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Richmond (/ˈrɪtʃmənd/ RICH-mənd) is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia
Virginia
in the United States. It is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
(MSA) and the Greater Richmond Region. It was incorporated in 1742, and has been an independent city since 1871. As of the 2010 census, the population was 204,214;[6] in 2016, the population was estimated to be 223,170,[6] the fourth-most populous city in Virginia. The Richmond Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,260,029, the third-most populous metro in the state. Richmond is located at the fall line of the James River, 44 miles (71 km) west of Williamsburg, 66 miles (106 km) east of Charlottesville, and 98 miles (158 km) south of Washington, D.C. Surrounded by Henrico and Chesterfield counties, the city is located at the intersections of Interstate 95 and Interstate 64, and encircled by Interstate 295 and Virginia
Virginia
State Route 288. Major suburbs include Midlothian to the southwest, Chesterfield to the south, Varina to the southeast, Sandston to the east, Glen Allen to the north and west, Short Pump to the west and Mechanicsville to the northeast. The site of Richmond had been an important village of the Powhatan Confederacy, and was briefly settled by English colonists from Jamestown in 1609, and in 1610–1611. The present city of Richmond was founded in 1737. It became the capital of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia
Virginia
in 1780, replacing Williamsburg. During the Revolutionary War period, several notable events occurred in the city, including Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty or give me death" speech in 1775 at St. John's Church, and the passage of the Virginia
Virginia
Statute for Religious Freedom written by Thomas Jefferson. During the American Civil War, Richmond served as the second and permanent capital of the Confederate States of America. The city entered the 20th century with one of the world's first successful electric streetcar systems. The Jackson Ward
Jackson Ward
neighborhood is a national hub of African-American commerce and culture. Richmond's economy is primarily driven by law, finance, and government, with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, as well as notable legal and banking firms, located in the downtown area. The city is home to both the United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, one of 13 United States
United States
courts of appeals, and the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, one of 12 Federal Reserve Banks. Dominion Resources
Dominion Resources
and WestRock, Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies, are headquartered in the city, with others in the metropolitan area.[7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Colonial era 1.2 Revolution 1.3 Early United States 1.4 Civil War 1.5 Postbellum 1.6 20th century

2 Geography and climate

2.1 Cityscape 2.2 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 Crime 3.2 Religion

4 Economy

4.1 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies and other large corporations

5 Arts and culture

5.1 Museums and monuments 5.2 Visual and performing arts

5.2.1 Murals 5.2.2 Professional performing companies 5.2.3 Other venues and companies

5.3 Literary arts 5.4 Architecture 5.5 Historic districts 5.6 Food

6 Parks and outdoor recreation 7 Sports 8 Media 9 Government and politics 10 Education

10.1 Colleges and universities

11 Infrastructure

11.1 Transportation 11.2 Major highways 11.3 Utilities

12 International relations

12.1 Sister cities

13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Richmond, Virginia
Virginia
and Timeline of Richmond, Virginia See also: Richmond in the American Civil War Colonial era[edit] After the first permanent English-speaking settlement was established in April 1607, at Jamestown, Virginia, Captain Christopher Newport
Christopher Newport
led explorers northwest up the James River, to an area that was inhabited by Powhatan
Powhatan
Native Americans.[8] In 1737, planter William Byrd II
William Byrd II
commissioned Major William Mayo to lay out the original town grid. Byrd named the city "Richmond" after the English town of Richmond near (and now part of) London, because the view of the James River
James River
was strikingly similar to the view of the River Thames
River Thames
from Richmond Hill in England, where he had spent time during his youth. The settlement was laid out in April 1737, and was incorporated as a town in 1742.[9] Revolution[edit]

Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry
delivered his "Liberty or Death" speech at St. John's Church in Richmond, helping to ignite the American Revolution

In 1775, Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry
delivered his famous "Give me Liberty or Give me Death" speech in St. John's Church in Richmond, crucial for deciding Virginia's participation in the First Continental Congress and setting the course for revolution and independence.[10] On April 18, 1780, the state capital was moved from the colonial capital of Williamsburg to Richmond, to provide a more centralized location for Virginia's increasing westerly population, as well as to isolate the capital from British attack.[11] The latter motive proved to be in vain, and in 1781, under the command of Benedict Arnold, Richmond was burned by British troops, causing Governor Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
to flee as the Virginia
Virginia
militia, led by Sampson Mathews, defended the city.[12] Early United States[edit] Richmond recovered quickly from the war, and by 1782 was once again a thriving city.[13] In 1786, the Virginia
Virginia
Statute for Religious Freedom (drafted by Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1826) was passed at the temporary capitol in Richmond, providing the basis for the separation of church and state, a key element in the development of the freedom of religion in the United States.[14] A permanent home for the new government, the Greek Revival style of the Virginia State Capitol
Virginia State Capitol
building, was designed by Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
with the assistance of Charles-Louis Clérisseau, and was completed in 1788. After the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
(1775-1783), Richmond emerged as an important industrial center. To facilitate the transfer of cargo from the flat-bottomed James River
James River
bateaux above the fall line to the ocean-faring ships below, an enterprising George Washington
George Washington
helped design the James River
James River
and Kanawha Canal from Westham east to Richmond, in the 18th century to bypass Richmond's rapids on the upper James River
James River
with the intent of providing a water route across the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
to the Kanawha River
Kanawha River
flowing westward into the Ohio
Ohio
then eventually to the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. The legacy of the canal boatmen is represented by the figure in the center of the city flag. As a result of this and ample access to hydropower due to the falls, Richmond became home to some of the largest manufacturing facilities in the country, including iron works and flour mills, the largest facilities of their kind in The South. The resistance to the slave trade was growing by the mid-nineteenth century; in one famous case in 1848, Henry "Box" Brown made history by having himself nailed into a small box and shipped from Richmond through Baltimore's President Street Station northward on the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad (a well-used "Underground Railroad" route for escaping disguised slaves) to abolitionists in Philadelphia, in the free state of Pennsylvania, escaping slavery.[15] By 1850, Richmond was connected by the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad
Richmond and Petersburg Railroad
to Port Walthall, where ships carrying over 200 tonnes of cargo could connect to Baltimore
Baltimore
or Philadelphia
Philadelphia
or passenger liners could reach Norfolk, Virginia
Virginia
through the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
harbor.[16] Richmond was connected to the North on the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad
Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad
in the nineteenth Century which was later replaced by, CSXT. Civil War[edit] Main article: Richmond in the American Civil War

Retreating Confederates burned one-fourth of Richmond in April 1865

On April 17, 1861, five days after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, the state legislature voted to secede from the United States and join the newly organized Confederate States of America. Official action came in May, after the Confederacy promised to move its national capital from its provisional home in Montgomery, Alabama
Montgomery, Alabama
to Richmond. The city was located at the end of a long supply line, which made it difficult to defend, requiring the bulk of the Army of Northern Virginia
Virginia
and arguably the Confederacy's best troops and commanders.[17] It became the main target of Union armies, especially in the campaigns of 1862 and 1864–65. In addition to Virginia
Virginia
and Confederate government offices and hospitals, a railroad hub, and one of the largest slave markets, Richmond had the largest iron foundry and arms factory during the war, the Tredegar Iron Works, which turned out artillery and other munitions, including the 723 tons of armor plating that covered the CSS Virginia
Virginia
(the salvaged former steam frigate USS Merrimack), the world's first ironclad warship used in war, as well as much of the Confederates' heavy ordnance machinery.[18] The Confederate States Congress shared quarters with the Virginia
Virginia
General Assembly in Jefferson's designed Virginia
Virginia
State Capitol, with the Confederacy's executive mansion, known as the " White House
White House
of the Confederacy", located two blocks away on Clay Street. The Seven Days Battles followed in late June and early July 1862, during which commanding Union General-in-Chief George B. McClellan
George B. McClellan
threatened to take Richmond in the Peninsula campaign
Peninsula campaign
but ultimately failed. Three years later, as March 1865 ended, Richmond became indefensible after nearby Petersburg and several remaining rail supply lines to the south and southwest were broken. On March 25, Confederate General John B. Gordon's desperate attack on Fort Stedman east of Petersburg failed. On April 1, Federal Cavalry General Philip Sheridan, assigned to interdict the Southside Railroad, met brigades commanded by Southern Gen. George Pickett
George Pickett
at the Five Forks junction, smashing them, taking thousands of prisoners, and encouraging Union General-in-Chief Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
to order a general advance. When the Union Sixth Corps broke through Confederate lines on the Boydton Plank Road south of Petersburg, Confederate casualties exceeded 5,000, or about a tenth of General Lee's defending army. Lee then informed President Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
that he was about to evacuate Richmond.[19] Davis and his cabinet, along with the government archives and Treasury gold, left the city by train that night, as government officials burned documents and departing Confederate troops burned tobacco and other warehouses to deny their contents to the victors. On April 2, 1865, General Godfrey Weitzel, commander of the 25th Corps of the United States
United States
Colored Troops, accepted the city's surrender from the Mayor and a group of leading citizens who remained.[20] The Union troops eventually managed to stop the raging fires but about 25% of the city's buildings were destroyed.[21] President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
visited General Grant at Petersburg on April 3, and took a launch to Richmond up the James River
James River
the next day, while Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
attempted to organize his remaining Confederate government further southwest at Danville. Lincoln met Confederate assistant secretary of War John A. Campbell, and handed him a note inviting Virginia's state legislature to end their rebellion. After Campbell spun the note to Confederate legislators as a possible end to the Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln rescinded his offer and ordered General Weitzel to prevent the former Confederate state legislature from meeting. Union forces killed, wounded or captured 8,000 Confederate troops at Sayler's Creek southwest of Petersburg on April 6, as the Southerners continued a general retreat southwestward. General Lee continued to reject General Grant's surrender suggestions until Sheridan's infantry and cavalry moved around the shrinking Army of Northern Virginia
Virginia
and appeared in front of his withdrawing forces on April 8, cutting off the line of further retreat southwest. He surrendered his remaining approximately 10,000 troops at Appomattox Court House meeting General Grant the following morning at the McLean Home.[22] Davis was captured on May 10 near Irwinville, Georgia
Irwinville, Georgia
and taken back to Virginia, where he was imprisoned for two years at Fort Monroe until freed on bail.[23] Postbellum[edit] Richmond emerged a decade after the smoldering rubble of the Civil War to resume its position as an economic powerhouse, with iron front buildings and massive brick factories. Canal traffic peaked in the 1860s and slowly gave way to railroads, allowing Richmond to become a major railroad crossroads[24], eventually including the site of the world's first triple railroad crossing. Tobacco warehousing and processing continued to play a role, boosted by the world's first cigarette-rolling machine, invented by James Albert Bonsack
James Albert Bonsack
of Roanoke in 1880/81. Contributing to Richmond's resurgence was the first successful electrically powered trolley system in the United States, the Richmond Union Passenger Railway. Designed by electric power pioneer Frank J. Sprague, the trolley system opened its first line in 1888, and electric streetcar lines rapidly spread to other cities across the country.[25] Sprague's system used an overhead wire and trolley pole to collect current, with electric motors on the car's trucks.[26] In Richmond, the transition from streetcars to buses began in May 1947 and was completed on November 25, 1949.[27] 20th century[edit]

By the early 20th century, Richmond had an extensive network of electric streetcars, as shown here crossing the Mayo Bridge across the James River, ca. 1917

By the beginning of the 20th century, the city's population had reached 85,050 in 5 square miles (13 km2), making it the most densely populated city in the Southern United States.[28] In 1900, the Census Bureau reported Richmond's population as 62.1% white and 37.9% black.[29] Freed slaves and their descendants created a thriving African-American
African-American
business community, and the city's historic Jackson Ward became known as the "Wall Street of Black America." In 1903, African-American
African-American
businesswoman and financier Maggie L. Walker chartered St. Luke Penny Savings Bank, and served as its first president, as well as the first female bank president in the United States. Today, the bank is called the Consolidated Bank and Trust Company, and it is the oldest surviving African-American
African-American
bank in the U.S.[30] Other figures from this time included John Mitchell, Jr.
John Mitchell, Jr.
In 1910, the former city of Manchester was consolidated with the city of Richmond, and in 1914, the city annexed Barton Heights, Ginter Park, and Highland Park areas of Henrico County.[31] In May 1914, Richmond became the headquarters of the Fifth District of the Federal Reserve Bank. Several major performing arts venues were constructed during the 1920s, including what are now the Landmark Theatre, Byrd Theatre, and Carpenter Theatre. The city's first radio station, WRVA, began broadcasting in 1925. WTVR-TV (CBS 6), the first television station in Richmond, was the first television station south of Washington, D.C.[32] Between 1963 and 1965, there was a "downtown boom" that led to the construction of more than 700 buildings in the city. In 1968, Virginia Commonwealth University was created by the merger of the Medical College of Virginia
Virginia
with the Richmond Professional Institute.[33] In 1970, Richmond's borders expanded by an additional 27 square miles (70 km2) on the south. After several years of court cases in which Chesterfield County
County
fought annexation, more than 47,000 people who once were Chesterfield County
County
residents found themselves within the city's perimeters on January 1, 1970.[34] In 1996, still-sore tensions arose amid controversy involved in placing a statue of African American
African American
Richmond native and tennis star Arthur Ashe
Arthur Ashe
to the series of statues of Confederate Generals of the Civil War on Monument Avenue.[35] After several months of controversy, the bronze statue of Ashe was finally completed on Monument Avenue
Monument Avenue
facing the opposite direction from the Confederate Generals on July 10, 1996.[36] A multimillion-dollar flood wall was completed in 1995, in order to protect low-lying areas of city from the oft-rising waters of the James River. As a result, the River District businesses grew rapidly, and today the area is home to much of Richmond's entertainment, dining and nightlife activity, bolstered by the creation of a Canal Walk along the city's former industrial canals.[37][38] Geography and climate[edit]

The Richmond area, seen from the International Space Station
International Space Station
in early-April 2013.

See also: Richmond-Petersburg Richmond is located at 37°32′N 77°28′W / 37.533°N 77.467°W / 37.533; -77.467 (37.538, −77.462). According to the United States
United States
Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 62 square miles (160 km2), of which 60 square miles (160 km2) is land and 2.7 square miles (7.0 km2) of it (4.3%) is water.[39] The city is located in the Piedmont region of Virginia, at the highest navigable point of the James River. The Piedmont region is characterized by relatively low, rolling hills, and lies between the low, flat Tidewater region
Tidewater region
and the Blue Ridge Mountains. Significant bodies of water in the region include the James River, the Appomattox River, and the Chickahominy River. The Richmond-Petersburg
Richmond-Petersburg
Metropolitan Statistical Area
Metropolitan Statistical Area
(MSA), the 44th largest in the United States, includes the independent cities of Richmond, Colonial Heights, Hopewell, and Petersburg, as well as the counties of Charles City, Chesterfield, Dinwiddie, Goochland, Hanover, Henrico, New Kent, Powhatan, and Prince George.[40] As of July 1, 2009[update], the total population of the Richmond—Petersburg MSA was 1,258,251. Cityscape[edit]

Richmond is often subdivided into North Side, Southside, East End, and West End

See also: Neighborhoods of Richmond, Virginia Richmond's original street grid, laid out in 1737, included the area between what are now Broad, 17th, and 25th Streets and the James River. Modern Downtown Richmond
Downtown Richmond
is located slightly farther west, on the slopes of Shockoe Hill. Nearby neighborhoods include Shockoe Bottom, the historically significant and low-lying area between Shockoe Hill and Church Hill, and Monroe Ward, which contains the Jefferson Hotel. Richmond's East End includes neighborhoods like rapidly gentrifying Church Hill, home to St. John's Church, as well as poorer areas like Fulton, Union Hill, and Fairmont, and public housing projects like Mosby Court, Whitcomb Court, Fairfield Court, and Creighton Court closer to Interstate 64.[41] The area between Belvidere Street, Interstate 195, Interstate 95, and the river, which includes Virginia
Virginia
Commonwealth University, is socioeconomically and architecturally diverse. North of Broad Street, the Carver and Newtowne West neighborhoods are demographically similar to neighboring Jackson Ward, with Carver experiencing some gentrification due to its proximity to VCU. The affluent area between the Boulevard, Main Street, Broad Street, and VCU, known as the Fan, is home to Monument Avenue, an outstanding collection of Victorian architecture, and many students. West of the Boulevard
West of the Boulevard
is the Museum District, the location of the Virginia
Virginia
Historical Society and the Virginia
Virginia
Museum of Fine Arts. South of the Downtown Expressway
Downtown Expressway
are Byrd Park, Maymont, Hollywood Cemetery, the predominantly black working class Randolph neighborhood, and white working class Oregon Hill. Cary Street between Interstate 195 and the Boulevard is a popular commercial area called Carytown.[41]

View of the Carillon
Carillon
from across the James River

Richmond's Northside is home to numerous listed historic districts.[42] Neighborhoods such as Chestnut Hill-Plateau and Barton Heights began to develop at the end of the 19th century when the new streetcar system made it possible for people to live on the outskirts of town and still commute to jobs downtown. Other prominent Northside neighborhoods include Azalea, Barton Heights, Bellevue, Chamberlayne, Ginter Park, Highland Park, and Rosedale.[41] Farther west is the affluent, suburban West End. Windsor Farms
Windsor Farms
is among its best-known sections. The West End also includes middle to lower income neighborhoods, such as Laurel, Farmington and the areas surrounding the Regency Mall. More affluent areas include Glen Allen, Short Pump, and the areas of Tuckahoe away from Regency Mall, which can all be found north and northwest of the city. The University of Richmond and the Country Club of Virginia
Virginia
can be found here as well, which are located just inside the City Limits.[41] The portion of the city south of the James River
James River
is known as the Southside. Neighborhoods in the city's Southside area range from affluent and middle class suburban neighborhoods Westover Hills, Forest Hill, Southampton, Stratford Hills, Oxford, Huguenot Hills, Hobby Hill, and Woodland Heights to the impoverished Manchester and Blackwell areas, the Hillside Court housing projects, and the ailing Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
Highway commercial corridor. Other Southside neighborhoods include Fawnbrook, Broad Rock, Cherry Gardens, Cullenwood, and Beaufont Hills. Much of Southside developed a suburban character as part of Chesterfield County
County
before being annexed by Richmond, most notably in 1970.[41] Climate[edit]

Flooding of Old Manchester during Hurricane Agnes, 1972

Richmond has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with hot and humid summers and generally cool to mild winters. The mountains to the west act as a partial barrier to outbreaks of cold, continental air in winter; Arctic air is delayed long enough to be modified, then further warmed as it subsides in its approach to Richmond. The open waters of the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
and Atlantic Ocean contribute to the humid summers and mild winters. The coldest weather normally occurs from late December to early February, and the January daily mean temperature is 37.9 °F (3.3 °C), with an average of 6.0 days with highs at or below the freezing mark.[43] Downtown areas and suburbs to the east of Richmond are situated in USDA Hardiness zones 7b while surrounding suburban and rural areas to the west are in the 7a Hardiness Zone.[44] and temperatures seldom lower to 0 °F (−18 °C), with the most recent subzero (°F) reading occurring on January 7, 2018, when the temperature reached −3 °F (−19 °C).[43] The July daily mean temperature is 79.3 °F (26.3 °C), and high temperatures reach or exceed 90 °F (32 °C) approximately 43 days out of the year; while 100 °F (38 °C) temperatures are not uncommon, they do not occur every year.[45] Extremes in temperature have ranged from −12 °F (−24 °C) on January 19, 1940 up to 107 °F (42 °C) on August 6, 1918.[a] The record cold daily maximum is 11 °F (−12 °C), set on February 11 and 12, 1899, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 81 °F (27 °C), set on July 12, 2011.[43] Precipitation
Precipitation
is rather uniformly distributed throughout the year. However, dry periods lasting several weeks do occur, especially in autumn when long periods of pleasant, mild weather are most common. There is considerable variability in total monthly amounts from year to year so that no one month can be depended upon to be normal. Snow has been recorded during seven of the twelve months. Falls of 4 inches (10 cm) or more within 24 hours occur an average once per year.[43] Annual snowfall, however, is usually light, averaging 10.5 inches (27 cm) per season.[43] Snow typically remains on the ground only one or two days at a time, but remained for 16 days in 2010 (January 30 to February 14). Ice storms (freezing rain or glaze) are not uncommon, but they are seldom severe enough to do any considerable damage. The James River
James River
reaches tidewater at Richmond where flooding may occur in every month of the year, most frequently in March and least in July. Hurricanes
Hurricanes
and tropical storms have been responsible for most of the flooding during the summer and early fall months. Hurricanes passing near Richmond have produced record rainfalls. In 1955, three hurricanes brought record rainfall to Richmond within a six-week period. The most noteworthy of these were Hurricane Connie
Hurricane Connie
and Hurricane Diane
Hurricane Diane
that brought heavy rains five days apart. And in 2004, the downtown area suffered extensive flood damage after the remnants of Hurricane Gaston dumped up to 12 inches (300 mm) of rainfall.[47] Damaging storms occur mainly from snow and freezing rain in winter and from hurricanes, tornadoes, and severe thunderstorms in other seasons. Damage may be from wind, flooding, or rain, or from any combination of these. Tornadoes
Tornadoes
are infrequent but some notable occurrences have been observed within the Richmond area. Based on the 1981–2010 period, the average first occurrence of at or below freezing temperatures in the fall is November 4 and the average last occurrence in the spring is April 5.[48]

Climate data for Richmond International Airport, Virginia
Virginia
(1981–2010 normals,[b] extremes 1887–present[c])

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 81 (27) 83 (28) 94 (34) 96 (36) 100 (38) 104 (40) 105 (41) 107 (42) 103 (39) 99 (37) 86 (30) 81 (27) 107 (42)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 69.6 (20.9) 72.0 (22.2) 81.2 (27.3) 88.1 (31.2) 91.2 (32.9) 96.3 (35.7) 98.3 (36.8) 96.8 (36) 93.1 (33.9) 86.3 (30.2) 77.6 (25.3) 70.8 (21.6) 99.3 (37.4)

Average high °F (°C) 47.4 (8.6) 51.3 (10.7) 60.0 (15.6) 70.3 (21.3) 77.9 (25.5) 86.1 (30.1) 89.7 (32.1) 87.6 (30.9) 81.2 (27.3) 71.0 (21.7) 61.4 (16.3) 50.7 (10.4) 69.6 (20.9)

Average low °F (°C) 28.3 (−2.1) 30.5 (−0.8) 37.1 (2.8) 46.1 (7.8) 55.0 (12.8) 64.5 (18.1) 68.9 (20.5) 67.4 (19.7) 60.1 (15.6) 48.3 (9.1) 39.4 (4.1) 31.4 (−0.3) 48.1 (8.9)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 10.3 (−12.1) 15.9 (−8.9) 21.5 (−5.8) 31.1 (−0.5) 41.5 (5.3) 52.5 (11.4) 59.3 (15.2) 57.5 (14.2) 46.3 (7.9) 33.5 (0.8) 24.7 (−4.1) 15.7 (−9.1) 7.8 (−13.4)

Record low °F (°C) −12 (−24) −10 (−23) 10 (−12) 19 (−7) 31 (−1) 40 (4) 51 (11) 46 (8) 35 (2) 21 (−6) 10 (−12) −2 (−19) −12 (−24)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.04 (77.2) 2.76 (70.1) 4.04 (102.6) 3.27 (83.1) 3.78 (96) 3.93 (99.8) 4.51 (114.6) 4.66 (118.4) 4.13 (104.9) 2.98 (75.7) 3.24 (82.3) 3.26 (82.8) 43.6 (1,107.4)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 3.9 (9.9) 3.4 (8.6) 0.6 (1.5) 0.1 (0.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.2 (0.5) 2.1 (5.3) 10.3 (26.2)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.7 8.9 10.3 10.0 10.8 10.0 11.4 9.1 8.4 7.4 8.3 9.7 114.0

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.9 1.9 0.8 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 1.2 6.1

Average relative humidity (%) 67.9 65.6 63.0 60.8 69.5 72.2 74.8 77.2 77.0 73.8 69.1 68.9 70.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours 172.5 179.7 233.3 261.6 288.0 306.4 301.4 278.9 237.9 222.8 183.5 163.0 2,829

Percent possible sunshine 56 59 63 66 65 69 67 66 64 64 60 55 64

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sunshine hours 1961–1990)[43][49][50]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 3,761

1800 5,737

52.5%

1810 9,735

69.7%

1820 12,067

24.0%

1830 16,060

33.1%

1840 20,153

25.5%

1850 27,570

36.8%

1860 37,910

37.5%

1870 51,038

34.6%

1880 63,600

24.6%

1890 81,388

28.0%

1900 85,050

4.5%

1910 127,628

50.1%

1920 171,667

34.5%

1930 182,929

6.6%

1940 193,042

5.5%

1950 230,310

19.3%

1960 219,958

−4.5%

1970 249,621

13.5%

1980 219,214

−12.2%

1990 203,056

−7.4%

2000 197,790

−2.6%

2010 204,214

3.2%

Est. 2016 223,170 [51] 9.3%

U.S. Decennial Census[52] 1790–1960[53] 1900–1990[54] 1990–2000[55] 2014 Estimate

As of the 2010 United States
United States
Census, there were 204,214 people residing in the city. 50.6% were Black or African American, 40.8% White, 5.0% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.6% of some other race and 2.3% of two or more races. 6.3% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).

Map of racial distribution in Richmond, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

As of the census[56] of 2000, there were 197,790 people, 84,549 households, and 43,627 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,292.6 people per square mile (1,271.3/km²). There were 92,282 housing units at an average density of 1,536.2 per square mile (593.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 57.2% African American, 38.3% White, 0.2% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, and 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.6% of the population. There were 84,549 households out of which 23.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.1% were married couples living together, 20.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.4% were non-families. 37.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 21.8% under the age of 18, 13.1% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,121, and the median income for a family was $38,348. Males had a median income of $30,874 versus $25,880 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,337. About 17.1% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.9% of those under age 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or over. Crime[edit] During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Richmond experienced a spike in overall crime, in particular, the city's murder rate. The city had 93 murders for the year of 1985, with a murder rate of 41.9 killings committed per 100,000 residents. Over the next decade, the city saw a major increase in total homicides. In 1990 there were 114 murders, for a murder rate of 56.1 killings per 100,000 residents. There were 120 murders in 1995, resulting in a murder rate of 59.1 killings per 100,000 residents, one of the highest in the United States.[57] In 2004, Morgan Quitno Press ranked Richmond as the ninth (out of 354) most dangerous city in the United States.[58] In 2005, Richmond was ranked as the fifth most dangerous city overall and the 12th most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States.[59][60][61] The following year, Richmond saw a decline in crime, ranking as the 15th most dangerous city in the United States. By 2008, Richmond's position on the list had fallen to 49th.[62] By 2012, Richmond was no longer in the 'top' 200.[63] Richmond's rate of major crime, including violent and property crimes, decreased 47 percent between 2004 and 2009 to its lowest level in more than a quarter of a century.[64] Various forms of crime tend to be declining, yet remaining above state and national averages.[65] In 2008, the city had recorded the lowest homicide rate since 1971.[66] FBI Uniform Crime Reports
Uniform Crime Reports
for Richmond for the year of 2013:[67]

City of Richmond only Richmond MSA Rate per 100,000 inhabitants

Violent crime 1,327 3,029 243.8

Murder and non-negligent manslaughter 37 77 6.2

Rape 43 249 20.0

Robbery 624 1,128 90.8

Aggravated assault 623 1,575 126.8

Property crime 8,704 29,761 2,395.7

Burglary 1,817 5,533 445.4

Larceny/Theft 5,949 22,329 1,797.4

Motor vehicle theft 938 1,899 152.9

In recent years, as in many other American cities, Richmond has witnessed a rise in homicides. The Richmond Times-Dispatch reported 61 murders in Richmond in 2016, marking it "the city's deadliest year in a decade."[68] Religion[edit]

St. John's Episcopal Church, built in 1741, is the oldest church in the city

In 1786, the Virginia
Virginia
Statute for Religious Freedom, penned in 1779 by Thomas Jefferson, was adopted by the Virginia
Virginia
General Assembly in Richmond. The site is now commemorated by the First Freedom Center. Richmond has several historic churches. Because of its early English colonial history from the early 17th century to 1776, Richmond has a number of prominent Anglican/Episcopal churches including Monumental Church, St. Paul's Episcopal Church and St. John's Episcopal Church. Methodists and Baptists made up another section of early churches, and First Baptist Church of Richmond was the first of these, established in 1780. In the Reformed church
Reformed church
tradition, the first Presbyterian Church in the City of Richmond was First Presbyterian Church, organized on June 18, 1812. On February 5, 1845, Second Presbyterian Church of Richmond was founded, which was a historic church where Stonewall Jackson
Stonewall Jackson
attended and was the first Gothic building and the first gas-lit church to be built in Richmond.[69] St. Peter's Church was dedicated and became the first Catholic church in Richmond on May 25, 1834.[70] The city is also home to the historic Cathedral of the Sacred Heart which is the mother church for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Richmond.[71]

The Cathedral of the Sacred Heart, dedicated in 1906

The first Jewish congregation in Richmond was Kahal Kadosh Beth Shalom. Kahal Kadosh Beth Shalom was the sixth congregation in the United States. By 1822 K.K. Beth Shalom members worshipped in the first synagogue building in Virginia. They eventually merged with Congregation Beth Ahabah, an offshoot of Beth Shalom. There are two Orthodox Synagogues, Keneseth Beth Israel and Chabad of Virginia.[72] There is an Orthodox Yeshivah
Yeshivah
K–12 school system known as Rudlin Torah academy, which also includes a post high-school program. There are two Conservative synagogues, Beth El and Or Atid. There are three Reform synagogues, Bonay Kodesh,[73] Beth Ahabah and Or Ami. Along with such religious congregations, there are a variety of other Jewish charitable, educational and social service institutions, each serving the Jewish and general communities. These include the Weinstein Jewish Community Center, Jewish Family Services, Jewish Community Federation of Richmond and Richmond Jewish Foundation. Due to the influx of German immigrants in the 1840s, St. John's German Evangelical church was formed in 1843. Saints Constantine and Helen Greek Orthodox Cathedral held its first worship service in a rented room at 309 North 7th Street in 1917. The cathedral relocated to 30 Malvern Avenue in 1960 and is noted as one of two Eastern Orthodox churches in Richmond and home to the annual Richmond Greek Festival.[74] There are seven current masjids in the Greater Richmond area, with three more currently in construction,[75][76][77] accommodating the growing Muslim population, the first one being Masjid
Masjid
Bilal.[78][79] In the 1950s, Muslims from the East End got organized under Nation of Islam (NOI). They used to meet in Temple #24 located on North Avenue. After the NOI split in 1975, the Muslims who joined mainstream Islam, start meeting at Shabaaz Restaurant on Nine Mile Road. By 1976, the Muslims used to meet in a rented church. They tried to buy this church, but due to financial difficulties the Muslims instead bought an old grocery store at Chimbarazoo Boulevard, the present location of Masjid
Masjid
Bilal. Initially, the place was called " Masjid
Masjid
Muhammad #24". Only by 1990 did the Muslims renamed it to " Masjid
Masjid
Bilal". Masjid Bilal was followed by the Islamic Center of Virginia, ICVA[80] masjid. The ICVA was established in 1973 as a non profit tax exempt organization. With aggressive fundraising, ICVA was able to buy land on Buford road. Construction of the new masjid began in the early 1980s. The rest of the five current masjids in the Richmond area are Islamic Center of Richmond (ICR)[81] in the west end, Masjid
Masjid
Umm Barakah[82] on 2nd street downtown, Islamic Society of Greater Richmond (ISGR)[83] in the west end, Masjidullah[84] in the north side, and Masjid
Masjid
Ar-Rahman[85] in the east end.

Watts Hall at Union Presbyterian Seminary

Hinduism
Hinduism
is actively practiced, particularly in suburban areas of Henrico and Chesterfield. Some 6,000 families of Indian descent resided in the Richmond Region as of 2011. Hindus are served by several temples and cultural centers. The two most familiar are the Cultural Center of India (CCI) located off of Iron Bridge Road in Chesterfield County
County
and the Hindu Center of Virginia
Virginia
in Henrico County which has garnered national fame and awards for being the first LEED certified religious facility in the commonwealth. Seminaries in Richmond include: the school of theology at Virginia Union University; a Presbyterian seminary, Union Presbyterian Seminary, and the Baptist Theological Seminary at Richmond. The McCollough Theological Seminary of the United House of Prayer For All People is located in the Church Hill
Church Hill
neighborhood of the city. Bishops that sit in Richmond include those of the Episcopal Diocese of Virginia
Virginia
(the denomination's largest); the Richmond Area of the United Methodist Church ( Virginia
Virginia
Annual Conference), the nation's second-largest and one of the oldest. The Presbytery of the James—Presbyterian Church (USA) – also is based in the Richmond area. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Richmond
Roman Catholic Diocese of Richmond
was canonically erected by Pope Pius VII on July 11, 1820. Today there are 235,816 Catholics at 146 parishes in the Diocese of Richmond.[86] The city of Richmond is home to 19 Catholic parishes.[87] Cathedral of the Sacred Heart is home to the current bishop Most Reverend Francis Xavier DiLorenzo
Francis Xavier DiLorenzo
who was appointed by Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
on March 31, 2004. Economy[edit]

Richmond tobacco warehouse ca. 1910s

Richmond's strategic location on the James River, built on undulating hills at the rocky fall line separating the Piedmont and Tidewater regions of Virginia, provided a natural nexus for the development of commerce. Throughout these three centuries and three modes of transportation, the downtown has always been a hub, with the Great Turning Basin for boats, the world's only triple crossing of rail lines, and the intersection of two major interstates. Law and finance have long been driving forces in the economy.[88] The city is home to both the United States
United States
Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, one of 13 United States
United States
courts of appeals, and the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, one of 12 Federal Reserve Banks, as well as offices for international companies such as Genworth Financial, CapitalOne, Philip Morris USA, and numerous other banks and brokerages. Richmond is also home to four of the largest law firms in the United States: Hunton & Williams, McGuireWoods, Williams Mullen, and LeClairRyan. Another law firm with a major Richmond presence is Troutman Sanders, which merged with Richmond-based Mays & Valentine LLP in 2001. Since the 1960s Richmond has been a prominent hub for advertising agencies and advertising related businesses. One of the most notable Richmond-based agencies is The Martin Agency, founded in 1965 and currently employing 500 people. As a result of local advertising agency support, VCU's graduate advertising school ( VCU
VCU
Brandcenter) is consistently ranked the No. 1 advertising graduate program in the country.[89] Richmond is home to the rapidly developing Virginia
Virginia
BioTechnology Research Park,[90] which opened in 1995 as an incubator facility for biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. Located adjacent to the Medical College of Virginia
Virginia
(MCV) Campus of Virginia
Virginia
Commonwealth University, the park currently[when?] has more than 575,000 square feet (53,400 m2) of research, laboratory and office space for a diverse tenant mix of companies, research institutes, government laboratories and non-profit organizations. The United Network for Organ Sharing, which maintains the nation's organ transplant waiting list, occupies one building in the park. Philip Morris USA
Philip Morris USA
opened a $350 million research and development facility in the park in 2007. Once fully developed, park officials expect the site to employ roughly 3,000 scientists, technicians and engineers. Richmond's revitalized downtown includes the Canal Walk, a new Greater Richmond Convention Center, and expansion on both VCU
VCU
campuses. A new performing arts center, Richmond CenterStage,[91] opened on September 12, 2009.[92] The complex included a renovation of the Carpenter Center and construction of a new multipurpose hall, community playhouse, and arts education center in parts of the old Thalhimers department store.[93] Richmond is also fast-becoming known for its food scene, with several restaurants in the Fan, Church Hill, Jackson Ward
Jackson Ward
and elsewhere around the city generating regional and national attention for their fare. Departures magazine named Richmond "The Next Great American Food City" in August 2014.[94][95] while Metzger Bar & Butchery made its "Best New Restaurants: 12 To Watch" list.[96] Craft beer and liquor production is also growing in the River City, with twelve micro-breweries in city proper; the oldest is Legend Brewery, founded in 1994. Three distilleries, Reservoir Distillery, Belle Isle Craft Spirits and James River
James River
Distillery, were established in 2010, 2013 and 2014, respectively. Additionally, Richmond is gaining attention from the film and television industry, with several high-profile films shot in the metro region in the past few years, including the major motion picture Lincoln which led to Daniel Day-Lewis's third Oscar, Killing Kennedy with Rob Lowe, airing on the National Geographic Channel
National Geographic Channel
and Turn, starring Jamie Bell
Jamie Bell
and airing on AMC. Richmond was the main filming location for the PBS
PBS
drama series Mercy Street, which premiered in Winter 2016. Several organizations, including the Virginia
Virginia
Film Office and the Virginia
Virginia
Production Alliance, along with events like the Richmond International Film Festival and French Film Festival, continue to put draw supporters of film and media to the region. Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies and other large corporations[edit]

Six Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies are headquartered in the Richmond area

The Greater Richmond area was named the third-best city for business by MarketWatch
MarketWatch
in September 2007, ranking behind only the Minneapolis and Denver
Denver
areas and just above Boston. The area is home to eight Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies: electric utility Dominion Resources; CarMax; Owens & Minor; Genworth Financial; WestRock
WestRock
Company; Performance Food Group, Markel Corporation, and Altria Group.[7] However, only Dominion Resources
Dominion Resources
and WestRock
WestRock
Company are headquartered within the city of Richmond; the others are located in the neighboring counties of Henrico and Hanover.[97] In 2008, Altria moved its corporate HQ from New York City to Henrico County, adding another Fortune 500 corporation to Richmond's list. In February 2006, MeadWestvaco announced that they would move from Stamford, Connecticut, to Richmond in 2008 with the help of the Greater Richmond Partnership,[98] a regional economic development organization that also helped locate Aditya Birla Minacs,[99] Amazon.com,[100] and Honeywell International,[101] to the region. In July 2015, MeadWestvaco merged with Georgia-based Rock-Tenn Company creating WestRock
WestRock
Company. Other Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies, while not headquartered in the area, do have a major presence. These include SunTrust Bank (based in Atlanta), Capital One Financial Corporation
Capital One Financial Corporation
(officially based in McLean, Virginia, but founded in Richmond with its operations center and most employees in the Richmond area), and the medical and pharmaceutical giant McKesson (based in San Francisco). Capital One and Altria company's Philip Morris USA
Philip Morris USA
are two of the largest private Richmond-area employers. DuPont
DuPont
maintains a production facility in South Richmond known as the Spruance Plant. UPS Freight, the less-than-truckload division of UPS and formerly known as Overnite Transportation, has its corporate headquarters in Richmond. Other companies based in Richmond include chemical company NewMarket; Brink's, a security and armored car company; Estes Express Lines, a freight carrier, Universal Corporation, a tobacco merchant; Cavalier Telephone, now Windstream, a telephone, internet, and digital television provider formed in Richmond in 1998; Cherry Bekaert & Holland, a top 30 accounting firm serving the Southeast; the law firm of McGuireWoods; and Media General, a company specializing in broadcast media. Arts and culture[edit]

External video

Richmond Driving Tour with Mayor Levar Stoney, 11:41, C-SPAN, January 25, 2017.

Museums and monuments[edit]

1936 entrance to the Virginia
Virginia
Museum of Fine Arts

Several of the city's large general museums are located near the Boulevard. On Boulevard proper are the Virginia
Virginia
Historical Society and the Virginia
Virginia
Museum of Fine Arts, lending their name to what is sometimes called the Museum District. Nearby on Broad Street is the Science Museum of Virginia, housed in the neoclassical former 1919 Broad Street Union Station. Immediately adjacent is the Children's Museum of Richmond, and two blocks away, the Virginia
Virginia
Center for Architecture. Within the downtown are the Library of Virginia
Virginia
and the Valentine Richmond History Center. Elsewhere are the Virginia Holocaust Museum and the Old Dominion Railway Museum. Richmond is home to museums and battlefields of the American Civil War. Near the riverfront is the Richmond National Battlefield Park Visitors Center and the American Civil War
American Civil War
Center at Historic Tredegar, both housed in the former buildings of the Tredegar Iron Works, where much of the ordnance for the war was produced. In Court End, near the Virginia
Virginia
State Capitol, is the Museum of the Confederacy, along with the Davis Mansion, also known as the White House of the Confederacy; both feature a wide variety of objects and material from the era. The temporary home of former General Robert E. Lee still stands on Franklin Street in downtown Richmond. The history of slavery and emancipation are also increasingly represented: there is a former slave trail along the river that leads to Ancarrow's Boat Ramp and Historic Site which has been developed with interpretive signage, and in 2007, the Reconciliation Statue was placed in Shockoe Bottom, with parallel statues placed in Liverpool
Liverpool
and Benin representing points of the Triangle Trade. Other historical points of interest include St. John's Church, the site of Patrick Henry's famous "Give me liberty or give me death" speech, and the Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
Museum, features many of his writings and other artifacts of his life, particularly when he lived in the city as a child, a student, and a successful writer. The John Marshall House, the home of the former Chief Justice of the United States, is also located downtown and features many of his writings and objects from his life. Hollywood Cemetery is the burial grounds of two U.S. Presidents as well as many Civil War officers and soldiers. Beth Ahabah Museum and Archives collects, preserves and exhibits materials that focus on Southern Jewish history and culture specifically connected to Richmond, VA.[102] The city is home to many monuments and memorials, most notably those along Monument Avenue. Other monuments include the A.P. Hill
A.P. Hill
monument, the Bill "Bojangles" Robinson monument in Jackson Ward, the Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
monument near Byrd Park. Located near Byrd Park is the famous World War I Memorial Carillon, a 56-bell carillon tower. Dedicated in 1956, the Virginia
Virginia
War Memorial is located on Belvedere overlooking the river, and is a monument to Virginians who died in battle in World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan, and the Iraq War. Agecroft Hall
Agecroft Hall
is a Tudor manor house and estate located on the James River in the Windsor Farms
Windsor Farms
neighborhood of Richmond. The manor house was built in the late 15th century, and was originally located in the Agecroft area of Pendlebury, in the historic county of Lancashire
Lancashire
in England. Visual and performing arts[edit] Richmond has a significant arts community, some of which is contained in formal public-supported venues, and some of which is more DIY, such as local privately owned galleries, and private music venues, nonprofit arts organizations, or organic and venueless arts movements (e.g., house shows, busking, itinerant folk shows). This has led to tensions, as the city Richmond City levied an "admissions tax" to fund large arts projects like CentreStage, leading to criticism that it is funding civic initiatives on the backs of the organic local culture.[103] Traditional Virginian folk music, including blues, country, and bluegrass are also notably present, and play a large part in the annual Richmond Folk Festival. The following is a list of the more formal arts establishments (companies, theaters, galleries, and other large venues) in Richmond. Richmond is also the home and birthplace of famous metal act GWAR. This is a fact members of the band consistently allude to with pride. GWAR
GWAR
is run by an art collective known as Slavepit Incorporated, which has over the years involved hundreds of Richmond locals.[104] Murals[edit] As of 2015 a variety of murals from internationally recognized street artists have appeared throughout the city as a result of the efforts of Art Whino
Art Whino
and RVA Magazine
RVA Magazine
with The Richmond Mural Project and the RVA Street Art Festival.[105] Artists who have produced work in the city as a result of these festivals include ROA, Pixel Pancho, Gaia, Aryz, Alexis Diaz, Ever Siempre, Jaz, 2501, Natalia Rak, Pose MSK, Vizie, Jeff Soto, Mark Jenkins, Etam Cru- and local artists Hamilton Glass, Nils Westergard, El Kamino, Nico Cathcart,[106] and Ed Trask. Both festivals are expected to continue this year with artists such as Ron English slated to produce work.[107] Professional performing companies[edit] From earliest days, Virginia, and Richmond in particular, have welcomed live theatrical performances. From Lewis Hallam's early productions of Shakespeare in Williamsburg, the focus shifted to Richmond's antebellum prominence as a main colonial and early 19th century performance venue for such celebrated American and English actors as William Macready, Edwin Forrest,[108] and the Booth family. In the 20th century, Richmonders' love of theater continued with many amateur troupes and regular touring professional productions. In the 1960s a small renaissance or golden age accompanied the growth of professional dinner theaters and the fostering of theater by the Virginia
Virginia
Museum, reaching a peak in the 1970s with the establishment of a resident Equity company at the Virginia
Virginia
Museum Theater (now the Leslie Cheek) and the birth of Theatre IV, a company that continues to this day under the name Virginia
Virginia
Repertory Theatre.

Virginia
Virginia
Repertory Theatre is Central Virginia's largest professional theatre organization. It was created in 2012 when Barksdale Theatre and Theatre IV, which had shared one staff for over a decade, merged to become one company. With an annual budget of over $5 million, the theatre employs over 240 artists each year, presenting a season at the November Theatre and Theatre Gym at Virginia
Virginia
Rep Center, as well as productions at the Hanover Tavern and The Children's Theatre in The Shops at Willow Lawn. The historic November Theatre opened in 1911 as the Empire Theatre, offering stock and vaudeville performances. In 1915 it changed its name from the Empire to the Strand and continued under that name until damaged by fire in 1927. It reopened in 1933 as the “Booker T,” and served as the leading black movie house for many years when Richmond was segregated. It closed in 1974 and was idle until real estate developer Mitchell Kambis rescued and renovated it. Kambis restored the Empire name and in 1979 leased it to Keith Fowler, artistic director of the American Revels Company. Revels restored live professional theater to downtown Richmond. Revels was succeeded by Theatre IV in 1984. On its 100th anniversary in 2011 the theatre was further restored when Sara Belle and Neil November made a $2 million gift to Theatre IV and Barksdale.[1] The November now serves as Virginia
Virginia
Rep’s headquarters and home and anchors the Arts District. It is currently under the leadership of Artistic Director Bruce Miller and Managing Director Phil Whiteway.[109] Richmond Ballet, founded in 1957. Richmond Triangle Players, founded in 1993, delivers theater programs exploring themes of equality, identity, affection and family across sexual orientation and gender spectrums. Richmond Symphony Virginia
Virginia
Opera, the Official Opera Company of the Commonwealth of Virginia, founded in 1974. Presents eight mainstage performances every year at the Carpenter Theater.

Other venues and companies[edit]

The Carpenter Theatre

Other venues and companies include:

The Altria Theater, the city-owned opera house. The Leslie Cheek Theater, after lying dormant for eight years, re-opened in 2011 in the heart of the Virginia
Virginia
Museum of Fine Arts at 200 N. Boulevard. The elegant 500-seat proscenium stage was constructed in 1955 to match then museum director Leslie Cheek's vision of a theater worthy of a fine arts institution.[110] Operating for years as the Virginia
Virginia
Museum Theater (VMT),[111] it supported an amateur community theater under the direction of Robert Telford. When Cheek retired, he advised trustees on the 1969 appointment of Keith Fowler as head of the theater arts division and artistic director of VMT. Fowler led the theater to become the city's first resident Actors Equity LORT theater, adding major foreign authors and the premieres of new American works to the repertory. Under his leadership VMT reached a "golden age," gaining international recognition[112] and more than doubling its subscription base. Successive artistic administrations changed the name of the theater to "TheatreVirginia." Deficits caused Theatre Virginia
Virginia
to close its doors in 2002.[113] Now, renovated and renamed for its founder, the Leslie Cheek is restoring live performance to VMFA and, while no longer supporting a resident company, it is available for special theatrical and performance events.[114] The National Theater is Richmond's premier music venue. It holds 1500 people and has shows regularly throughout the week. It opened winter of 2007 and was built in 1923. It features a state-of-the-art V-DOSC sound system, only the sixth installed in the country and only the third installed on the East Coast. Visual Arts Center of Richmond, a not-for-profit organization that is one of the largest nongovernmental arts learning centers in the state of Virginia, founded in 1963. Serves 28,000 individuals annually. Richmond CenterStage, a performing arts center that opened in Downtown Richmond in 2009 as part of an expansion of earlier facilities. The complex includes a renovation of the 1,700-seat Carpenter Theater
Carpenter Theater
and construction of a new multipurpose hall, community playhouse, and arts education center in the location of the old Thalhimers department store. The Byrd Theatre
Byrd Theatre
in Carytown, a movie palace from the 1920s that features second-run movies, as well as the French Film Festival. Virginia
Virginia
Commonwealth University School of the Arts, consistently ranked as one of the best in the nation.[115] Dogwood Dell, an amphitheatre in Byrd Park, where the Richmond Department of Recreation and Parks presents an annual Festival of the Arts. SPARC
SPARC
(School of the Performing Arts in the Richmond Community). SPARC was founded in 1981, and trained children to become "triple threats", meaning they were equally versed in singing, acting, and dancing. SPARC
SPARC
has become the largest community-based theater arts education program in Virginia
Virginia
and it offers classes to every age group, during the summer and throughout the year. Classic Amphitheatre at Strawberry Hill, the former summer concert venue located at Richmond International Raceway.

Commercial art galleries include Metro Space Gallery and Gallery 5 in a newly designated arts district. Not-for-profit galleries include Visual Arts Center of Richmond, 1708 Galleryy and Artspace. In addition, in 2008, a new 47,000-square-foot (4,400 m2) Gay Community Center opened on the city's north side, which hosts meetings of many kinds, and includes a large art gallery space. Literary arts[edit] Richmond has long been a hub for literature and writers. Edgar Allan Poe was a child in the city, and the town's oldest stone house is now a museum to his life and works.[116] The Southern Literary Messenger, which included his writing, is just one of many notable publications that began in Richmond. Other noteworthy authors who have called Richmond home include Pulitzer-winning Ellen Glasgow, controversial figure James Branch Cabell, Meg Medina, Dean King, David L. Robbins, and MacArthur Fellow Paule Marshall. Tom Wolfe
Tom Wolfe
was born in Richmond, as was Breaking Bad
Breaking Bad
creator Vince Gilligan. David Baldacci
David Baldacci
graduated from Virginia
Virginia
Commonwealth University, where the creative writing faculty has included Marshall, Claudia Emerson, Kathleen Graber, T. R. Hummer, Dave Smith, David Wojahn, Susann Cokal, Thomas De Haven and Larry Levis. Notable graduates include Sheri Reynolds, Jon Pineda, Anna Journey and Joshua Poteat. [117] A community-based organization called James River
James River
Writers serves the greater Richmond area; it sponsors many programs for writers at all stages of their careers and puts on an annual writers' conference that draws attendees from miles away.[117] Architecture[edit] See also: National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in Richmond, Virginia
Virginia
and List of tallest buildings in Richmond

Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
designed the Virginia State Capitol
Virginia State Capitol
in Richmond

Richmond is home to many significant structures, including some designed by notable architects. The city contains diverse styles, including significant examples of Georgian, Federal, Greek Revival, Neoclassical, Egyptian Revival, Romanesque Revival, Gothic Revival, Tudor Revival, Italianate, Queen Anne, Colonial Revival, Art Deco, Modernist, International, and Postmodern buildings. Much of Richmond's early architecture was destroyed by the Evacuation Fire in 1865. It is estimated that 25% of all buildings in Richmond were destroyed during this fire.[118] Even fewer now remain due to construction and demolition that has taken place since Reconstruction. In spite of this, Richmond contains many historically significant buildings and districts. Buildings remain from Richmond's colonial period, such as the Patteson-Schutte House and the Edgar Allan Poe Museum (Richmond, Virginia), both built before 1750.

Egyptian Building
Egyptian Building
of the VCU
VCU
School of Medicine (1845), Richmond, Virginia

Architectural classicism is heavily represented in all districts of the city, particularly in Downtown, the Fan, and the Museum District. Several notable classical architects have designed buildings in Richmond. The Virginia State Capitol
Virginia State Capitol
was designed by Thomas Jefferson and Charles-Louis Clérisseau
Charles-Louis Clérisseau
in 1785. It is the second-oldest US statehouse in continuous use (after Maryland's) and was the first US government building built in the neo-classical style of architecture, setting the trend for other state houses and the federal government buildings (including the White House
White House
and The Capitol) in Washington, D.C.[119] Robert Mills designed Monumental Church
Monumental Church
on Broad Street. Adjoining it is the 1845 Egyptian Building, one of the few Egyptian Revival buildings in the United States.

The Science Museum of Virginia, housed in Broad Street Station, designed by John Russell Pope

The firm of John Russell Pope
John Russell Pope
designed Broad Street Station as well as Branch House
Branch House
on Monument Avenue, designed as a private residence in the Tudor style, now serving as the Branch Museum of Architecture and Design. Broad Street Station (or Union Station), designed in the Beaux-Arts style, is no longer a functioning station but is now home to the Science Museum of Virginia. Main Street Station, designed by Wilson, Harris, and Richards, has been returned to use in its original purpose. The Jefferson Hotel and the Commonwealth Club were both designed by the classically trained Beaux-Arts architects Carrère and Hastings. Many buildings on the University of Richmond
University of Richmond
campus, including Jeter Hall and Ryland Hall, were designed by Ralph Adams Cram, most famous for his Princeton University Chapel and the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine. Richmond's urban residential neighborhoods also hold particular significance to the city's fabric. The Fan, the Museum District, Jackson Ward, Carver, Carytown, Oregon Hill
Oregon Hill
and Church Hill
Church Hill
(among others) are largely single use town homes and mixed use or full retail/dining establishments. These districts are anchored by large streets such as Franklin Street, Cary Street, the Boulevard, and Monument Avenue. The city's growth in population over the last decade has been concentrated in these areas. Among Richmond's most interesting architectural features is its Cast-iron architecture. Second only to New Orleans
New Orleans
in its concentration of cast iron work, the city is home to a unique collection of cast iron porches, balconies, fences, and finials. Richmond's position as a center of iron production helped to fuel its popularity within the city. At the height of production in the 1890, 25 foundries operated in the city employing nearly 3,500 metal workers. This number is seven times the number of general construction workers being employed in Richmond at the time which illustrates the importance of its iron exports.[120] Porches and fences in urban neighborhoods such as Jackson Ward, Church Hill, and Monroe Ward
Monroe Ward
are particularly elaborate, often featuring ornate iron casts never replicated outside of Richmond. In some cases cast were made for a single residential or commercial application. Richmond is home to several notable instances of various styles of modernism. Minoru Yamasaki
Minoru Yamasaki
designed the Federal Reserve Building which dominates the downtown skyline. The architectural firm of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill has designed two buildings: the Library of Virginia
Virginia
and the General Assembly Offices at the Eighth and Main Building. Philip Johnson
Philip Johnson
designed the WRVA Building. The Richard Neutra-designed Rice House, a residence on a private island on the James River, remains Richmond's only true International Style home. The W.G. Harris residence in Richmond was designed by famed early modern architect and member of the Harvard Five,[121] Landis Gores. Other notable architects to have worked in the city include Rick Mather, I.M. Pei, and Gordon Bunshaft. VCU
VCU
is currently raising funds for a new Institute for Contemporary Art designed by Steven Holl. The ICA is funded by private donors and is scheduled to open in April 2018. John G. Zehmer was an architectural historian and preservationist who documented many of Richmond's historic properties in books and 1970s era black and white photographs. Historic districts[edit] Richmond's City Code provides for the creation of old and historic districts so as to "recognize and protect the historic, architectural, cultural, and artistic heritage of the City."[122] Pursuant to that authority, the city has designated 45 districts throughout the city.[123] The majority of these districts are also listed in the Virginia
Virginia
Landmarks Register ("VLR") and the National Register of Historic Places ("NRHP"). Fifteen of the districts represent broad sections of the city:[124]

Historic District City VLR NRHP[125]

Boulevard (Grace St. to Idlewood Ave) 1992 1986 1986

Broad Street (Belvidere St. to First St.) 1985 1986 1987 2004 2007

Chimborazo Park
Chimborazo Park
(32nd to 36th Sts. & Marshall St. to Chimborazo Park) 1987 2004 2005

Church Hill
Church Hill
North (Marshall to Cedar Sts. & Jefferson Ave. to N. 29th St.) 2007 1996 1997 2000

Hermitage Road (Laburnum Ave. to Westbrook Ave.) 1988 2005 2006

Jackson Ward
Jackson Ward
(Belvidere to 2nd Sts. & Jackson to Marshall Sts.) 1987 1976 1976

Monument Avenue
Monument Avenue
(Birch St. to Roseneath Rd.) 1971 1969 1970

St. John's Church (21st to 32nd Sts. & Broad to Franklin Sts.) 1957 1969 1966

Shockoe Slip
Shockoe Slip
(12th to 15th Sts. & Main to Canal/Dock Sts.) 1979 1971 1972

Shockoe Valley
Shockoe Valley
(18th to 21st Sts. & Marshall to Franklin Sts.) 1977 1981 1983

Springhill (19th to 22nd Sts. & Riverside Dr. to Semmes Ave.) 2006 2013 2014

200 Block West Franklin Street (Madison to Jefferson Sts.) 1977 1977 1977

West Franklin Street (Birch to Harrison Sts.) 1990 1972 1972

West Grace Street (Ryland St. to Boulevard) 1996 1997 1998

Zero Blocks East and West Franklin (Adams to First Sts. & Grace to Main Sts.) 1987 1979 1980

The remaining thirty districts are limited to an individual building or group of buildings throughout the city:

Historic District VLR NRHP

The Barret House (15 South Fifth Street) 1971 1972

Belgian Building
Belgian Building
(Lombardy Street and Brook Road) 1969 1970

Bolling Haxall House
Bolling Haxall House
(211 East Franklin Street) 1971 1972

Centenary United Methodist Church
Centenary United Methodist Church
(409 East Grace Street) 1979 1979

Crozet House
Crozet House
(100-102 East Main Street) 1971 1972

Glasgow House (1 West Main Street) 1972 1972

Hancock-Wirt-Caskie House
Hancock-Wirt-Caskie House
(2 North Fifth Street) 1969 1970 2008

Henry Coalter Cabell House
Henry Coalter Cabell House
(116 South Third Street) 1971 1971

Jefferson Hotel (114 West Main Street) 1968 1969

John Marshall
John Marshall
House (818 East Marshall Street) 1969 1966

Leigh Street Baptist Church
Leigh Street Baptist Church
(East Leigh and Twenty-Fifth Streets) 1971 1972

Linden Row
Linden Row
(100-114 East Franklin Street) 1971 1971

Mayo Memorial House (110 West Franklin Street) 1972 1973

William W. Morien House (2226 West Main Street)

Norman Stewart House (707 East Franklin Street) 1972 1972

Old Stone House (1916 East Main Street) 1973 1973

Pace House (100 West Franklin Street)

St. Andrew's Episcopal Church (Northwest corner South Laurel Street and Idlewood Avenue) 1979 1979

St. Paul's Episcopal Church (815 East Grace Street) 1968 1969

St. Peter's Catholic Church (800 East Grace Street) 1968 1969

Second Presbyterian Church (9 North Fifth Street) 1971 1972

Sixth Mount Zion Baptist Church
Sixth Mount Zion Baptist Church
(12-14 West Duval Street) 1996 1996

Stonewall Jackson
Stonewall Jackson
School (1520 West Main Street) 1984 1984

Talavera (2315 West Grace Street)

Valentine Museum and Wickham-Valentine House (1005-1015 East Clay Street) 1968 1969

Virginia
Virginia
House (4301 Sulgrave Road) 1989 1990

White House
White House
of the Confederacy (1200 East Clay Street) 1969 1966

Wilton (215 South Wilton Road) 1975 1976

Joseph P. Winston House (103 East Grace Street) 1978 1979

Woodward House-Rockets (3017 Williamsburg Avenue) 1974 1974

Food[edit] Richmond has been recognized in recent years for being a "foodie city", particularly for its modern renditions of traditional southern cuisine.[126][127][128] The city also claims the invention of the sailor sandwich, which includes pastrami, knockwurst, Swiss cheese
Swiss cheese
and mustard on rye bread.[129] Richmond is also where, in 1935, canned beer was made commercially available for the first time.[130] Parks and outdoor recreation[edit]

Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden

The city operates one of the oldest municipal park systems in the country. The park system began when the city council voted in 1851 to acquire 7.5 acres (30,000 m2), now known as Monroe Park. Today, Monroe Park
Monroe Park
sits adjacent to the Virginia
Virginia
Commonwealth University campus and is one of more than 40 parks comprising a total of more than 1,500 acres (610 ha). Several parks are located along the James River, and the James River Parks System offers bike trails, hiking and nature trails, and many scenic overlooks along the river's route through the city. https://www.trailforks.com/region/james-river-park-system/ The trails are used as part of the Xterra East Championship course for both the running and mountain biking portions of the off-road triathlon.[131] There are also parks on two major islands in the river: Belle Isle and Brown's Island. Belle Isle, at various former times a Powhatan
Powhatan
fishing village, colonial-era horse race track, and Civil War prison camp, is the larger of the two, and contains many bike trails as well as a small cliff that is used for rock climbing instruction. One can walk the island and still see many of the remains of the Civil War prison camp, such as an arms storage room and a gun emplacement that was used to quell prisoner riots. Brown's Island is a smaller island and a popular venue of a large number of free outdoor concerts and festivals in the spring and summer, such as the weekly Friday Cheers concert series or the James River
James River
Beer and Seafood Festival.

Japanese Garden at Maymont

Two other major parks in the city along the river are Byrd Park
Byrd Park
and Maymont, located near the Fan District. Byrd Park
Byrd Park
features a one-mile (1.6 km) running track, with exercise stops, a public dog park, and a number of small lakes for small boats, as well as two monuments, Buddha house, and an amphitheatre. Prominently featured in the park is the World War I Memorial Carillon, built in 1926 as a memorial to those that died in the war. Maymont, located adjacent to Byrd Park, is a 100-acre (40 ha) Victorian estate with a museum, formal gardens, native wildlife exhibits, nature center, carriage collection, and children's farm. Other parks in the city include Joseph Bryan Park Azalea Garden, Forest Hill Park (former site of the Forest Hill Amusement Park), Chimborazo Park
Chimborazo Park
(site of the National Battlefield Headquarters), among others. The James River
James River
itself through Richmond is renowned as one of the best in the country for urban white-water rafting/canoeing/kayaking. Several rafting companies offer complete services. There are also several easily accessed riverside areas within the city limits for rock-hopping, swimming, and picnicking. Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden
is located adjacent to the city in Henrico County. Founded in 1984, Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden
is located on 80 acres (320,000 m2) and features a glass conservatory, a rose garden, a healing garden, and an accessible-to-all children's garden. The Garden is a public place for the display and scientific study of plants. Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden is one of only two independent public botanical gardens in Virginia
Virginia
and is designated a state botanical garden.[132] Several theme parks are also located near the city, including Kings Dominion to the north, and Busch Gardens
Busch Gardens
to the east, near Williamsburg. Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Richmond, Virginia Richmond is not home to any major league professional sports teams, but since 2013, the Washington Redskins
Washington Redskins
of the National Football League have held their summer training camp in the city.[133] There are also several minor league sports in the city, including the Richmond Kickers
Richmond Kickers
of the United Soccer League
United Soccer League
(joint second tier of American soccer) and the Richmond Flying Squirrels
Richmond Flying Squirrels
of the Class AA Eastern League of Minor League Baseball
Minor League Baseball
(an affiliate of the San Francisco Giants).[134][135] The Kickers began playing in Richmond in 1993, and currently play at City Stadium. The Squirrels opened their first season at The Diamond on April 15, 2010.[136] From 1966 through 2008, the city was home to the Richmond Braves, a AAA affiliate of the Atlanta
Atlanta
Braves of Major League Baseball, until the franchise relocated to Georgia.[137] It is also the home to the Richmond Black Widows, the city's first women's football team, founded in 2015 by Sarah Schkeeper. They are a part of the Women's Football Alliance. Their game season begins in April, with preseason beginning in January. Another significant sports venue is the 6,000-seat Arthur Ashe Athletic Center, a multi-purpose arena named for tennis great and Richmond resident Arthur Ashe. This facility hosts a variety of local sporting events, concerts, and other activities. As the home of Arthur Ashe, the sport of tennis is also popular in Richmond, and in 2010, the United States
United States
Tennis
Tennis
Association named Richmond as the third "Best Tennis
Tennis
Town", behind Charleston, South Carolina, and Atlanta, Georgia.[138] Auto racing is also popular in the area. The Richmond Raceway
Richmond Raceway
(RR) has hosted Monster Energy
Monster Energy
NASCAR
NASCAR
Cup races since 1953, as well as the Capital City 400 from 1962 − 1980.[139] RIR also hosted IndyCar's Suntrust Indy Challenge from 2001 − 2009. Another track, Southside Speedway, has operated since 1959 and sits just southwest of Richmond in Chesterfield County. This .333-mile (0.536 km) oval short-track has become known as the "Toughest Track in the South" and "The Action Track", and features weekly stock car racing on Friday nights.[140] Southside Speedway
Southside Speedway
has acted as the breeding grounds for many past NASCAR
NASCAR
legends including Richard Petty, Bobby Allison
Bobby Allison
and Darrell Waltrip, and claims to be the home track of NASCAR
NASCAR
superstar Denny Hamlin.[141][142] In 2015, Richmond hosted the 2015 UCI Road World Championships, which had cyclists from 76 countries and an economic impact on the Greater Richmond Region estimated to be $158.1 million, from both event staging and visitor spending.[143] College basketball
College basketball
has also had recent success with the Richmond Spiders and the VCU
VCU
Rams, both of the Atlantic 10 Conference. The Spiders' men's and women's teams play at Robins Center
Robins Center
and the Rams' men's and women's teams play at the Stuart C. Siegel Center. Media[edit]

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: Media in Richmond, Virginia The Richmond Times-Dispatch, the local daily newspaper in Richmond with a Sunday circulation of 120,000, is owned by BH Media, a subsidiary of Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway
Berkshire Hathaway
company. Style Weekly is a standard weekly publication covering popular culture, arts, and entertainment, owned by Landmark Communications. RVA Magazine is the city's only independent art music and culture publication, was once monthly, but is now issued quarterly. The Richmond Free Press and the Voice cover the news from an African-American
African-American
perspective. The Richmond metro area is served by many local television and radio stations. As of 2010[update], the Richmond-Petersburg
Richmond-Petersburg
designated market area (DMA) is the 58th largest in the U.S. with 553,950 homes according to Nielsen Market Research.[144] The major network television affiliates are WTVR-TV 6 (CBS), WRIC-TV
WRIC-TV
8 (ABC), WWBT
WWBT
12 (NBC), WRLH-TV
WRLH-TV
35 (Fox), and WUPV
WUPV
65 (CW). Public Broadcasting Service stations include WCVE-TV
WCVE-TV
23 and WCVW
WCVW
57. There are also a wide variety of radio stations in the Richmond area, catering to many different interests, including news, talk radio, and sports, as well as an eclectic mix of musical interests. Richmond enjoys a low power FM Station, WRIR, which features all volunteer community supported radio at all hours. Government and politics[edit]

Richmond City Hall

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See also: List of mayors of Richmond, Virginia Main article: Government of Richmond, Virginia

Presidential Elections Results[145]

Year Republican Democratic Third Parties

2016 15.1% 15,581 78.6% 81,259 6.4% 6,566

2012 20.6% 20,050 77.8% 75,921 1.6% 1,598

2008 20.0% 18,649 79.1% 73,623 0.9% 813

2004 29.1% 21,637 70.2% 52,167 0.7% 521

2000 30.7% 20,265 64.8% 42,717 4.5% 2,944

1996 31.3% 20,993 63.0% 42,273 5.7% 3,812

1992 30.5% 24,341 59.8% 47,642 9.7% 7,752

1988 42.3% 31,586 56.4% 42,155 1.3% 995

1984 43.7% 38,754 55.8% 49,408 0.5% 466

1980 39.8% 34,629 55.1% 47,975 5.2% 4,502

1976 44.7% 37,176 53.8% 44,687 1.5% 1,247

1972 57.6% 46,244 41.2% 33,055 1.3% 1,003

1968 39.6% 26,380 49.3% 32,857 11.2% 7,431

1964 43.2% 27,196 56.7% 35,662 0.1% 32

1960 60.4% 27,307 39.0% 17,642 0.6% 256

1956 61.8% 27,367 24.3% 10,758 13.9% 6,166

1952 60.3% 29,300 39.6% 19,235 0.2% 75

1948 41.2% 14,549 46.6% 16,466 12.2% 4,286

1944 27.8% 8,737 72.0% 22,584 0.2% 66

1940 23.7% 6,031 76.0% 19,332 0.3% 76

1936 19.2% 4,478 80.5% 18,784 0.4% 86

1932 27.1% 5,602 70.8% 14,631 2.2% 448

1928 51.3% 10,767 48.7% 10,213

1924 19.4% 2,600 73.8% 9,904 6.8% 917

1920 23.0% 4,515 75.9% 14,878 1.0% 202

1916 14.6% 1,210 84.2% 6,987 1.3% 106

1912 6.1% 405 85.0% 5,632 8.9% 586

Richmond city government consists of a city council with representatives from nine districts serving in a legislative and oversight capacity, as well as a popularly elected, at-large mayor serving as head of the executive branch. Citizens in each of the nine districts elect one council representative each to serve a four-year term. Beginning with the November 2008 election Council terms was lengthened to 4 years. The city council elects from among its members one member to serve as Council President and one to serve as Council Vice President. The city council meets at City Hall, located at 900 E. Broad St., 2nd Floor, on the second and fourth Mondays of every month, except August. In 1977, a federal district court ruled in favor of Curtis Holt Jr. who had claimed the council's existing election process — an at large voting system — was racially biased. The verdict required the city to rebuild its council into nine distinct wards. Within the year the city council switched from majority white to majority black, reflecting the city's populace. This new city council elected Richmond's first black mayor, Henry L. Marsh. In 1990 religion and politics intersected to impact the outcome of the Eighth District election in South Richmond. With the endorsements of black power brokers, black clergy and the Richmond Crusade for Voters, South Richmond residents made history, electing Reverend A. Carl Prince to the Richmond City Council. As the first African American Baptist Minister elected to the Richmond City Council, Prince's election paved the way for a political paradigm shift in politics that persist today. Following Prince's election, Reverend Gwendolyn Hedgepeth and the Reverend Leonidas Young, former Richmond Mayor were elected to public office. Prior to Prince's election black clergy made political endorsements and served as appointees to the Richmond School Board and other boards throughout the city. Today religion and politics continues to thrive in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Dwight C. Jones, a prominent Baptist pastor and former Chairman of the Richmond School Board and Member of the Virginia
Virginia
House of Delegates serves as Mayor of the City of Richmond. Richmond's government changed in 2004 from a council-manager form of government to an at-large, popularly elected Mayor. In a landslide election, incumbent mayor Rudy McCollum was defeated by L. Douglas Wilder, who previously served Virginia
Virginia
as the first elected African American governor in the United States
United States
since Reconstruction. The current mayor of Richmond is Levar Stoney
Levar Stoney
who was elected in 2016.[146] The mayor is not a part of the Richmond City Council. As of 2017[update], the Richmond City Council consisted of:

Chris A. Hilbert, 3rd District (Northside), President of Council Cynthia I Newbille, 7th District (East End) Vice-President of Council Andreas D. Addison, 1st District (West End) Kimberly B. Gray, 2nd District (North Central) Kristen Nye Larson, 4th District (Southwest) Parker C. Agelasto, 5th District (Central) Ellen F. Robertson, 6th District (Gateway) Reva M. Trammell, 8th District (Southside) Michael J. Jones 9th District (South Central)

[147] Education[edit]

The Art Deco-styled Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
High School in the near West End

Main article: Richmond Public Schools The city of Richmond operates 28 elementary schools, nine middle schools, and eight high schools, serving a total student population of 24,000 students.[148] There is one Governor's School in the city − the Maggie L. Walker
Maggie L. Walker
Governor's School for Government and International Studies. In 2008, it was named as one of Newsweek magazine's 18 "public elite" high schools,[149] and in 2012, it was rated #16 of America's best high schools overall.[150] Richmond's public school district also runs one of Virginia's four public charter schools, the Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry
School of Science and Arts, which was founded in 2010.[151] As of 2008, there were 36 private schools serving grades one or higher in the city of Richmond.[152] Some of these schools include: Benedictine High School, St. Bridget School, Brook Road Academy, Collegiate School, St. Christopher's School, St. Gertrude High School, St. Catherine's School, Southside Baptist Christian School, Northstar Academy, The Steward School, Trinity Episcopal School, and Veritas School. Colleges and universities[edit] The Richmond area has many major institutions of higher education, including Virginia
Virginia
Commonwealth University (public), University of Richmond (private), Virginia
Virginia
Union University (private), Virginia College (private), South University–Richmond (private, for-profit),[153] Union Theological Seminary & Presbyterian School of Christian Education (private), and the Baptist Theological Seminary in Richmond (BTSR—private). Several community colleges are found in the metro area, including J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College
J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College
and John Tyler Community College
John Tyler Community College
(Chesterfield County). In addition, there are several Technical Colleges in Richmond including ITT Technical Institute, ECPI College of Technology
ECPI College of Technology
and Centura College. There are several vocational colleges also, such as Fortis College and Bryant Stratton College. Virginia
Virginia
State University is located about 20 miles (32 km) south of Richmond, in the suburb of Ettrick, just outside Petersburg. Randolph-Macon College
Randolph-Macon College
is located about 15 miles (24 km) north of Richmond, in the incorporated town of Ashland. Infrastructure[edit] Transportation[edit]

Richmond's downtown Main Street Station

Main article: Transportation in Richmond, Virginia The Greater Richmond area is served by the Richmond International Airport (IATA: RIC, ICAO: KRIC), located in nearby Sandston, seven miles (11 km) southeast of Richmond and within an hour drive of historic Williamsburg, Virginia. Richmond International is now served by nine airlines with over 200 daily flights providing non-stop service to major destination markets and connecting flights to destinations worldwide. A record 3.3 million passengers used Richmond International Airport in 2006, a 13% increase over 2005. Richmond is a major hub for intercity bus company Greyhound Lines, with its terminal at 2910 N Boulevard. Multiple runs per day connect directly with Washington, D.C., New York, Raleigh, and elsewhere. Direct trips to New York take approximately 7.5 hours. Discount carrier Megabus also provides curbside service from outside of Main Street Station, with fares starting at $1. Direct service is available to Washington, D.C., Hampton Roads, Charlotte, Raleigh, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. Most other connections to Megabus served cities, such as New York, can be made from Washington, D.C.[154] Richmond, and the surrounding metropolitan area, was granted a roughly $25 million grant from the U.S. Department of Transportation in 2014[155] to support the GRTC Pulse
GRTC Pulse
bus rapid transit system, which will run along Broad Street from Willow Lawn to Rocketts Landing, in the first phase of an improved public transportation hub for the region. Local transit and paratransit bus service in Richmond, Henrico, and Chesterfield counties is provided by the Greater Richmond Transit Company (GRTC). The GRTC, however, serves only small parts of the suburban counties. The far West End (Innsbrook and Short Pump) and almost all of Chesterfield County
County
have no public transportation despite dense housing, retail, and office development. According to a 2008 GRTC operations analysis report, a majority of GRTC riders utilize their services because they do not have an available alternative such as a private vehicle.[156] The Richmond area also has two railroad stations served by Amtrak. Each station receives regular service from north of Richmond including Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, and New York. The suburban Staples Mill Road Station is located on a major north-south freight line and receives all service to and from all points south including, Raleigh, Durham, Savannah, Newport News, Williamsburg and Florida. Richmond's only railway station located within the city limits, the historic Main Street Station, was renovated in 2004.[157] As of 2010, the station only receives trains headed to and from Newport News and Williamsburg due to track layout. As a result, the Staples Mill Road station receives more trains and serves more passengers overall. Richmond also benefits from an excellent position in reference to the state's transportation network, lying at the junction of east-west Interstate 64
Interstate 64
and north-south Interstate 95, two of the most heavily traveled highways in the state, as well as along several major rail lines. Major highways[edit]

I-64 I-95 (Richmond–Petersburg Turnpike) I-195 I-295 US 1 US 33 US 60 US 250 (Broad Street) US 301 US 360 SR 5 SR 6 SR 10 SR 33 SR 76 ( Powhite Parkway
Powhite Parkway
toll road) SR 146 SR 147 SR 150 (Chippenham Parkway) SR 161 SR 197 SR 288 SR 353

Utilities[edit] Electricity in the Richmond Metro area is provided by Dominion Energy. The company, based in Richmond, is one of the nation's largest producers of energy, serving retail energy customers in nine states. Electricity is provided in the Richmond area primarily by the North Anna Nuclear Generating Station and Surry Nuclear Generating Station, as well as a coal-fired station in Chester, Virginia. These three plants provide a total of 4,453 megawatts of power. Several other natural gas plants provide extra power during times of peak demand. These include facilities in Chester, and Surry, and two plants in Richmond (Gravel Neck and Darbytown).[158] Natural gas in the Richmond Metro area is provided by the city's Department of Public Utilities and also serves portions of Henrico and Chesterfield counties. Water is provided by the city's Department of Public Utilities, and is one of the largest water producers in Virginia, with a modern plant that can treat up to 132 million gallons of water a day from the James River.[159] The facility also provides water to the surrounding area through wholesale contracts with Henrico, Chesterfield, and Hanover counties. Overall, this results in a facility that provides water for approximately 500,000 people. The wastewater treatment plant and distribution system of water mains, pumping stations and storage facilities provide water to approximately 62,000 customers in the city. There is also a wastewater treatment plant located on the south bank of the James River. This plant can treat up to 70 million gallons of water per day of sanitary sewage and stormwater before returning it to the river. The wastewater utility also operates and maintains 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of sanitary sewer and pumping stations, 38 miles (61 km) of intercepting sewer lines, and the Shockoe Retention Basin, a 44-million-gallon stormwater reservoir used during heavy rains. International relations[edit] Sister cities[edit] Richmond maintains the following five sister city relationships:[160]

Richmond-upon-Thames, England, United Kingdom Saitama, Japan Windhoek, Namibia Zhengzhou, China Ségou, Mali

See also[edit]

Virginia
Virginia
portal

List of Richmonders National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in Richmond, Virginia New South Richmond Police Department

Notes[edit]

^ Annual records from the airport weather station that date back to 1948 are available on the web.[46] ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records for Richmond kept January 1887 to December 1910 at downtown, Chimborazo Park
Chimborazo Park
from January 1911 to December 1929, and at Richmond Int'l since January 1930. For more information, see Threadex

References[edit]

^ City Connection, Office of the Press Secretary to the Mayor. Richmondgov.com. January–March 2010 edition. Retrieved February 8, 2010. ^ Civil War Richmond – The South's Capital – Virginia
Virginia
Is For Lovers. Virginia.org (May 18, 2012). Retrieved on 2013-08-21. ^ Griset, Rich. (August 9, 2013) One of the most extensive collections of Eskimo folk art is right here in Richmond.. Style Weekly. Retrieved on 2013-08-21. ^ "American FactFinder". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008.  ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States
United States
Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.  ^ a b "Richmond city QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". State and County
County
QuickFacts. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved April 9, 2016.  ^ a b Blackwell, John Reid. "Six local companies make the Fortune 500 list". Retrieved August 7, 2014.  ^ City of Richmond. "History". Retrieved August 7, 2014.  ^ Scott, Mary Wingfield (1941). Houses of Old Richmond (PDF). Richmond, Virginia: The Valentine Museum.  ^ Grafton, John. "The Declaration of Independence and Other Great Documents of American History: 1775–1864." 2000, Courier Dover Publications, pp. 1–4. ^ "April dates in Virginia
Virginia
history." Virginia
Virginia
Historical Society. Retrieved on July 11, 2007. ^ Annals of Augusta County, Virginia, from 1726 to 1871.  ^ Morrissey, Brendan. "Yorktown 1781: The World Turned Upside Down." Published 1997, Osprey Publishing, pp. 14–16. ^ Peterson, Merrill D.; Vaughan, Robert C. The Virginia
Virginia
Statute for Religious Freedom: Its Evolution and Consequences in American History. Published 1988, Cambridge University Press. Retrieved on July 11, 2007. ^ Switala, William J. "The Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad
in Pennsylvania." Published 2001, Stackpole Books. pp. 1–4. ^ The New American Encyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge. D. Appleton. 1872. p. 196.  ^ Bruce Levine, The Fall of the House of Dixie (New York, Random House 2014) pp. 269–70 ^ Time-Life Books. The Blockade: Runners and Raiders. Published 1983, Time-Life, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8094-4709-1 ^ Levine pp. 271–72 ^ Levine, pp. 272–73 ^ Mike Wright, City Under Siege: Richmond in the Civil War (Rowman & Littlefield, 1995) ^ Levine pp. 275–78 ^ Levine pop. 279–82 ^ Dunaway, Wayland F. "History of the James River
James River
and Kanawha Company." Published 1922, Columbia University. Retrieved on July 11, 2007. ^ Smil, Vaclav. Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867–1914 and Their Lasting Impact. Published 2005, Oxford University Press, p. 94. ISBN 978-0-19-516874-7 ^ Harwood, Jr., Herbert H. Baltimore
Baltimore
Streetcars: The Postwar Years. Published 2003, Johns Hopkins University Press, p. vii. ISBN 978-0-8018-7190-0 ^ "Transit Topics." Published November 27, 1949 and November 30, 1957, Virginia
Virginia
Transit Company, Richmond, Virginia. ^ Gibson, Campbell. "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990 Archived copy at WebCite (July 10, 2007).." United States
United States
Census Bureau, June 1998. Retrieved on July 11, 2007. ^ " Virginia
Virginia
– Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012.  ^ Felder, Deborah G. "A Century of Women: The Most Influential Events in Twentieth-Century Women's History, 1999, Citadel Press, p. 338. ISBN 978-1-55972-485-2 ^ Chesson, Michael B. "Richmond After the War, 1865 to 1890." Published 1981, Virginia
Virginia
State Library, p. 177. ^ Tyler-McGraw, Marie. "At the Falls: Richmond, Virginia, and Its People." Published 1994, UNC Press, p. 257. ISBN 978-0-8078-4476-2 ^ "About VCU." Virginia
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Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2011.  ^ " Uniform Crime Reports
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by Metropolitan Statistical Area, 2013". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved September 28, 2016.  ^ Rockett, Ali (January 14, 2017). "61 people were slain in Richmond in 2016. Here are their stories." Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved January 15, 2017. ^ "History of Second Presbyterian Church, Richmond." Second Presbyterian Church. Retrieved on January 20, 2010. ^ "St. Peter's' Site". Stpeterchurch1834.org. Archived from the original on February 26, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2012.  ^ "Cathedral of The Sacred Heart Catholic Diocese of Richmond". Richmonddiocese.org. Retrieved February 10, 2012.  ^ "Chabad of the Virginias". Chabad.org. Retrieved November 1, 2011.  ^ "Bonay Kodesh Reform Judaism Chesterfield, Virginia". Bonay Kodesh Reform Judaism Chesterfield, Virginia. Retrieved March 17, 2016.  ^ Richmond Greek Festival. Retrieved on January 20, 2010. ^ " Masjid
Masjid
Al-Falah". Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ "West End Islamic Center". Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ " Masjid
Masjid
Yusuf". Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ "History of Local Masajid." Islamic Society of Greater Richmond. February 2006. Retrieved on February 22, 2007. ^ " Masjid
Masjid
Bilal". Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ "Islamic Center of Virginia". Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ "Islamic Center of Richmond". Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ " Masjid
Masjid
Umm Barakah". Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ "Islamic Society of Greater Richmond". Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ "Masjidullah". Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ " Masjid
Masjid
Ar-Rahman". Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ "History of the Diocese & Diocesan Statistics Catholic Diocese of Richmond". Richmonddiocese.org. Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2012.  ^ Parish Search School Search. "Parish Locator Catholic Diocese of Richmond". Richmonddiocese.org. Retrieved February 10, 2012.  ^ "The Oldest Businesses in Richmond". Whitten Brothers. Retrieved July 8, 2016.  ^ The Top 5. Creativity. March 2005. Archived December 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Home • Virginia
Virginia
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Richmond CenterStage
opens its doors Saturday." Richmond Times-Dispatch. September 9, 2009. Retrieved on January 20, 2010. ^ Jones, Will. "Showtime's set." "Richmond Times-Dispatch". January 14, 2007. Retrieved on February 22, 2007.[dead link] ^ Peifer, Karri. "Richmond is 'The Next Great American Food City'", Richmond.com, Richmond, August 25, 2014. Retrieved on August 25, 2014. ^ Andrews, Colman (August 18, 2014). "Richmond: The Next Great American Food City". Departures. Retrieved August 30, 2015.  ^ Cole, Jennifer. "Best New Restaurants: 12 To Watch", Southern Living, August 12, 2014. Retrieved on August 12, 2014. ^ http://www.richmond.com/business/local/richmond-area-now-home-to-fortune-companies-up-from-last/article_d027a921-761a-5245-8966-383cc6936306.html ^ "City's bid for corporate HQ lost in traffic". Atlanta
Atlanta
Business Chronicle. Retrieved July 16, 2013.  ^ "Minacs to Hire 250+ in Richmond, VA: Invites Applications". Yahoo Finance. March 20, 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.  ^ " Amazon.com
Amazon.com
to open two fulfillment centers in Va". Retailing Today. Retrieved July 16, 2013.  ^ "Honeywell Expands Advanced Fiber Production in Virginia". Business Facilities. Retrieved February 9, 2012.  ^ "Archives - Beth Ahabah". Beth Ahabah. Retrieved 2017-12-03.  ^ "Six Years Later «". Save Richmond. July 19, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2012.  ^ Gwar Inc. How the most vile, disgusting, offensive group of musicians in town became Richmond's most famous musical export. Style Weekly, March 27, 2012 ^ "Contact Support". RVA Street Art Festival. Retrieved May 25, 2014.  ^ http://rvamag.com/articles/full/24711/broad-street-mural-a-bright-spot-in-a-sea-of-grayness ^ "2014 Richmond Mural Project by ART WHINO GALLERY". Kickstarter.com. Retrieved May 25, 2014.  ^ Macready, William, The diaries of William Charles Macready, 1833–1851, Volume 2, p. 416 ^ "Know a Theatre: Virginia
Virginia
Repertory Theatre of Richmond, Va". americantheatre.org.  ^ "Leslie Cheek Jr., 84 - Led Virginia
Virginia
Museum". NYTimes.com. December 8, 1992. Retrieved November 12, 2015.  ^ "Dictionary of Art Historians". arthistorians.info.  ^ Kass, Carole, "Play Prompts Praise..." in Richmond Times-Dispatch, February 9, 1975 ^ "Theatre Virginia
Virginia
Closes Its Doors After 50 Years, Citing Money Woes, Loss of Home, Sniper". Playbill. Archived from the original on November 19, 2012.  ^ " Virginia
Virginia
Museum of Fine Arts". Triposo.com. Retrieved May 25, 2014.  ^ "Top-ranked Graduate and First Professional Programs Archived November 28, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.." U.S. News & World Report. March 31, 2006. Retrieved on February 22, 2007. ^ http://www.poemuseum.org ^ a b https://english.vcu.edu/mfa/creative-writing-faculty/ ^ Hansen, Harry. "The Civil War: A History." Published 2002, Signet Classic. ISBN 978-0-451-52849-0 ^ "Jefferson & The Capital Of Virginia." An Exhibition at the Library of Virginia; January 7 – June 15, 2002. Retrieved on January 20, 2010. ^ Robert P. Winthrop, Cast and Wrought: The Architectural Metalwork of Richmond, Virginia, (Richmond, Virginia: Valentine Museum, 1980), 93. ^ "The Harvard Five in New Canaan", William D. Earls AIA, W. W Norton and Co., 2006 ISBN 978-0-393-73183-5 ^ City Code of Richmond, Virginia, Section 30-930.2. ^ City Code of Richmond, Virginia, Section 30-930.5. ^ Detailed descriptions of these districts are provided by the city in Old & Historic Districts of Richmond, Virginia, Handbook and Design Review Guidelines (1st Edition, December, 2006, updated January, 2015), p. 11. ^ The Virginia
Virginia
Department of Historic Resources maintains copies of the applications filed with the National Registry of Historic Places. ^ Karri Peifer (September 10, 2014). "Richmond One of '8 Under-the-Radar Foodie
Foodie
Cities' in the World". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved July 2, 2015.  ^ Steve Hargreaves (January 29, 2015). "Richmond, Virginia
Virginia
– 7 up-and-coming foodie destinations". CNN Money. Retrieved July 2, 2015.  ^ Liz Weiss (September 4, 2014). "8 Under-the-Radar Foodie
Foodie
Cities". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved July 2, 2015.  ^ Imajo, Anika (September 15, 2010). "Richmond's Very Own Sandwich". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved July 2, 2015.  ^ Maxwell, DBS (1993). "Beer Cans: A Guide for the Archaeologist". Historical Archaeology. 27 (1). doi:10.2307/25616219.  ^ Richmond Times-Dispatch. "XTERRA East Championship". Retrieved November 9, 2016.  ^ " Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden
Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden
Factsheet" (PDF). Retrieved November 1, 2011.  ^ "Camp Richmond". Fredericksburg.com. June 11, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ "About Richmond Kickers". USL Soccer. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ "Richmond Flying Squirrels". Minor League Baseball. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ O'Connor, John (October 15, 2009). "Flying Squirrels picked as new baseball team name". Richmond Times Dispatch. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ Ress, David; Martz, Michael (January 16, 2008). "Braves strike out... for new home in Ga". Richmond Times Dispatch. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "Richmond Places Third in Best Tennis
Tennis
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United States
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Virginia
is for Lovers and Richmond International Raceway
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team up for NASCAR
NASCAR
Spring Cup Series Race". Richmond International Raceway. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ " Southside Speedway
Southside Speedway
Track Facts". Southside Speedway. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ Netherland, Tom (February 2006). "Richmond Loves Racing". Richmond Magazine. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ Brockwell, Kent Jennings (September 4, 2006). "10 Questions: Sue Clements: Southside Speedway's co-owner/promoter". Richmond.com. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ "Richmond 2015". Richmond 2015. September 17, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015.  ^ Holmes, Gary. "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). Nielsen Media Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 11, 2009. Retrieved October 2, 2009.  ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS ^ "Richmond City Government". Retrieved January 30, 2017.  ^ "Richmond VA > City Council > Contacts". richmondgov.com.  ^ " Richmond Public Schools Overview – At A Glance". Richmond Public Schools. June 2008. Retrieved October 2, 2009.  ^ Hickey, Gordon (December 8, 2008). "Governor Kaine Congratulates Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
High School For Science And Technology ~ Fairfax County
County
school again tops U.S. News & World Report's list of 100 best ~". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Education. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ "America's Best High Schools 2012". Newsweek. May 20, 2012. Archived from the original on May 21, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ "Virginia's Public Charter Schools". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Education. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ "Private Schools List". Richmond Times Dispatch. January 27, 2008. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ " South University
South University
Richmond: Review & Facts - American School Search". Retrieved July 3, 2016.  ^ Garbarek, Ben (November 16, 2010). "Megabus coming to Richmond with cheap fares – NBC12 News, Weather Sports, Traffic, and Programming Guide for Richmond, VA ". Nbc12.com. Retrieved November 1, 2011.  ^ "U.S. Transportation Secretary Foxx Announces $24.9 Million in TIGER Funds for Richmond Bus
Bus
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Virginia
Government. Retrieved May 12, 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Bill, Alfred Hoyt. The Beleaguered City: Richmond, 1861-1865 (1946). Calcutt, Rebecca Barbour. Richmond's Wartime Hospitals (Pelican Publishing, 2005). Chesson, Michael B. Richmond after the war, 1865-1890 ( Virginia
Virginia
State Library, 1981). Dabney, Virginius (1990). Richmond: The Story of a City (revised and expanded ed.). University Press of Virginia. ISBN 0813912741.  Furgurson, Ernest B. Ashes of glory: Richmond at war (1996). Hoffman, Steven J. Race, Class and Power in the Building of Richmond, 1870-1920 (McFarland, 2004). Mustian, Thomas F. Facts and Legends of Richomond Area Streets. (Richmond, VA: Dementi Milestone Publishing, 2007). Thomas, Emory M. The Confederate State of Richmond: A Biography of the Capital (LSU Press, 1998). Trammell, Jack. The Richmond Slave Trade: The Economic Backbone of the Old Dominion (The History Press, 2012). Wright, Mike. City Under Siege: Richmond in the Civil War (Rowman & Littlefield, 1995)

External links[edit]

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