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The PENNINES /ˈpɛnaɪnz/ , also known as the PENNINE CHAIN or PENNINE HILLS, are a range of mountains and hills in Northern England separating North West England
North West England
from Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and North East England
North East England
.

Often described as the "backbone of England", the Pennine Hills form a more-or-less continuous range stretching northwards from the Peak District
Peak District
in the north Midlands , into the South Pennines incorporating parts of Lancashire
Lancashire
, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
, through the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales and North Pennines
North Pennines
past the Cumbrian Fells up to the Tyne Gap, which separates the range from the Cheviot Hills
Cheviot Hills
. North of the Aire Gap , the Pennines' western spur into North Lancashire
Lancashire
forms the Bowland Fells which are also considered separate from the Pennines, and south of the gap is a spur into east Lancashire, comprising the Rossendale Fells and West Pennine Moors
West Pennine Moors
. The Pennines are an important water catchment area with numerous reservoirs in the head streams of the river valleys.

The region is widely considered to be one of the most scenic areas of the United Kingdom. The North Pennines
North Pennines
and Nidderdale
Nidderdale
are designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
(AONB), as are Bowland and Pendle Hill
Hill
. Parts of the Pennines are incorporated into the Peak District National Park , the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales National Park and the Northumberland National Park
Northumberland National Park
. Britain's oldest long-distance footpath , the Pennine Way
Pennine Way
, runs along most of the Pennine Chain and is 268 miles (429 km) long.

The Cheviot Hills, separated by the Tyne Gap and the Whin Sill
Whin Sill
, along which run the A69 and Hadrian\'s Wall , are not part of the Pennines but, perhaps because the Pennine Way
Pennine Way
crosses them, they are often treated as such. As a result, the northern end of the Pennines may be considered to be either at the Tyne Gap or the Cheviot Hill fringes on the Anglo-Scottish border
Anglo-Scottish border
. Conversely the southern end of the Pennines is commonly said to be in the High Peak of Derbyshire
Derbyshire
at Edale
Edale
, the start of the Pennine Way. However, hills continue towards the Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
area in northern Staffordshire
Staffordshire
and into eastern, southern and western parts of Cheshire
Cheshire
, Derbyshire
Derbyshire
and Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
respectively.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 Geography and geology

* 2.1 Elevation * 2.2 Drainage * 2.3 Climate * 2.4 Character areas

* 3 History * 4 Demography * 5 Economy * 6 Transport * 7 National Parks and AONBs * 8 Language * 9 Folklore and customs * 10 Flora * 11 Fauna * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 External links

NAME

Stanage Edge
Stanage Edge
in the Peak District
Peak District

Various etymologies have been proposed treating "Pennine" as though it were a native Brittonic /Modern Welsh name related to _pen-_ ("head") . In fact, it did not become a common name until the 18th century and almost certainly derives from modern comparisons with the Apennine Mountains
Apennine Mountains
, which run down the middle of Italy
Italy
in a similar fashion.

Following an 1853 article by Arthur Hussey , it has become a common belief that the name derives from a passage in _The Description of Britain _ (Latin : _De Situ Britanniæ_), an infamous historical forgery concocted by Charles Bertram in the 1740s and accepted as genuine until the 1840s. In 2004, George Redmonds reassessed this, finding that numerous respected writers passed over the origin of the mountains' name in silence even in works dedicated to the topological etymology of Derbyshire
Derbyshire
and Lancashire
Lancashire
. He found that the derivation from Bertram was widely believed and considered uncomfortable. In fact, he found repeated comparisons going back at least as early as Camden , many of whose placenames and ideas Bertram incorporated into his work. Bertram was responsible (at most) with popularizing the name against other contenders such as Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
's "English Andes". His own form of the name was the "Pennine Alps" (_Alpes Peninos_), which today is used for a western section of the continental Alps
Alps
. Those mountains derive their name from the Latin _ Alpes Pœninæ _, the St Bernard Pass whose name has been variously derived from the Carthaginians , a local god, and Celtic _peninus_. This was also the pass used in the invasions of Italy
Italy
by the Gallic Boii and Lingones in 390 BC. The etymology of the Apennines themselves—whose name first referred to their northern extremity and then later spread southward—is also disputed but is usually taken to derive from some form of Celtic _pen_ or _ben_ ("mountain, head").

Various towns and geographical features within the Pennines retain Celtic names, including Penrith , the fell Pen-y-ghent , the River Eden , and the area of Cumbria
Cumbria
. More commonly, local names result from later Anglo-Saxon and Norse settlements. In Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Cumbria, many words of Norse origin, not commonly used in standard English, are part of everyday speech: for example, _gill/ghyll _ (narrow steep valley), _beck _ (brook or stream), _fell _ (hill), and _dale _ (valley).

GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

Limestone scenery: Thor\'s Cave , Staffordshire, from the Manifold Way. Limestone is common in the White Peak and Yorkshire Dales, making those areas distinct from other parts of the Pennines.

The northern Pennine range is bordered by the Eden Valley , foothills of the Lake District
Lake District
and the other Cumbrian Fells in the north west, the Tyne Gap, Anglo-Scottish border
Anglo-Scottish border
and Cheviot Hills
Cheviot Hills
in the north, the lowlands , ridges and coastlines of Northumberland
Northumberland
, Tyne and Wear and County Durham
County Durham
in the north east. This is located within eastern parts of Cumbria
Cumbria
, southern parts of Northumberland, and western parts of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and County Durham. The western side borders the West Lancashire
Lancashire
Coastal Plain , Lancashire
Lancashire
Coalfield , the Mersey Valley , and the Cheshire
Cheshire
Plain within eastern parts of Cheshire
Cheshire
and northern and eastern parts of Lancashire
Lancashire
and the Greater Manchester conurbation. The eastern side borders the vales of Mowbray and York , and the low-lying ridges of the South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Coalfield and Southern Magnesian Limestone (including the Misk Hills of Nottinghamshire) leading to the Humberhead Levels , the Sherwood Forest , and the lower valley of the River Trent . This is within western parts of Yorkshire and eastern parts of Derbyshire
Derbyshire
with foothills also continuing into western parts of Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
. The southern extent of the range is bordered by the Needwood the higher ground is uncultivable and barely fit for pasture.

Most of the Pennine landscape is characterised by upland areas of high moorland indented by more fertile river valleys, although the landscape varies in different areas. The Peak District
Peak District
consists of hilly plateaus cut by river valleys and gorges in the White Peak, and moorlands, plateaus, edges and uplands in the Dark Peak and South West Peak. The moorlands of the Dark Peak extend into the South Pennines which consist of hilly landscape and narrow valleys between the Peak District, Forest of Bowland
Forest of Bowland
and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales. Bowland is dominated by a central upland landform of deeply incised gritstone fells covered with tracts of heather-covered peat moorland and blanket bog . The lower slopes of the fells are dotted with stone-built farms and small villages and are criss-crossed by drystone walls enclosing reclaimed moorland pasture. Steep-sided wooded valleys link the upland and lowland landscapes. In the northeast of the area are extensive coniferous plantations and the eastern limestone areas support high-quality species-rich meadows. The landscape becomes higher and more mountainous at the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales and North Pennines. The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales are characterised by moorlands, river valleys, hills, fells and mountain peaks while the North Pennines
North Pennines
consist of high upland plateaus, moorlands, fells, edges and valleys with most of the area containing flat topped hills while the higher peaks are in the western half.

ELEVATION

Rising less than 3,000 feet, the Pennines are often referred to as fells. The highest is Cross Fell in eastern Cumbria, at 2,930 feet (893 m), while other principal peaks at the North Pennines
North Pennines
include Great Dun Fell 2,782 ft (848 m), Mickle Fell 2,585 ft (788 m), and Burnhope Seat 2,451 ft (747 m). Principal peaks at the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales include Whernside 2,415 ft (736 m), Ingleborough 2,372 ft (723 m), High Seat 2,328 ft (710 m) and Wild Boar Fell 2,324 ft (708 m), both in Mallerstang , and Pen-y-ghent 2,274 ft (693 m). Principal peaks at the Forest of Bowland
Forest of Bowland
include Ward\'s Stone 1,841 ft (561 m), Fair Snape Fell 1,710 ft (521 m), and Hawthornthwaite Fell 1,572 ft (479 m). Principal peaks at the South Pennines and Peak District
Peak District
include Kinder Scout 2,087 ft (636 m) and Bleaklow 2,077 ft (633 m) in Derbyshire
Derbyshire
, Black Chew Head 1,778 ft (542 m) in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
, and Winter Hill
Hill
1,496 ft (456 m).

DRAINAGE

Kinder Downfall , a waterfall on Kinder Scout, Dark Peak

For much of their length the Pennines form the main watershed in northern England, dividing east and west. The rivers Eden , Ribble , Dane and tributaries of the Mersey (including the Irwell , Tame and Goyt ) flow westwards towards the Irish Sea . On the eastern side of the watershed, the rivers Tyne , Tees , Wear , Swale , Ure , Nidd , Wharfe , Aire , Calder and Don rise in the region and flow eastwards to the North Sea . The River Trent , however, rises on the western side of the Pennines before flowing around the southern end of the range and up the eastern side; together with its tributaries (principally the Dove and Derwent ) it thus drains both east and west sides of the southern end to the North Sea.

CLIMATE

Map of British Isles climatic zones. The Pennines are classified as zones 7 and 8, with 8 being milder areas and 7 being colder areas.

The Pennine climate is generally temperate like that of the rest of England, but the hills have more precipitation, stronger winds and colder weather than the surrounding areas. Some areas could be described as Oceanic climate verging on Subarctic climate and a small area in Teesdale is classified as subarctic. More snow falls on the Pennines than on surrounding lowland areas due to the elevation and distance from the coast; unlike lowland areas of England, the Pennines can have quite severe winters.

The northwest is amongst the wettest regions of England and much of the rain falls on the Pennines. The eastern side is drier than the west—the rain shadow shields northeast England from rainfall that would otherwise fall there.

Precipitation is important for the area's biodiversity and human population. Many towns and cities are located along rivers flowing from the hills and in northwest England the lack of natural aquifers is compensated for by reservoirs.

Water has carved out gorges, caves and limestone landscapes in the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales and Peak District. In some areas precipitation has contributed to poor soils, resulting in part in moorland landscapes that characterize much of the range. In other areas where the soil has not been degraded, it has resulted in lush vegetation.

The Pennines are in climate zones 7 and 8: zone 8 is common throughout most of the UK and zone 7 is the UK's coldest climatic zone. The Pennines, Scottish Highlands , Southern Uplands and Snowdonia are the only areas of the UK in zone 7.

CLIMATE DATA FOR GREAT DUN FELL, NORTH PENNINES (848 M) 1981–2010

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 1.5 (34.7) 0.8 (33.4) 2.2 (36) 4.2 (39.6) 7.9 (46.2) 10.5 (50.9) 12.4 (54.3) 12.1 (53.8) 9.7 (49.5) 6.6 (43.9) 3.8 (38.8) 1.9 (35.4) 6.13 (43.04)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −2.6 (27.3) −2.9 (26.8) −1.9 (28.6) −0.4 (31.3) 2.3 (36.1) 5.1 (41.2) 7.3 (45.1) 7.3 (45.1) 5.2 (41.4) 2.6 (36.7) −0.1 (31.8) −2.3 (27.9) 1.63 (34.94)

Source: Met Office

CHARACTER AREAS

Pennine National Character Areas

England has been divided into areas of similar landscape character. Originally called joint character areas, the national character areas are a widely recognised national spatial framework, but their boundaries are not precise and should be considered as broad zones of transition.

National character areas are:

* Border Moors and Forests * Tyne Gap and Hadrian\'s Wall * North Pennines
North Pennines
* Howgill Fells * Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales * Bowland Fells the Bowland Fringe and Pendle Hill
Hill
* South Pennines , including the West Pennine Moors
West Pennine Moors
* Dark Peak * White Peak * South West Peak

Croasdale Fell , Forest of Bowland.

HISTORY

A prehistoric settlement on Harkerside Moor in Swaledale .

The area contains many Bronze Age settlements, and evidence of Neolithic settlement (including many stone circles or henges , such as Long Meg and Her Daughters ).

The Pennines were controlled by the tribal federation of the Brigantes , made up of mainly small tribes who inhabited the area and cooperated on defence and external affairs. The Brigantes evolved an early form of kingdom. During Roman times , the Brigantes were dominated by the Romans who exploited the Pennines for their natural resources including the wild animals found there.

The Pennines were a major obstacle for Anglo-Saxon expansion westwards, although it appears the Anglo-Saxons travelled through the valleys. During the Dark Ages the Pennines were controlled by Celtic and Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. It is believed that the north Pennines were under the control of the kingdom of Rheged .

During Norse times the Pennines were settled by Viking Danes in the east and Norwegian Vikings in the west. The Vikings influenced place names, culture and genetics. When England was unified the Pennines were incorporated into it. Their mixture of Celtic, Anglo-Saxon and Viking heritage resembled much of the rest of northern England and its culture developed alongside its lowland neighbours in northwest and northeast England. The Pennines were not a distinct political polity , but were divided between neighbouring counties in northeast and northwest England; a major part was in the West Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
.

DEMOGRAPHY

The Pennine region is sparsely populated by English standards. Larger population centres adjoin the southern Pennine range and the Peak District, such as Chesterfield , Halifax , Huddersfield , Macclesfield , Oldham and Rochdale , but most of the northern Pennine range is thinly populated. The cities of Bradford , Derby , Leeds , Manchester , Sheffield , Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
and Wakefield lie in the foothills and lowlands fringing the range.

ECONOMY

The main economic activities include sheep farming , quarrying , finance and tourism .

TRANSPORT

The Pennines are traversed by several passes, mostly aligned with major rivers.

Gaps that allow west–east communication across the Pennines include the Tyne Gap between the Pennines and the Cheviots, through which the A69 road and Tyne Valley railway link Carlisle and Newcastle upon Tyne . The A66 road , its summit at 1,450 feet (440 m), follows the course of a Roman road from Scotch Corner to Penrith through the Stainmore Gap between the Eden Valley in Cumbria
Cumbria
and Teesdale in County Durham. The Aire Gap links Lancashire
Lancashire
and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
via the valleys of the Aire and Ribble . Other high-level roads include Buttertubs Pass , named from limestone potholes near its 1,729-foot (527 m) summit, between Hawes in Wensleydale and Swaledale and the A684 road from Sedbergh to Hawes via Garsdale Head which reaches 1,100 feet (340 m).

Further south the A58 road traverses the Calder Valley between West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
reaching 1,282 feet (391 m) between Littleborough and Ripponden , while the A646 road along the Calder Valley between Burnley and Halifax reaches 764 feet (233 m) following valley floors. In the South Pennines the A628 Woodhead road links the M67 motorway in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
with the M1 motorway in South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Holme Moss is crossed by the A6024 road , whose highest point is near Holme Moss transmitting station between Longdendale and Holmfirth .

The Pennines are traversed by the M62 motorway , the highest motorway in England at 1,221 feet (372 m) on Windy Hill
Hill
near Junction 23.

Three trans-Pennine canals built during the Industrial Revolution cross the range:

* The Huddersfield Narrow Canal connects Huddersfield in the east with Manchester in the west. When it reaches Marsden , it passes underneath the hills through the Standedge Tunnel to Diggle . Fortnightly during the summer season, one can pass through the tunnel on a public narrowboat. * The Rochdale Canal crosses the Pennines via Rochdale , connecting the market town of Sowerby Bridge with Manchester. * The Leeds and Liverpool Canal , the longest and most northerly of the three, crosses the Pennines via Skipton , Burnley, Chorley and Wigan connecting Leeds in the east with Liverpool in the west.

The eastern portal of Woodhead 3 shortly before opening in 1954 A train in British Rail blue about to enter the western portal of Woodhead 3, shortly before closure in 1981 Photograph from 1953, showing the western portals of Woodhead 1 it was the first of several trans-Pennine tunnels including the Standedge and Totley tunnels, which are only slightly longer.

The first two tunnels were replaced by Woodhead 3, which was longer than the other two at 3 miles 66 yards (4860m). It was bored purposely for the overhead electrification of the route and completed in 1953. The tunnel was opened by the then transport minister Alan Lennox-Boyd on 3 June 1954. It was designed by Sir William Halcrow "> The National Parks of England and Wales; three include areas of the Pennines, those marked as 9, 7 and 1

Considerable areas of Pennine landscape are protected as UK national parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
(AONBs): Northumberland National Park (9), Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales National Park (7) and the Peak District National Park (1) and the North Pennines
North Pennines
AONB . Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty are afforded much the same protection as National Parks. England, Wales and Northern Ireland AONBs. The Pennines host two, with a large one protecting the North Pennines.

The North Pennines
North Pennines
AONB just north of the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales rivals the National Park in size and includes some of the Pennines' highest peaks and some of its most isolated and sparsely populated areas. Nidderdale is an AONB east of the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales National Park, and the Bowland Fells , including Pendle Hill
Hill
, is an AONB west of the Yorkshire Dales.

LANGUAGE

The language used in pre-Roman and Roman times was British . During the Early Middle Ages , the Cumbric language developed. Little evidence of Cumbric remains, so it is difficult to ascertain whether or not it was distinct from Old Welsh . The extent of the region in which Cumbric was spoken is also unknown.

During Anglo-Saxon times the area was settled by Anglian peoples of Mercia and Northumbria , rather than the Saxon people of Southern England . Celtic speech remained in most areas of the Pennines longer than it did in the surrounding areas of England. Eventually, the Celtic tongue of the Pennines was replaced by early English as Anglo-Saxons and Vikings settled the area and assimilated the Celts.

In Norse times, Viking settlers brought their languages of Old Norse, Old Danish (mainly in the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales and parts of the Peak District) and Old Norwegian (mainly in the western Pennines). With the eventual consolidation of England by the Saxon kingdom of Wessex , the pure Norse speech died out in England, though it survived in the Pennines longer than in most areas. However, the fusion of Norse and Old English was important in the formation of Middle English and hence Modern English, and many individual words of Norse descent remain in use in local dialects, such as that of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, and in local place names.

FOLKLORE AND CUSTOMS

The folklore and customs are mostly based on Celtic , Anglo-Saxon and Viking customs and folklore. Many customs and stories have their origin in Christianised pagan traditions. In the Peak District, a notable custom is well dressing , which has its origin in pagan traditions that became Christianised.

FLORA

Flora in the Pennines is adapted to moorland and subarctic landscapes and climates. The flora found there can be found in other areas of moorland in Northern Europe and some species are also found in areas of tundra .

In the Pennine millstone grit areas above an altitude of 900 feet (270 m) the topsoil is so acidic, pH 2 to 4, that it can grow only bracken , heather , sphagnum , and coarse grasses such as cottongrass , purple moor grass and heath rush .

As the Ice age glacial sheets retreated c. 11,500 BC trees returned and archaeological palynology can identify their species. The first trees to settle were willow, birch and juniper, followed later by alder and pine. By 6500 BC temperatures were warmer and woodlands covered 90% of the dales with mostly pine, elm, lime and oak. On the limestone soils the oak was slower to colonize and pine and birch predominated. Around 3000 BC a noticeable decline in tree pollen indicates that neolithic farmers were clearing woodland to increase grazing for domestic livestock, and studies at Linton Mires and Eshton Tarn find an increase in grassland species.

On poorly drained impermeable areas of millstone grit, shale or clays the topsoil gets waterlogged in winter and spring. Here tree suppression combined with the heavier rainfall results in blanket bog up to 7 ft (2 m) thick. The erosion of peat still exposes stumps of ancient trees.

"In digging it away they frequently find vast fir trees, perfectly sound, and some oaks ..." — Arthur Young , _A Six Months' Tour of the North of England_ (1771)

Conifers have now been widely replanted as a cheap source of wood, especially around areas such as Kielder Forest .

FAUNA

Shooting of red grouse is an economically important activity in the Pennines.

Fauna in the Pennines is similar to the rest of England and Wales , but the area hosts some specialised species. Deer are found throughout the Pennines and some species of animals that are rare elsewhere in England can be found here. Arctic hares , which were common in Britain during the Ice Age and retreated to the cooler, more tundra-like uplands once the climate warmed up, were introduced to the Dark Peak area of the Peak District
Peak District
in the 19th century.

Large areas of heather moorland in the Pennines are managed for driven shooting of wild red grouse . The related and declining black grouse is still found in northern parts of the Pennines. Other birds whose English breeding strongholds are in the Pennines include golden plover , snipe , curlew , dunlin , merlin , short-eared owl , ring ouzel and twite , though many of these are at the southern limit of their distributions and are more common in Scotland.

SEE ALSO

* Geography of England * Geology of the United Kingdom * Geology of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
* North Pennines
North Pennines
* South Pennines * Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Three Peaks

REFERENCES

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Derbyshire
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Yorkshire
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Yorkshire
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Derbyshire
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Forest of Bowland
Area Of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB)". Lancashire
Lancashire
County Council. 6 June 2007. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2007. * ^ "Landscape". Yorkshire
Yorkshire
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Yorkshire
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* ^ "34 Bowland Fells". Natural England. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ "33 Bowland Fringe and Pendle Hill". Natural England. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ "36 Southern Pennines". Natural England. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ "51 Dark Peak". Natural England. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ "52 White Peak". Natural England. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ "53 South West Peak". Natural England. Retrieved 5 August 2011.

* ^ "A landscape through time". Out of Oblivion. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ "North Pennines". _My Pennines_. Retrieved 15 April 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _Transpennine Crossings_, Sabre roads, retrieved 14 August 2013 * ^ "Standedge Tunnel & Visitor Centre: Opening times and prices". Canal and River Trust. Retrieved 15 August 2013. * ^ "The Woodhead Route". _Railways of Britain_. Retrieved 27 January 2008. * ^ _History_, settle-carlisle.co.uk, retrieved 15 August 2013 * ^ _Trains_, settle-carlisle.co.uk, retrieved 15 August 2013 * ^ _Welcome to the Trans Pennine Trail_, transpenninetrail.org.uk, retrieved 14 August 2013 * ^ Kelsall, Dennis; Kelsall, Jan (2008). _The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales: South and West_. Milnthorpe: Cicerone. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-85284-485-1 .

* ^ _A_ _B_ White, Robert (2005) . _The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales, A landscape Through Time_ (new ed.). Ilkley, Yorkshire: Great Northern Books. ISBN 1-905080-05-0 . * ^ Arthur Young (1771) _A Six Months' Tour of the North of England_ * ^ Gibbons; et al. (1993). _The New Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland: 1998–1991_. T & A D Poyser. ISBN 0-85661-075-5 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

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