PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND (PEI or P.E.I.; French : _Île-du-Prince-Édouard_) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, as well as several much smaller islands .
Prince Edward Island is one of the three Maritime Provinces and is the smallest province in both land area and population. It is the only subnational jurisdiction of North America outside the Caribbean to have no mainland territory, and the only such jurisdiction to have no land boundary. The island has several informal names: "Garden of the Gulf," referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural lands throughout the province; and "Birthplace of Confederation" or "Cradle of Confederation", referring to the Charlottetown Conference in 1864, although PEI did not join Confederation until 1873, when it became the seventh Canadian province. The backbone of the economy is farming ; it produces 25% of Canada's potatoes. Historically, PEI is one of Canada's older settlements and demographically still reflects older immigration to the country, with Celtic, Anglo-Saxon and French surnames being dominant to this day.
According to the 2016 census, the province of Prince Edward Island has 142,907 residents. It is located about 200 kilometres (120 miles) north of Halifax, Nova Scotia and 600 kilometres (370 miles) east of Quebec City . It consists of the main island and 231 minor islands. Altogether, the entire province has a land area of 5,686.03 km2 (2,195.39 sq mi). Its capital is Charlottetown .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate * 2.2 Geology * 2.3 Water supply * 2.4 Flora and fauna
* 3 History
* 3.1 French colony
* 3.2 British colony
* 3.2.1 Land distribution * 3.2.2 Raid on Charlottetown (1775)
* 3.3 Confederation
* 4 Demographics
* 4.1 Language * 4.2 Religion
* 5 Economy
* 6 Government and politics
* 6.1 Municipalities
* 7 Transportation * 8 Education * 9 Health care
* 10 Culture and sports
* 10.1 Arts * 10.2 Festivals * 10.3 Sports
* 11 Notable people * 12 Sister province * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links
1834 Edward Scriven engraving of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn , after W. Beechey's portrait
The island is named for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820), the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria . Prince Edward has been called "Father of the Canadian Crown." The following island landmarks are also named after the Duke of Kent:
* Prince Edward Battery, Victoria Park, Charlottetown * Kent College (Established in 1804 by Lieutenant Governor Edmund Fanning and his Legislative Council, the college would eventually become the University of Prince Edward Island), Charlottetown * Kent Street, Charlottetown * West Kent Elementary School * Kent Street, Georgetown
In French, the island is called today _Île-du-Prince-Édouard_, but its former French name, from the time of New France until it was rebaptized by the British in 1798, was _ Île Saint-Jean _ (St. John's Island). The island is known in Scottish Gaelic as _Eilean a' Phrionnsa_ (lit. "the Island of the Prince", the local form of the longer 'Eilean a' Phrionnsa Iomhair/Eideard') or _Eilean Eòin_ for some Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia though not on PEI (lit. "John's Island" in reference to the island's former name); in Míkmaq as _Abegweit_ or _Epekwitk_ roughly translated "land cradled in the waves".
Main article: Geography of Prince Edward Island
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A wooden boardwalk in Prince Edward Island National Park in Greenwich
Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence , west of Cape Breton Island , north of the Nova Scotia peninsula , and east of New Brunswick . Its southern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait . The island has two urban areas. The largest surrounds Charlottetown Harbour, situated centrally on the island's southern shore, and consists of the capital city Charlottetown , and suburban towns Cornwall and Stratford and a developing urban fringe . A much smaller urban area surrounds Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore 40 km (25 mi) west of Charlottetown Harbour, and consists primarily of the city of Summerside . As with all natural harbours on the island, Charlottetown and Summerside harbours are created by rias .
The island's landscape is pastoral . Rolling hills, woods, reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves and the famous red soil have given Prince Edward Island a reputation as a province of outstanding natural beauty. The provincial government has enacted laws to preserve the landscape through regulation, although there is a lack of consistent enforcement, and an absence of province-wide zoning and land-use planning. Under the Planning Act of the province, municipalities have the option to assume responsibility for land-use planning through the development and adoption of official plans and land use bylaws. Thirty-one municipalities have taken responsibility for planning. In areas where municipalities have not assumed responsibility for planning, the Province remains responsible for development control. The landward side of sand dunes in Cavendish
The island's lush landscape has a strong bearing on its economy and culture. The author Lucy Maud Montgomery drew inspiration from the land during the late Victorian Era for the setting of her classic novel _ Anne of Green Gables _ (1908). Today, many of the same qualities that Montgomery and others found in the island are enjoyed by tourists who visit year-round. They enjoy a variety of leisure activities, including beaches , various golf courses , eco-tourism adventures, touring the countryside, and enjoying cultural events in local communities around the island.
The smaller, rural communities as well as the towns and villages throughout the province, retain a slower-paced, old-world flavour. Prince Edward Island has become popular as a tourist destination for relaxation. The economy of most rural communities on the island is based on small-scale agriculture . Industrial farming has increased as businesses buy and consolidate older farm properties.
The coastline has a combination of long beaches , dunes, red sandstone cliffs, salt water marshes , and numerous bays and harbours . The beaches, dunes and sandstone cliffs consist of sedimentary rock and other material with a high iron concentration, which oxidises upon exposure to the air. The geological properties of a white silica sand found at Basin Head are unique in the province; the sand grains cause a scrubbing noise as they rub against each other when walked on, and have been called the "singing sands".
Large dune fields on the north shore can be found on barrier islands at the entrances to various bays and harbours. The magnificent sand dunes at Greenwich are of particular significance. The shifting, parabolic dune system is home to a variety of birds and rare plants; it is also a site of significant archeological interest.
Despite Prince Edward Island's small size and reputation as a largely rural province, it is the most densely populated province in Canada. Prince Edward Island amongst the Maritimes
Köppen climate types of Prince Edward Island
The climate of the island is considered to be moderate and strongly influenced by the surrounding seas. As such, it is milder than inland locations owing to the warm waters from the Gulf of St. Lawrence . The climate is characterized by changeable weather throughout the year; it has some of the most variable day-to-day weather in Canada, in which specific weather conditions seldom last for long.
During July and August, the average daytime high in PEI is 23 °C (73 °F); however, the temperature can sometimes exceed 30 °C (86 °F) during these months. In the winter months of January and February, the average daytime high is −3.3 °C (26 °F). The Island receives an average yearly rainfall of 855 millimetres (33.7 in) and an average yearly snowfall of 285 centimetres (112 in).
Winters are moderately cold and long but are milder than inland locations, with clashes of cold Arctic air and milder Atlantic air causing frequent temperature swings. The climate is considered to be more continental than oceanic since the Gulf of St. Lawrence freezes over, thus eliminating any moderation. The mean temperature is −7 °C (19 °F) in January. During the winter months, the island usually has many storms (which may produce rain as well as snow) and blizzards since during this time, storms originating from the North Atlantic or the Gulf of Mexico frequently pass through. Springtime temperatures typically remain cool until the sea ice has melted, usually in late April or early May. Summers are moderately warm, but rarely uncomfortable, with the daily maximum temperature only occasionally reaching as high as 30 °C (86 °F). Autumn is a pleasant season, as the moderating Gulf waters delay the onset of frost, although storm activity increases compared to the summer. There is ample precipitation throughout the year, although it is heaviest in the late autumn, early winter and mid spring.
Between 250 and 300 million years ago, freshwater streams flowing from ancient mountains brought silt, sand and gravel into what is now the Gulf of St. Lawrence. These sediments accumulated to form a sedimentary basin , and make up the island's bedrock . When Pleistocene glaciers receded about 15,000 years ago, glacial debris such as till were left behind to cover most of the area that would become the island. This area was connected to the mainland by a strip of land, but when ocean levels rose as the glaciers melted this land strip was flooded, forming the island. As the land rebounded from the weight of the ice, the island rose up to elevate it further from the surrounding water.
Although commercial deposits of minerals have not been found, exploration in the 1940s for natural gas beneath the northeastern end of the province resulted in the discovery of an undisclosed quantity of gas. The Island was reported by government to have only 0.08 tcf of "technically recoverable" natural gas. Twenty exploration wells for hydrocarbon resources have been drilled on Prince Edward Island and offshore. The first reported well was Hillsborough No.#1, drilled in Charlottetown Harbour in 1944 (the world’s first offshore well), and the most recent was New Harmony No.#1 in 2007. Since the resurgence of exploration in the mid-1990s, all wells that have shown promising gas deposits have been stimulated through hydraulic fracture or “fracking”. All oil and natural gas exploration and exploitation activities on the Island are governed by the _Oil and Natural Gas Act_ R.S.P.E.I. 1988, Cap. 0-5 and its associated regulations and orders.
The Province of Prince Edward Island is completely dependent on groundwater for its source of drinking water. As groundwater flows through an aquifer it is naturally filtered. The water for City of Charlottetown is extracted from thirteen wells in three wellfields and distributed to customers. The water removed is replenished by precipitation.
Infrastructure in Charlottetown that was installed in 1888 is still in existence. With the age of the system in the older part of Charlottetown, concern has been raised regarding lead pipes. The Utility has been working with its residents on a lead replacement program. A plebiscite in 1967 was held in Charlottetown over fluoridation, and residents voted in favour. Under provincial legislation, the Utility is required to report to its residents on an annual basis. It is also required to do regular sampling of the water and an overview is included in each annual report. The Winter River watershed provides about 92 per cent of the 18 million litre water supply for the city of Charlottetown, which had difficulty in each of 2011, 2012 and 2013 with its supply, until water meters were installed.
Minister of Communities, Land and Environment Robert Mitchell tabled a discussion paper on the proposed _Water Act_ for the province on 8 July 2015. The use of groundwater came under scrutiny as the potato industry, which accounts for $1 billion every year and 50% of farm receipts, has pressed the government to lift a moratorium on high-capacity water wells for irrigation. The release of the discussion paper was to set off a consultation process in the autumn of 2015.
Detailed information about the quality of drinking water in PEI communities and watersheds can be found at the Department of Environment, Labour and Justice . It provides a summary of the ongoing testing of drinking water done by the Prince Edward Island Analytical Laboratories . Average drinking water quality results are available, and information on the following parameters are provided: alkalinity, cadmium, calcium, chloride, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, nitrate, pH, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfate, as well as the presence of pesticides. Water testing services are provided for a variety of clients through the PEI Analytical Laboratories, which assesses according to the recommendations of the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality published by Health Canada .
FLORA AND FAUNA
Prince Edward Island used to have native moose, bear, caribou, wolf, and other larger species. Due to hunting and habitat disruption these species are no longer found on the island. Some species common to P.E.I. are red foxes , coyote , blue jays , and robins. Skunks and raccoons are common non-native species. Species at risk in P.E.I. include piping plovers , american eel , bobolinks , little brown bat , and beach pinweed.
Some species are unique to P.E.I..In 2008, a new ascomycete species, _Jahnula apiospora_ (Jahnulales, Dothideomycetes), was collected from submerged wood in a freshwater creek on Prince Edward Island, Canada. North Atlantic right whales , one of the rarest whale species, were once thought to be rare visitors into St. Lawrence regions until 1994, have been showing dramatic increases (annual concentrations were discovered off Percé in 1995 and gradual increases across the regions since in 1998), and since in 2014, notable numbers of whales have been recorded around Cape Breton to Prince Edward Island as 35 to 40 whales were seen in these areas in 2015.
Main article: History of Prince Edward Island Lighthouse on Panmure Island
Before the influx of Europeans, the Mi\'kmaq First Nations inhabited Prince Edward Island. They named the Island _Epekwitk_, meaning "cradled on the waves"; Europeans represented the pronunciation as _Abegweit_. The natives believed that the island was formed by the Great Spirit placing on the Blue Waters some dark red crescent-shaped clay.
Battle At Port-la-Joye (1745)
After the Siege of Louisbourg (1745) during the War of the Austrian Succession , the New Englanders also captured Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island). An English detachment landed at Port-la-Joye. Under the command of Joseph de Pont Duvivier , the French had a garrison of 20 French troops at Port-la-Joye. The troops fled and New Englanders burned the capital to the ground. Duvivier and the twenty men retreated up the Northeast River (Hillsborough River), pursued by the New Englanders until the French troops received reinforcements from the Acadian militia and the Mi'kmaq. The French troops and their allies were able to drive the New Englanders to their boats, nine New Englanders killed, wounded or made prisoner. The New Englanders took six Acadian hostages, who would be executed if the Acadians or Mi'kmaq rebelled against New England control. The New England troops left for Louisbourg. Duvivier and his 20 troops left for Quebec. After the fall of Louisbourg, the resident French population of Ile Royal were deported to France. The Acadians of Ile Saint-Jean lived under the threat of deportation for the remainder of the war. Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot
Battle At Port-la-Joye (1746)
Main article: Battle at Port-la-Joye
The New Englanders had a force of two war ships and 200 soldiers stationed at Port-La-Joye . To regain Acadia, Ramezay was sent from Quebec to the region to join forces with the Duc d\'Anville Expedition . Upon arriving at Chignecto, he sent Boishebert to Ile Saint-Jean on a reconnaissance to assess the size of the New England force. After Boishebert returned, Ramezay sent Joseph-Michel Legardeur de Croisille et de Montesson along with over 500 men, 200 of whom were Mi'kmaq, to Port-La-Joye. In July 1746, the battle happened near York River. Montesson and his troops killed forty New Englanders and captured the rest. Montesson was commended for having distinguished himself in his first independent command.
Expulsion Of The Acadians
Roughly one thousand Acadians lived on the island, many of whom had fled to the island from mainland Nova Scotia during the first wave of the British-ordered expulsion in 1755, reaching a population of 5,000. However, many more were forcibly deported during the second wave of the expulsion after the Siege of Louisbourg (1758) . In the Ile Saint-Jean Campaign (1758) General Jeffery Amherst ordered Colonel Andrew Rollo to capture the island. Many Acadians died in the expulsion en route to France; on December 13, 1758, the transport ship _ Duke William _ sank and 364 died. A day earlier the _Violet _ sank and 280 died; several days later the _Ruby _ sank with 213 on board.
Great Britain obtained the island from France under the terms of the _Treaty of Paris _ in 1763 which settled the Seven Years\' War . The British called their new colony St. John's Island (also the Island of St. John's). The high influx of Scottish Highlanders in the late 1700s resulted in P.E.I. having the highest provincial percentage of Scottish immigrants in Canada. (Not to underestimate the highest percentage of Scottish on neighbouring Cape Breton Island, however only being part thereof the province of Nova Scotia.) This in turn led to a higher proportion of Scottish Gaelic speakers and thriving culture surviving on P.E.I. than Scotland itself, as the settlers avoided English influence overseas. Hence the formally existing Prince Edward Island Highland Regiment, founded 1875.
The first British governor of St. John's Island, Walter Patterson , was appointed in 1769. Assuming office in 1770, he had a controversial career during which land title disputes and factional conflict slowed the initial attempts to populate and develop the island under a feudal system . In an attempt to attract settlers from Ireland, in one of his first acts (1770) Patterson led the island's colonial assembly to rename the island "New Ireland", but the British Government promptly vetoed this as exceeding the authority vested in the colonial government; only the Privy Council in London could change the name of a colony.
In the mid-1760s, a survey team divided the Island into 67 lots. On July 1, 1767, these properties were allocated to supporters of King George III by means of a lottery. Ownership of the land remained in the hands of landlords in England, angering Island settlers who were unable to gain title to land on which they worked and lived. Significant rent charges (to absentee landlords) created further anger. The land had been given to the absentee landlords with a number of conditions attached regarding upkeep and settlement terms; many of these conditions were not satisfied. Islanders spent decades trying to convince the Crown to confiscate the lots, however the descendants of the original owners were generally well connected to the British government and refused to give up the land.
In 1853, the Island government passed the Land Purchase Act which empowered them to purchase lands from those owners who were willing to sell, and then resell the land to settlers for low prices. This scheme collapsed when the Island ran short of money to continue with the purchases. Many of these lands also were fertile, and were some of the key factors to sustaining Prince Edward Island's economy.
Raid On Charlottetown (1775)
During the American Revolutionary War Charlottetown was raided in 1775 by a pair of American-employed privateers. Two armed schooners, _Franklin_ and _Hancock_, from Beverly, Massachusetts , made prisoner of the attorney-general at Charlottetown, on advice given them by some Pictou residents after they had taken eight fishing vessels in the Gut of Canso .
During and after the American Revolutionary War, from 1776 to 1783, the colony's efforts to attract exiled Loyalist refugees from the rebellious American colonies met with some success. Walter Patterson's brother, John Patterson, one of the original grantees of land on the island, was a temporarily exiled Loyalist and led efforts to persuade others to come.
The 1787 dismissal of Governor Patterson and his recall to London in 1789 dampened his brother's efforts, leading John to focus on his interests in the United States (one of John's sons, Commodore Daniel Patterson , became a noted United States Navy hero, and John's grandsons, Rear Admiral Thomas H. Patterson and Lt. Carlile Pioou ). Edmund Fanning , also a Loyalist exiled by the Revolution, took over as the second governor, serving until 1804. His tenure was more successful than Patterson's.
On November 29, 1798, during Fanning's administration, Great Britain granted approval to change the colony's name from St. John's Island to Prince Edward Island to distinguish it from similar names in the Atlantic, such as the cities of Saint John, New Brunswick and St. John\'s in Newfoundland. The colony's new name honoured the fourth son of King George III , Prince Edward Augustus, the Duke of Kent (1767–1820), who subsequently led the British military forces on the continent as Commander-in-Chief, North America (1799–1800), with his headquarters in Halifax . (Prince Edward later became the father of the future Queen Victoria .)
During the 19th century the colony of Prince Edward Island began to attract "adventurous Victorian families looking for elegance on the sea. Prince Edward Island became a fashionable retreat in the nineteenth century for British nobility."
The flag of the Dominion of Prince Edward Island.
In September 1864, Prince Edward Island hosted the Charlottetown Conference , which was the first meeting in the process leading to the Quebec Resolutions and the creation of Canada in 1867. Prince Edward Island did not find the terms of union favourable and balked at joining in 1867, choosing to remain a colony of the United Kingdom . In the late 1860s, the colony examined various options, including the possibility of becoming a discrete dominion unto itself, as well as entertaining delegations from the United States , who were interested in Prince Edward Island joining the United States. Prince Edward Island, then St. John's Island, map 1775
In 1871, the colony began construction of a railway and, frustrated by Great Britain's Colonial Office, began negotiations with the United States. In 1873, Canadian Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald , anxious to thwart American expansionism and facing the distraction of the Pacific Scandal , negotiated for Prince Edward Island to join Canada. The Dominion Government of Canada assumed the colony's extensive railway debts and agreed to finance a buy-out of the last of the colony's absentee landlords to free the island of leasehold tenure and from any new immigrants entering the island (accomplished through the passage of the _Land Purchase Act, 1875 _). Prince Edward Island entered Confederation on July 1, 1873.
As a result of having hosted the inaugural meeting of Confederation, the Charlottetown Conference, Prince Edward Island presents itself as the "Birthplace of Confederation" and this is commemorated through several buildings, a ferry vessel, and the Confederation Bridge (constructed 1993 to 1997). The most prominent building in the province honouring this event is the Confederation Centre of the Arts , presented as a gift to Prince Edward Islanders by the 10 provincial governments and the Federal Government upon the centenary of the Charlottetown Conference, where it stands in Charlottetown as a national monument to the " Fathers of Confederation ". The Centre is one of the 22 National Historic Sites of Canada located in Prince Edward Island.
Main article: Demographics of Prince Edward Island
YEAR POP. ±%
1851 62,678 —
1861 80,857 +29.0%
1871 94,021 +16.3%
1881 108,891 +15.8%
1891 109,078 +0.2%
1901 103,259 −5.3%
1911 93,728 −9.2%
1921 88,615 −5.5%
1931 88,038 −0.7%
1941 95,047 +8.0%
1951 98,429 +3.6%
1956 99,285 +0.9%
1961 104,629 +5.4%
1966 108,535 +3.7%
1971 111,635 +2.9%
1976 118,225 +5.9%
1981 122,506 +3.6%
1986 126,640 +3.4%
1991 129,765 +2.5%
1996 134,557 +3.7%
2001 135,294 +0.5%
2006 135,851 +0.4%
2011 140,204 +3.2%
2016 142,907 +1.9%
Source: Statistics Canada
According to the 2011 National Household Survey, the largest ethnic group consists of people of Scottish descent (39.2%), followed by English (31.1%), Irish (30.4%), French (21.1%), German (5.2%), and Dutch (3.1%) descent. Prince Edward Island's population is largely white; there are few visible minorities. Chinese Canadians are the largest visible minority group of Prince Edward Island, comprising 1.3% of the province's population. Almost half of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian."
* among provinces. † Preliminary 2006 census estimate. _Source: Statistics Canada _
Mother tongue in Prince Edward Island (red: English, blue: French). The only part of the province to have a Francophone majority is the Evangeline Region .
The Canada 2006 Census showed a population of 135,851. Of the 133,570 singular responses to the census question concerning mother tongue, the most commonly reported languages were as follows:
RANK LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
1. English 125,265 93.8%
2. French 5,345 4.0%
3. Dutch 865 0.6%
4. German 275 0.2%
5. Spanish 220 0.2%
6. Chinese 190 0.1%
7. Arabic 150 0.1%
8. Hungarian 120 0.1%
9. Mi\'kmaq 90 0.1%
10. Japanese 80 0.1%
11. Polish 70 0.1%
12. Korean 65 Provinces and territories
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Coordinates : 46°15′N 063°00′W / 46.250°N 63.000°W / 46.250; -63.000
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 137121494 * LCCN : n79034411 * GND : 4116107-5 * BNF : cb11962516b (data)