or at the second coming of Jesus.

The key doctrine, or material principle, of Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is the doctrine of justification. Lutherans believe that humans are saved from their sins by God's grace alone (Sola Gratia), through faith alone (Sola Fide), on the basis of Scripture alone (Sola Scriptura). Orthodox Lutheran theology
Lutheran theology
holds that God made the world, including humanity, perfect, holy and sinless. However, Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
chose to disobey God, trusting in their own strength, knowledge, and wisdom.[74][75] Consequently, people are saddled with original sin, born sinful and unable to avoid committing sinful acts.[76] For Lutherans, original sin is the "chief sin, a root and fountainhead of all actual sins."[77] Lutherans teach that sinners, while capable of doing works that are outwardly "good", are not capable of doing works that satisfy God's justice.[78] Every human thought and deed is infected with sin and sinful motives.[79] Because of this, all humanity deserves eternal damnation in hell.[80] God in eternity has turned His Fatherly heart to this world and planned for its redemption because he loves all people and does not want anyone to be eternally damned.[81] To this end, "God sent his Son Jesus
Jesus
Christ, our Lord, into the world to redeem and deliver us from the power of the devil, and to bring us to Himself, and to govern us as a King of righteousness, life, and salvation against sin, death, and an evil conscience," as Luther's Large Catechism
Catechism
explains.[82] Because of this, Lutherans teach that salvation is possible only because of the grace of God made manifest in the birth, life, suffering, death, and resurrection, and continuing presence by the power of the Holy Spirit, of Jesus
Jesus
Christ.[83] By God's grace, made known and effective in the person and work of Jesus Christ, a person is forgiven, adopted as a child and heir of God, and given eternal salvation.[84] Christ, because he was entirely obedient to the law with respect to both his human and divine natures, "is a perfect satisfaction and reconciliation of the human race," as the Formula of Concord
Formula of Concord
asserts, and proceeds to summarize:[85]

[Christ] submitted to the law for us, bore our sin, and in going to his Father performed complete and perfect obedience for us poor sinners, from his holy birth to his death. Thereby he covered all our disobedience, which is embedded in our nature and in its thoughts, words, and deeds, so that this disobedience is not reckoned to us as condemnation but is pardoned and forgiven by sheer grace, because of Christ alone.

Lutherans believe that individuals receive this gift of salvation through faith alone.[86] Saving faith is the knowledge of,[87] acceptance of,[88] and trust[89] in the promise of the Gospel.[90] Even faith itself is seen as a gift of God, created in the hearts of Christians[91] by the work of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
through the Word[92] and Baptism.[93] Faith receives the gift of salvation rather than causes salvation.[94] Thus, Lutherans reject the "decision theology" which is common among modern evangelicals. Since the term grace has been defined differently by other Christian church bodies (e.g. Roman Catholicism[95]) it is important to note that Lutheranism
Lutheranism
defines grace as entirely limited to God's gifts to us. Justification comes as a pure gift, not something we merit by changed behavior or in which we cooperate. Grace is not about our response to God's gifts, but only His gifts. Trinity[edit]

Lutherans believe in the Trinity

Lutherans are Trinitarian. Lutherans reject the idea that the Father and the Son are merely faces of the same person, stating that both the Old Testament
Old Testament
and the New Testament
New Testament
show them to be two distinct persons.[96] Lutherans believe the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
proceeds from both the Father and the Son.[97] In the words of the Athanasian Creed: "We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity
Trinity
in Unity; Neither confounding the Persons, nor dividing the Substance. For there is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Ghost. But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is all one: the glory equal, the majesty coeternal."[98] Two natures of Christ[edit] Main article: Scholastic Lutheran Christology Lutherans believe Jesus
Jesus
is the Christ, the savior promised in the Old Testament. They believe he is both by nature God and by nature man in one person, as they confess in Luther's Small Catechism
Luther's Small Catechism
that he is "true God begotten of the Father from eternity and also true man born of the Virgin Mary".[99] The Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
explains:[100]

[T]he Son of God, did assume the human nature in the womb of the blessed Virgin Mary, so that there are two natures, the divine and the human, inseparably enjoined in one Person, one Christ, true God and true man, who was born of the Virgin Mary, truly suffered, was crucified, dead, and buried, that He might reconcile the Father unto us, and be a sacrifice, not only for original guilt, but also for all actual sins of men.

Sacraments[edit] Main article: Lutheran sacraments Lutherans hold that sacraments are sacred acts of divine institution.[101] Whenever they are properly administered by the use of the physical component commanded by God[102] along with the divine words of institution,[103] God is, in a way specific to each sacrament, present with the Word and physical component.[104] He earnestly offers to all who receive the sacrament[105] forgiveness of sins[106] and eternal salvation.[107] He also works in the recipients to get them to accept these blessings and to increase the assurance of their possession.[108]

A.C. Article IX: Of Confession[109]

Lutherans are not dogmatic about the number of the sacraments.[110] In line with Luther's initial statement in his Large Catechism
Catechism
some speak of only two sacraments,[111] Baptism
Baptism
and Holy Communion, although later in the same work he calls Confession and Absolution[112] "the third sacrament."[113] The definition of sacrament in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
lists Absolution as one of them.[114] Since Absolution is a return to the forgiveness given in baptism, strictly speaking there are only two sacraments. Private Confession is not practiced among Lutherans as often as in the Catholic Church. Rather, it is expected before receiving the Eucharist
Eucharist
for the first time.[115][non-primary source needed] Some churches also allow for individual absolution on Saturdays before the Eucharistic service.[citation needed] A general confession and absolution (known as the Penitential Rite) is proclaimed in the Eucharistic liturgy. Lutherans do not emphasize "penance" as a retribution of sin but rather the proclamation of God's forgiveness by the "called and ordained" minister of the Holy Gospel.[citation needed] Baptism[edit]

German reformer Philipp Melanchthon
Philipp Melanchthon
baptizing an infant

Lutherans hold that Baptism
Baptism
is a saving work of God,[116] mandated and instituted by Jesus
Jesus
Christ.[117] Baptism
Baptism
is a "means of grace" through which God creates and strengthens "saving faith" as the "washing of regeneration"[118] in which infants and adults are reborn.[119] Since the creation of faith is exclusively God's work, it does not depend on the actions of the one baptized, whether infant or adult. Even though baptized infants cannot articulate that faith, Lutherans believe that it is present all the same.[120] Because it is faith alone that receives these divine gifts, Lutherans confess that baptism "works forgiveness of sins, delivers from death and the devil, and gives eternal salvation to all who believe this, as the words and promises of God declare."[121] Holding fast to the Scripture cited in 1 Peter 3:21 "Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ."[122] Therefore, Lutherans administer Baptism
Baptism
to both infants[123] and adults.[124] In the special section on infant baptism in his Large Catechism, Luther argues that infant baptism is God-pleasing because persons so baptized were reborn and sanctified by the Holy Spirit.[125][126] Eucharist[edit] Main article: Eucharist
Eucharist
in the Lutheran Church

Luther communing John the Steadfast

Lutherans hold that within the Eucharist, also referred to as the Sacrament
Sacrament
of the Altar, the Mass, or the Lord's Supper, the true body and blood of Christ are truly present "in, with, and under the forms" of the consecrated bread and wine for all those who eat and drink it,[127] a doctrine that the Formula of Concord
Formula of Concord
calls the sacramental union.[128] Conversion[edit]

A.C. Article XII: Of Repentance

In Lutheranism, conversion or regeneration in the strict sense of the term is the work of divine grace and power by which man, born of the flesh, and void of all power to think, to will, or to do any good thing, and dead in sin is, through the gospel and holy baptism, taken from a state of sin and spiritual death under God's wrath into a state of spiritual life of faith and grace, rendered able to will and to do what is spiritually good and, especially, made to trust in the benefits of the redemption which is in Christ Jesus.[129] During conversion, one is moved from impenitence to repentance. The Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
divides repentance into two parts: "One is contrition, that is, terrors smiting the conscience through the knowledge of sin; the other is faith, which is born of the Gospel, or of absolution, and believes that for Christ's sake, sins are forgiven, comforts the conscience, and delivers it from terrors."[130] Predestination[edit]

A.C. Article 18: Of Free Will[131]

Lutherans adhere to divine monergism, the teaching that salvation is by God's act alone, and therefore reject the idea that humans in their fallen state have a free will concerning spiritual matters.[132] Lutherans believe that although humans have free will concerning civil righteousness, they cannot work spiritual righteousness in the heart without the presence and aid of the Holy Spirit.[133][134] Lutherans believe Christians are "saved";[135] that all who trust in Christ alone and his promises can be certain of their salvation.[136] According to Lutheranism, the central final hope of the Christian is "the resurrection of the body and the life everlasting" as confessed in the Apostles' Creed
Apostles' Creed
rather than predestination. Lutherans disagree with those who make predestination—rather than Christ's suffering, death, and resurrection—the source of salvation. Unlike some Calvinists, Lutherans do not believe in a predestination to damnation,[137] usually referencing "God our Savior, who desires all people to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth"[138] as contrary evidence to such a claim. Instead, Lutherans teach eternal damnation is a result of the unbeliever's sins, rejection of the forgiveness of sins, and unbelief.[139] Divine providence[edit] According to Lutherans, God preserves his creation, cooperates with everything that happens, and guides the universe.[140] While God cooperates with both good and evil deeds, with evil deeds he does so only inasmuch as they are deeds, but not with the evil in them. God concurs with an act's effect, but he does not cooperate in the corruption of an act or the evil of its effect.[141] Lutherans believe everything exists for the sake of the Christian Church, and that God guides everything for its welfare and growth.[142] The explanation of the Apostles' Creed
Apostles' Creed
given in the Small Catechism declares that everything good that people have is given and preserved by God, either directly or through other people or things.[143] Of the services others provide us through family, government, and work, "we receive these blessings not from them, but, through them, from God."[144] Since God uses everyone's useful tasks for good, people should not look down upon some useful vocations as being less worthy than others. Instead people should honor others, no matter how lowly, as being the means God uses to work in the world.[144] Good works[edit]

"Even though I am a sinner and deserving of death and hell, this shall nonetheless be my consolation and my victory that my Lord Jesus
Jesus
lives and has risen so that He, in the end, might rescue me from sin, death, and hell."—Luther[145]

Lutherans believe that good works are the fruit of faith,[146] always and in every instance.[147] Good works have their origin in God,[148] not in the fallen human heart or in human striving;[149] their absence would demonstrate that faith, too, is absent.[150] Lutherans do not believe that good works are a factor in obtaining salvation; they believe that we are saved by the grace of God—based on the merit of Christ in his suffering and death—and faith in the Triune God. Good works are the natural result of faith, not the cause of salvation. Although Christians are no longer compelled to keep God's law, they freely and willingly serve God and their neighbors.[151] Judgment and eternal life[edit]

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Lutherans do not believe in any sort of earthly millennial kingdom of Christ either before or after his second coming on the last day.[152] Lutherans teach that, at death, the souls of Christians are immediately taken into the presence of Jesus,[153] where they await the second coming of Jesus
Jesus
on the last day.[154] On the last day,[155] all the bodies of the dead will be resurrected.[156] Their souls will then be reunited with the same bodies they had before dying.[157] The bodies will then be changed, those of the wicked to a state of everlasting shame and torment,[158] those of the righteous to an everlasting state of celestial glory.[159] After the resurrection of all the dead,[160] and the change of those still living,[161] all nations shall be gathered before Christ,[162] and he will separate the righteous from the wicked.[163] Christ will publicly judge[164] all people by the testimony of their deeds,[165] the good works[166] of the righteous in evidence of their faith,[167] and the evil works of the wicked in evidence of their unbelief.[168] He will judge in righteousness[169] in the presence of all people and angels,[170] and his final judgment will be just damnation to everlasting punishment for the wicked and a gracious gift of life everlasting to the righteous.[171] Comparison among Protestants[edit] Protestant
Protestant
beliefs about salvation vary.[172] This table summarizes the classical views of three Protestant
Protestant
beliefs about salvation.[173]

Topic Calvinism Lutheranism Arminianism

Human will Total depravity:[174] Humanity possesses "free will",[175] but it is in bondage to sin,[176] until it is "transformed".[177] Total depravity:[174] Humanity possesses free will in regard to "goods and possessions", but is sinful by nature and unable to contribute to its own salvation. [178][179][180] Humanity possesses freedom from necessity, but not "freedom from sin” unless enabled by "prevenient grace".[181]

Election Unconditional election. Unconditional election.[174][182] Conditional election
Conditional election
in view of foreseen faith or unbelief.[183]

Justification and atonement Justification by faith
Justification by faith
alone. Various views regarding the extent of the atonement.[184] Justification for all men,[185] completed at Christ's death and effective through faith alone.[186][187][188][189] Justification made possible for all through Christ's death, but only completed upon choosing faith in Jesus.[190]

Conversion Monergistic,[191] through the means of grace, irresistible. Monergistic,[192][193] through the means of grace, resistible.[194] Synergistic, resistible due to the common grace of free will.[195]

Perseverance and apostasy Perseverance of the saints: the eternally elect in Christ will certainly persevere in faith.[196] Falling away is possible,[197] but God gives gospel assurance.[198][199] Preservation is conditional upon continued faith in Christ; with the possibility of a final apostasy.[200]

Practices[edit]

Luther composed hymns and hymn tunes, including "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God".

Liturgy[edit] See also: Lutheran hymn
Lutheran hymn
and Lutheran chorale Lutherans place great emphasis on a liturgical approach to worship services;[201] although there are substantial non-liturgical minorities, for example, the Haugean
Haugean
Lutherans from Norway. Martin Luther was a great fan of music, and this is why it forms a large part of Lutheran services; in particular, Luther admired the composers Josquin des Prez
Josquin des Prez
and Ludwig Senfl and wanted singing in the church to move away from the ars perfecta (Catholic Sacred Music of the late Renaissance) and towards singing as a Gemeinschaft (community).[202] Lutheran hymns are sometimes known as chorales. Lutheran hymnody is well known for its doctrinal, didactic, and musical richness. Most Lutheran churches are active musically with choirs, handbell choirs, children's choirs, and occasionally change ringing groups that ring bells in a bell tower. Johann Sebastian Bach, a devout Lutheran, composed music for the Lutheran church. Lutherans also preserve a liturgical approach to the celebration of the Mass (or the Holy Eucharist/Communion), emphasizing the sacrament as the central act of Christian worship. Lutherans believe that the actual body and blood of Jesus
Jesus
Christ are present in, with and under the bread and the wine. This belief is called Real Presence
Real Presence
or sacramental union and is different from consubstantiation and transubstantiation. Additionally Lutherans reject the idea that communion is a mere symbol or memorial. They confess in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession:

[W]e do not abolish the Mass but religiously keep and defend it. Among us the Mass is celebrated every Lord's Day and on other festivals, when the Sacrament
Sacrament
is made available to those who wish to partake of it, after they have been examined and absolved. We also keep traditional liturgical forms, such as the order of readings, prayers, vestments, and other similar things.[203]

Besides the Holy Communion (Divine Service), congregations also hold offices, which are worship services without communion. They may include Matins, Vespers, Compline, and Easter Vigil. Private or family offices include the Morning and Evening Prayers from Luther's Small Catechism.[204] Meals are blessed with the Common Table Prayer, Psalm 145:15–16, or other prayers, and after eating the Lord is thanked, for example, with Psalm 136:1.[204] In addition, Lutherans use devotional books, from small daily devotionals, for example, Portals of Prayer, to large breviaries, including the Breviarium Lipsiensae and Treasury of Daily Prayer. In the 1970s, many Lutheran churches began holding contemporary worship services for the purpose of evangelistic outreach. These services were in a variety of styles, depending on the preferences of the congregation. Often they were held alongside a traditional service in order to cater to those who preferred contemporary worship music. Today, few but some Lutheran congregations have contemporary worship as their sole form of worship. Outreach is no longer given as the primary motivation; rather this form of worship is seen as more in keeping with the desires of individual congregations.[205] In Finland, Lutherans have experimented with the St Thomas Mass (fi) and Metal Mass
Metal Mass
in which traditional hymns are adapted to heavy metal. The Lutheran World Federation, in its Nairobi Statement on Worship and Culture, recommended every effort be made to bring church services into a more sensitive position with regard to cultural context.[206] In 2006, both the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod
Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod
(LCMS), in cooperation with certain foreign English speaking church bodies within their respective fellowships, released new hymnals: Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Worship (ELCA) and Lutheran Service Book (LCMS). Along with these, the most widely used among English speaking congregations include: Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary (1996, Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Synod), The Lutheran Book of Worship (1978, Lutheran Council in the United States
United States
of America), Lutheran Worship (1982, LCMS), Christian Worship
Christian Worship
(1993, Wisconsin Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Synod), and The Lutheran Hymnal
The Lutheran Hymnal
(1941, Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America). In the Lutheran Church of Australia, the official hymnal is the Lutheran Hymnal with Supplement of 1986, which includes a supplement to the Lutheran Hymnal of 1973, itself a replacement for the Australian Lutheran Hymn
Hymn
Book
Book
of 1921. Prior to this time, the two Lutheran church bodies in Australia (which merged in 1966) used a bewildering variety of hymnals, usually in the German language. Spanish-speaking ELCA churches frequently use Libro de Liturgia y Cántico (1998, Augsburg Fortress) for services and hymns. Missions[edit]

Christ Lutheran Church, Narsapur
Christ Lutheran Church, Narsapur
in India

Sizable Lutheran missions arose for the first time during the 19th century. Early missionary attempts during the century after the Reformation
Reformation
did not succeed. However, European traders brought Lutheranism
Lutheranism
to Africa beginning in the 17th century as they settled along the coasts. During the first half of the 19th century, missionary activity in Africa expanded, including preaching by missionaries, translation of the Bible, and education.[207] Lutheranism
Lutheranism
came to India
India
beginning with the work of Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg, where a community totaling several thousand developed, complete with their own translation of the Bible, catechism, their own hymnal, and system of Lutheran schools. In the 1840s, this church experienced a revival through the work of the Leipzig Mission, including Karl Graul.[208] After German missionaries were expelled in 1914, Lutherans in India
India
became entirely autonomous, yet preserved their Lutheran character. In recent years India
India
has relaxed its anti-religious conversion laws, allowing a resurgence in missionary work. In Latin America, missions began to serve European immigrants of Lutheran background, both those who spoke German and those who no longer did. These churches in turn began to evangelize those in their areas who were not of European background, including indigenous peoples.[209] In 1892, the first Lutheran missionaries reached Japan. Although work began slowly and a major setback occurred during the hardships of WWII.[210] Lutheranism
Lutheranism
there has survived and become self-sustaining.[211] After missionaries to China, including those of the Lutheran Church of China, were expelled, they began ministry in Taiwan and Hong Kong, the latter which became a center of Lutheranism in Asia.[211] The Lutheran Mission in New Guinea, though founded only in 1953, became the largest Lutheran mission in the world in only several decades. Through the work of native lay evangelists, many tribes of diverse languages were reached with the Gospel.[211] Education[edit]

Winnebago Lutheran Academy, a Lutheran high school of the Wisconsin Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Synod (WELS)

Catechism
Catechism
is considered foundational in most Lutheran churches. Almost all maintain Sunday Schools, and some host or maintain Lutheran schools, at the preschool, elementary, middle, high school, folk high school, or university level. Lifelong study of the catechism is intended for all ages so that the abuses of the pre- Reformation
Reformation
Church will not recur.[212] Lutheran schools have always been a core aspect of Lutheran mission work, starting with Bartholomew Ziegenbalg and Heinrich Putschasu, who began work in India
India
in year 1706.[213] Pastors almost always have substantial theological educations, including Koine Greek
Koine Greek
and Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
so that they can refer to the Christian scriptures in the original language. Pastors usually teach in the common language of the local congregation. In the U.S., some congregations and synods historically taught in German, Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, or Swedish, but retention of immigrant languages has been in significant decline since the early and middle 20th century. Church fellowship[edit] Lutherans were divided about the issue of church fellowship for the first thirty years after Luther's death. Philipp Melanchthon
Philipp Melanchthon
and his Philippist party felt that Christians of different beliefs should join in union with each other without completely agreeing on doctrine. Against them stood the Gnesio-Lutherans, led by Matthias Flacius and the faculty at the University of Jena. They condemned the Philippist position for indifferentism, describing it as a "unionistic compromise" of precious Reformation
Reformation
theology. Instead, they held that genuine unity between Christians and real theological peace was only possible with an honest agreement about every subject of doctrinal controversy.[214]

Hallowed be Thy Name by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach the Elder
illustrates a Lutheran pastor preaching Christ crucified.

Complete agreement finally came about in 1577, after the death of both Melanchthon and Flacius, when a new generation of theologians resolved the doctrinal controversies on the basis of Scripture in the Formula of Concord of 1577.[215] Although they decried the visible division of Christians on earth, orthodox Lutherans avoided ecumenical fellowship with other churches, believing that Christians should not, for example, join together for the Lord's Supper or exchange pastors if they do not completely agree about what the Bible
Bible
teaches. In the 17th century, Georgius Calixtus
Georgius Calixtus
began a rebellion against this practice, sparking the Syncretistic Controversy with Abraham Calovius
Abraham Calovius
as his main opponent.[216] In the 18th century, there was some ecumenical interest between the Church of Sweden
Sweden
and the Church of England. John Robinson, Bishop of London, planned for a union of the English and Swedish churches in 1718. The plan failed because most Swedish bishops rejected the Calvinism
Calvinism
of the Church of England, although Jesper Swedberg
Jesper Swedberg
and Johannes Gezelius the younger, bishops of Skara, Sweden
Sweden
and Turku, Finland, were in favor.[217] With the encouragement of Swedberg, church fellowship was established between Swedish Lutherans and Anglicans in the Middle Colonies. Over the course of the 1700s and the early 1800s, Swedish Lutherans were absorbed into Anglican churches, with the last original Swedish congregation completing merger into the Episcopal Church in 1846.[218] In the 19th century, Samuel Simon Schmucker
Samuel Simon Schmucker
attempted to lead the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran General Synod of the United States
United States
toward unification with other American Protestants. His attempt to get the synod to reject the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
in favor of his compromising Definite Platform failed. Instead, it sparked a Neo-Lutheran revival, prompting many to form the General Council, including Charles Porterfield Krauth. Their alternative approach was "Lutheran pulpits for Lutheran ministers only and Lutheran altars...for Lutheran communicants only."[219]

Stormtroopers holding German Christian
German Christian
propaganda during the church council elections on 23 July, 1933 at St. Mary's Church, Berlin. After that internal struggles, controversies, reorganization and splits struck the German Evangelical
Evangelical
Church.

Beginning in 1867, confessional and liberal minded Lutherans in Germany
Germany
joined together to form the Common Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Conference against the ever looming prospect of a state-mandated union with the Reformed.[220] However, they failed to reach consensus on the degree of shared doctrine necessary for church union.[39] Eventually, the fascist German Christians
German Christians
movement pushed the final national merger of Lutheran, Union, and Reformed church bodies into a single Reich Church in 1933, doing away with the previous umbrella German Evangelical
Evangelical
Church Confederation (DEK), refounded in 1945 as the new umbrella Evangelical
Evangelical
Church in Germany
Germany
(EKD). In 1948 the Lutheran church bodies within EKD founded their denominational umbrella, despite being named church, the United Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church of Germany. Presently, Lutherans are divided over how to interact with other Christian denominations. Some Lutherans assert that everyone must share the "whole counsel of God" (Acts 20:27) in complete unity (1 Cor. 1:10)[221] before pastors can share each other's pulpits, and before communicants commune at each other's altars, a practice termed closed (or close) communion. On the other hand, other Lutherans practice varying degrees of open communion and allow preachers from other Christian denominations in their pulpits. While not an issue in the majority of Lutheran church bodies, some of them forbid membership in Freemasonry. Partly, this is because the lodge is viewed as spreading Unitarianism, as the Brief Statement of the LCMS reads, "Hence we warn against Unitarianism, which in our country has to a great extent impenetrated the sects and is being spread particularly also through the influence of the lodges."[222] A 1958 report from the publishing house of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod states that, "Masonry is guilty of idolatry. Its worship and prayers are idol worship. The Masons may not with their hands have made an idol out of gold, silver, wood or stone, but they created one with their own mind and reason out of purely human thoughts and ideas. The latter is an idol no less than the former."[223]

LCMS pastor wearing a chasuble during communion

The largest organizations of Lutheran churches around the world are the Lutheran World Federation
Lutheran World Federation
(LWF), the International Lutheran Council (ILC), and the Confessional Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Conference (CELC). These organizations together include the great majority of Lutheran denominations around the globe. The Lutheran World Federation supports the activities of Lutheran World Relief, a relief and development agency active in more than 50 countries. The LCMS and the Lutheran Church–Canada
Lutheran Church–Canada
are members of the ILC. The WELS and ELS are members of the CELC. Many Lutheran churches are not affiliated with the LWF, the ILC or the CELC: The congregations of the Church of the Lutheran Confession (CLC) are affiliated with their mission organizations in Canada, India, Nepal, Myanmar, and many African nations; and those affiliated with the Church of the Lutheran Brethren, are especially active doing mission work in Africa and East Asia. The Lutheran World Federation-aligned churches do not believe that one church is singularly true in its teachings. According to this belief, Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is a reform movement rather than a movement into doctrinal correctness. For that reason, a number of doctrinally diverse LWF denominations, now largely separated from state control, are declaring fellowship and joint statements of agreement with other Lutheran and non-Lutheran Christian denominations. The Lutheran World Federation
Lutheran World Federation
and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod engaged in a series of official dialogues with the Catholic Church since shortly after the Second Vatican Council. In 1999 the LWF and the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
jointly issued a statement, the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, that stated that the LWF and the Catholic both agreed about certain basics of Justification and lifted certain Catholic anathemas formerly applying to the LWF member churches.The LCMS has participated in most of these talks, though not the one which produced the Joint Declaration and to which they were not invited. While some Lutheran theologians saw the Joint Declaration as a sign that the Catholics were essentially adopting the Lutheran position, other Lutheran theologians disagreed, claiming that, considering the public documentation of the Catholic position, this assertion does not hold up.[citation needed] By contrast, the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference
Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference
and International Lutheran Council
International Lutheran Council
as well as some unaffiliated denominations such as the Church of the Lutheran Confession
Church of the Lutheran Confession
maintain that the orthodox confessional Lutheran churches are the only churches with completely correct doctrine. They teach that while other Christian churches teach partially orthodox doctrine and have true Christians as members, the doctrines of those churches contain significant errors. More conservative Lutherans strive to maintain historical distinctiveness while emphasizing doctrinal purity alongside Gospel-motivated outreach. They claim that LWF Lutherans are practicing "fake ecumenism" by desiring church fellowship outside of actual unity of teaching.[224] Although not an "ecumenical" movement in the formal sense, in the 1990s influences from the megachurches of American evangelicalism have become somewhat common. Many of the largest Lutheran congregations in the United States
United States
have been heavily influenced by these "progressive Evangelicals." These influences are sharply criticized by some Lutherans as being foreign to orthodox Lutheran beliefs.[225] The Porvoo Communion
Porvoo Communion
is a communion of episcopally led Lutheran and Anglican churches in Europe. Beside its membership in the Porvoo Communion, Church of Sweden
Sweden
also has declared full communion with the Philippine Independent Church
Philippine Independent Church
and the United Methodist Church.[citation needed] The Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church in America has been involved in ecumenical dialogues with several denominations. Recently, the ELCA has declared full communion with several American Churches: the American Provinces of the Moravian Church, the Episcopal Church in the United States
United States
of America, the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the Reformed Church in America, the United Methodist Church, and the United Church of Christ. Throughout the world[edit] Main article: Lutheranism
Lutheranism
by region See also: Protestants by country

The Arctic Cathedral
Arctic Cathedral
is often used as a symbol of Norwegian Christianity.

Evangelical
Evangelical
(Lutheran) church in Štrba, Slovakia

Today, millions belong to Lutheran churches, which are present on all populated continents.[226] The Lutheran World Federation
Lutheran World Federation
estimates the total membership of its churches at approximately 72.3 million.[227] This figure undercounts Lutherans worldwide as not all Lutheran churches belong to this organization. In recent years, Lutheranism
Lutheranism
saw a slight increase in its fellowship, which continues to the present.[228][229][230][231][232] Lutheran churches in North America, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean regions are experiencing decreases and no growth in membership, while those in Africa and Asia continue to grow. Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is the largest religious group in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Latvia
Latvia
and Namibia. Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is also the dominant form of Christianity
Christianity
in the White Mountain and San Carlos Apache nations. In addition, Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is a main Protestant
Protestant
denomination in Germany (behind United Protestant
Protestant
churches; Protestants form about 26.7% of the country's total population),[233] Estonia, Poland, Austria, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Papua New Guinea, North Sumatra, and Tanzania.[234] Although Namibia
Namibia
is the only country outside Europe to have a Lutheran majority, there are sizable Lutheran bodies in other African countries. In the following African countries, the total number of Lutherans exceeds 100,000: Nigeria, Central African Republic, Chad, Kenya, Malawi, Congo, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and Madagascar. In addition, the following nations also have sizable Lutheran populations: Canada, France, the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, Brazil, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, the Netherlands
Netherlands
(within the Protestant
Protestant
Church of the Netherlands), South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States, especially in the heavily German and Scandinavian Upper Midwest.[235][236] Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is also a state religion in Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands. Finland
Finland
has its Lutheran church established as a national church. Similarly, Sweden
Sweden
also has its national church, which was a state church until 2000.[237] This map shows the global distribution of Lutheranism
Lutheranism
based on The LWF 2013 membership data.[238][c]

Lutheran World Federation
Lutheran World Federation
membership by country in 2013.

  More than 10 million   More than 5 million   More than 1 million   More than 500 thousand   More than 100 thousand

Lutheran bodies[edit]

List of Lutheran denominations Lutheran church bodies in North America List of Lutheran clergy List of Lutheran colleges and universities List of Lutheran dioceses and archdioceses List of Lutheran churches List of Lutheran schools in Australia Beta Sigma Psi
Beta Sigma Psi
National Lutheran Fraternity

Notes[edit]

^ Cf. material and formal principles in theology ^ In accordance with the classification in the provided source. Though the broadly defined Reformed faith
Reformed faith
is larger, as it constitutes Congregationalist (1%), most of the United and uniting churches (unions of different denominations) (7%) and most likely some of the other Protestant
Protestant
denominations (38%) (all three are distinct categories from Presbyterian or Reformed (7%) in this report). ^ One of the countries with a higher number of Lutherans is the United States. The LWF does not include the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and several other Lutheran bodies which together have over 2.5 million members

References[edit]

^ MSN Encarta, s.v. " Lutheranism
Lutheranism
Archived 31 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine." by George Wolfgang Forell; Christian Cyclopedia, s.v. "Reformation, Lutheran" by Lueker, E. et. al. Archived 31 October 2009. ^ a b c Fahlbusch, Erwin, and Bromiley, Geoffrey William, The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 2003. p. 362. ^ Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, Fourth Session, Decree on Sacred Scripture (Denzinger 783 [1501]; Schaff 2:79–81). For a history of the discussion of various interpretations of the Tridentine decree, see Selby, Matthew L., The Relationship Between Scripture and Tradition according to the Council of Trent, unpublished Master's thesis, University of St Thomas, July 2013. ^ The Ecumenical Councils and Authority in and of the Church. https://www.lutheranworld.org/sites/default/files/1993-Lutheran_Orthodox_Dialogue-EN.pdf: The Lutheran World Federation. 10 July 1993. The seven ecumenical councils of the early Church were assemblies of the bishops of the Church from all parts of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to clarify and express the apostolic faith. These councils are Nicaea (325 AD), Constantinople I (381), Ephesus (431), Chalcedon (451), Constantinople II (553), Constantinople III (680/81), and Nicaea II (787)... As Lutherans and Orthodox we affirm that the teachings of the ecumenical councils are authoritative for our churches....The Seventh Ecumenical Council, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, which rejected iconoclasm and restored the veneration of icons in the churches, was not part of the tradition received by the Reformation. Lutherans, however, rejected the iconoclasm of the 16th century, and affirmed the distinction between adoration due to the Triune God alone and all other forms of veneration (CA 21). Through historical research this council has become better known. Nevertheless it does not have the same significance for Lutherans as it does for the Orthodox. Yet, Lutherans and Orthodox are in agreement that the Second Council of Nicaea confirms the christological teaching of the earlier councils and in setting forth the role of images (icons) in the lives of the faithful reaffirms the reality of the incarnation of the eternal Word of God, when it states: "The more frequently, Christ, Mary, the mother of God, and the saints are seen, the more are those who see them drawn to remember and long for those who serve as models, and to pay these icons the tribute of salutation and respectful veneration. Certainly this is not the full adoration in accordance with our faith, which is properly paid only to the divine nature, but it resembles that given to the figure of the honored and life-giving cross, and also to the holy books of the gospels and to other sacred objects" (Definition of the Second Council of Nicaea).  ^ Ecumenical Council. https://www.tititudorancea.net/z/ecumenical_council.htm: Titi Tudorancea Encyclopedia. 1991–2016. The Lutheran World Federation, in ecumenical dialogues with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople has affirmed all of the first seven councils as ecumenical and authoritative.  ^ a b Ludwig, Alan (12 September 2016). "Luther's Catholic Reformation". The Lutheran Witness. When the Lutherans presented the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
before Emperor Charles V in 1530, they carefully showed that each article of faith and practice was true first of all to Holy Scripture, and then also to the teaching of the church fathers and the councils and even the canon law of the Church of Rome. They boldly claim, “This is about the Sum of our Doctrine, in which, as can be seen, there is nothing that varies from the Scriptures, or from the Church Catholic, or from the Church of Rome as known from its writers” (AC XXI Conclusion 1). The underlying thesis of the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
is that the faith as confessed by Luther and his followers is nothing new, but the true catholic faith, and that their churches represent the true catholic or universal church. In fact, it is actually the Church of Rome that has departed from the ancient faith and practice of the catholic church (see AC XXIII 13, XXVIII 72 and other places).  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ "About Us". Lutheran Church of New Zealand. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "Pewforum: Christianity
Christianity
(2010)" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-14.  ^ "Member Churches". The Lutheran World Federation. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ a b Espín, Orlando O. and Nickoloff, James B. An introductory dictionary of theology and religious studies. Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, p. 796. ^ "Bethany Lutheran Ministries - Home". Bethany Lutheran Ministries. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Lutherans, Biblehistory.com ^ " Martin Luther
Martin Luther
Biography". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ a b c d e Rohmann, J. L (1836). Historisk fremstilling af reformationens indførelse i Danmark. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ a b c Chapter 12: The Reformation
Reformation
In Germany
Germany
And Scandinavia, Renaissance and Reformation
Reformation
by William Gilbert. ^ Rohmann, J. L (1836). Historisk fremstilling af reformationens indførelse i Danmark. Kjobenhavn. p. 195. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ J. L. Rohmann (1836). Historisk fremstilling af reformationens indførelse i Danmark. Kjobenhavn. p. 202. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Rohmann, J. L (1836). Historisk fremstilling af reformationens indførelse i Danmark. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "Danmarks og Norges Kirke-Ritual (Kirkeritualet)". retsinformation.dk. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Hastings, James (October 2004). A Dictionary Of The Bible. ISBN 9781410217301. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "Compendium of the Catechism
Catechism
of the Catholic Church". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ N.F. Lutheran Cyclopedia, article, "Upsala, Diet of", New York: Schrivner, 1899. pp. 528–529. ^ Lutheran Cyclopedia, article, "Agricola, Michael", New York: Schrivner, 1899. p. 5. ^ Fuerbringer, L., Concordia Cyclopedia Concordia Publishing House. 1927. p. 425 ^ Lutheran Theology after 1580 article in Christian Cyclopedia ^ a b c Fuerbringer, L., Concordia Cyclopedia Concordia Publishing House. 1927. p. 426 ^ Kleinig, Vernon P. " Confessional Lutheranism
Confessional Lutheranism
in Eighteenth-Century Germany." Concordia Theological Quarterly 60(1–2) Jan–April 1996: Part I, Valentin Ernst Loescher p. 102. ^ Kleinig, Vernon P. " Confessional Lutheranism
Confessional Lutheranism
in Eighteenth-Century Germany." Concordia Theological Quarterly 60(1–2) Jan–April 1996: Part II, Melchior Goeze pp. 109–112. ^ Rietschel, William C. An Introduction to the Foundations of Lutheran Education. St. Louis: Concordia, 2000. p. 25 (Although this reference specifically mentions Saxony, government promoted rationalism was a trend across Germany) ^ "Untitled Document". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ a b Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 180. ^ a b Armin Sierszyn: 2000 Jahre Kirchengeschichte, Book.4, Die Neuzeit, p. 155 ^ a b Suelflow, Roy A. Walking With Wise Men. Milwaukee: South Wisconsin District (LCMS), 1967. p. 10 ^ a b Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age, Volume II, The Nineteenth Century in Europe. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 165. ^ Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 182. ^ a b c Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 183. ^ Benton, William, ed. (1974). "Lutheran Churches". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (15 ed.). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. p. 198. ISBN 0-85229-290-2.  ^ Christian Cyclopedia
Christian Cyclopedia
article on Brünn ^ a b c d Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 184. ^ Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 187. ^ a b c Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age, Volume II, The Nineteenth Century in Europe. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1959, p. 21. ^ "Repristination Theology." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 6 Apr 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/498536/Repristination-Theology>. ^ a b Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity
Christianity
in a Revolutionary Age, Volume II, The Nineteenth Century in Europe. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 22. ^ a b Nichols, James Hastings. History of Christianity
Christianity
1650–1950: Secularization
Secularization
of the West. New York, Ronald Press, 1956, p. 175. ^ Gassmann, Günther, et al. Historical dictionary of Lutheranism. Augsburg Fortress, Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 2001. p. 32. ^ Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 188. ^ Detzler, Wayne A. The Changing Church in Europe. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1979. p. 17. Quotation from Manfred Kober, Theology in Germany, from the Reformation
Reformation
Review, April 1969. ^ For the traditional Lutheran view of the Bible, see Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 3ff. ISBN 0-524-04891-6. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. . For an overview of the doctrine of verbal inspiration in Lutheranism, see Inspiration, Doctrine of in the Christian Cyclopedia. ^ Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 7ff. ISBN 0-524-04891-6. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. , Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 29.  ^ Braaten, Carl E. (1983). Principles of Lutheran Theology. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, p. 9 ^ Preus, Robert. The Inspiration of Scripture: A Study of the Theology of the 17th Century Lutheran Dogmaticians. London: Oliver and Boyd, 1957. p. 39. ^ Benton, William, ed. (1978). "Lutheran Churches". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (15 ed.). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. pp. 197–98. ISBN 0-85229-290-2.  ^ U.S. Religious Landscape Survey: Religious Beliefs and Practices, Diverse and Politically Relevant. Washington D.C.: Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. June 2008. p. 127. Accessed online on 27 September 2009 at http://religions.pewforum.org/pdf/report2-religious-landscape-study-full.pdf. ^ 2 Timothy 3:16, 1 Corinthians 2:13, 1 Thessalonians 2:13, Romans 3:2, 2 Peter 1:21, 2 Samuel 23:2, Hebrews 1:1, John 10:35, John 16:13, John 17:17, Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 26.  ^ "God's Word, or Holy Scripture" from the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article II, of Original Sin ^ "the Scripture of the Holy Ghost." Apology to the Augsburg Confession, Preface, 9 ^ "The Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Divination: Tobit 6:17, Prayer to the dead: 2 Macc. 12:42, Suicide: 2 Macc. 14:41–46, ^ See Bible, Canon in the Christian Cyclopedia
Christian Cyclopedia
Archived 20 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 27.  ^ Psalm 19:8, Psalm 119:105, Psalm 119:130, 2 Timothy 3:15, Deuteronomy 30:11, 2 Peter 1:19, Ephesians 3:3–4, John 8:31–32, 2 Corinthians 4:3–4, John 8:43–47, 2 Peter 3:15–16, Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 29. , Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 11–12. ISBN 0-524-04891-6. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006.  ^ Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 11. ISBN 0-524-04891-6. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. , Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 28.  ^ Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 11. ISBN 0-524-04891-6. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006.  ^ Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 28.  ^ Romans 1:16, 1 Thessalonians 2:13, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 11. ISBN 0-524-04891-6. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. , Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 27.  ^ Romans 1:16, 1 Thessalonians 1:5, Psalm 119:105, 2 Peter 1:19, 2 Timothy 1:16–17,Ephesians 3:3–4, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 11–12. ISBN 0-524-04891-6. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. , Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 28.  ^ John 6:63, Revelation 1:3, Ephesians 3:3–4, John 7:17, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 12. ISBN 0-524-04891-6. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. , Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 28.  ^ " Smalcald Articles
Smalcald Articles
Book
Book
of Concord". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ 2 Timothy 3:15–17, John 5:39, John 17:20, Psalm 19:7–8, Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 28.  ^ Isaiah 8:20, Luke 16:29–31, 2 Timothy 3:16–17, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 13. ISBN 0-524-04891-6. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. , Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 28.  ^ "Defense of the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
Book
Book
of Concord". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Walther, C. F. W. The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel. W. H. T. Dau, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1929. ^ F.E. Mayer, The Religious Bodies of America. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1954, p. 184. For further information, see The Formula of Concord
Formula of Concord
in the History of Swedish Lutheranism
Lutheranism
Archived 7 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. by Seth Erlandsson ^ Paul R. Sponheim, "The Origin of Sin", in Christian Dogmatics, Carl E. Braaten and Robert W. Jenson, eds. (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984), 385–407. ^ Francis Pieper, "Definition of Original Sin", in Christian Dogmatics (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953), 1:538. ^ Krauth, C.P.,The Conservative Reformation
Reformation
and Its Theology: As Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Literature of the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. 1875. pp. 335–455, Part IX The Specific Doctrines Of The Conservative Reformation: Original Sin. ^ Formula of Concord, Original Sin. ^ Rom. 7:18, 8:7 1 Cor. 2:14, Martin Chemnitz, Examination of the Council of Trent: Vol. I. Trans. Fred Kramer, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1971, pp. 639–652, "The Third Question: Whether the Good Works of the Regenerate in This Life Are So Perfect that They Fully, Abundantly, and Perfectly Satisfy the Divine Law". ^ Gen. 6:5, 8:21, Mat. 7:17, Krauth, C.P.,The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology: As Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Literature of the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. 1875. pp. 388–390, Part IX The Specific Doctrines Of The Conservative Reformation: Original Sin, Thesis VII The Results, Section ii Positive. ^ Dt. 27:26,Rom. 5:12,2 Th. 1:9 Rom. 6:23, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 38–41, Part VIII. "Sin" ^ 1 Tim. 2:4, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 43–44, Part X. "Saving Grace", paragraph 55. ^ Triglot Concordia: The Symbolical Books of the Ev. Lutheran Church. St. Louis: Concordia, 1921. Large Catechism, The Lord's Prayer, The Second Petition, Par. 51. ^ Gal. 3:13, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 43, Part X. "Saving Grace", paragraph 54. ^ Rom. 10:4, Gal. 4:4–5, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 42, Part X. "Saving Grace", paragraph 52. ^ Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, Article III, "Concerning the Righteousness of Faith before God". par. 57–58. trans. Kolb, R., Wengert, T., and Arand, C. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2000. ^ " Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
Book
Book
of Concord". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ John 17:3, Luke 1:77,Galatians 4:9, Philippians 3:8, and 1 Timothy 2:4 refer to faith in terms of knowledge. ^ John 5:46 refers to acceptance of the truth of Christ's teaching, while John 3:36 notes the rejection of his teaching. ^ John 3:16,36, Galatians 2:16, Romans 4:20–25, 2 Timothy 1:12 speak of trust, confidence, and belief in Christ. John 3:18 notes belief in the name of Christ, and Mark 1:15 notes belief in the gospel. ^ Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 54–55, Part XIV. "Sin" ^ Ps. 51:10, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934, p. 57 Part XV. "Conversion", paragraph 78. ^ John 17:20, Rom. 10:17, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934, p. 101 Part XXV. "The Church", paragraph 141. ^ Titus 3:5, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934, p. 87 Part XXIII. "Baptism", paragraph 118. ^ Eph. 2:8, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934, p. 57 Part XV. "Conversion", paragraph 78. ^ The Roman Catholic Catechism, part 3, section 1, chapter 3, article 2, II, paragraphs 2000 and 2001; downloaded February 18, 2017; defines grace as something which brings about a change in us, such that we cooperate in justification and act without sin (i.e. sanctified). ^ Is. 63:8–9, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 158–160, section "The Doctrine of God", part 5. "The Holy Trinity
Trinity
Revealed in the Old Testament",Heb. 1:5, see Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 33–36, Part VI. "The Trinity". ^ The Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
and the Filioque: A Lutheran Approach by Rev. David Webber for more information ^ Athanasian Creed
Athanasian Creed
– for an older Trinitarian Creed
Creed
used by Lutherans, see the Nicene Creed: the version in Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Worship (2006) of the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) and the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church in Canada
Canada
(ELCIC) is the 1988 ecumenical (ELLC) version. But the version in both "Lutheran Service Book" (2006) of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod
Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod
(LCMS) and the Lutheran Church Canada
Canada
(LCC) is that of the 1662 Book
Book
of Common Prayer with modernized spelling of the words "catholic" and "apostolic", with changes in capitalization of these and other words, and with "Holy Spirit" in place of "Holy Ghost". ^ Luther's Small Catechism, The Apostles' Creed, Second Article, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 100ff. ISBN 0-524-04891-6. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006.  ^ Augsburg confession, Article III. Retrieved 17 April 2010. ^ Matthew 28:19, 1 Corinthians 11:23–25, Matthew 26:26–28, Mark 14:22–24, Luke 22:19–20, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 161. ISBN 0-524-04891-6.  ^ Ephesians 5:27, John 3:5, John 3:23, 1 Corinthians 10:16, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 161. ISBN 0-524-04891-6.  ^ Ephesians 5:26, 1 Corinthians 10:16, 1 Corinthians 11:24–25, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 161. ISBN 0-524-04891-6.  ^ Matthew 3:16–17, John 3:5, 1 Corinthians 11:19, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 161. ISBN 0-524-04891-6.  ^ Luke 7:30, Luke 22:19–20, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 162. ISBN 0-524-04891-6.  ^ Acts 21:16, Acts 2:38, Luke 3:3, Ephesians 5:26, 1 Peter 3:21, Galatians 3:26–27, Matthew 26:28, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 163. ISBN 0-524-04891-6.  ^ 1 Peter 3:21, Titus 3:5, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 163. ISBN 0-524-04891-6.  ^ Titus 3:5, John 3:5, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 163. ISBN 0-524-04891-6.  ^ "Private Absolution ought to be retained in the churches, although in confession an enumeration of all sins is not necessary." Article XI: Of Confession ^ The Apology of the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
XIII, 2: "We believe we have the duty not to neglect any of the rites and ceremonies instituted in Scripture, whatever their number. We do not think it makes much difference if, for purposes of teaching, the enumeration varies, provided what is handed down in Scripture is preserved" (cf. Theodore G. Tappert, trans. and ed., The Book
Book
of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 211). ^ Luther's Large Catechism
Luther's Large Catechism
IV, 1: "We have now finished the three chief parts of the common Christian doctrine. Besides these we have yet to speak of our two Sacraments instituted by Christ, of which also every Christian ought to have at least an ordinary, brief instruction, because without them there can be no Christian; although, alas! hitherto no instruction concerning them has been given" (emphasis added; cf. Theodore G. Tappert, trans. and ed., The Book
Book
of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 733). ^ John 20:23, and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 112–113, Part XXVI "The Ministry", paragraph 156. ^ Luther's Large Catechism
Luther's Large Catechism
IV, 74–75: "And here you see that Baptism, both in its power and signification, comprehends also the third Sacrament, which has been called repentance, as it is really nothing else than Baptism" (emphasis added; cf. Theodore G. Tappert, trans. and ed., The Book
Book
of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 751). ^ The Apology of the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
XIII, 3, 4: "If we define the sacraments as rites, which have the command of God and to which the promise of grace has been added, it is easy to determine what the sacraments are, properly speaking. For humanly instituted rites are not sacraments, properly speaking, because human beings do not have the authority to promise grace. Therefore signs instituted without the command of God are not sure signs of grace, even though they perhaps serve to teach or admonish the common folk. Therefore, the sacraments are actually baptism, the Lord's Supper, and absolution (the sacrament of repentance)" (cf. Tappert, 211). Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article 13, Of the Number and Use of the Sacraments ^ Apology of the Augsburg Confession, article 24, paragraph 1. Retrieved 16 April 2010. ^ 1 Pet. 3:21, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 491–496, section "The Doctrine of Baptism", part 4. " Baptism
Baptism
a True Means of Grace", and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 87, Part XXIII. "Baptism", paragraph 118. ^ Martin Luther, Small Catechism
Catechism
4 ^ Titus 3:5 ^ John 3:3–7 ^ " Baptism
Baptism
and Its Purpose". Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. Archived from the original on 6 February 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2009.  ^ Luther, Martin (2009) [1529]. "The Sacrament
Sacrament
of Holy Baptism". Luther's Small Catechism. ISBN 0-89279-043-1. Retrieved 24 February 2009.  ^ 1 Peter 3:21 ^ Mat. 19:14, Acts 2:38–39, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 90, Part XXIII. "Baptism", paragraph 122. ^ 1 Cor. 1:14, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 90, Part XXIII. "Baptism", paragraph 122. ^ Luther, Martin (2009) [1529]. "Of Infant Baptism". Luther's Large Catechism. ISBN 1-4264-3861-3. Retrieved 24 February 2009.  Luther's Large Catechism
Luther's Large Catechism
– Holy Baptism ^ " Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
Book
Book
of Concord". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ 1 Cor. 10:16, 11:20, 27, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 95, Part XXIV. "The Lord's Supper", paragraph 131. ^ The Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, Article 8, The Holy Supper ^ Augustus Lawrence Graebner, Lutheran Cyclopedia p. 136, "Conversion" ^ " Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
Book
Book
of Concord". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ See Augsburg Confession, Article XVIII: Of Free Will ^ 1 Cor. 2:14, 12:3, Rom. 8:7, Martin Chemnitz, Examination of the Council of Trent: Vol. I. Trans. Fred Kramer, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1971, pp. 409–453, "Seventh Topic, Concerning Free Will: From the Decree of the Sixth Session of the Council of Trent". ^ Augsburg Confession, Article 18, Of Free Will. ^ Acts 13:48, Eph. 1:4–11, Epitome of the Formula of Concord, Article 11, Election, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 585–589, section "The Doctrine of Eternal Election: 1. The Definition of the Term", and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 124–128, Part XXXI. "The Election of Grace", paragraph 176. ^ 2 Thess. 2:13, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 589–93, section "The Doctrine of Eternal Election: 2. How Believers are to Consider Their Election, and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 127–128, Part XXXI. "The Election of Grace", paragraph 180. ^ Rom. 8:33, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 127–128, Part XXXI. "The Election of Grace", paragraph 179., Engelder, T.E.W., The Certainty of Final Salvation. The Lutheran Witness 2(6). English Evangelical
Evangelical
Missouri Synod: Baltimore. 1891, pp. 41ff. ^ 1 Tim. 2:4, 2 Pet. 3:9, Epitome of the Formula of Concord, Article 11, Election, and Engelder's Popular Symbolics, Part XXXI. The Election of Grace, pp. 124–128. ^ 1 Timothy 2:3–4 ^ Hos. 13:9, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 637, section "The Doctrine of the Last Things (Eschatology), part 7. "Eternal Damnation", and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 135–136, Part XXXIX. "Eternal Death", paragraph 196. ^ Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. Concordia Publishing House. 1934. pp. 189–195 and Fuerbringer, L., Concordia Cyclopedia Concordia Publishing House. 1927. p. 635 and Christian Cyclopedia article on Divine Providence. For further reading, see The Proof Texts of the Catechism
Catechism
with a Practical Commentary, section Divine Providence, p. 212, Wessel, Louis, published in Theological Quarterly, Vol. 11, 1909. ^ Mueller, Steven P.,Called to Believe, Teach, and Confess. Wipf and Stock. 2005. pp. 122–123. ^ Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. Concordia Publishing House: 1934. pp. 190 and Edward. W. A.,A Short Explanation of Dr. Martin Luther's Small Catechism. Concordia Publishing House. 1946. p. 165. and Divine Providence and Human Adversity Archived 7 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. by Markus O. Koepsell ^ "The Small Catechism". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ a b Luther's Large Catechism, First Commandment ^ quoted in Scaer, David. Luther's Concept of the Resurrection Concordia Theological Quarterly 47(3) Archived 4 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. p. 219 ^ John 15:5, Tit. 2:14, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 62–63, Part XV. "Conversion", paragraph 88 The New Obedience Is The Fruit Of Conversion, The Product Of Faith. ^ 2 Cor. 9:8, Krauth, C.P.,The Conservative Reformation
Reformation
and Its Theology: As Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Literature of the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. 1875. pp. 313–314, Part D Confession of the Conservative Reformation: II, Secondary Confessions: Book
Book
of Concord, Formula of Concord, Part IV The Doctrinal Result, 2, Section iv, Of Good Works. ^ Phil 2:13, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 74, Part XIX. "Preservation in Faith", paragraph 102. ^ Rom. 7:18 Heb 11:6, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 39–40, Part VIII. "Sin", paragraph 46 "Original Sin". ^ "Mat. 7:15–16; NIV – True and False Prophets". Bible
Bible
Gateway. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Albrecht Beutel, "Luther's Life", tr. Katharina Gustavs, in The Cambridge Companion to Martin Luther, ed. Donald K. McKim (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 11. ^ "Joh 18:36; ESV – Jesus
Jesus
answered, My kingdom is not of..." Bible Gateway. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Luke 23:42–43, 2 Cor. 5:8, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 130, Part XXXIV. "The State of the Soul in the Interval Between Death and the Resurrection", paragraph 185. ^ 1 Cor. 15:22–24, Francis Pieper, Christian Dogmatics, 505–515; Heinrich Schmid, The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church, 624–32; John Mueller, Christian Dogmatics, 616–19 ^ John 6:40, John 6:54 ^ John 5:21, John 5:28–29, Matthew 25:32, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Acts 24:15 ^ Romans 8:11, Philippians 3:21, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Job 19:26, 1 Corinthians 15:44, 1 Corinthians 15:53, John 5:28, Revelation 20:12 ^ Daniel 12:2, Matthew 25:41–46, John 5:29 ^ Daniel 12:1–2, John 5:29, 1 Corinthians 15:52, 1 Corinthians 15:42–44, 1 Corinthians 15:49–53, Philippians 3:21, Matthew 13:43, Revelation 7:16 ^ John 6:40, John 6:44, John 11:24 ^ 1 Corinthians 15:51–52, 1 Thessalonians 4:15–17 ^ Matthew 25:32, Romans 14:10, John 5:22, Acts 17:31, Revelation 1:7 ^ Matthew 25:32, Mark 16:16 ^ 2 Corinthians 5:10, 1 Corinthians 4:5, Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16 ^ Romans 2:6, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Matthew 25:35–36, Matthew 25:42–43 ^ Isaiah 43:25, Ezekiel 18:22, 1 John 2:28 ^ Matthew 25:34–35, John 3:16–18, John 3:36, Revelation 14:13, Galatians 5:6, John 13:35 ^ Matthew 25:42, Matthew 7:17–18, John 3:18, John 3:36 ^ Romans 2:5, Acts 17:31, Romans 2:16 ^ Luke 9:26, Matthew 25:31–32 ^ Matthew 25:41, Matthew 25:34, Matthew 25:46, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 233–8. ISBN 0-524-04891-6.  ^ Table adapted from Lange, Lyle W. God So Loved the World: A Study of Christian Doctrine (Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House, 2006), 448, with the addition of specific citations. ^ Table drawn from, though not copied, from Lange, Lyle W. God So Loved the World: A Study of Christian Doctrine. Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House, 2006. p. 448. ^ a b c " Calvinism
Calvinism
and Lutheranism
Lutheranism
Compared". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2015. Both (Lutherans and Calvinists) agree on the devastating nature of the fall and that man by nature has no power to aid in his conversions...and that election to salvation is by grace. In Lutheranism
Lutheranism
the German term for election is Gnadenwahl, election by grace--there is no other kind.  ^ John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge, III.23.2. ^ John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge, II.3.5. ^ John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge, III.3.6. ^ WELS Topical Q&A: WELS vs Assembly of God: "[P]eople by nature are dead in their tranbsgressions (sic) and sin and therefore have no ability to decide of Christ (Ephesians 2:1, 5). We do not choose Christ, rather he chose us (John 15:16) We believe that human beings are purely passive in conversion." ^ Augsburg Confessional, Article XVIII, Of Free Will, saying: "(M)an's will has some liberty to choose civil righteousness, and to work things subject to reason. But it has no power, without the Holy Ghost, to work the righteousness of God, that is, spiritual righteousness; since the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God (1 Cor. 2:14); but this righteousness is wrought in the heart when the Holy Ghost is received through the Word." ^ Henry Cole, trans, Martin Luther
Martin Luther
on the Bondage of the Will (London, T. Bensley, 1823), 66. The controversial term liberum arbitrium was translated "free-will" by Cole. However Ernest Gordon Rupp and Philip Saville Watson, Luther and Erasmus: Free Will and Salvation (Westminister, 1969) chose "free choice" as their translation. ^ Keith D. Stanglin and Thomas H. McCall, Jacob Arminius: Theologian of Grace (Oxford University, 2012), 157-158. ^ The Book
Book
of Concord: The Confessions of the Lutheran Church, XI. Election. "Predestination" means "God's ordination to salvation". ^ Roger E. Olson, Arminian Theology: Myths and Realities (InterVarsity Press, 2009), 63. “Arminians accepts divine election, [but] they believe it is conditional." ^ The Westminster Confession, III:6, says that only the "elect" are "effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved." However in his Calvin and the Reformed Tradition (Baker, 2012), 45, Richard A. Muller observes that "a sizeable body of literature has interpreted Calvin as teaching "limited atonement", but "an equally sizeable body . . . [interprets] Calvin as teaching "unlimited atonement". ^ "Justification / Salvation". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2015. Romans 3:23-24, 5:9, 18 are other passages that lead us to say that it is most appropriate and accurate to say that universal justification is a finished fact. God has forgiven the sins of the whole world whether people believe it or not. He has done more than "made forgiveness possible." All this is for the sake of the perfect substitutionary work of Jesus
Jesus
Christ.  ^ "IV. Justification by Grace through Faith". This We Believe. Wisconsin Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Synod. Retrieved 5 February 2015. We believe that God has justified all sinners, that is, he has declared them righteous for the sake of Christ. This is the central message of Scripture upon which the very existence of the church depends. It is a message relevant to people of all times and places, of all races and social levels, for "the result of one trespass was condemnation for all men" (Romans 5:18). All need forgiveness of sins before God, and Scripture proclaims that all have been justified, for "the result of one act of righteousness was justification that brings life for all men" (Romans 5:18). We believe that individuals receive this free gift of forgiveness not on the basis of their own works, but only through faith (Ephesians 2:8–9). ... On the other hand, although Jesus
Jesus
died for all, Scripture says that "whoever does not believe will be condemned" (Mark 16:16). Unbelievers forfeit the forgiveness won for them by Christ (John 8:24).  ^ Becker, Siegbert W. "Objective Justification" (PDF). Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary. p. 1. Retrieved 26 January 2015.  ^ "Universal Justification". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2015. Christ paid for all our sins. God the Father has therefore forgiven them. But to benefit from this verdict we need to hear about it and trust in it. If I deposit money in the bank for you, to benefit from it you need to hear about it and use it. Christ has paid for your sins, but to benefit from it you need to hear about it and believe in it. We need to have faith but we should not think of faith as our contribution. It is a gift of God which the Holy Spirit works in us.  ^ Augsburg Confession, Article V, Of Justification. People "cannot be justified before God by their own strength, merits, or works, but are freely justified for Christ's sake, through faith, when they believe that they are received into favor, and that their sins are forgiven for Christ's sake. ..." ^ "Faith is a condition of justification". Keith D. Stanglin and Thomas H. McCall, Jacob Arminius: Theologian of Grace (Oxford University, 2012), 136. ^ Paul ChulHong Kang, Justification: The Imputation of Christ's Righteousness from Reformation
Reformation
Theology to the American Great Awakening and the Korean Revivals (Peter Lang, 2006), 70, note 171. Calvin generally defends Augustine’s "monergistic view". ^ Diehl, Walter A. "The Age of Accountability". Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary. Retrieved 10 February 2015. In full accord with Scripture the Lutheran Confessions teach monergism. "In this manner, too, the Holy Scriptures ascribe conversion, faith in Christ, regeneration, renewal and all the belongs to their efficacious beginning and completion, not to the human powers of the natural free will, neither entirely, nor half, nor in any, even the least or most inconsiderable part, but in solidum, that is, entirely, solely, to the divine working and the Holy Ghost" (Trigl. 891, F.C., Sol. Decl., II, 25).  ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Monergism ^ " Calvinism
Calvinism
and Lutheranism
Lutheranism
Compared". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2015.  ^ Roger E. Olson, Arminian Theology: Myths and Realities (InterVarsity Press, 2009), 18. "Arminian synergism" refers to "evangelical synergism, which affirms the prevenience of grace." ^ The Westminster Confession of Faith, Ch XVII, "Of the Perseverance of the Saints". ^ "Once saved always saved". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2015. People can fall from faith. The Bible warns, "If you think you are standing firm, be careful that you don't fall" (! Corinthians 10:12). Some among the Galatians had believed for a while, but had fallen into soul-destroying error. Paul warned them, "You who are trying to be justified by law have been alienated from Christ; you have fallen away from grace" (Galatians 5:4). In his explanation of the parable of the sower, Jesus
Jesus
says, "Those on the rock are the ones who receive the word with joy when they hear it, but they have no root. They believe for a while, but in time of testing they fall away" (Luke 8:13). According to Jesus
Jesus
a person can believe for a while and then fall away. While they believed they possessed eternal salvation, but when they fell from faith they lost God's gracious gift.  ^ "Perseverence of the Saints (Once Saved Always Saved)". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2015. We cannot contribute one speck to our salvation, but by our own arrogance or carelessness we can throw it away. Therefore, Scripture urges us repeatedly to fight the good fight of faith (Ephesians 6 and 2 Timothy 4 for example). My sins threaten and weaken my faith, but the Spirit through the gospel in word and sacraments strengthens and preserves my faith. That’s why Lutherans typically speak of God’s preservation of faith and not the perseverance of the saints. The key is not our perseverance but the Spirit’s preservation.  ^ Bruce Demarest, The Cross and Salvation: The Doctrine of Salvation (Crossway, 1997), 437-438. ^ “Many Arminians deny the doctrine of the perseverance of the saints." Bruce Demarest, The Cross and Salvation: The Doctrine of Salvation (Crossway, 1997), 35. ^ McGrath, Alister, E. Christianity: An Introduction. 2nd ed. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell, 2006. p. 272. ^ Taruskin, Richard. The Oxford History of Western Music – Volume I (Music in the Earliest Notations to the sixteenth century), pp. 753–758 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) ^ Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV.1 ^ a b See Luther's Small Catechism, Daily Prayers ^ Principle examples of this in the ELCA include Family of God, Cape Coral FL., The Well, Charlotte NC, Hosanna! of Lakeville, Minnesota, and Church of the Apostles, Seattle WA. Archived 20 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ "A given culture's values and patterns, insofar as they are consonant with the values of the Gospel, can be used to express the meaning and purpose of Christian worship. Contextualization is a necessary task for the Church's mission in the world, so that the Gospel can be ever more deeply rooted in diverse local cultures." The Nairobe Statement Archived 22 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Piepkorn, A.C. Profiles in Belief: Volume II, Protestant Denominations. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978. p. 31. ^ Piepkorn, A.C. , Profiles in Belief: Volume II, Protestant Denominations. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978. p. 32. ^ Piepkorn, A.C. , Profiles in Belief: Volume II, Protestant Denominations. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978. p. 35. ^ Piepkorn, A.C. , Profiles in Belief: Volume II, Protestant Denominations. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978. p. 33. ^ a b c Piepkorn, A.C., Profiles in Belief: Volume II, Protestant Denominations. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978. p. 34. ^ Preface to Luther's Large and preface to Luther's Small Catechism. ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin, and Bromiley, Geoffrey William, The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 2003. p. 367. ^ Klug, Eugene F. and Stahlke, Otto F. Getting into the Formula of Concord. St. Louis: Concordia, 1977. p. 16 ^ Klug, Eugene F. and Stahlke, Otto F. Getting into the Formula of Concord. St. Louis: Concordia. p. 18 ^ See Lutheran Orthodoxy
Lutheran Orthodoxy
Under Fire: An Exploratory Study of the Syncretistic Controversy And The Consensus Repetitus Fidei Vere Lutheranae Archived 15 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. and Strenuus Christi Athleta Abraham Calov (1612–1686): Sainted Doctor And Defender of the Church Archived 15 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine., both by Timothy R. Schmeling ^ (in Swedish)Svenskakyrkan.se Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Bente, Friedrich, 1858–1930. American Lutheranism
Lutheranism
Volume 1: Early History of American Lutheranism: Lutheran Swedes in Delaware. St. Louis: Concordia, 1919, pp. 13–16. ^ Eklund, Emmet E. (1988). His Name Was Jonas: A Biography of Jonas Swenson. Rock Island, Ill.: Augustana Historical Society. p. 99. ISBN 0910184364. Retrieved 21 September 2017.  ^ Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 185. ^ For a historical example, see Robert Preus, To Join or Not To Join. North Dakota District of The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, 1968. ^ See Brief Statement was adopted as LCMS doctrine in 1932, and from time to time has been adopted by other Lutherans Archived 14 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Report of the Lutheran Church, The Northwestern Lutheran, p. 281, 31 August 1988. ^ see Ecumenism: Facts and Illusions by Kurt E. Marquart for a short explanation of the modern ecumenism movement from a Confessional Lutheran perspective ^ See scholarly articles on the Church Growth Movement Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. from the Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary Library and Implications of the Church Growth Movement for Lutherans: Possibilities and Concerns Archived 14 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine. by Harold L. Senkbeil as examples of criticism from confessional Lutherans ^ Lutheran World Federation, "Slight Increase Pushes LWF Global Membership to 66.2 Million", The Lutheran World Federation, http://www.lutheranworld.org/ (accessed 18 May 2006). However, some Lutherans disagree with the way the Lutheran World Federation
Lutheran World Federation
arrives at this number, as millions of them actually come from bodies that are largely Reformed, but include some Lutherans. For more information on this, see William Schumacher, "Theological Observer: How Many Lutherans?" Archived 10 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Concordia Journal April 2005, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2007.  ^ The Lutheran World Federation
Lutheran World Federation
– 2013 Membership Figures Lutheran World Federation ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012. , The Lutheran World Federation ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012. , The Lutheran World Federation ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012. , The Lutheran World Federation ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012. , The Lutheran World Federation ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012. , The Lutheran World Federation ^ Zahlen und Fakte zum kirchlichen Leben 2017 Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Dominant Protestant
Protestant
Denomination Per Country, 1995. ^ Lutherans as a Percentage of All Residents, 2000 Archived 30 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine. (Map by county). Also see comparable maps of other religions along with specific denominations of Lutheran at the main American Ethnic Geography Archived 9 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. site ^ 2011 World Lutheran Membership Details Archived 24 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Sweden
Sweden
Ends Designation of Lutheranism
Lutheranism
as Official Religion". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ The Lutheran World Federation
Lutheran World Federation
2013 Membership Figures

Further reading[edit]

ALC Historical Perspective: Nervig, Casper B. Christian Truth and Religious Delusions, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1941. Arand, Charles P, and Robert Kolb, eds. The Lutheran Confessions: History and Theology of the Book of Concord
Book of Concord
(2012) Bodensieck, Julius, ed. The encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church (3 vol 1965) vol 1 and 3 online free Brauer, James Leonard and Fred L. Precht, eds. Lutheran Worship: History and Practice (1993) CLC Perspective: Concerning Church Fellowship: A Statement of Principle. Eau Claire, WI: CLC Book
Book
House. 1996.  Confessional & Historical Perspective: Günther Gassmann & Scott Hendrix. Fortress Introduction to the Lutheran Confessions. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8006-3162-5. European Lutheran perspective: Elert, Werner. The Structure of Lutheranism: the Theology and Philosophy of Life of Lutheranism, Especially in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, trans. by Walter A. Hansen. Saint Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 1962. N.B.: Trans. of Morphologie des Luthertums, vol. 1 of which was published in 1931 at Munich by C.H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1931, vol. 2 in German appearing in 1932; the t.p. of this English-language ed. states "Volume One", but there has been no publication, as part of this English ed., of vol. 2. Fellowship of Lutheran Congregations Perspective: What True Lutherans Teach. Oak Parks, Ill.: E.L.C. Tract Center, [199?]. 11 p. N.B.: There is no personal author or specific committee credited with this brochure. General Council Historical Perspective: Krauth, Charles Porterfield (1875). The Conservative Reformation
Reformation
and Its Theology: As Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Theology of the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott. p. 840. ISBN 0-7586-0994-9.  Granquist, Mark. Lutherans in America: A New History (2015) LCA Historical Perspective: Braaten, Carl E. (1983). Principles of Lutheran Theology. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. ISBN 0-8006-1689-8.  LCA Historical Worship Perspective: Reed, Luther D. The Lutheran Liturgy: a Study [especially] of the Common Service of the Lutheran Church in America. Philadelphia, Penn.: Muhlenberg Press, 1947. N.B.: This study also includes some coverage of other Lutheran liturgical services, especially of Matins and Vespers. LCMS Perspective: Pieper, Franz (1950–1957). Christian Dogmatics. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 3 Volumes. ISBN 0-570-06714-6.  LCMS Perspective: Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 526.  LCMS Perspective: Brief Statement of the Doctrinal Position of the Missouri Synod (1932). Saint Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House. LCMS Perspective: Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 250. ISBN 0-524-04891-6. Archived from the original on 9 July 2006.  LCMS Perspective: Kretzschmar, Karl (198?). What Lutherans Teach. St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Tract Mission. LCMS Perspective: Neuhaus, Richard John (1969). The Lutherans (in "Ecumenical Series"). New York: Paulist Press. N.B.: At the time of the publication of this document, Neuhaus was still a Lutheran pastor, of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. LCR Perspective: McLaughlin, Wallace H. (1963). We All Believe in One True God: A Summary of Biblical Doctrine. Midland, Michigan: Cross of Christ Press.  Meyer, Carl S. Moving Frontiers: Readings in the History of the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod (1986) Neo-Lutheran Historical Perspective: Schmid, Heinrich Friedrich Ferdinand (1876). The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Church. Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Society. ISBN 0-7905-8877-3.  Norwegian Synod Historical Perspective: Monson, Ingvar Grøthe (1915). The Difference: A Popular Guide to Denominational History and Doctrine. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.  Roeber, A. G. Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America (1998) Slovak Synod Historical Perspective: Richter, V. W. (1913). Why Should a Lutheran Not Join Any Sectarian Church?. Streator, Illinois: Svedok Publishing House.  WELS Perspective: Lange, Lyle W. (2006). God So Loved the World: A Study of Christian Doctrine. Northwestern Publishing House. ISBN 0-8100-1744-X.  Comparison of about 50 Lutheran church bodies in America: Brug, John F. (2009). WELS & Other Lutherans (2nd ed.). Northwestern Publishing House. ISBN 0-8100-0543-3.  Comparison of Catholic, Lutheran, and Protestant
Protestant
doctrine: Jackson, Gregory L. (2007). Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant: A Doctrinal Comparison of Three Christian Confessions (PDF). Glendale, Arizona: Martin Chemnitz
Martin Chemnitz
Press. [permanent dead link]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lutheranism.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Lutherans.

Moldehnke, Edward F. "Was ist denn eigentlich ein Lutheraner?" Evangelish-Lutherisches Gemeinde-Blatt. Vol. 1, nos. 8–10 (1866). Trans. Nathaniel J. Biebert. "So What Actually Is a Lutheran?" Studium Excitare. Issue #12 (2010).  "Lutherans". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.  A historical study of the Laestadian Lutheran Church, the SRK, and Conservative Laestadianism

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First Lutheran hymnal
(1524) Erfurt Enchiridion (1524) Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn
Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn
(1524)

Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants (1525) On the Bondage of the Will
On the Bondage of the Will
(1525) The Sacrament
Sacrament
of the Body and Blood of Christ—Against the Fanatics (1526) Deutsche Messe
Deutsche Messe
(1526) Confession Concerning Christ's Supper (1528) On War Against the Turk (1529) Small Catechism
Catechism
(1529) Large Catechism
Catechism
(1529) "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (1529) Smalcald Articles
Smalcald Articles
(1537) On the Councils and the Church (1539) "Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam" (1543) On the Jews and Their Lies
On the Jews and Their Lies
(1543) Vom Schem Hamphoras
Vom Schem Hamphoras
(1543) List of hymns by Martin Luther Luther's Table Talk
Talk
(1566) Weimar edition of Luther's works

Topics and events

Reformation Lutheranism Heidelberg Disputation, 1518 Leipzig Debate, 1519 Exsurge Domine, 1520 Diet of Worms, 1521 Decet Romanum Pontificem, 1521 Marburg Colloquy, 1529 Augsburg Confession, 1530 Luther's canon Theology of Martin Luther

Theology of the Cross Universal priesthood Sola scriptura Two kingdoms Law and Gospel Marian theology

Eucharist
Eucharist
in Lutheranism

Sacramental union Words of Institution

Antisemitism Propaganda during the Reformation Die Lügend von S. Johanne Chrysostomo (1537 edition)

People

Hans and Margarethe Luther (parents) Katharina von Bora
Katharina von Bora
(wife) Magdalena Luther
Magdalena Luther
(daughter) Paul Luther
Paul Luther
(son) Albert of Brandenburg Bartholomaeus Arnoldi Erasmus Georg Rörer Johann Cochlaeus Johann von Staupitz Justus Jonas Karl von Miltitz Andreas Karlstadt Philip Melanchthon Pope Leo X Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick the Wise

Luther sites

All Saints' Church, Wittenberg Lutherhaus Lutherstädte Martin Luther's Birth House Martin Luther's Death House Melanchthonhaus (Wittenberg) St. Augustine's Monastery Veste Coburg
Veste Coburg
(Fortress) Wartburg
Wartburg
Castle

Film and theatre

Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1923 film) Luther (1928 film) Luther (1964 film) Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1953 film) Luther (1973 film) Martin Luther, Heretic (1983 film) Luther (2003 film) Luther (1961 play)

Related

Martin Luther
Martin Luther
bibliography Book:Martin Luther Luther rose Theologia Germanica

v t e

Early Lutheran controversies

Date Controversy Resolution a Issues / people / publications involved

1527–56 Antinomian

V VI

Johannes Agricola Andreas Poach Anton Otto Matthias Flacius Philippists

1533–53 Descent into Hell IX

Descent into Hell Johannes Aepinus

1548–55 Adiaphoristic X

Philip Melanchthon Matthias Flacius Philippists Gnesio-Lutherans

1549–66 Osiandrian III

Andreas Osiander Johann Funck Francesco Stancaro Philip Melanchthon Matthias Flacius Andreas Musculus Victorinus Strigel

1551–62 Majoristic VI

Georg Major Justus Menius Nicolaus von Amsdorf Nicolaus Gallus Philippists Gnesio-Lutherans

1555–60 Synergistic II

Philip Melanchthon Johann Pfeffinger Victorinus Strigel Matthias Flacius Philippists Gnesio-Lutherans On the Bondage of the Will

1560–75 Flacian I

Matthias Flacius Simon Musaeus Victorinus Strigel

1560–75 Crypto-Calvinist VII

Philip Melanchthon Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
Variata Albert Hardenberg Joachim Westphal Martin Chemnitz Maximilian Mörlin Philippists Sacramentarians Ubiquitarians Gnesio-Lutherans The Sacrament
Sacrament
of the Body and Blood of Christ

1561–63 Predestination XI

Predestination Johann Marbach Girolamo Zanchi

a According to the Formula of Concord
Formula of Concord
articles identified (I–XII).

Lutheranism
Lutheranism
portal

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Lutheran history

Start of the Reformation

Events

Ninety-five Theses Heidelberg Disputation Leipzig Debate Marburg Colloquy Diet of Speyer (1529) Protestation at Speyer Presentation of the Augsburg Confession

Reformation
Reformation
in

Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
and Holstein Finland Germany Iceland Sweden

Reformers

Martin Luther Katharina von Bora Philip Melanchthon Johannes Bugenhagen Johannes Brenz Justus Jonas Argula von Grumbach Petrus Särkilahti Mikael Agricola Stephan Agricola Nicolaus von Amsdorf Laurentius Andreae Olaus Petri Laurentius Petri Stephan Praetorius Johann Pfeffinger Frederick the Wise

Early turmoil

Events

Dissemination of the Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession
Variata Colloquy of Worms (1540–1541) Diet of Regensburg Schmalkaldic War Augsburg Interim Peace of Passau Peace of Augsburg Colloquy of Worms (1557) Publication of the Magdeburg Centuries Adiaphoristic controversies (first second) Controversy on the Descent into Hell Presentation of the Greek Augsburg Confession Signing of the Formula of Concord

People

Philip Melanchthon Matthias Flacius Nicolaus Gallus Cyriacus Spangenberg Joachim Westphal Andreas Musculus Victorinus Strigel Johannes Agricola Andreas Osiander John the Magnanimous

Factions

Crypto-Calvinism Sacramentarians Philippists Ubiquitarians Gnesio-Lutherans

Orthodox and Scholastic periods

Early

Acceptance of the Book
Book
of Concord Martin Chemnitz Colloquy of Mumpelgart Jakob Andreae Nikolaus Selnecker David Chytraeus Matthias Hafenreffer Leonhard Hutter Aegidius Hunnius Stephan Praetorius

High

Johann Gerhard J. A. Quenstedt Abraham Calovius Georg Calixtus Nicolaus Hunnius Jesper Brochmand Salomo Glassius Johann Hülsemann J. C. Dannhauer J. F. König Johannes Musaeus J. W. Baier Thirty Years' War

Late

David Hollatz Christian Scriver V. E. Löscher J. M. Goeze

Speculative or critical theologies

Wolffian

Johann Salomo Semler Johann David Michaelis Johann Christoph Döderlein

Old Tübingen school

Gottlob Christian Storr Friedrich Gottlieb Süskind Johann Friedrich Flatt

Kantian

Christoph Friedrich von Ammon Julius Wegscheider Wilhelm Gesenius Albrecht Ritschl Adolf von Harnack Wilhelm Herrmann

Hegelian

Karl Daub Philip Marheineke David Strauss Ferdinand Christian Baur Richard Adelbert Lipsius Otto Pfleiderer

Moderate

Franz Volkmar Reinhard Karl Gottlieb Bretschneider Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette

Transitional

Johann Gottfried Herder Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi Friedrich Schleiermacher

Revivals

Pietist

Martin Moller Johann Arndt Jakob Böhme J. V. Andreae P. J. Spener J. W. Petersen A. H. Francke J. F. Buddeus J. A. Bengel G. C. Knapp

Awakening

J. G. Hamann Hans Nielsen Hauge Haugeanism Paavo Ruotsalainen Finnish Awakening Claus Harms Lars Levi Laestadius Laestadianism Carl Olof Rosenius N. F. S. Grundtvig August Tholuck

Neo-Lutheran

Repristination

E. W. Hengstenberg F. A. Philippi F. G. Hedberg Carl Paul Caspari C. P. Krauth L .A. Gotwald

Erlangen

G. C. A. von Harless J. W. F. Höfling Gottfried Thomasius J. C. K. von Hofmann Franz Delitzsch K. F. A. Kahnis Theodosius Harnack C. E. Luthardt F. H. R. von Frank Paul Althaus Werner Elert

High Church

A. F. C. Vilmar F. J. Stahl A. F. O. Münchmeyer J. K. W. Löhe Theodor Kliefoth Heinrich Hansen

Old Lutheran

Germany

Old Lutheran schism Background J. G. Scheibel Eduard Huschke Henrik Steffens H. E. F. Guericke G. P. E. Huschke Free churches

Australia / New Guinea

August Kavel Gotthard Fritzsche Johann Flierl Lutheran Church of Australia

United States

Martin Stephan J. A. A. Grabau Wilhelm Sihler F. C. D. Wyneken C. F. W. Walther H. A. Preus Synodical Conference of North America

Present

Confessional Lutheranism Homosexuality

Lutheranism
Lutheranism
portal

v t e

Order of the Divine Service in Lutheranism

Preparatory Service

Entrance hymn and Trinitarian formula
Trinitarian formula
(known as the Invocation) Penitential Rite
Penitential Rite
including the Confiteor and Declaration of Grace (or Asperges
Asperges
on Easter)

The Service of the Word

Introit Gloria Patri Kýrie Gloria Dominus vobiscum Oremus Collect Old Testament
Old Testament
reading gradual (or Responsorial Psalm) Epistle Alleluia
Alleluia
(tract during Lent) Gospel Hymn
Hymn
of the day Homily or Postil (Sermon) Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
( Athanasian Creed
Athanasian Creed
on Trinity
Trinity
Sunday) Offertory Prayers of the Faithful

The Service of the Eucharist

Preface ( Sursum corda / Sanctus
Sanctus
/ Hosanna) Eucharistic Prayer ( Epiclesis
Epiclesis
/ Words of Institution / Memorial Acclamation) Lord's Prayer Sign of peace / pax (elevation) Agnus Dei Distribution Nunc dimittis Postcommunion Benedicamus Domino Benediction Dismissal Ite, missa est

Participants

Acolyte bishop cantor choir crucifer deacon elder laity lector Pastor (or Priest) usher

Parts of the Sanctuary

altar altar bell altar crucifix altar rails kneeler piscina processional cross tabernacle

Candles

altar candle paschal candle sanctuary lamp votive candle

Liturgical vessels

ciborium chalice cruet

Liturgical objects

collection basket holy water incense (use) paten sacramental bread (wafer) sacramental wine thurible

Vestments

alb chasuble dalmatic geneva gown humeral veil stole surplice tunicle

Liturgical books and hymnals

Agenda Christian Worship
Christian Worship
(Supplement) Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Hymn-Book Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Hymnary Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Worship Lutheran Book
Book
of Worship Lutheran Hymnal Lutheran Hymnal with Supplement Lutheran Service Book Lutheran Worship Service Book
Book
and Hymnal

Lutheranism
Lutheranism
portal

v t e

Lutheran hymnody

Hymnals

First Lutheran hymnal
First Lutheran hymnal
(1524) Erfurt Enchiridion (1524) Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn
Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn
(1524) Praxis pietatis melica
Praxis pietatis melica
(1640/47) Becker Psalter Evangelisches Gesangbuch Christian Worship Hymnal
Christian Worship Hymnal
(Supplement) Evangelical
Evangelical
Lutheran Worship Hymns of Zion Lutheran Book
Book
of Worship Lutheran Hymnal Lutheran Hymnal (Finland) Lutheran Hymnal with Supplement Lutheran Service Book Lutheran Worship Passion Hymns Service Book
Book
and Hymnal

Hymnodists and hymnologists

Michael Altenburg Johann Sebastian Bach Martin Behm Joachim a Burck Dieterich Buxtehude Elisabeth Cruciger Johann Crüger Simon Dach Wolfgang Dachstein Paul Eber Jacobus Finno Paul Fleming Johann Franck Michael Franck Melchior Franck Paul Gerhardt Bartholomäus Gesius Johannes Gigas N. F. S. Grundtvig Andreas Hammerschmidt Claus Harms Johann Heermann Ludwig Helmbold Valerius Herberger Nikolaus Herman Johannes Hermann Sebald Heyden Konrad Hubert Justus Jonas Sigfrid Karg-Elert Christian Keymann Balthasar Kindermann Johann Kolross Johann Balthasar König Martin Luther Hemminki of Masku Felix Mendelssohn Johann Matthäus Meyfart Georg Neumark Philipp Nicolai Johann Pachelbel Hallgrímur Pétursson Michael Praetorius Christian Heinrich Postel Adam Reusner Bartholomäus Ringwaldt Martin Rinkart Johann von Rist Gottfried Wilhelm Sacer Carl Schalk Martin Schalling Heinrich Scheidemann Johann Schein Cyriakus Schneegass Johann Schop Heinrich Schütz Nikolaus Selnecker Lazarus Spengler Paul Speratus Paul Stockmann Melchior Teschner N. Samuel of Tranquebar Jaroslav Vajda Gottfried Vopelius Philipp Wackernagel Johann Walter Michael Weiße Catherine Winkworth Johannes Zahn

List of hymns by Martin Luther Lutheran hymn Lutheran chorale Chorale
Chorale
setting Chorale
Chorale
cantata

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Christianity

Jesus

Christ Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion Resurrection Son of God

Foundations

Church Creed Gospel New Covenant

Bible

Books Canon Old Testament New Testament

Theology

God Trinity

Father Son Holy Spirit

Apologetics Baptism Christology Ecclesiology History of theology Mission Salvation

History and tradition

Mary Apostles Peter Paul Fathers Early Constantine Ecumenical councils Augustine East–West Schism Crusades Aquinas Reformation Luther

Denomi- nations and traditions (list)

Western

Adventist Anabaptist Anglican Baptist Calvinist Catholic Charismatic Evangelical Holiness Lutheran Methodist Pentecostal Protestant

Eastern

Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox (Miaphysite) Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
("Nestorian") Eastern Catholic Churches

Nontrinitarian

Jehovah's Witnesses Latter Day Saint movement Oneness Pentecostalism

Related topics

Art Criticism Culture Ecumenism Liturgy Music Other religions Prayer Sermon Symbolism

Category Christianity
Christianity
portal

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Beliefs condemned as heretical by the Catholic Church

Antiquity

Adoptionism Apollinarism Arianism
Arianism
(Anomoeanism, Semi-Arianism) Audianism Docetism
Docetism
(Circumcellions) Dualism Ebionites Euchites Gnosticism
Gnosticism
(Manichaeism, Paulicianism, Priscillianism, Naassenes, Ophites, Sethianism, Valentinianism) Iconoclasm Luciferianism Macedonianism Marcionism Melchisedechians Modalism Monarchianism
Monarchianism
(Athinganoi) Monophysitism Monothelitism Montanism Nestorianism Novatianism Patripassianism Pelagianism
Pelagianism
(Semipelagianism) Pneumatomachians Psilanthropism Sabellianism Subordinationism Valentinianism

Middle Ages

Bogomilism Bosnian Church Catharism Conciliarism Consubstantiation Fraticelli Free Spirit Henricians Hussites Impanation Lollardy Taborites Triclavianism Waldensians

Early Modern

Anabaptism Antinomianism Febronianism Gallicanism Jansenism Josephinism Protestantism
Protestantism
(Arminianism, Calvinism, Lutheranism) Quietism

Modern Era

Americanism Community of the Lady of All Nations Feeneyism Modernism Positive Christianity Reincarnationism

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