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Finland
Finland
(/ˈfɪnlənd/ ( listen); Finnish: Suomi [suo̯mi] ( listen); Swedish: Finland
Finland
[ˈfɪnland]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Finland
Finland
(Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland)[7] is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. The country has land borders with Sweden
Sweden
to the northwest, Norway
Norway
to the north, and Russia
Russia
to the east. To the south is the Gulf of Finland
Finland
with Estonia
Estonia
on the opposite side. Finland
Finland
is a Nordic country and, together with Scandinavia, is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia. Finland's population is 5.5 million (2016), and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region.[8] 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages; next come the Finland- Swedes
Swedes
(5.3%). Finland
Finland
is the eighth-largest country in Europe
Europe
and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. It is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities,[9] and one autonomous region, the Åland
Åland
Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki
Helsinki
metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland
Finland
was inhabited when the last ice age ended, approximately 9000 BCE.[10] The first settlers left behind artifacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia, Russia, and Norway.[11] The earliest people were hunter-gatherers, using stone tools.[12] The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE, when the Comb Ceramic culture was introduced.[13] The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland
Finland
between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture.[14] The Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron
Iron
Age. At the time Finland
Finland
had three main cultural areas, Southwest Finland, Tavastia and Karelia, as reflected in contemporary jewellery.[15] From the late 13th century, Finland
Finland
gradually became an integral part of Sweden
Sweden
through the crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland
Finland
was incorporated into the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland
Finland
became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.[16][17] Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland
Finland
declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World
World
War II, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland
Finland
losing parts of Karelia, Salla, Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, but retaining independence. Finland
Finland
joined the United Nations
United Nations
in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948
Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948
gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland
Finland
joined the OECD
OECD
in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994,[18] the European Union
European Union
in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997,[18] and finally the Eurozone
Eurozone
at its inception, in 1999. Finland
Finland
was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s. After World
World
War II, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
demanded war reparations from Finland
Finland
not only in money but also in material, such as ships and machinery. This forced Finland to industrialise. It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.[19] Finland
Finland
is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development.[20][21][22][23] In 2015, Finland
Finland
was ranked first in the World
World
Human Capital[24] and the Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index
and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index,[25] and second in the Global Gender Gap Report.[26] A large majority of Finns
Finns
are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church,[27] and freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.

Contents

1 Etymology

1.1 Suomi 1.2 Concept

2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Swedish era 2.3 Russian Empire
Russian Empire
era 2.4 Civil war and early independence 2.5 World War II
World War II
and after

3 Language 4 Geography

4.1 Biodiversity 4.2 Climate 4.3 Regions 4.4 Administrative divisions

5 Politics

5.1 Constitution 5.2 President 5.3 Parliament 5.4 Cabinet 5.5 Law 5.6 Foreign relations 5.7 Social security 5.8 Military

6 Economy

6.1 Energy 6.2 Transport 6.3 Industry 6.4 Public policy 6.5 Tourism

7 Demographics

7.1 Largest cities 7.2 Religion 7.3 Health 7.4 Education and science

8 Culture

8.1 Literature 8.2 Visual arts, design, and architecture 8.3 Music

8.3.1 Classical 8.3.2 Modern

8.4 Cinema and television 8.5 Media and communications 8.6 Cuisine 8.7 Public holidays 8.8 Sports

9 International rankings 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit] See also: Finns
Finns
§ Etymology The earliest written appearance of the name Finland
Finland
is thought to be on three runestones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti (U 582). The third was found in Gotland. It has the inscription finlandi (G 319) and dates back to the 13th century.[28] The name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned at first known time AD 98 (disputed meaning). Suomi[edit] The name Suomi (Finnish for "Finland") has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish (the Finnic languages), this name is also used in the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word *gʰm-on "man" (cf. Gothic guma, Latin homo) has been suggested, being borrowed as *ćoma. The word originally referred only to the province of Finland
Finland
Proper, and later to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa (fen land) or suoniemi (fen cape), and parallels between saame (Sami, a Finno-Ugric people in Lapland), and Häme (a province in the inland) were drawn, but these theories are now considered outdated.[29] Concept[edit] In the earliest historical sources from the 12th and 13th centuries, the term Finland
Finland
refers to the coastal region around Turku
Turku
from Perniö
Perniö
to Uusikaupunki. This region later became known as Finland Proper in distinction from the country name Finland. Finland
Finland
became a common name for the whole country in a centuries-long process that started when the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
established missionary diocese in Nousiainen
Nousiainen
in the northern part of the province of Suomi possibly sometime in the 12th century.[30] The devastation of Finland during the Great Northern War (1714–1721) and during the Russo-Swedish War (1741–43) caused Sweden
Sweden
to begin carrying out major efforts to defend its eastern half from Russia. These 18th century experiences created a sense of a shared destiny that when put in conjunction with the unique Finnish language, led to the adoption of an expanded concept of Finland.[31] History[edit] Main article: History of Finland Prehistory[edit] Main article: History of Finland
History of Finland
§ Prehistory

Reconstruction of Stone Age
Stone Age
dwelling from Kierikki, Oulu.

If the archeological finds from Wolf Cave
Wolf Cave
are result of Neanderthals' activities, the first people inhabited Finland
Finland
approximately 120,000-130,000 years ago.[32] The area that is now Finland
Finland
was settled in, at the latest, around 8,500 BCE during the Stone Age towards the end of the last glacial period. The artifacts the first settlers left behind present characteristics that are shared with those found in Estonia, Russia, and Norway.[11] The earliest people were hunter-gatherers, using stone tools.[12] The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE, when the Comb Ceramic culture was introduced.[13] The arrival of the Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
in southern coastal Finland
Finland
between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture.[14] Even with the introduction of agriculture, hunting and fishing continued to be important parts of the subsistence economy. In the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
permanent all year round cultivation and animal husbandry spread, but the cold climate phase slowed the change.[33] Cultures in Finland
Finland
shared common features in pottery and also axes had similarities but local features existed. Seima-Turbino-phenomenon brought first bronze artifacts to the region and possibly also the Finno-Ugric-Languages.[33][34] Commercial contacts that had so far mostly been to Estonia
Estonia
started to extend to Scandinavia. Domestic manufacture of bronze artifacts started 1300 BCE with Maaninka-type bronze axes. Bronze was imported from Volga region and from Southern Scandinavia.[35]

Northern Europe
Europe
(814)

In the Iron Age
Iron Age
population grew especially in Häme and Savo regions. Finland
Finland
proper was the most densely populated area. Cultural contacts to the Baltics and Scandinavia
Scandinavia
became more frequent. Commercial contacts in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
region grew and extended during the 8th and 9th Centuries. Main exports from Finland
Finland
were furs, slaves, Castoreum, and falcons to European courts. Imports included silk and other fabrics, jewelry, Ulfberht swords, and, in lesser extent, glass. Production of iron started approximately in 500 BCE.[36] In the end of the 9th century indigenous artifact culture, especially women's jewelry and weapons, had more common local features than ever before. This has been interpreted to be expressing common Finnish identity which was born from an image of common origin.[37] An early form of Finnic languages
Finnic languages
spread to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
region approximately 1900 BCE with the Seima-Turbino-phenomenon. Common Finnic language was spoken around Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
2000 years ago. The dialects from which the modern day Finnish language
Finnish language
was developed came into existence during the Iron
Iron
Age.[38] Although distantly related, the Sami retained the hunter-gatherer lifestyle longer than the Finns. The Sami cultural identity and the Sami language have survived in Lapland, the northernmost province, but the Sami have been displaced or assimilated elsewhere.

Late Iron Age
Iron Age
swords found from Finland.

The 12th and 13th centuries were a violent time in the northern Baltic Sea. The Livonian crusade was ongoing and the Finnish tribes such as the Tavastians
Tavastians
and Karelians were in frequent conflicts with Novgorod and with each other. Also, during the 12th and 13th centuries several crusades from the Catholic realms of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
area were made against the Finnish tribes. According to historical sources, Danes waged two crusades on Finland, in 1191 and in 1202,[39] and Swedes, possibly the so-called second crusade to Finland, in 1249 against Tavastians
Tavastians
and the third crusade to Finland
Finland
in 1293 against the Karelians. The so-called first crusade to Finland, possibly in 1155, is most likely an unreal event. Also, it is possible that Germans made violent conversion of Finnish pagans in the 13th century.[40] According to a papal letter from 1241, the king of Norway
Norway
was also fighting against "nearby pagans" at that time.[41] Swedish era[edit] Main article: Finland
Finland
under Swedish rule

The Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
following the Treaty of Roskilde
Treaty of Roskilde
of 1658. Dark green: Sweden
Sweden
proper, as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. Other greens: Swedish dominions and possessions.

Now lying within Helsinki, Suomenlinna
Suomenlinna
is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World
World
Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited 18th century sea fortress built on six islands. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions.

As a result of the crusades and the colonisation of some Finnish coastal areas with Christian Swedish population during the Middle Ages[42] Finland
Finland
gradually became part of the kingdom of Sweden
Sweden
and the sphere of influence of the Catholic Church. Due to the Swedish conquest Finnish upper class lost its position and lands to new Swedish and German nobility and to the Catholic Church.[43] In Sweden even in the 17th and 18th centuries it was clear that Finland
Finland
was conquered country and its inhabitants could be treated arbitrarily. Swedish kings visited Finland
Finland
rarely and in Swedish contemporary texts Finns
Finns
were portrayed to be primitive and their language inferior.[44] Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility, administration, and education; Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantry, clergy, and local courts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas. During the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, the Finns
Finns
gradually converted to Lutheranism.[45] In the 16th century, Mikael Agricola
Mikael Agricola
published the first written works in Finnish. The first university in Finland, the Royal Academy of Turku, was established in 1640. Finland
Finland
suffered a severe famine in 1696–1697, during which about one third of the Finnish population died,[46] and a devastating plague a few years later. In the 18th century, wars between Sweden
Sweden
and Russia
Russia
twice led to the occupation of Finland
Finland
by Russian forces, times known to the Finns
Finns
as the Greater Wrath (1714–1721) and the Lesser Wrath (1742–1743).[46] It is estimated that almost an entire generation of young men was lost during the Great Wrath, due namely to the destruction of homes and farms, and to the burning of Helsinki.[47] By this time Finland
Finland
was the predominant term for the whole area from the Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
to the Russian border. Two Russo-Swedish wars in twenty-five years served as reminders to the Finnish people of the precarious position between Sweden
Sweden
and Russia. An increasingly vocal elite in Finland
Finland
soon determined that Finnish ties with Sweden
Sweden
were becoming too costly, and following Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790), the Finnish elite's desire to break with Sweden only heightened.[48] Even before the war there were conspiring politicians, among them Col G. M. Sprengtporten, who had supported Gustav III's coup in 1772. Sprengporten fell out with the king and resigned his commission in 1777. In the following decade he tried to secure Russian support for an autonomous Finland, and later became an adviser to Catherine II.[48] In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson (1791–1858), "we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns", the Finnish national identity started to become established. Notwithstanding the efforts of Finland's elite and nobility to break ties with Sweden, there was no genuine independence movement in Finland
Finland
until the early twentieth century. As a matter of fact, at this time the Finnish peasantry was outraged by the actions of their elite and almost exclusively supported Gustav's actions against the conspirators. (The High Court
Court
of Turku
Turku
condemned Sprengtporten as a traitor c. 1793.)[48] Swedish era ended to Finnish war in 1809. Russian Empire
Russian Empire
era[edit] Main article: Grand Duchy of Finland See also: Finland's language strife
Finland's language strife
and Russification of Finland On 29 March 1809, having been taken over by the armies of Alexander I of Russia
Russia
in the Finnish War, Finland
Finland
became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
until the end of 1917. In 1811, Alexander I incorporated Russian Vyborg
Vyborg
province into the Grand Duchy of Finland. During the Russian era, the Finnish language
Finnish language
began to gain recognition. From the 1860s onwards, a strong Finnish nationalist movement known as the Fennoman movement
Fennoman movement
grew. Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic – the Kalevala
Kalevala
– in 1835, and the Finnish language's achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892.

Pioneers in Karelia
Karelia
(1900) by Pekka Halonen[49]

The Finnish famine of 1866–1868
Finnish famine of 1866–1868
killed 15% of the population, making it one of the worst famines in European history. The famine led the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
to ease financial regulations, and investment rose in following decades. Economic and political development was rapid.[50] The GDP per capita was still half of that of the United States and a third of that of Britain.[50] In 1906, universal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland. However, the relationship between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire soured when the Russian government made moves to restrict Finnish autonomy. For example, the universal suffrage was, in practice, virtually meaningless, since the tsar did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament. Desire for independence gained ground, first among radical liberals[51] and socialists. Civil war and early independence[edit] Main articles: Finnish Declaration of Independence
Finnish Declaration of Independence
and Finnish Civil War

White firing squad executing Red soldiers in Längelmäki (1918)

After the 1917 February Revolution, the position of Finland
Finland
as part of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
was questioned, mainly by Social Democrats. Since the head of state was the tsar of Russia, it was not clear who the chief executive of Finland
Finland
was after the revolution. The Parliament, controlled by social democrats, passed the so-called Power Act to give the highest authority to the Parliament. This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Government
Russian Provisional Government
which decided to dissolve the Parliament.[52] New elections were conducted, in which right-wing parties won with a slim majority. Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament (and thus the ensuing elections) were extralegal. The two nearly equally powerful political blocs, the right-wing parties and the social democratic party, were highly antagonized. The October Revolution
October Revolution
in Russia
Russia
changed the geopolitical situation anew. Suddenly, the right-wing parties in Finland
Finland
started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland, as the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
took power in Russia. Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Law of a few months earlier, the right-wing government declared independence on 6 December 1917. On 27 January 1918, the official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events. The government started to disarm the Russian forces in Pohjanmaa, and the Social Democratic Party staged a coup.[not in citation given] The latter succeeded in controlling southern Finland
Finland
and Helsinki, but the white government continued in exile from Vaasa. This sparked the brief but bitter civil war. The Whites, who were supported by Imperial Germany, prevailed over the Reds.[53] After the war, tens of thousands of Reds and suspected sympathizers were interned in camps, where thousands died by execution or from malnutrition and disease. Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond. The civil war and activist expeditions into Soviet Russia strained Eastern relations. After a brief experimentation with monarchy, Finland
Finland
became a presidential republic, with Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg
Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg
elected as its first president in 1919. The Finnish–Russian border was determined by the Treaty of Tartu in 1920, largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga (Finnish: Petsamo) and its Barents Sea
Barents Sea
harbour to Finland. Finnish democracy did not see any Soviet coup attempts and survived the anti-Communist Lapua Movement. The relationship between Finland
Finland
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was tense. Germany's relations with democratic Finland
Finland
cooled also after the Nazis' rise to power.[citation needed] Army officers were trained in France, and relations to Western Europe
Europe
and Sweden
Sweden
were strengthened. In 1917, the population was 3 million. Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war, increasing the proportion of capital-owning population.[50] About 70% of workers were occupied in agriculture and 10% in industry.[54] The largest export markets were the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Germany. World War II
World War II
and after[edit]

Areas ceded by Finland
Finland
to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
after World
World
War II. The Porkkala
Porkkala
land lease was returned to Finland
Finland
in 1956

Main article: Military history of Finland
Military history of Finland
during World
World
War II Finland
Finland
fought the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
twice: in the Winter War
Winter War
of 1939–1940 after the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had attacked Finland; and in the Continuation War
Continuation War
of 1941–1944, following Operation Barbarossa, when Finland
Finland
aligned with Germany
Germany
following Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union. For 872 days, the German army, aided indirectly by Finnish forces, besieged Leningrad, the USSR's second largest city.[55] After fighting a major Soviet offensive in June/July 1944 to a standstill, Finland
Finland
reached an armistice with the Soviet Union. This was followed by the Lapland War
Lapland War
of 1944–1945, when Finland
Finland
fought against the retreating German forces in northern Finland.

Hakkapeliitta
Hakkapeliitta
featured on a 1940 Finnish stamp

The treaties signed in 1947 and 1948 with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
included Finnish obligations, restraints, and reparations—as well as further Finnish territorial concessions in addition to those in the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940. As a result of the two wars, Finland
Finland
ceded most of Finnish Karelia, Salla, and Petsamo, which amounted to 10% of its land area and 20% of its industrial capacity, including the ports of Vyborg
Vyborg
(Viipuri) and the ice-free Liinakhamari
Liinakhamari
(Liinahamari). Almost the whole population, some 400,000 people, fled these areas. Finland was never occupied by Soviet forces and it retained its independence, but at a loss of about 93,000 soldiers. Finland
Finland
rejected Marshall aid, in apparent deference to Soviet desires. However, the United States provided secret development aid and helped the Social Democratic Party, in hopes of preserving Finland's independence.[56] Establishing trade with the Western powers, such as the United Kingdom, and paying reparations to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
produced a transformation of Finland
Finland
from a primarily agrarian economy to an industrialised one. Valmet
Valmet
was founded to create materials for war reparations. After the reparations had been paid off, Finland
Finland
continued to trade with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the framework of bilateral trade.

Urho Kekkonen, the eighth president of Finland
Finland
(1956–1982)

In 1950, 46% of Finnish workers worked in agriculture and a third lived in urban areas.[57] The new jobs in manufacturing, services, and trade quickly attracted people to the towns. The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3.5 in 1947 to 1.5 in 1973.[57] When baby-boomers entered the workforce, the economy did not generate jobs fast enough, and hundreds of thousands emigrated to the more industrialized Sweden, with emigration peaking in 1969 and 1970.[57] The 1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
brought international visitors. Finland
Finland
took part in trade liberalization in the World
World
Bank, the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Officially claiming to be neutral, Finland
Finland
lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union. The YYA Treaty (Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance) gave the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
some leverage in Finnish domestic politics. This was extensively exploited by president Urho Kekkonen
Urho Kekkonen
against his opponents. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from 1956 on, which was crucial for his continued popularity. In politics, there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet. This phenomenon was given the name "Finlandization" by the West German press. Despite close relations with the Soviet Union, Finland
Finland
maintained a market economy. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets, which explains the widespread support that pro-Soviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland. Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era, and by 1975 Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th highest in the world. In the 1970s and 80s, Finland
Finland
built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world. Finland
Finland
negotiated with the EEC (a predecessor of the European Union) a treaty that mostly abolished customs duties towards the EEC starting from 1977, although Finland
Finland
did not fully join. In 1981, president Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years. Finland
Finland
reacted cautiously to the collapse of the Soviet Union, but swiftly began increasing integration with the West. On 21 September 1990, Finland
Finland
unilaterally declared the Paris Peace Treaty
Paris Peace Treaty
obsolete, following the German reunification decision nine days earlier.[58]

Finland
Finland
joined the European Union
European Union
in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007

Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions, a banking crisis, the collapse of its largest single trading partner (the Soviet Union), and a global economic downturn caused a deep early 1990s recession in Finland. The depression bottomed out in 1993, and Finland
Finland
saw steady economic growth for more than ten years.[citation needed] Like other Nordic countries, Finland
Finland
decentralised its economy since the late 1980s. Financial and product market regulation were loosened. Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts.[citation needed] Finland
Finland
joined the European Union
European Union
in 1995, and the Eurozone
Eurozone
in 1999. Much of the late 1990s economic growth was fueled by the phenomenal success of the mobile phone manufacturer Nokia, which held a unique position of representing 80% of the market capitalization of the Helsinki
Helsinki
Stock Exchange. Language[edit] Main articles: Finnish language, Finland
Finland
Swedish, and Languages of Finland Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of Finland. Finnish predominates nationwide while Swedish is spoken in some coastal areas in the west and south and in the autonomous region of Åland. The native language of 89% of the population is Finnish,[59] which is part of the Finnic subgroup of the Uralic languages. The language is one of only four official EU languages not of Indo-European origin. Finnish is closely related to Karelian and Estonian and more remotely to the Sami languages
Sami languages
and Hungarian. Swedish is the native language of 5.3% of the population (Swedish-speaking Finns).[60] The Nordic languages and Karelian are also specially treated in some contexts. Finnish Romani is spoken by some 5,000–6,000 people, Finnish Romani and Finnish Sign Language are also recognized in the constitution. There are two sign languages: Finnish Sign Language, spoken natively by 4,000–5,000 people,[61] and Finland-Swedish Sign Language, spoken natively by about 150 people. Tatar language is spoken by a Finnish Tatar minority of about 800 people who moved to Finland
Finland
mainly during the Russian rule from the 1870s until the 1920s.[62] The Sami language is an official language to the north, in Lapland or in northern Lapland, where are the Sami people, numbering around 7,000[63] and recognized as an indigenous people. About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother tongue.[64] The Sami languages that are spoken in Finland
Finland
are Northern Sami, Inari Sami, and Skolt Sami.[note 1] The rights of minority groups (in particular Sami, Swedish speakers, and Romani people) are protected by the constitution.[65] The largest immigrant languages are Russian (1.4%), Estonian (0.9%), Arabic (0.4%), Somali (0.3%) and English (0.3%).[60] English is studied by most pupils as a compulsory subject from the third or fifth grade (at 9 or 11 years of age respectively) in the comprehensive school (in some schools other languages can be chosen instead). German, French, and Russian can be studied as second foreign languages from the eighth grade (at 14 years of age; some schools may offer other options).[citation needed] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Finland See also: List of cities and towns in Finland, List of lakes in Finland, List of national parks of Finland, and Environmental issues in Finland Lying approximately between latitudes 60° and 70° N, and longitudes 20° and 32° E, Finland
Finland
is one of the world's northernmost countries. Of world capitals, only Reykjavík
Reykjavík
lies more to the north than Helsinki. The distance from the southernmost point – Hanko
Hanko
in Uusimaa
Uusimaa
– to the northernmost – Nuorgam
Nuorgam
in Lapland – is 1,160 kilometres (720 mi). Finland
Finland
has about 168,000 lakes (of area larger than 500 m2 or 0.12 acres) and 179,000 islands.[66] Its largest lake, Saimaa, is the fourth largest in Europe. The Finnish Lakeland
Finnish Lakeland
is the area with the most lakes in the country. The greatest concentration of islands is found in the southwest, in the Archipelago Sea
Archipelago Sea
between continental Finland
Finland
and the main island of Åland. Much of the geography of Finland
Finland
is a result of the Ice Age. The glaciers were thicker and lasted longer in Fennoscandia
Fennoscandia
compared with the rest of Europe. Their eroding effects have left the Finnish landscape mostly flat with few hills and fewer mountains. Its highest point, the Halti
Halti
at 1,324 metres (4,344 ft), is found in the extreme north of Lapland at the border between Finland
Finland
and Norway. The highest mountain whose peak is entirely in Finland
Finland
is Ridnitšohkka
Ridnitšohkka
at 1,316 m (4,318 ft), directly adjacent to Halti.

The whooper swan, Finland's national bird

The retreating glaciers have left the land with morainic deposits in formations of eskers. These are ridges of stratified gravel and sand, running northwest to southeast, where the ancient edge of the glacier once lay. Among the biggest of these are the three Salpausselkä ridges that run across southern Finland. Having been compressed under the enormous weight of the glaciers, terrain in Finland
Finland
is rising due to the post-glacial rebound. The effect is strongest around the Gulf of Bothnia, where land steadily rises about 1 cm (0.4 in) a year. As a result, the old sea bottom turns little by little into dry land: the surface area of the country is expanding by about 7 square kilometres (2.7 sq mi) annually.[67] Relatively speaking, Finland
Finland
is rising from the sea.[68] The landscape is covered mostly by coniferous taiga forests and fens, with little cultivated land. Of the total area 10% is lakes, rivers and ponds, and 78% forest. The forest consists of pine, spruce, birch, and other species.[69] Finland
Finland
is the largest producer of wood in Europe
Europe
and among the largest in the world. The most common type of rock is granite. It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery, visible wherever there is no soil cover. Moraine
Moraine
or till is the most common type of soil, covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin. Podzol
Podzol
profile development is seen in most forest soils except where drainage is poor. Gleysols and peat bogs occupy poorly drained areas. Biodiversity[edit] Main articles: Fauna of Finland and Wildlife of Finland Phytogeographically, Finland
Finland
is shared between the Arctic, central European, and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Finland
Finland
can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Scandinavian and Russian taiga, Sarmatic mixed forests, and Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands. Taiga
Taiga
covers most of Finland
Finland
from northern regions of southern provinces to the north of Lapland. On the southwestern coast, south of the Helsinki-Rauma line, forests are characterized by mixed forests, that are more typical in the Baltic region. In the extreme north of Finland, near the tree line and Arctic Ocean, Montane Birch
Birch
forests are common.

The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal.

Similarly, Finland
Finland
has a diverse and extensive range of fauna. There are at least sixty native mammalian species, 248 breeding bird species, over 70 fish species, and 11 reptile and frog species present today, many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago. Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland
Finland
are the brown bear (the national animal), gray wolf, wolverine, and elk. Three of the more striking birds are the whooper swan, a large European swan and the national bird of Finland; the Western capercaillie, a large, black-plumaged member of the grouse family; and the Eurasian eagle-owl. The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity, and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation.[70] The most common breeding birds are the willow warbler, common chaffinch, and redwing.[71] Of some seventy species of freshwater fish, the northern pike, perch, and others are plentiful. Atlantic salmon
Atlantic salmon
remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts. The endangered Saimaa
Saimaa
ringed seal, one of only three lake seal species in the world, exists only in the Saimaa
Saimaa
lake system of southeastern Finland, down to only 300 seals today. It has become the emblem of the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation.[72] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Finland

Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
types of Finland

Koli National Park
Koli National Park
in North Karelia

Repovesi National Park
Repovesi National Park
in southeastern Finland

The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasian continent's coastal zone. In the Köppen climate classification, the whole of Finland
Finland
lies in the boreal zone, characterized by warm summers and freezing winters. Within the country, the temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north, showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate. Finland
Finland
is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared with other regions that share the same latitude, such as Alaska, Siberia, and southern Greenland.[73] Winters in southern Finland
Finland
(when mean daily temperature remains below 0 °C or 32 °F) are usually about 100 days long, and in the inland the snow typically covers the land from about late November to April, and on the coastal areas such as Helsinki, snow often covers the land from late December to late March.[74] Even in the south, the harshest winter nights can see the temperatures fall to −30 °C (−22 °F) although on coastal areas like Helsinki, temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F) are very rare. Climatic summers (when mean daily temperature remains above 10 °C or 50 °F) in southern Finland
Finland
last from about late May to mid-September, and in the inland, the warmest days of July can reach over 35 °C (95 °F).[73] Although most of Finland
Finland
lies on the taiga belt, the southernmost coastal regions are sometimes classified as hemiboreal.[75]

Pyhä-Luosto National Park, Lapland

In northern Finland, particularly in Lapland, the winters are long and cold, while the summers are relatively warm but short. The most severe winter days in Lapland can see the temperature fall down to −45 °C (−49 °F). The winter of the north lasts for about 200 days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May. Summers in the north are quite short, only two to three months, but can still see maximum daily temperatures above 25 °C (77 °F) during heat waves.[73] No part of Finland
Finland
has Arctic tundra, but Alpine tundra
Alpine tundra
can be found at the fells Lapland.[75] The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions, while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry.[76] A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels. At Finland's northernmost point, the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer, and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter.[73] Regions[edit] Main article: Regions of Finland Finland
Finland
consists of 19 regions called 'maakunta' in Finnish and 'landskap' in Swedish. The regions are governed by regional councils which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region. The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education. In addition, the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions. Currently, the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu. Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils, each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population. In addition to inter-municipal cooperation, which is the responsibility of regional councils, each region has a state Employment and Economic Development Centre which is responsible for the local administration of labour, agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and entrepreneurial affairs. The Finnish Defence Forces
Finnish Defence Forces
regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region. Regions represent dialectal, cultural, and economic variations better than the former provinces, which were purely administrative divisions of the central government. Historically, regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland, areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately. Six Regional State Administrative Agencies were created by the state of Finland
Finland
in 2010, each of them responsible for one of the regions called alue in Finnish and region in Swedish; in addition, Åland
Åland
was designated a seventh region. These take over some of the tasks of the earlier Provinces of Finland
Provinces of Finland
(the läänis), which were abolished.[77]

 Lapland  Northern Ostrobothnia  Kainuu  North Karelia  Northern Savonia  Southern Savonia  Southern Ostrobothnia  Ostrobothnia  Pirkanmaa  Satakunta  Central Ostrobothnia  Central Finland  Southwest Finland  South Karelia  Päijänne Tavastia  Tavastia Proper  Uusimaa  Kymenlaakso   Åland
Åland
Islands

In English In Finnish In Swedish Capital Regional state administrative agency

Lapland Lappi Lappland Rovaniemi Lapland

Northern Ostrobothnia Pohjois-Pohjanmaa Norra Österbotten Oulu Northern Finland

Kainuu Kainuu Kajanaland Kajaani Northern Finland

North Karelia Pohjois-Karjala Norra Karelen Joensuu Eastern Finland

Northern Savonia Pohjois-Savo Norra Savolax Kuopio Eastern Finland

Southern Savonia Etelä-Savo Södra Savolax Mikkeli Eastern Finland

Southern Ostrobothnia Etelä-Pohjanmaa Södra Österbotten Seinäjoki Western and Central Finland

Central Ostrobothnia Keski-Pohjanmaa Mellersta Österbotten Kokkola Western and Central Finland

Ostrobothnia Pohjanmaa Österbotten Vaasa Western and Central Finland

Pirkanmaa Pirkanmaa Birkaland Tampere Western and Central Finland

Central Finland Keski-Suomi Mellersta Finland Jyväskylä Western and Central Finland

Satakunta Satakunta Satakunta Pori South-Western Finland

Southwest Finland Varsinais-Suomi Egentliga Finland Turku South-Western Finland

South Karelia Etelä-Karjala Södra Karelen Lappeenranta Southern Finland

Päijänne Tavastia Päijät-Häme Päijänne-Tavastland Lahti Southern Finland

Tavastia Proper Kanta-Häme Egentliga Tavastland Hämeenlinna Southern Finland

Uusimaa Uusimaa Nyland Helsinki Southern Finland

Kymenlaakso Kymenlaakso Kymmenedalen Kouvola Southern Finland

Åland
Åland
Islands[78] Ahvenanmaa Åland Mariehamn Åland

The region of Eastern Uusimaa
Uusimaa
was consolidated with Uusimaa
Uusimaa
on 1 January 2011.[79] Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: Administrative divisions of Finland, Regions of Finland, Sub-regions of Finland, Municipalities of Finland, and Historical provinces of Finland Further information: List of Finnish municipalities, List of Finnish municipalities by population, List of Finnish municipalities by area, and Former municipalities of Finland The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities, which may also call themselves towns or cities. They account for half of public spending. Spending is financed by municipal income tax, state subsidies, and other revenue. As of 2017[update], there are 311 municipalities,[9] and most have fewer than 6,000 residents. In addition to municipalities, two intermediate levels are defined. Municipalities co-operate in seventy sub-regions and nineteen regions. These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers. The autonomous province of Åland
Åland
has a permanent democratically elected regional council. Sami people
Sami people
have a semi-autonomous Sami native region in Lapland for issues on language and culture. In the following chart, the number of inhabitants includes those living in the entire municipality (kunta/kommun), not just in the built-up area. The land area is given in km², and the density in inhabitants per km² (land area). The figures are as of 31 August 2017. The capital region – comprising Helsinki, Vantaa, Espoo
Espoo
and Kauniainen
Kauniainen
– forms a continuous conurbation of over 1.1 million people. However, common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities, e.g. in Helsinki
Helsinki
Metropolitan Area Council.

City Population[80] Land area[81] Density Regional map Population map

Helsinki 642,045 213.75 3,003.72

Municipalities (thin borders) and regions (thick borders) of Finland (2009).

Population map of Finland

Espoo 277,375 312.26 888.28

Tampere 230,537 525.03 439.09

Vantaa 221,821 238.37 930.57

Oulu 201,124 1,410.17 142.62

Turku 188,584 245.67 767.63

Jyväskylä 139,260 1,170.99 118.93

Lahti 119,395 135.05 884.08

Kuopio 117,842 1,597.39 73.77

Kouvola 84,548 2,558.24 33.05

Pori 84,779 834.06 101.65

Joensuu 75,652 2,381.76 31.76

Lappeenranta 72,685 1,433.36 50.71

Hämeenlinna 67,601 1,785.76 37.86

Vaasa 66,876 188.81 354.2

Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Finland See also: List of political parties in Finland
List of political parties in Finland
and Human rights in Finland Constitution[edit] The Constitution of Finland
Constitution of Finland
defines the political system; Finland
Finland
is a parliamentary republic within the framework of a representative democracy. The Prime Minister is the country's most powerful person. The current version of the constitution was enacted on 1 March 2000, and was amended on 1 March 2012. Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary, municipal, presidential and European Union
European Union
elections. President[edit] Main article: President of Finland The head of state of Finland
Finland
is President of the Republic
Republic
of Finland (in Finnish: Suomen tasavallan presidentti; in Swedish: Republiken Finlands president). Finland
Finland
has had for most of its independence a semi-presidential system, but in the last few decades the powers of the President have been diminished. In constitution amendments, which came into effect in 1991 or 1992 and also with a new drafted constitution of 2000, amended in 2012, the President's position has become primarily a ceremonial office. However, the President still leads the nation's foreign politics together with the Council of State and is the chief-in-command of the Defence Forces.[1] The position still does entail some powers, including responsibility for foreign policy (excluding affairs related to the European Union) in cooperation with the cabinet, being the head of the armed forces, some decree powers, and some appointive powers. Direct, one- or two-stage elections are used to elect the president for a term of six years and for a maximum of two consecutive terms. The current president is Sauli Niinistö; he took office on 1 March 2012. Former presidents were K. J. Ståhlberg (1919–1925), L. K. Relander (1925–1931), P. E. Svinhufvud (1931–1937), Kyösti Kallio
Kyösti Kallio
(1937–1940), Risto Ryti (1940–1944), C. G. E. Mannerheim (1944–1946), J. K. Paasikivi (1946–1956), Urho Kekkonen
Urho Kekkonen
(1956–1982), Mauno Koivisto (1982–1994), Martti Ahtisaari
Martti Ahtisaari
(1994–2000), and Tarja Halonen (2000–2012). The current president was elected from the ranks of the National Coalition Party for the first time since 1946. The presidency between 1946 and the present was instead held by a member of the Social Democratic Party or the Centre Party. Parliament[edit] Main article: Parliament of Finland

The Parliament of Finland's main building.

The 200-member unicameral Parliament of Finland
Parliament of Finland
(Finnish: Eduskunta, Swedish: Riksdag) exercises supreme legislative authority in the country. It may alter the constitution and ordinary laws, dismiss the cabinet, and override presidential vetoes. Its acts are not subject to judicial review; the constitutionality of new laws is assessed by the parliament's constitutional law committee. The parliament is elected for a term of four years using the proportional D'Hondt method within a number of multi-seat constituencies through open list multi-member districts. Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. The speaker of the parliament is Paula Risikko
Paula Risikko
(National Coalition).[82] Since universal suffrage was introduced in 1906, the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party (former Agrarian Union), the National Coalition
National Coalition
Party, and the Social Democrats. These parties have enjoyed approximately equal support, and their combined vote has totalled about 65–80% of all votes. Their lowest common total of MPs, 121, was reached in the 2011 elections. For a few decades after 1944, the Communists were a strong fourth party. Due to the electoral system of proportional representation, and the relative reluctance of voters to switch their support between parties, the relative strengths of the parties have commonly varied only slightly from one election to another. However, there have been some long-term trends, such as the rise and fall of the Communists during the Cold War; the steady decline into insignificance of the Liberals and its predecessors from 1906 to 1980; and the rise of the Green League
Green League
since 1983. In the 2011 elections, the Finns
Finns
Party achieved exceptional success, increasing its representation from 5 to 39 seats, surpassing the Centre Party.[83] The autonomous province of Åland, which forms a federacy with Finland, elects one member to the parliament, who traditionally joins the parliamentary group of the Swedish People's Party of Finland. (The province also holds elections for its own permanent regional council, and in the 2011 elections, Åland
Åland
Centre was the largest party.)

Republic
Republic
of Finland

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Finland

State

Constitution Declaration of Independence Human rights Law enforcement Military

Executive

President (list)

Sauli Niinistö

Prime Minister (list)

Juha Sipilä

Government Ministries (list)

Legislative

37th Parliament

Speaker: Maria Lohela

Judiciary

General Courts

Supreme Court Courts of Appeal District Courts

Administrative Courts

Supreme Administrative Court Regional Administrative Courts

Prosecutor General

Matti Kuusimäki

Chancellor of Justice

Jaakko Jonkka

Recent elections

Parliamentary: 2007 2011 2015

Presidential: 2006 2012 2018

European: 2004 2009 2014

Political parties

Blue Reform
Blue Reform
(SIN) Centre Party (KESK) Christian Democrats (KD) Finns
Finns
Party (PS) Green League
Green League
(VIHR) Left Alliance (VAS) National Coalition Party
National Coalition Party
(KOK) Social Democratic Party (SDP) Swedish People's Party (RKP)

Administrative divisions

Regions (Maakunnat, Landskap)

Sub-regions (Seutukunnat, Ekonomiska regioner)

Municipalities (Kunnat, Kommuner)

Foreign relations

Ambassadors

Other countries Atlas

v t e

The Parliament can be dissolved by a recommendation of the Prime Minister, endorsed by the President. This procedure has never been used, although the parliament was dissolved eight times under the pre-2000 constitution, when this action was the sole prerogative of the president. After the parliamentary elections on 19 April 2015, the seats were divided among eight parties as follows:[84]

Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes

Centre Party 49   +14 24.5 21.1

Finns
Finns
Party 38   −1 19.0 17.7

National Coalition
National Coalition
Party 37 −7 18.5 18.2

Social Democratic Party 34   −8 17.0 16.5

Green League 15    +5 7.5 8.5

Left Alliance 12   −2 6.0 7.1

Swedish People's Party 9     0 4.5 4.9

Christian Democrats 5    −1 2.5 3.5

Others  1a     0 0.5 0.6

a Province of Åland's representative.

Cabinet[edit] See also: List of Female Cabinet Ministers in Finland After parliamentary elections, the parties negotiate among themselves on forming a new cabinet (the Finnish Government), which then has to be approved by a simple majority vote in the parliament. The cabinet can be dismissed by a parliamentary vote of no confidence, although this rarely happens (the last time in 1957), as the parties represented in the cabinet usually make up a majority in the parliament.[85] The cabinet exercises most executive powers, and originates most of the bills that the parliament then debates and votes on. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland, and consists of him or her, of other ministers, and of the Chancellor of Justice. The current prime minister is Juha Sipilä
Juha Sipilä
(Centre Party). Each minister heads his or her ministry, or, in some cases, has responsibility for a subset of a ministry's policy. After the prime minister, the most powerful minister is the minister of finance. The incumbent Minister of Finance is Petteri Orpo. As no one party ever dominates the parliament, Finnish cabinets are multi-party coalitions. As a rule, the post of prime minister goes to the leader of the biggest party and that of the minister of finance to the leader of the second biggest. Law[edit] Main articles: Law of Finland and Judicial system of Finland The judicial system of Finland
Finland
is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts (käräjäoikeus, tingsrätt), regional appellate courts (hovioikeus, hovrätt), and the Supreme Court
Court
(korkein oikeus, högsta domstolen). The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts (hallinto-oikeus, förvaltningsdomstol) and the Supreme Administrative Court
Court
(korkein hallinto-oikeus, högsta förvaltningsdomstolen). In addition to the regular courts, there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration. There is also a High Court
Court
of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders. Around 92% of residents have confidence in Finland's security institutions.[86] The overall crime rate of Finland
Finland
is not high in the EU context. Some crime types are above average, notably the highest homicide rate in Western Europe.[87] A day fine system is in effect and also applied to offenses such as speeding. Finland
Finland
has successfully fought against government corruption, which was more common in the 1970s and 80s.[88][verification needed] For instance, economic reforms and EU membership introduced stricter requirements for open bidding and many public monopolies were abolished.[88] Today, Finland
Finland
has a very low number of corruption charges; Transparency International
Transparency International
ranks Finland
Finland
as one of the least corrupt countries in Europe. In 2008, Transparency International
Transparency International
criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance.[89] According to GRECO in 2007, corruption should be taken into account in the Finnish system of election funds better.[90] A scandal revolving around campaign finance of the 2007 parliamentary elections broke out in spring 2008. Nine Ministers of Government submitted incomplete funding reports and even more of the members of parliament. The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians. Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Finland

Martti Ahtisaari
Martti Ahtisaari
receiving the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 2008

According to the 2012 constitution, the president (currently Sauli Niinistö) leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government, except that the president has no role in EU affairs.[91] In 2008, president Martti Ahtisaari
Martti Ahtisaari
was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.[92] Finland
Finland
was considered a cooperative model state, and Finland
Finland
did not oppose proposals for a common EU defence policy.[93] This was reversed in the 2000s, when Tarja Halonen
Tarja Halonen
and Erkki Tuomioja made Finland's official policy to resist other EU members' plans for common defence.[93] Social security[edit] Main article: Social security in Finland Finland
Finland
has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems, one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents, Finns, and non-citizens. Since the 1980s the social security has been cut back, but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world. Created almost entirely during the first three decades after World
World
War II, the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens, but could intervene benevolently on their behalf. According to some social historians, the basis of this belief was a relatively benign history that had allowed the gradual emergence of a free and independent peasantry in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
and had curtailed the dominance of the nobility and the subsequent formation of a powerful right wing. Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries, but not harsh enough to bar the country from following their path of social development.[94] Military[edit]

Sisu Nasu
Sisu Nasu
NA-110 tracked transport vehicle of the Finnish Army. Most conscripts receive training for warfare in winter, and transport vehicles such as this give mobility in heavy snow.

Main articles: Finnish Defence Forces
Finnish Defence Forces
and Military history of Finland See also: List of wars involving Finland The Finnish Defence Forces
Finnish Defence Forces
consist of a cadre of professional soldiers (mainly officers and technical personnel), currently serving conscripts, and a large reserve. The standard readiness strength is 34,700 people in uniform, of which 25% are professional soldiers. A universal male conscription is in place, under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian (non-armed) service. Voluntary post-conscription overseas peacekeeping service is popular, and troops serve around the world in UN, NATO, and EU missions. Approximately 500 women choose voluntary military service every year.[95] Women are allowed to serve in all combat arms including front-line infantry and special forces. The army consists of a highly mobile field army backed up by local defence units. The army defends the national territory and its military strategy employs the use of the heavily forested terrain and numerous lakes to wear down an aggressor, instead of attempting to hold the attacking army on the frontier. Finnish defence expenditure per capita is one of the highest in the European Union.[96] The Finnish military doctrine is based on the concept of total defence. The term total means that all sectors of the government and economy are involved in the defence planning. The armed forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence (currently General Jarmo Lindberg), who is directly subordinate to the president in matters related to military command. The branches of the military are the army, the navy, and the air force. The border guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness. Even while Finland
Finland
hasn't joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the country has joined the NATO Response Force, the EU Battlegroup,[citation needed] the NATO Partnership for Peace
Partnership for Peace
and in signed a NATO memorandum of understanding,[97] thus forming a practical coalition.[18] In 2015, the Finland-NATO ties were strengthened with a host nation support agreement allowing assistance from NATO troops in emergency situations.[98] Finland
Finland
has been active participant in the Afghanistan and Kosovo.[99][100] Recently Finland has been more eager to discuss about its current and planned roles in Syria, Iraq and war against ISIL.[101] On 21 December 2012 Finnish military officer Atte Kaleva was reported to have been kidnapped and later released in Yemen for ransom. At first he was reported be a casual Arabic student, however only later it was published that his studies were about jihadists, terrorism, and that he was employed by the military.[102][103] As response to French request for solidarity, Finnish defence minister commented in November that Finland
Finland
could and is willing to offer intelligence support.[104] In May 2015, Finnish Military sent nearly one million letters to all relevant males in the country, informing them about their roles in the war effort. It was globally speculated that Finland
Finland
was preparing for war—however Finland
Finland
claimed that this was a standard procedure, yet something never done before in Finnish history.[105] Mr Hypponen however said that this is not an isolated case, but bound to the European security dilemma.[105] The NATO Memorandum of Understanding signed earlier bestows an obligation e.g. to report on internal capabilities and the availability thereof to NATO.[97] Economy[edit]

Angry Birds, a mobile phone game developed in Finland, has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally.

Main article: Economy of Finland See also: List of companies of Finland
List of companies of Finland
and Helsinki
Helsinki
Stock Exchange The economy of Finland
Finland
has a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as those of France, Germany, Belgium, or the UK. The largest sector of the economy is the service sector at 66% of GDP, followed by manufacturing and refining at 31%. Primary production represents 2.9%.[106] With respect to foreign trade, the key economic sector is manufacturing. The largest industries in 2007[107] were electronics (22%); machinery, vehicles, and other engineered metal products (21.1%); forest industry (13%); and chemicals (11%). The gross domestic product peaked in 2008. As of 2015[update], the country's economy is at the 2006 level.[108][109] Finland
Finland
has significant timber, mineral (iron, chromium, copper, nickel, and gold), and freshwater resources. Forestry, paper factories, and the agricultural sector (on which taxpayers spend[clarification needed] around 3 billion euros annually) are important for rural residents so any policy changes affecting these sectors are politically sensitive for politicians dependent on rural votes. The Greater Helsinki
Helsinki
area generates around one third of Finland's GDP. In a 2004 OECD
OECD
comparison, high-technology manufacturing in Finland
Finland
ranked second largest after Ireland. Knowledge-intensive services have also resulted in the smallest and slow-growth sectors – especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing – being ranked the second largest after Ireland.[110] The overall short-term outlook was good and GDP growth has been above that of many EU peers.[citation needed]

Finland
Finland
GDP growth from 2000 till 2013

Finland
Finland
is highly integrated into the global economy, and international trade produces one third of GDP[citation needed]. Trade with the European Union
European Union
makes up 60% of Finland's total trade[citation needed]. The largest trade flows are with Germany, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Netherlands, and China. Trade policy is managed by the European Union, where Finland
Finland
has traditionally been among the free trade supporters, except for agricultural policy[citation needed]. Finland
Finland
is the only Nordic country to have joined the Eurozone. Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge. The country lies between the latitudes 60°N and 70°N, and it has severe winters and relatively short growing seasons that are sometimes interrupted by frost. However, because the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
and the North Atlantic Drift Current moderate the climate, Finland
Finland
contains half of the world's arable land north of 60° north latitude. Annual precipitation is usually sufficient, but it occurs almost exclusively during the winter months, making summer droughts a constant threat. In response to the climate, farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops, and they have cultivated south-facing slopes as well as richer bottomlands to ensure production even in years with summer frosts. Most farmland was originally either forest or swamp, and the soil has usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralize excess acid and to improve fertility. Irrigation has generally not been necessary, but drainage systems are often needed to remove excess water. Finland's agriculture has been efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries.[94] Forests play a key role in the country's economy, making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries. As in agriculture, the government has long played a leading role in forestry, regulating tree cutting, sponsoring technical improvements, and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries. To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products, Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits. In 1984, the government published the Forest 2000 plan, drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture
Agriculture
and Forestry. The plan aimed at increasing forest harvests by about 3% per year, while conserving forestland for recreation and other uses.[94] Private sector employees amount to 1.8 million, out of which around a third with tertiary education. The average cost of a private sector employee per hour was 25.1 euros in 2004.[111] As of 2008[update], average purchasing power-adjusted income levels are similar to those of Italy, Sweden, Germany, and France.[112] In 2006, 62% of the workforce worked for enterprises with less than 250 employees and they accounted for 49% of total business turnover and had the strongest rate of growth.[113] The female employment rate is high. Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US.[114] The proportion of part-time workers was one of the lowest in OECD
OECD
in 1999.[114] In 2013, the 10 largest private sector employers in Finland
Finland
were Itella, Nokia, OP-Pohjola, ISS, VR, Kesko, UPM-Kymmene, YIT, Metso, and Nordea.[115] The unemployment rate was 9.4% in 2015, having risen from 8.7% in 2014.[116] Youth unemployment rate rose from 16.5% in 2007 to 20.5% in 2014.[117] A fifth of residents are outside the job market at the age of 50 and less than a third are working at the age of 61.[118] As of today, nearly one million people are living with minimal wages or unemployed not enough to cover their costs of living.[119] As of 2006[update], 2.4 million households reside in Finland. The average size is 2.1 persons; 40% of households consist of a single person, 32% two persons and 28% three or more persons. Residential buildings total 1.2 million, and the average residential space is 38 square metres (410 sq ft) per person. The average residential property without land costs 1,187 euro per sq metre and residential land 8.6 euro per sq metre. 74% of households had a car. There are 2.5 million cars and 0.4 million other vehicles.[120] Around 92% have a mobile phone and 83.5% (2009) Internet connection at home. The average total household consumption was 20,000 euro, out of which housing consisted of about 5,500 euro, transport about 3,000 euro, food and beverages excluding alcoholic beverages at around 2,500 euro, and recreation and culture at around 2,000 euro.[121] According to Invest in Finland, private consumption grew by 3% in 2006 and consumer trends included durables, high quality products, and spending on well-being.[122] Energy[edit]

The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor.[123]

See also: Nordic energy market
Nordic energy market
and Nuclear power in Finland The free and largely privately owned financial and physical Nordic energy markets traded in NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe
Europe
and Nord Pool Spot exchanges, have provided competitive prices compared with other EU countries. As of 2007[update], Finland
Finland
has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU-15
EU-15
(equal to France).[124] In 2006, the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7.2 tons of oil equivalent per year. Industry and construction consumed 51% of total consumption, a relatively high figure reflecting Finland's industries.[125][126] Finland's hydrocarbon resources are limited to peat and wood. About 10–15% of the electricity is produced by hydropower,[127] which is low compared with more mountainous Sweden
Sweden
or Norway. In 2008, renewable energy (mainly hydropower and various forms of wood energy) was high at 31% compared with the EU average of 10.3% in final energy consumption.[128]

Supply and total consumption of electricity in Finland[129]

Finland
Finland
has four privately owned nuclear reactors producing 18% of the country's energy[130] and one research reactor at the Otaniemi
Otaniemi
campus. The fifth AREVA-Siemens-built reactor—the world's largest at 1600 MWe
MWe
and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry—has faced many delays and is currently scheduled to be operational by 2018–2020, a decade after the original planned opening.[131] A varying amount (5–17%) of electricity has been imported from Russia
Russia
(at around 3 gigawatt power line capacity), Sweden
Sweden
and Norway. Energy companies are about to increase nuclear power production, as in July 2010 the Finnish parliament granted permits for additional two new reactors. Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Finland

Icebreakers enable shipping even during severe winters.

The state-owned VR Group
VR Group
operates a railway network serving all major cities.

The extensive road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. The annual state operated road network expenditure of around 1 billion euro is paid with vehicle and fuel taxes which amount to around 1.5 billion euro and 1 billion euro. The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki
Helsinki
Airport with about 17 million passengers in 2016. Oulu
Oulu
Airport is the second largest, whilst another 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.[132] The Helsinki
Helsinki
Airport-based Finnair, Blue1, and Nordic Regional Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle
Norwegian Air Shuttle
sell air services both domestically and internationally. Helsinki
Helsinki
has an optimal location for great circle (i.e. the shortest and most efficient) routes between Western Europe
Europe
and the Far East. Despite low population density, the Government spends annually around 350 million euro in maintaining 5,865 kilometres (3,644 mi) of railway tracks. Rail transport is handled by state owned VR Group, which has 5% passenger market share (out of which 80% are urban trips in Greater Helsinki) and 25% cargo market share.[133] Since 12 December 2010, Karelian Trains, a joint venture between Russian Railways and VR (Finnish Railways), has been running Alstom Pendolino operated high-speed services between Saint Petersburg's Finlyandsky and Helsinki's Central railway stations. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. The journey from Helsinki
Helsinki
to Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
takes only three and a half hours. The majority of international cargo utilizes ports. Port logistics prices are low. Vuosaari Harbour
Vuosaari Harbour
in Helsinki
Helsinki
is the largest container port after completion in 2008 and others include Kotka, Hamina, Hanko, Pori, Rauma, and Oulu. There is passenger traffic from Helsinki
Helsinki
and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn, Mariehamn, Stockholm and Travemünde. The Helsinki- Tallinn
Tallinn
route, one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world, has also been served by a helicopter line. Industry[edit] Main article: Economy of Finland

Finnair
Finnair
Airbus A350 XWB.

Finland
Finland
was rapidly industrialized after World
World
War II, achieving GDP per capita levels equal to that of Japan
Japan
or the UK in the beginning of the 1970s. Initially, most development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" (metalliteollisuus) and "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus). The "metal industry" includes shipbuilding, metalworking, the car industry, engineered products such as motors and electronics, and production of metals (steel, copper and chromium). The world's biggest cruise ships are built in Finnish shipyards. The "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus) includes forestry, timber, pulp and paper, and is a logical development based on Finland's extensive forest resources (77% of the area is covered by forest, most of it in renewable use). In the pulp and paper industry, many of the largest companies are based in Finland
Finland
(Ahlstrom, Metsä Board, and UPM). However, the Finnish economy has diversified, with expansion into fields such as electronics (e.g. Nokia), metrology (Vaisala), transport fuels (Neste), chemicals (Kemira), engineering consulting (Pöyry), and information technology (e.g. Rovio Entertainment, known for Angry Birds), and is no longer dominated by the two sectors of metal and forest industry. Likewise, the structure has changed, with the service sector growing, with manufacturing reducing in importance; agriculture is only a minor part. Despite this, production for export is still more prominent than in Western Europe, thus making Finland
Finland
more vulnerable to global economic trends. In an Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
report released in September 2011, Finland
Finland
clinched the second place after the United States on Benchmarking IT Industry Competitiveness
Competitiveness
2011 which scored on 6 key indicators: overall business environment, technology infrastructure, human capital, legal framework, public support for industry development, and research and development landscape.[134] Public policy[edit] See also: Nordic model Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model.[135] Nordics have been free-trading and relatively welcoming to skilled migrants for over a century, though in Finland
Finland
immigration is relatively new. The level of protection in commodity trade has been low, except for agricultural products.[135] Finland
Finland
has top levels of economic freedom in many areas.[clarification needed] Finland
Finland
is ranked 16th in the 2008 global Index of Economic Freedom and 9th in Europe.[136] While the manufacturing sector is thriving, the OECD
OECD
points out that the service sector would benefit substantially from policy improvements.[137] The 2007 IMD World
World
Competitiveness
Competitiveness
Yearbook ranked Finland
Finland
17th most competitive.[138] The World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
2008 index ranked Finland the 6th most competitive.[139] In both indicators, Finland's performance was next to Germany, and significantly higher than most European countries. In the Business competitiveness index 2007–2008 Finland
Finland
ranked third in the world. Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. According to the OECD, only four EU-15
EU-15
countries have less regulated product markets (UK, Ireland, Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden) and only one has less regulated financial markets (Denmark). Nordic countries
Nordic countries
were pioneers in liberalizing energy, postal, and other markets in Europe.[135] The legal system is clear and business bureaucracy less than most countries.[136] Property rights are well protected and contractual agreements are strictly honoured.[136] Finland
Finland
is rated the least corrupt country in the world in the Corruption Perceptions Index[140] and 13th in the Ease of doing business index. This indicates exceptional ease in cross-border trading (5th), contract enforcement (7th), business closure (5th), tax payment (83rd), and low worker hardship (127th).[141] Finnish law forces all workers to obey the national contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession and seniority level. The agreement becomes universally enforceable provided that more than 50% of the employees support it, in practice by being a member of a relevant trade union. The unionization rate is high (70%), especially in the middle class (AKAVA—80%). A lack of a national agreement in an industry is considered an exception.[110][135]

Santa Claus
Santa Claus
village in Rovaniemi.

Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Finland

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Eckerö Line
Eckerö Line
Finlandia, one of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
cruiseferries

In 2005, Finnish tourism grossed over €6.7 billion with a 5% increase from the previous year. Much of the sudden growth can be attributed to the globalisation and modernisation of the country as well as a rise in positive publicity and awareness. There are many attractions in Finland
Finland
which attracted over 8 million visitors in 2013. The Finnish landscape is covered with thick pine forests and rolling hills, and complemented with a labyrinth of lakes and inlets. Much of Finland
Finland
is pristine and virgin as it contains 40 national parks from the Southern shores of the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
to the high fells of Lapland. Finland
Finland
also has urbanised regions with many cultural events and activities. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region, including Helsinki, Turku, Tallinn, Stockholm, and Travemünde, play a significant role in the local tourism industry. Finland
Finland
is locally regarded as the home of Saint Nicholas or Santa Claus, living in the northern Lapland region.[142] Above the Arctic Circle, in midwinter, there is a polar night, a period when the sun does not rise for days or weeks, or even months, and correspondingly, midnight sun in the summer, with no sunset even at midnight (for up to 73 consecutive days, at the northernmost point). Lapland is so far north that the Aurora Borealis, fluorescence in the high atmosphere due to solar wind, is seen regularly in the fall, winter, and spring. Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing, golf, fishing, yachting, lake cruises, hiking, and kayaking, among many others. Wildlife is abundant in Finland. Bird-watching
Bird-watching
is popular for those fond of avifauna, however hunting is also popular. Elk and hare are common game in Finland. Olavinlinna
Olavinlinna
in Savonlinna
Savonlinna
hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival. Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Finland

Population of Finland
Finland
by age group and sex in 2013

The population of Finland
Finland
is currently about 5.5 million inhabitants and is aging with the birth rate at 10.42 births per 1,000 population per year, or a fertility rate of 1.8 with a median age of 42.7 years. Approximately half of voters are estimated to be over 50 years old.[143][57][144][8] Finland
Finland
has an average population density of 18 inhabitants per square kilometre. This is the third-lowest population density of any European country, behind those of Norway
Norway
and Iceland, and the lowest population density in the EU. Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country, a phenomenon that became even more pronounced during 20th-century urbanisation. The largest cities in Finland
Finland
are those of the Greater Helsinki
Helsinki
metropolitan area—Helsinki, Espoo, and Vantaa. Other cities with population over 100,000 are Tampere, Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, Kuopio, and Lahti. As of 2014, there were 322,700 people with a foreign background living in Finland
Finland
(5.9% of the population), most of whom are from Russia, Estonia, Somalia, Iraq and Yugoslavia.[145] The children of foreigners are not automatically given Finnish citizenship, as Finnish nationality law practices and maintain jus sanguinis policy where only children born to at least one Finnish parent are granted citizenship. If they are born in Finland
Finland
and cannot get citizenship of any other country, they become citizens.[146] Additionally, certain persons of Finnish descent who reside in countries that were once part of Soviet Union, retain the right of return, a right to establish permanent residency in the country, which would eventually entitle them to qualify for citizenship.[147] Largest cities[edit]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Finland http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/sq/9af9ca56-9eea-4969-9714-db194f6847e5

Rank Name Region Pop. Rank Name Region Pop.

Helsinki

Espoo 1 Helsinki Uusimaa 635,591 11 Pori Satakunta 85,002

Tampere

Vantaa

2 Espoo Uusimaa 274,522 12 Joensuu North Karelia 75,881

3 Tampere Pirkanmaa 228,173 13 Lappeenranta South Karelia 72,773

4 Vantaa Uusimaa 219,196 14 Hämeenlinna Tavastia Proper 67,867

5 Oulu Northern Ostrobothnia 200,071 15 Vaasa Ostrobothnia 67,598

6 Turku Finland
Finland
Proper 187,564 16 Rovaniemi Lapland 62,246

7 Jyväskylä Central Finland 138,780 17 Seinäjoki Southern Ostrobothnia 62,053

8 Lahti Päijänne Tavastia 119,377 18 Mikkeli Southern Savonia 54,494

9 Kuopio Northern Savonia 112,980 19 Kotka Kymenlaakso 54,160

10 Kouvola Kymenlaakso 85,231 20 Salo Finland
Finland
Proper 53,556

Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Finland

Religion in Finland[148]

year Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland Finnish Orthodox Church Other No religious affiliation

1950 95.0% 1.7% 0.5% 2.8%

1980 90.3% 1.1% 0.7% 7.8%

1990 87.8% 1.1% 0.9% 10.2%

2000 85.1% 1.1% 1.1% 12.7%

2010 78.3% 1.1% 1.4% 19.2%

2014 73.9% 1.1% 1.6% 23.5%

2015 73.0% 1.1% 1.6% 24.3%

2016 72.0% 1.1% 1.6% 25.3%

2017 70.9% 1.1% 1.6% 26.3%

The Evangelical Lutheran Helsinki
Helsinki
Cathedral

With 3.9 million members[149], the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland
Finland
is one of the largest Lutheran churches in the world and is also by far Finland's largest religious body; at the end of 2017, 70.9% of Finns
Finns
were members of the church.[148] 7 out of 10 Finns
Finns
are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, which was disestablished in 1869 by the Church Act. It was the first state church to be disestablished in the Nordic countries, to be followed by the Church of Sweden
Sweden
in 2000. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland
Finland
sees its share of the country's population declining by roughly one percent annually in recent years.[148] The decline has been due to both church membership resignations and falling baptism rates.[150][151] The second largest group, accounting for 26.3% of the population[148] in 2017, has no religious affiliation. The irreligious group rose quickly from just below 13% in the year 2000. A small minority belongs to the Finnish Orthodox Church
Finnish Orthodox Church
(1.1%). Other Protestant
Protestant
denominations and the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
are significantly smaller, as are the Muslim, Jewish, and other non-Christian communities (totalling 1.6%). The main Lutheran and Orthodox churches are national churches of Finland
Finland
with special roles such as in state ceremonies and schools.[152] In 1869, Finland
Finland
was the first Nordic country to disestablish its Evangelical Lutheran church by introducing the Church Act. Although the church still maintains a special relationship with the state, it is not described as a state religion in the Finnish Constitution or other laws passed by the Finnish Parliament.[153] Finland's state church was the Church of Sweden
Sweden
until 1809. As an autonomous Grand Duchy under Russia
Russia
1809–1917, Finland
Finland
retained the Lutheran State Church system, and a state church separate from Sweden, later named the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, was established. It was detached from the state as a separate judicial entity when the new church law came to force in 1869. After Finland
Finland
had gained independence in 1917, religious freedom was declared in the constitution of 1919 and a separate law on religious freedom in 1922. Through this arrangement, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland lost its position as a state church but gained a constitutional status as a national church alongside the Finnish Orthodox Church, whose position however is not codified in the constitution. In 2016, 69.3% of Finnish children were baptized[154] and 82.3% were confirmed in 2012 at the age of 15,[155] and over 90% of the funerals are Christian. However, the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas ceremonies, weddings, and funerals. The Lutheran Church estimates that approximately 1.8% of its members attend church services weekly.[156] The average number of church visits per year by church members is approximately two.[157] According to a 2010 Eurobarometer poll, 33% of Finnish citizens responded that "they believe there is a God"; 42% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force"; and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".[158] According to ISSP survey data (2008), 8% consider themselves "highly religious", and 31% "moderately religious". In the same survey, 28% reported themselves as "agnostic" and 29% as "non-religious".[159] Health[edit] Main article: Healthcare in Finland Life expectancy
Life expectancy
has increased from 71 years for men and 79 years for women in 1990 to 78 years for men and 84 years for women in 2012.[160] The under-five mortality rate has decreased from 51 per 1,000 live births in 1950 to 3 per 1,000 live births in 2012 ranking Finland's rate among the lowest in the world.[161][162] The fertility rate in 2014 stood at 1.71 children born/per woman and has been below the replacement rate of 2.1 since 1969.[163] With a low birth rate women also become mothers at a later age, the mean age at first live birth being 28.6 in 2014.[163] There has been a slight increase or no change in welfare and health inequalities between population groups in the 21st century. Lifestyle-related diseases are on the rise. More than half a million Finns
Finns
suffer from diabetes, type 1 diabetes being globally the most common in Finland. Many children are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The number of musculoskeletal diseases and cancers are increasing, although the cancer prognosis has improved. Allergies and dementia are also growing health problems in Finland. One of the most common reasons for work disability are due to mental disorders, in particular depression.[164] There are 307 residents for each doctor.[165] About 19% of health care is funded directly by households and 77% by taxation. A recent study by The Lancet medical journal found that Finland
Finland
has the lowest stillbirth rate out of 193 countries, including the UK, France, and New Zealand.[166] In April 2012, Finland
Finland
was ranked 2nd in Gross National Happiness in a report published by The Earth Institute.[167] Education and science[edit]

Auditorium in Aalto University's main building, designed by Alvar Aalto.

Pupils at the school of Torvinen in Sodankylä, Finland, in the 1920s

Main article: Education in Finland See also: List of universities in Finland
List of universities in Finland
and List of schools in Finland Most pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level. Even though many or most schools were started as private schools, today only around 3 percent of students are enrolled in private schools (mostly specialist language and international schools), much less than in Sweden
Sweden
and most other developed countries.[168] Pre-school education is rare compared with other EU countries and formal education is usually started at the age of 7. Primary school takes normally six years and lower secondary school three years. Most schools are managed by municipal officials. The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board. Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 16. After lower secondary school, graduates may either enter the workforce directly, or apply to trade schools or gymnasiums (upper secondary schools). Trade schools offer a vocational education: approximately 40% of an age group choose this path after the lower secondary school.[169] Academically oriented gymnasiums have higher entrance requirements and specifically prepare for Abitur
Abitur
and tertiary education. Graduation from either formally qualifies for tertiary education. In tertiary education, two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-oriented universities. Education is free and living expenses are to a large extent financed by the government through student benefits. There are 20 universities and 30 polytechnics in the country. The University of Helsinki
Helsinki
is ranked 75th in the Top University Ranking of 2010.[170] The World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
ranks Finland's tertiary education No. 1 in the world.[171] Around 33% of residents have a tertiary degree, similar to Nordics and more than in most other OECD
OECD
countries except Canada (44%), United States (38%) and Japan
Japan
(37%).[172] The proportion of foreign students is 3% of all tertiary enrollments, one of the lowest in OECD, while in advanced programs it is 7.3%, still below OECD
OECD
average 16.5%.[173] More than 30% of tertiary graduates are in science-related fields. Forest improvement, materials research, environmental sciences, neural networks, low-temperature physics, brain research, biotechnology, genetic technology, and communications showcase fields of study where Finnish researchers have had a significant impact.[174] Finland
Finland
has a long tradition of adult education, and by the 1980s nearly one million Finns
Finns
were receiving some kind of instruction each year. Forty percent of them did so for professional reasons. Adult education appeared in a number of forms, such as secondary evening schools, civic and workers' institutes, study centres, vocational course centres, and folk high schools. Study centres allowed groups to follow study plans of their own making, with educational and financial assistance provided by the state. Folk high schools are a distinctly Nordic institution. Originating in Denmark
Denmark
in the nineteenth century, folk high schools became common throughout the region. Adults of all ages could stay at them for several weeks and take courses in subjects that ranged from handicrafts to economics.[94] Finland
Finland
is highly productive in scientific research. In 2005, Finland had the fourth most scientific publications per capita of the OECD countries.[175] In 2007, 1,801 patents were filed in Finland.[176] In addition, 38 percent of Finland's population has a university or college degree, which is among the highest percentages in the world.[177][178] In 2010 a new law was enacted considering the universities, which defined that there are 16 of them as they were excluded from the public sector to be autonomous legal and financial entities, however enjoying special status in the legislation.[179] As result many former state institutions were driven to collect funding from private sector contributions and partnerships. The change caused deep rooted discussions among the academic circles.[180] English language is important in Finnish education. There are a number of degree programs that are taught in English, which attracts thousands of degree and exchange students every year. In December 2017 the OECD
OECD
reported that Finnish fathers spend an average of eight minutes a day more with their school-aged children than mothers do.[181][182] Culture[edit]

Mikael Agricola, a Lutheran Protestant
Protestant
reformer and the father of the Finnish written language.

Main article: Culture of Finland Literature[edit] Main article: Finnish literature Written Finnish could be said to have existed since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament
New Testament
into Finnish during the Protestant Reformation, but few notable works of literature were written until the nineteenth century and the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement. This prompted Elias Lönnrot
Elias Lönnrot
to collect Finnish and Karelian folk poetry and arrange and publish them as the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic. The era saw a rise of poets and novelists who wrote in Finnish, notably Aleksis Kivi
Aleksis Kivi
and Eino Leino. Many writers of the national awakening wrote in Swedish, such as the national poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg
Johan Ludvig Runeberg
and Zachris Topelius. After Finland
Finland
became independent, there was a rise of modernist writers, most famously the Finnish-speaking Mika Waltari
Mika Waltari
and Swedish-speaking Edith Södergran. Frans Eemil Sillanpää
Frans Eemil Sillanpää
was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1939. World War II
World War II
prompted a return to more national interests in comparison to a more international line of thought, characterized by Väinö Linna. Besides Kalevala
Kalevala
and Waltari, the Swedish-speaking Tove Jansson
Tove Jansson
is the most translated Finnish writer. Popular modern writers include Arto Paasilinna, Ilkka Remes, Kari Hotakainen, Sofi Oksanen, and Jari Tervo, while the best novel is annually awarded the prestigious Finlandia
Finlandia
Prize.

Akseli Gallen-Kallela, The Defense of the Sampo, 1896, Turku
Turku
Art Museum.

Visual arts, design, and architecture[edit] See also: Architecture of Finland
Architecture of Finland
and Art in Finland The visual arts in Finland
Finland
started to form their individual characteristics in the 19th century, when Romantic nationalism was rising in autonomic Finland. The best known of Finnish painters, Akseli Gallen-Kallela, started painting in a naturalist style, but moved to national romanticism. Finland's best-known sculptor of the twentieth century was Wäinö Aaltonen, remembered for his monumental busts and sculptures. Finns
Finns
have made major contributions to handicrafts and industrial design: among the internationally renowned figures are Timo Sarpaneva, Tapio Wirkkala
Tapio Wirkkala
and Ilmari Tapiovaara. Finnish architecture is famous around the world, and has contributed significantly to several styles internationally, such as Jugendstil (or Art Nouveau), Nordic Classicism
Nordic Classicism
and Functionalism. Among the top twentieth-century Finnish architects to gain international recognition are Eliel Saarinen
Eliel Saarinen
and his son Eero Saarinen. Architect Alvar Aalto
Alvar Aalto
is regarded as among the most important twentieth-century designers in the world;[183] he helped bring functionalist architecture to Finland, but soon was a pioneer in its development towards an organic style.[184] Aalto is also famous for his work in furniture, lamps, textiles and glassware, which were usually incorporated into his buildings. Music[edit]

The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius
Jean Sibelius
(1865–1957), a significant figure in the history of classical music.

Main articles: Music of Finland, Rock music in Finland, and Sami music Classical[edit] Much of Finland's classical music is influenced by traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics, as comprised in the Kalevala. Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs, less influenced by Germanic influence than the Nordic folk dance music that largely replaced the kalevaic tradition. Finnish folk music has undergone a roots revival in recent decades, and has become a part of popular music. The people of northern Finland, Sweden, and Norway, the Sami, are known primarily for highly spiritual songs called joik. The same word sometimes refers to lavlu or vuelie songs, though this is technically incorrect. The first Finnish opera was written by the German-born composer Fredrik Pacius
Fredrik Pacius
in 1852. Pacius also wrote the music to the poem Maamme/Vårt land (Our Country), Finland's national anthem. In the 1890s Finnish nationalism based on the Kalevala
Kalevala
spread, and Jean Sibelius became famous for his vocal symphony Kullervo. He soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia
Karelia
and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician. In 1899 he composed Finlandia, which played its important role in Finland
Finland
gaining independence. He remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation. Today, Finland
Finland
has a very lively classical music scene and many of Finland's important composers are still alive, such as Magnus Lindberg, Kaija Saariaho, Kalevi Aho, and Aulis Sallinen. The composers are accompanied by a large number of great conductors such as Esa-Pekka Salonen, Osmo Vänskä, Jukka-Pekka Saraste, and Leif Segerstam. Some of the internationally acclaimed Finnish classical musicians are Karita Mattila, Soile Isokoski, Pekka Kuusisto, Olli Mustonen, and Linda Lampenius. Modern[edit]

Perttu Kivilaakso
Perttu Kivilaakso
of Apocalyptica.

Iskelmä (coined directly from the German word Schlager, meaning "hit") is a traditional Finnish word for a light popular song. Finnish popular music also includes various kinds of dance music; tango, a style of Argentine music, is also popular. The light music in Swedish-speaking areas has more influences from Sweden. Modern Finnish popular music includes a number of prominent rock bands, jazz musicians, hip hop performers, dance music acts, etc.[citation needed] During the early 1960s, the first significant wave of Finnish rock groups emerged, playing instrumental rock inspired by groups such as The Shadows. Around 1964, Beatlemania
Beatlemania
arrived in Finland, resulting in further development of the local rock scene. During the late 1960s and 1970s, Finnish rock musicians increasingly wrote their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish. During the decade, some progressive rock groups such as Tasavallan Presidentti and Wigwam gained respect abroad but failed to make a commercial breakthrough outside Finland. This was also the fate of the rock and roll group Hurriganes. The Finnish punk scene produced some internationally acknowledged names including Terveet Kädet in the 1980s. Hanoi Rocks
Hanoi Rocks
was a pioneering 1980s glam rock act that inspired the American hard rock group Guns N' Roses, among others.[185] Many Finnish metal bands have gained international recognition. HIM and Nightwish
Nightwish
are some of Finland's most internationally known bands. HIM's 2005 album Dark Light went gold in the United States. Apocalyptica
Apocalyptica
are an internationally famous Finnish group who are most renowned for mixing strings-led classical music with classic heavy metal. Other well-known metal bands are Amorphis, Children of Bodom, Impaled Nazarene, Korpiklaani, Sentenced, Sonata Arctica, Stratovarius, Turisas, Finntroll, Ensiferum, Insomnium, Moonsorrow, Wintersun, Poets of the Fall, and Waltari.[citation needed] After Finnish hard rock/heavy metal band Lordi
Lordi
won the 2006 Eurovision Song Contest, Finland
Finland
hosted the competition in 2007.[186] Cinema and television[edit] Main articles: Cinema of Finland
Cinema of Finland
and Television in Finland See also: Lists of Finnish films In the film industry, notable directors include Aki Kaurismäki, Mauritz Stiller, Spede Pasanen, and Hollywood film director and producer Renny Harlin. Around twelve feature films are made each year.[187] Finland's most internationally successful TV shows are the backpacking travel documentary series Madventures
Madventures
and the reality TV show The Dudesons, about four childhood friends who perform stunts and play pranks on each other (in similar vein to the American TV show Jackass). Media and communications[edit]

Linus Torvalds, the Finnish software engineer best known for creating the popular open-source kernel Linux.

See also: Telecommunications in Finland and List of newspapers in Finland Thanks to its emphasis on transparency and equal rights, Finland's press has been rated the freest in the world.[188] Today, there are around 200 newspapers, 320 popular magazines, 2,100 professional magazines, 67 commercial radio stations, three digital radio channels and one nationwide and five national public service radio channels. Each year, around 12,000 book titles are published and 12 million records are sold.[187] Sanoma
Sanoma
publishes the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat
Helsingin Sanomat
(its circulation of 412,000[189] making it the largest), the tabloid Ilta-Sanomat, the commerce-oriented Taloussanomat
Taloussanomat
and the television channel Nelonen. The other major publisher Alma Media
Alma Media
publishes over thirty magazines, including the newspaper Aamulehti, tabloid Iltalehti
Iltalehti
and commerce-oriented Kauppalehti. Worldwide, Finns, along with other Nordic peoples and the Japanese, spend the most time reading newspapers.[190] Yle, the Finnish Broadcasting Company, operates five television channels and thirteen radio channels in both national languages. Yle is funded through a mandatory television license and fees for private broadcasters. All TV channels are broadcast digitally, both terrestrially and on cable. The commercial television channel MTV3
MTV3
and commercial radio channel Radio Nova are owned by Nordic Broadcasting (Bonnier and Proventus Industrier). In regards to telecommunication infrastructure, Finland
Finland
is the highest ranked country in the World
World
Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index (NRI) – an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies. Finland
Finland
ranked 1st overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, unchanged from the year before.[191] This is shown in its penetration throughout the country's population. Around 79% of the population use the Internet.[192] Finland
Finland
had around 1.52 million broadband Internet connections by the end of June 2007 or around 287 per 1,000 inhabitants.[193] All Finnish schools and public libraries have Internet connections and computers and most residents have a mobile phone. Value-added services are rare.[194] In October 2009, Finland's Ministry of Transport and Communications committed to ensuring that every person in Finland would be able to access the Internet at a minimum speed of one megabit-per-second beginning July 2010.[195] Cuisine[edit] Main article: Finnish cuisine

Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. Butter, often mixed with boiled egg (eggbutter or munavoi), is spread over the hot pastries before eating.

Finnish cuisine
Finnish cuisine
is notable for generally combining traditional country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary style cooking. Fish and meat play a prominent role in traditional Finnish dishes from the western part of the country, while the dishes from the eastern part have traditionally included various vegetables and mushrooms. Refugees from Karelia
Karelia
contributed to foods in eastern Finland. Finnish foods often use wholemeal products (rye, barley, oats) and berries (such as bilberries, lingonberries, cloudberries, and sea buckthorn). Milk and its derivatives like buttermilk are commonly used as food, drink, or in various recipes. Various turnips were common in traditional cooking, but were replaced with the potato after its introduction in the 18th century. According to the statistics, red meat consumption has risen, but still Finns
Finns
eat less beef than many other nations, and more fish and poultry. This is mainly because of the high cost of meat in Finland. Finland
Finland
is the top world consumer of coffee per capita.[196] Public holidays[edit] Main articles: Public holidays in Finland and Flag days in Finland All official holidays in Finland
Finland
are established by Acts of Parliament. Christian holidays include Christmas, New Year's Day, Epiphany, Easter, Ascension Day, Pentecost, Midsummer
Midsummer
Day (St. John's Day), and All Saints' Day, while secular holidays include May Day, Independence Day, New Year's Day, and Midsummer. Christmas is the most extensively celebrated, and at least 24 to 26 December is taken as a holiday. Sports[edit]

Finland's men's national ice hockey team is ranked as one of the best in the world. The team has won two world championship titles (in 1995 & 2011) and six Olympic medals.

Main article: Sport in Finland Various sporting events are popular in Finland. Pesäpallo, resembling baseball, is the national sport of Finland, although the most popular sports in terms of spectators is ice hockey. Ice Hockey World Championships 2016 final Finland-Canada, 69% Finnish people watched that game on TV.[197] Other popular sports include athletics, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, football and basketball.[198] While ice hockey is the most popular sports when it comes to attendance at games, association football is the most played team sport in terms of the amount of players in the country and is also the most appreciated sports in Finland.[199][200] In terms of medals and gold medals won per capita, Finland
Finland
is the best performing country in Olympic history.[201] Finland
Finland
first participated as a nation in its own right at the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in 1908, while still an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire. At the 1912 Summer Olympics, great pride was taken in the three gold medals won by the original "Flying Finn" Hannes Kolehmainen. Finland
Finland
was one of the most successful countries at the Olympic Games before World
World
War II. At the 1924 Summer Olympics, Finland, a nation then of only 3.2 million people, came second in the medal count. In the 1920s and 1930s, Finnish long-distance runners dominated the Olympics, with Paavo Nurmi
Paavo Nurmi
winning a total of nine Olympic gold medals between 1920 and 1928 and setting 22 official world records between 1921 and 1931. Nurmi is often considered the greatest Finnish sportsman and one of the greatest athletes of all time. For over 100 years, Finnish male and female athletes have consistently excelled at the javelin throw. The event has brought Finland
Finland
nine Olympic gold medals, five world championships, five European championships, and 24 world records. In addition to Kolehmainen and Nurmi, some of Finland's most internationally well-known and successful sportspeople are long-distance runners Ville Ritola
Ville Ritola
and Lasse Virén; ski-jumpers Matti Nykänen and Janne Ahonen; cross-country skiers Veikko Hakulinen, Eero Mäntyranta, Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi and Mika Myllylä; rower Pertti Karppinen; gymnast Heikki Savolainen; professional skateboarder Arto Saari; ice hockey players Kimmo Timonen, Jari Kurri, Teemu Selänne, and Saku Koivu; football players Jari Litmanen
Jari Litmanen
and Sami Hyypiä; basketball player Hanno Möttölä; alpine skiers Kalle Palander
Kalle Palander
and Tanja Poutiainen; Formula One world champions Keke Rosberg, Mika Häkkinen and Kimi Räikkönen; four-time World
World
Rally champions Juha Kankkunen and Tommi Mäkinen; and 13-time World
World
Enduro
Enduro
Champion Juha Salminen, seven-time champion Kari Tiainen, and the five-time champions Mika Ahola, biathlete Kaisa Mäkäräinen
Kaisa Mäkäräinen
and Samuli Aro. Finland
Finland
is also one of the most successful nations in bandy, being the only nation beside Russia
Russia
and Sweden
Sweden
to win a Bandy
Bandy
World Championship. The 1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
were held in Helsinki. Other notable sporting events held in Finland
Finland
include the 1983 and 2005 World
World
Championships in Athletics. Finland
Finland
also has a notable history in figure skating. Finnish skaters have won 8 world championships and 13 junior world cups in synchronized skating, and Finland
Finland
is considered one of the best countries at the sport. Some of the most popular recreational sports and activities include floorball, Nordic walking, running, cycling, and skiing (alpine skiing, cross-country skiing, and ski jumping). Floorball, in terms of registered players, occupies third place after football and ice hockey. According to the Finnish Floorball
Floorball
Federation, floorball is the most popular school, youth, club and workplace sport.[202] As of 2016, the total number of licensed players reaches 57,400.[203] Especially since the 2014 FIBA Basketball
Basketball
World
World
Cup, Finland's national basketball team has received widespread public attention. More than 8,000 Finns
Finns
travelled to Spain
Spain
to support their team. Overall, they chartered more than 40 airplanes.[204] International rankings[edit] The following list contains international comparisons of national performance. The list has a maximum of three years per survey. For a more comprehensive list, see International rankings of Finland.

v t e

International rankings of Finland

Organisation Survey Year Rank Out of (countries) Ref Notes

A.T. Kearney
A.T. Kearney
/ Foreign Policy Magazine Globalization Index  [website]

2007 18 72 [205]

2006 13 62 [206]

2005 10 62 [207]

Yale University
Yale University
/ Columbia University Environmental Performance Index  [website]

2008 4 149 [208]

2006 3 133 [209]

Heritage Foundation
Heritage Foundation
/ The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom  [website]

2008 16 165 [210]

2007 16 165 [211]

2006 16 165 [211]

IMD International World
World
Competitiveness
Competitiveness
Yearbook  [website]

2008 15 55* [212] *economies (countries and regions)

2007 17 55 [212]

2006 10 61 [213]

NationMaster Technological Achievement

2001 1 68 [214]

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)  [website]

2006 → 57 [215] rank 1 in science and ability to use scientific knowledge; rank 2 in reading literacy; rank 2 in mathematics

2003 → 41 [216] rank 1 in science (tied with Japan); rank 1 in reading literacy; rank 2 in problem solving; rank 2 in mathematics

2000 → 43 [217] rank 1 in reading performance

Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index  [website] dead linkdate=March 2011

2008 4 173 [218] tied with Estonia
Estonia
and Ireland

2007 5 169 [219] tied with Belgium
Belgium
and Sweden

2006 1 168 [220] tied with Iceland, Ireland and Netherlands

Save the Children State of the World’s Mothers

2010 7 43 [221] Compared against 42 other developed countries

2003 5 117 [222] 117 developed and developing countries

The Economist Intelligence Unit Global Peace Index  [website]

2008 8 140 [223]

2007 6 121 [224]

Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index  [website]

2008 5 180 [225] tied with Switzerland

2007 1 179 [226] tied with Denmark
Denmark
and New Zealand

2006 1 163 [227] tied with Iceland
Iceland
and New Zealand

United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Index  [website]

2007–2008 11 177 [228]

2006 11 177 [229]

2005 13 177 [230]

World
World
Economic Forum Global Competitiveness
Competitiveness
Report [website]

2008–2009 6 134 [231]

2007–2008 6 131 [232]

2006–2007 2 125 [233]

Networked Readiness Index (Global Information Technology Report) [website] 2012 3 142 [234]

2013 1 144 [235]

WorldAudit.org World
World
Democracy Audit

2008 1 150 [236]

2006 1 150 [236]

See also[edit]

Finland
Finland
portal Arctic portal European Union
European Union
portal

List of Finland-related topics Outline of Finland Bibliography of Finland

Notes[edit]

^ The names for Finland
Finland
in its Sami languages
Sami languages
are: Suopma (Northern Sami), Suomâ (Inari Sami) and Lää´ddjânnam (Skolt Sami). See Geonames.de.

References[edit]

^ a b Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN 9780719078538), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko (June 2001). "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland". Scandinavian Political Studies. Wiley. 24 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00048.  as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland
Finland
was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. Finland
Finland
is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendments reduced the powers of the president even further. ^ "Finland's preliminary population figure 5,509,717 at the end of August". Tilastokeskus.fi. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 24 October 2017.  ^ "Finland's population was 5,503,297 at the turn of the year". Tilastokeskus.fi. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 17 August 2017.  ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF. 1 October 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2018.  ^ " Gini coefficient
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of Finland", or "Suomen tasavalta" in Finnish, "Republiken Finland" in Swedish, and "Northern Sami: Suoma dásseváldi" in Sami, is the long protocol name, which is however not defined by law. Legislation recognises only the short name. ^ a b " Finland
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and the Finnish People from stone age to WWII. Retrieved 24 June 2008. ^ a b Professor Frank Horn of the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law University of Lappland writing for Virtual Finland
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on National Minorities of Finland. Retrieved 24 June 2008. ^ Georg Haggren, Petri Halinen, Mika Lavento, Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. p. 339. ISBN 9789524953634. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Parliament of Finland. "History of the Finnish Parliament". eduskunta.fi. Archived from the original on 6 December 2015.  ^ Finland
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was the first nation in the world to give all (adult) citizens full suffrage, in other words the right to vote and to run for office, in 1906. New Zealand
New Zealand
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New Zealand
legislature, until 1919. ^ a b c Relations with Finland. NATO (13 January 2016) ^ "Finland". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2013.  ^ "Finland: World
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Audit Democracy Profile". WorldAudit.org. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013.  ^ "Tertiary education graduation rates—Education: Key Tables from OECD". OECD
OECD
iLibrary. 14 June 2010. doi:10.1787/20755120-table1. Retrieved 6 March 2011.  ^ "Her er verdens mest konkurransedyktige land—Makro og politikk". E24.no. 9 September 2010. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2011.  ^ "The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index". Prosperity.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2010.  ^ "Human Capital Report 2015". World
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Economic Forum. Retrieved 15 May 2015.  ^ " Fragile States Index
Fragile States Index
2016". Fundforpeace.org. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2016.  ^ Gender Gap Report (PDF). WEF.  ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2004". U.S. Department of State. 15 September 2004. Retrieved 22 January 2007. ^ "National Archives Service, Finland
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(in English)". Retrieved 22 January 2007.  ^ SUOMI(TTAVIA ETYMOLOGIOITA). kotikielenseura.fi ^ Salo, Unto (2004). Suomen museo 2003: "The Origins of Finland
Finland
and Häme". Helsinki: Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistys. p. 55. ISBN 951-9057-55-2.  ^ Lindberg, Johan (26 May 2016). "Finlands historia: 1700-talet". Uppslagsverket Finland
Uppslagsverket Finland
(in Swedish). Retrieved 30 November 2017.  ^ Georg Haggren, Petri Halinen, Mika Lavento, Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. p. 21. ISBN 9789524953634. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Georg Haggren, Petri Halinen, Mika Lavento, Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. pp. 199, 210–211. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Georg Haggren, Petri Halinen, Mika Lavento, Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. pp. 171–178. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Georg Haggren, Petri Halinen, Mika Lavento, Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. pp. 189–190. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Georg Haggren, Petri Halinen, Mika Lavento, Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. pp. 332, 364–365. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Georg Haggren, Petri Halinen, Mika Lavento, Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. p. 269. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Georg Haggren, Petri Halinen, Mika Lavento, Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. pp. 211–212. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Georg Haggren, Petri Halinen, Mika Lavento, Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. p. 380. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Tarkiainen, Kari (2010). Ruotsin itämaa. Helsinki: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. p. 88.  ^ Compiled by Martti Linna (1989). Suomen varhaiskeskiajan lähteitä. Historian aitta. p. 69.  ^ Tarkiainen, Kari (2010). Ruotsin itämaa. Helsinki: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. pp. 104–147. ISBN 9789515832122.  ^ Tarkiainen, Kari (2010). Ruotsin itämaa. Porvoo: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. pp. 167–170. ISBN 9789515832122.  ^ Kemiläinen, Aira (2004). Kansallinen identiteetti Ruotsissa ja Suomessa 1600-1700-luvuilla. Tieteessä tapahtuu 8/2004. pp. 25–26.  ^ Finland. "History of Finland. Finland
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chronology". Europe-cities.com. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ a b " Finland
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and the Swedish Empire". Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. ^ Nordstrom, Byron J. (2000). Scandinavia
Scandinavia
Since 1500. Minneapolis, US: University of Minnesota Press. p. 142. ISBN 0-8166-2098-9.  ^ a b c Nordstrom, Byron J. (2000). Scandinavia
Scandinavia
Since 1500. Minneapolis, US: University of Minnesota Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-8166-2098-9.  ^ "Pioneers in Karelia
Karelia
Pekka Halonen
Pekka Halonen
– Google Arts & Culture".  ^ a b c "Growth and Equity in Finland" (PDF). World
World
Bank.  ^ Mickelsson, Rauli (2007). Suomen puolueet—Historia, muutos ja nykypäivä. Vastapaino. ^ The Finnish Civil War, Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Countrystudies.us. Retrieved on 18 May 2016. ^ "A Country Study: Finland—The Finnish Civil War". Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 December 2008.  ^ Finland
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1917–2007 (20 February 2007). "From slash-and-burn fields to post-industrial society—90 years of change in industrial structure". Stat.fi. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ Michael Jones (2013). "Leningrad: State of Siege". Basic Books. p. 38. ISBN 0786721774 ^ Hidden help from across the Atlantic Archived 29 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Helsingin Sanomat ^ a b c d Finland
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1917–2007 (5 December 2007). "Population development in independent Finland—greying Baby Boomers". Stat.fi. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ Suurlähettiläs Jaakko Blomberg: Kylmän sodan päättyminen, Suomi ja Viro – Ulkoasiainministeriö: Ajankohtaista. Formin.finland.fi. Retrieved on 18 May 2016. ^ "Appendix table 2. Population according to language 1980–2015". Official Statistics of Finland
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(OSF): Population structure. Retrieved 27 November 2016.  ^ a b Statistics Finland, Population Retrieved on 18 October 2017. ^ "Forskningscentralen för de inhemska språken—Teckenspråken i Finland" (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 18 March 2015.  ^ "National Minorities of Finland, The Tatars". Forum.hunturk.net. Retrieved 6 December 2011.  ^ According to the Finnish Population Registry Centre and the Finnish Sami parliament, the Sami population living in Finland
Finland
was 7,371 in 2003. See Regional division of Sami people
Sami people
in Finland
Finland
by age in 2003 (in Finnish). ^ "The population of Finland
Finland
in 2006". Statistics Finland. 31 December 2006. Retrieved 4 September 2007.  ^ "The Constitution of Finland, 17 § and 121 §" (PDF). FINLEX Data Bank. Retrieved 4 September 2007.  ^ "Statistics Finland, Environment and Natural Resources". Retrieved 4 April 2013.  ^ "Trends in sea level variability". Finnish Institute of Marine Research. 24 August 2004. Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 22 January 2007.  ^ "Finland." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. ^ "Euroopan metsäisin maa". Luke (in Finnish). 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2016.  ^ "Nutritional and genetic adaptation of galliform birds: implications for hand-rearing and restocking". Oulu
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University Library (2000). Retrieved 23 May 2008.  ^ "BirdLife Finland". BirdLife International (2004) Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12). Retrieved 22 January 2007.  ^ "SOS: Save our seals". this is Finland
Finland
(Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). Archived from the original on 10 September 2015.  ^ a b c d "Finland's climate". Finnish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 3 December 2012.  ^ "The climate in Finland
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(finnish)". Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ a b Havas, Paavo. "Pohjoiset alueet / yleiskuvaus" (in Finnish). Retrieved 3 December 2012.  ^ "Finland's Northern Conditions: Challenges and Opportunities for Agriculture" (PDF). Ministry of Agriculture
Agriculture
and Forestry, Finland. pp. 1–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.  ^ "Tervetuloa aluehallintoviraston verkkosivuille!" (in Finnish). State Provincial Office. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.  ^ The role that the regional councils serve on Mainland Finland are on the Åland Islands
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handled by the autonomous Government of Åland. ^ "Valtioneuvosto päätti Uudenmaan ja Itä-Uudenmaan maakuntien yhdistämisestä" (in Finnish). Ministry of Finance. 22 October 2009. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2010.  ^ "Ennakkoväkiluku sukupuolen mukaan alueittain, elokuu 2017" (in Finnish). Statistics Finland. Retrieved 18 October 2017.  ^ "Area of Finnish Municipalities 1.1.2018" (PDF). National Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ " Paula Risikko
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Elected as New Speaker of Parliament". Eduskunta. Retrieved 24 February 2018.  ^ The source for historical information on party support is the Finnish's article on the parliament ^ "Eduskuntavaalit 2015 – tulospalvelu – yle.fi". Yle. Retrieved 5 June 2015.  ^ The Finnish's article on Motion of no confidence ^ Policing corruption, International Perspectives. ^ "The Burden of Crime in the EU. Research Report: A Comparative Analysis of the European Crime and Safety Survey (EU ICS) 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ a b The History of Corruption in Central Government By Seppo Tiihonen, International Institute of Administrative Sciences ^ Vaalijohtaja: Vaalirahoituslain rikkominen melko yleistä YLE
YLE
15 May 2008 ^ Evaluation Report on Finland
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on Incriminations, Theme I, s. 21, GRECO 3–7.12.2007 ^ Finnish constitution, Section 93. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize
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2008". The Nobel Foundation. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 10 May 2009.  ^ a b "Finland's foreign policy idea" ("Suomen ulkopolitiikan idea"), Risto E. J. Penttilä, 2008. ^ a b c d Text from PD source: US Library of Congress: A Country Study: Finland, Library of Congress
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Call Number DL1012 .A74 1990. ^ Women's voluntary service (in Finnish) ^ Työvoimakustannukset puuttuvat puolustusmenoista, Statistics Finland
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(in Finnish): Eurostat ranking is sixth, but the third when conscription is accounted. ^ a b MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING (MOU) BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF FINLAND AND HEADQUARTERS, SUPREME ALLIED COMMANDER TRANSFORMATION. NATO ^ " Sweden
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and the Ministerial Committee on Foreign and Security Policy – Article – Valtioneuvoston kanslia. Vnk .fi (23 October 2015). Retrieved on 18 May 2016. ^ Yemen kidnappers free Finnish couple, Austrian. Reuters (9 May 2013). Retrieved on 18 May 2016. ^ Tutkija Atte Kaleva: Jihadismi on tullut Suomeen jäädäkseen Yle Uutiset. yle.fi. Retrieved on 18 May 2016. ^ Näin Ranskan avunpyyntö otettiin vastaan Suomessa – kooste tiistain vaiheista Yle
Yle
Uutiset. yle .fi (17 November 2015). Retrieved on 18 May 2016. ^ a b Amid Russia
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Calls Up 18,000 Reservists For Military Training. Ibtimes.com. Retrieved on 18 May 2016. ^ " Finland
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in Figures—Manufacturing". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 26 April 2007.  ^ "Finland's 'lost decade' continues—economy same size as in 2006". yle.fi. 4 June 2015.  ^ "Finland's economy: In search of the sunny side". Financial Times. 11 March 2015.  ^ a b Finland
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Economy 2004, OECD ^ Tehdyn työtunnin hinta 23–27 euroa, Statistics Finland ^ "Suomalaisten tulot Euroopan keskitasoa. Hyvinvointipalvelut eivät paranna sijoitusta". Tilastokeskus.fi. 9 June 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ "Small enterprises grow faster than the big ones". Helsinkitimes.fi. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ a b The Nordic Model of Welfare: A Historical Reappraisal, by Niels Finn Christiansen ^ "Sata suurinta työnantajaa: Nokia
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jäi kakkoseksi".  ^ Finland
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in Figures (22 January 2015). "Statistics Finland: Labour Market". Tilastokeskus.fi. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ [1]. 6d .fi (19 January 2016). Retrieved on 21 July 2016. ^ " OECD
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recommends Finland
Finland
to do more to help older people stay in work". Oecd.org. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ Suomessa on liki miljoona köyhää –"Heikoimmassa asemassa olevista on tullut muukalaisia" Yle
Yle
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Further reading[edit]

Chew, Allen F. The White Death: The Epic of the Soviet-Finnish Winter War (ISBN 0-87013-167-2). Engle, Eloise and Paananen, Pauri. The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland
Finland
1939–1940 (ISBN 0-8117-2433-6). Insight Guide: Finland
Finland
(ISBN 981-4120-39-1). Jakobson, Max. Finland
Finland
in the New Europe
Europe
(ISBN 0-275-96372-1). Jutikkala, Eino; Pirinen, Kauko. A History of Finland (ISBN 0-88029-260-1). Klinge, Matti. Let Us Be Finns: Essays on History (ISBN 951-1-11180-9). Lavery, Jason. The History of Finland, Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations, Greenwood Press, 2006 (ISBN 0-313-32837-4, ISSN 1096-2905). Lewis, Richard D. Finland: Cultural Lone Wolf (ISBN 1-931930-18-X). Lonely Planet: Finland
Finland
(ISBN 1-74059-791-5) Mann, Chris. Hitler's Arctic War: The German Campaigns in Norway, Finland, and the USSR 1940–1945 (ISBN 0-312-31100-1). Rusama, Jaakko. Ecumenical Growth in Finland (ISBN 951-693-239-8). Singleton, Fred. A Short History of Finland
History of Finland
(ISBN 0-521-64701-0). Subrenat, Jean-Jacques. Listen, there's music from the forest; a brief presentation of the Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival (ISBN 952-92-0564-3). Swallow, Deborah. Culture Shock! Finland: A Guide to Customs and Etiquette (ISBN 1-55868-592-8). Trotter, William R. A Frozen Hell: The Russo-Finnish Winter War
Winter War
of 1939–1940 (ISBN 1-56512-249-6).

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