HOME
        TheInfoList






Nudity in film is the presentation in a film of at least one person who is nude, partially nude or wearing less clothing than contemporary norms in some societies consider "modest". Since the development of the medium, inclusion in films of any form of sexuality has been controversial, and in the case of most nude scenes has had to be justified as being part of the story, in the concept of "artistically justifiable nudity". Many actors and actresses have appeared nude, or exposing parts of their bodies or dressed in ways considered provocative by contemporary standards at some point in their careers.

Nudity in film should be distinguished from sex in film. Erotic films are suggestive of sexuality, and usually contain nudity, though that is not a prerequisite. Nudity in a sexual context is common in pornographic films, but softcore pornographic films generally avoid depiction of a penis or a vulva. A film on naturism or about people for whom nudity is common may contain non-sexual nudity, and some other non-pornographic films may contain very brief nude scenes. The vast majority of nudity in film is found in pornographic films.

Nude scenes can be controversial in some cultures because they may challenge some of the community's standards of modesty. These standards vary by culture, and depend on the type of nudity, who is exposed, which parts of the body are exposed, the duration of the exposure, the pose, the context, and other aspects. Regardless, in many cultures nudity in film is subject to censorship or rating regimes which control the content of films.

Many directors and producers apply self-censorship, limiting nudity (and other content) in their films, to avoid external censorship or a strict rating, in countries that have a rating system.[a] Directors and producers may choose to limit nudity because of objections from actors involved, or for a wide variety of other personal, artistic, genre-bound or narrative-oriented reasons.

Nude photography before cinema

A still from the 1900 Biograph film The Temptation of St. Anthony. Note the nude actress in an early American motion picture, before the Hollywood Motion Picture Production Code of film censorship.

Nudity has almost universally not been permitted on stage, but sheer or simulated nudity may have been. Devices used include use of skin-tight flesh-colored bodystockings to simulate nudity or vital parts to be covered by long hair, for roles such as Lady Godiva.[1]

American actress Adah Isaacs Menken created controversy in 1861 when she wore a flesh-colored bodystocking in the play Mazeppa, based on Byron's Mazeppa, in which she played a Polish man who was tied nude to the back of a wild horse by his enemies.[2][3] She also posed nude for photographs.[4]

Sarah Bernhardt early in her career posed topless on several occasions for French photographer Felix Nadar. She is nevertheless seen with her top covered in surviving stills of these sessions. At least one later topless photograph of the young Bernhardt made in 1873 survives. These nude sessions were not meant for outright public viewing but for the encouraging of theatrical employers or personal guests. Thus nude photos of women like Menken and Bernhardt are known only to scholars and perhaps theater buffs.[citation needed]

The actress Kay Laurell wearing a bodystocking in 1910s image.

In the 1880s, Eadweard Muybridge, at the dawn of the invention of the motion picture, used a device he called a zoopraxiscope to project a series of successive still photographs. The photos would then be played one after the other giving the illusion of movement. Sometimes the same sequence would be filmed using several cameras. Many of Muybridge's photographic sessions using the zoopraxiscope had nude anonymous models, both female and male.[5][6]

Early films: the silent era

The first films containing nudity were the early erotic films. Production of such films commenced almost immediately after the invention of the motion picture. The earliest film containing a simulated nude scene appears to be the 1897 After the Ball by French director George Méliès, in which the director's future wife wears a bodystocking to simulate nudity. Two of the earliest pioneers of such erotica were Frenchmen Eugène Pirou and Albert Kirchner. Kirchner (under the name "Léar") directed such films for Pirou. The 7-minute 1899 film Le Coucher de la Mariée had Louise Willy performing a bathroom striptease.[7] Other French filmmakers also considered that profits could be made from this type of risqué films, showing women disrobing.[8][9]

nude, partially nude or wearing less clothing than contemporary norms in some societies consider "modest". Since the development of the medium, inclusion in films of any form of sexuality has been controversial, and in the case of most nude scenes has had to be justified as being part of the story, in the concept of "artistically justifiable nudity". Many actors and actresses have appeared nude, or exposing parts of their bodies or dressed in ways considered provocative by contemporary standards at some point in their careers.

Nudity in film should be distinguished from sex in film. Erotic films are suggestive of sexuality, and usually contain nudity, though that is not a prerequisite. Nudity in a sexual context is common in pornographic films, but softcore pornographic films generally avoid depiction of a penis or a vulva. A film on naturism or about people for whom nudity is common may contain non-sexual nudity, and some other non-pornographic films may contain very brief nude scenes. The vast majority of nudity in film is found in pornographic films.

Nude scenes can be controversial in some cultures because they may challenge some of the community's standards of modesty. These standards vary by culture, and depend on the type of nudity, who is exposed, which parts of the body are exposed, th

Nudity in film should be distinguished from sex in film. Erotic films are suggestive of sexuality, and usually contain nudity, though that is not a prerequisite. Nudity in a sexual context is common in pornographic films, but softcore pornographic films generally avoid depiction of a penis or a vulva. A film on naturism or about people for whom nudity is common may contain non-sexual nudity, and some other non-pornographic films may contain very brief nude scenes. The vast majority of nudity in film is found in pornographic films.

Nude scenes can be controversial in some cultures because they may challenge some of the community's standards of modesty. These standards vary by culture, and depend on the type of nudity, who is exposed, which parts of the body are exposed, the duration of the exposure, the pose, the context, and other aspects. Regardless, in many cultures nudity in film is subject to censorship or rating regimes which control the content of films.

Many directors and producers apply self-censorship, limiting nudity (and other content) in their films, to avoid external censorship or a strict rating, in countries that have a rating system.[a] Directors and producers may choose to limit nudity because of objections from actors involved, or for a wide variety of other personal, artistic, genre-bound or narrative-oriented reasons.

Nudity has almost universally not been permitted on stage, but sheer or simulated nudity may have been. Devices used include use of skin-tight flesh-colored bodystockings to simulate nudity or vital parts to be covered by long hair, for roles such as Lady Godiva.[1]

American actress Adah Isaacs Menken created controversy in 1861 when she wore a flesh-colored bodystocking in the play Mazeppa, based on Byron's Mazeppa, in which she played a Polish man who was tied nude to the back of a wild horse by his enemies.[2][3] She also posed nude for photographs.[4]

Sarah Bernhardt early in her career posed topless on several occasions for French photographer Felix Nadar. She is nevertheless seen with her top covered in surviving stills of these sessions. At least one later topless photograph of the young Bernhardt made in 1873 survives. These nude sessions were not meant for outright public viewing but for the encouraging of theatrical employers or personal guests. Thus nude photos of women like Menken and Bernhardt are known only to scholars and perhaps theater buffs.[citation needed]

The actress Kay Laurell wearing a bodystocking in 1910s image.

In the 1880s, Eadweard Muybridge, at the dawn of the invention of the motion picture, used a device he called a zoopraxiscope to project a series of successive still photographs. The photos would then be played one after the other giving the illusion of movement. Sometimes the same sequence would be filmed using several cameras. Many of Muybridge's photographic sessions using the zoopraxiscope had nude anonymous models, both female and male.[5][6]

Early films: the silent era

The first films containing nudity were the early erotic films. Production of such films commenced almost immediately after the invention of the motion picture. The earliest film containing a simulated nude scene appears to be the 1897 After the Ball by French director George Méliès, in which the director's future wife wears a bodystocking to simulate nudity. Two of the earliest pioneers of such erotica were Frenchmen Eugène Pirou and Albert Kirchner. Kirchner (under the name "Léar") directed such films for Pirou. The 7-minute 1899 film Le Coucher de la Mariée had Louise Willy performing a bathroom striptease.[7] Other French filmmakers also considered that profits could be made from this type of risqué films, showing women disrobing.[8][9]

After the Ball

American actress Adah Isaacs Menken created controversy in 1861 when she wore a flesh-colored bodystocking in the play Mazeppa, based on Byron's Mazeppa, in which she played a Polish man who was tied nude to the back of a wild horse by his enemies.[2][3] She also posed nude for photographs.[4]

Sarah Bernhardt early in her career posed topless on several occasions for French photographer Felix Nadar. She is nevertheless seen with her top covered in surviving stills of these sessions. At least one later topless photograph of the young Bernhardt made in 1873 survives. These nude sessions were not meant for outright public viewing but for the encouraging of theatrical employers or personal guests. Thus nude photos of women like Menken and Bernhardt are known only to scholars and perhaps theater buffs.[citation needed]

In the 1880s, Eadweard Muybridge, at the dawn of the invention of the motion picture, used a device he called a zoopraxiscope to project a series of successive still photographs. The photos would then be played one after the other giving the illusion of movement. Sometimes the same sequence would be filmed using several cameras. Many of Muybridge's photographic sessions using the zoopraxiscope had nude anonymous models, both female and male.[5][6]

Early films: the silent era

The first films containing nudity were the early erotic films. Production of such films commenced almost immediately after the invention of the motion picture. The earliest film containing a simulated nude scene appears to be the 1897 After the Ball by French director George Méliès, in which the director's future wife wears a bodystocking to simul

The first films containing nudity were the early erotic films. Production of such films commenced almost immediately after the invention of the motion picture. The earliest film containing a simulated nude scene appears to be the 1897 After the Ball by French director George Méliès, in which the director's future wife wears a bodystocking to simulate nudity. Two of the earliest pioneers of such erotica were Frenchmen Eugène Pirou and Albert Kirchner. Kirchner (under the name "Léar") directed such films for Pirou. The 7-minute 1899 film Le Coucher de la Mariée had Louise Willy performing a bathroom striptease.[7] Other French filmmakers also considered that profits could be made from this type of risqué films, showing women disrobing.[8][9]

Johann Schwarzer sought to break the dominance of French-produced erotic films being distributed by the Pathé brothers. Schwarzer formed his Saturn-Film production company which between 1906 and 1911 produced 52 erotic productions, each of which contained young local women fully nude, to be shown at men-only theatre nights (called Herrenabende). These films were promoted as erotic and artistic, rather than pornographic, but in 1911, Saturn was dissolved by the censorship authorities and its films destroyed.[11] However, copies of at least a half of the films have been found in private hands. Filmarchiv Austria has included four of Schwarzer's works on the Europa Film Treasures site: Das Sandbad (1906), Baden Verboten (1906), Das Eitle Stubenmädchen (1908) and Beim Fotografen (1908).[12]

The 1911 Italian film Dante's Inferno, directed by Francesco Bertolini, is loosely adapted from Dante's epic poem The Divine Comedy and inspired by the illustrations of Gustave Doré. In depicting tormented souls in hell, there are frequent glimpses of nude male and female actors (including the first male frontal scenes). Remade many times, the U.S. version, Dante's Inferno (1924) from the Fox Film Corporation, also contains groups of nude figures and scenes of flagellation.

The 1911 Italian film Dante's Inferno, directed by Francesco Bertolini, is loosely adapted from Dante's epic poem The Divine Comedy and inspired by the illustrations of Gustave Doré. In depicting tormented souls in hell, there are frequent glimpses of nude male and female actors (including the first male frontal scenes). Remade many times, the U.S. version, Dante's Inferno (1924) from the Fox Film Corporation, also contains groups of nude figures and scenes of flagellation.

Several early films of the silent era and early sound era include women in nude scenes, presented in a historical or religious context. One such film was the anticlerical Hypocrites, directed by Lois Weber and released in January 1915, which was the first American motion picture with a central role played entirely in the nude. It contained several sequences with Margaret Edwards appearing fully nude (uncredited) as a ghostly apparition representing Truth. Her scenes were created using innovative traveling double exposure sequences (photographed by the legendary early cinematographer Dal Clawson) which made her appear as a semi-transparent spirit. Inspiration, released in November 1915, is believed to be the first American motion picture with a named leading actor in a nude scene.[13] The context of the nudity in the film was that of an artist's model, played by Audrey Munson, at work. Munson appeared nude again in a similar role in the 1916 film Purity. A feature of these films was that Munson was a tableau vivant, not being required to move, and only her backside and breasts were in view. Annette Kellermann, the famous Australian swimming star, appeared fully nude in an active role in Fox's A Daughter of the Gods in 1916. Though shot from the front, most of Kellerman's body is covered by her long hair.[14] Kellerman had appeared in several lost films prior to 1912, but whether she did nude scenes in them is unknown. A couple of her films from 1910, thought to have been lost, have been rediscovered in Australia.

Historical and "exotic" contexts were also used as justifications for nude or near-nude scenes. In 1917, Fox produced the lavish Cleopatra in which Theda Bara wore a number of risqué outfits. Gordon Griffith appeared as a young naked Tarzan in Tarzan of the Apes (1918), making him the first child actor to appear naked on screen. Nell Shipman appeared nude in the Canadian film Back to God's Country (1919). Fox produced The Queen of Sheba in 1921 starring Betty Blythe, who displayed ample nudity even when wearing 28 different diaphanous costumes. There is also a brief moment in D. W. Griffith's Cleopatra in which Theda Bara wore a number of risqué outfits. Gordon Griffith appeared as a young naked Tarzan in Tarzan of the Apes (1918), making him the first child actor to appear naked on screen. Nell Shipman appeared nude in the Canadian film Back to God's Country (1919). Fox produced The Queen of Sheba in 1921 starring Betty Blythe, who displayed ample nudity even when wearing 28 different diaphanous costumes. There is also a brief moment in D. W. Griffith's Orphans of the Storm (1921 at 43.15 min) to display the debauchery of the French aristocracy.

Is Your Daughter Safe? (1927) was one of the earliest exploitation films which contained nudity. A compilation of medical documentary films and stock footage of nude scenes dating back to the 1900s, it was presented as an educational film about the dangers of venereal disease, white slavery, and prostitution. Hula (1927) is a feature film of this period in which then-popular star Clara Bow does a nude bathing scene.

Exploitation short subjects (three to 15 minutes in length) with comedic plots and frequent nudity were also produced in the silent era. A few have survived to the present such as Forbidden Daughters (13 minutes, 1927), directed by prominent nude photographer Albert Arthur Allen, Hollywood Script Girl (three minutes, 1928), and Uncle Si and the Sirens (eight minutes, c. 1928). These were the forerunners of the "nudie" comedy feature films that emerged in the late 1950s. Years later, when the Hays Code came into force, these films were considered too obscene to be reshown. Most of these films are now lost.

Forbidden Daughters (13 minutes, 1927), directed by prominent nude photographer Albert Arthur Allen, Hollywood Script Girl (three minutes, 1928), and Uncle Si and the Sirens (eight minutes, c. 1928). These were the forerunners of the "nudie" comedy feature films that emerged in the late 1950s. Years later, when the Hays Code came into force, these films were considered too obscene to be reshown. Most of these films are now lost.

In France in the 1920s, short-subject films were made of a topless Josephine Baker performing exotic dance routines. The 1922 Swedish/Danish silent horror film Häxan contained nude scenes, torture and sexual perversion. The film was banned in the U.S. and had to be edited before it was shown in other countries. The 1929 Russian film Man with a Movie Camera by Dziga Vertov featured nudity within the context of naturism, including live childbirth.

U.S. cinema since 1929

Overview

Filmmaking started in the 1890s, with the first feature-length film being produced in 1906.[15] Nude scenes appeared in films from the start of the new invention. Several Hollyw

Filmmaking started in the 1890s, with the first feature-length film being produced in 1906.[15] Nude scenes appeared in films from the start of the new invention. Several Hollywood films produced in the 1910s and 1920s, which contained only brief nudity, created controversy. Various groups objected to these features on moral grounds, and several states set up film censorship boards, arguing that such content was obscene and should be banned. Under pressure, the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) created its own censorship agency, the Hays Code, which brought an end to nudity and risqué content in films produced by the main Hollywood studios (i.e., MPAA members). The Code was adopted in 1930, and began to be effectively enforced in 1934. At the same time, the Catholic Legion of Decency was formed to keep an eye on the morals conveyed in films and indicate its disapproval by "condemning" films it considered morally objectionable (theaters would not show a condemned film until this system was defeated in the 1960s).

Social and official attitudes toward nudity have eased since those days and the Code came under repeated challenge in the 1950s and '60s. In 1958, the New York Court of Appeals ruled, in the context of prohibition of screenings of films, that a film that merely contains nudity was not obscene.[16] The Code was abandoned in 1968, in favor of the MPAA film rating system.

From its early days the p

Social and official attitudes toward nudity have eased since those days and the Code came under repeated challenge in the 1950s and '60s. In 1958, the New York Court of Appeals ruled, in the context of prohibition of screenings of films, that a film that merely contains nudity was not obscene.[16] The Code was abandoned in 1968, in favor of the MPAA film rating system.

From its early days the presence of nudity in a film has been controversial and even today its presence is invariably noted by critics and censors. Until the 1980s, male nudity was rarely shown on screen. Though female nudity was routinely treated with respect and solemnity, male nudity, when it finally found its way onto the screen, was generally treated humorously and mockingly.[citation needed] Today, though nudity in film is much more common, its presence in dramas is still expected to be justified on artistic grounds.

The silent film era came to an end in 1929. In 1930, the Motion Picture Association of America drew up the Motion Picture Production Code, also known as the Hays Code, to raise the moral standards of films by directly restricting the materials which the major film studios could include in their films. The code authorized nudity only in naturist quasi-documentary films and in foreign films. However, the code was not enforced until 1934.

After the end of silent films, movies with sound that included brief glimpses of nudity appeared as early as 1930 with All Quiet on the Western Front. Cecil B. DeMille, later known as a family entertainment specialist, included several nude scenes in his early films such as The Sign of the Cross (1932), All Quiet on the Western Front. Cecil B. DeMille, later known as a family entertainment specialist, included several nude scenes in his early films such as The Sign of the Cross (1932), Four Frightened People (1934), and Cleopatra (1934). The "Dance of the Naked Moon" and orgy scene was cut for The Sign of the Cross in a 1938 reissue to comply with the production code. Other filmmakers followed suit, particularly in historical dramas such as The Scarlet Empress (1934) – which, among other things, shows topless women being burned at the stake – and contemporary stories filmed in exotic, mostly tropical, locations. Bird of Paradise, directed by King Vidor in 1932, featured a nude swimming scene with Dolores del Río, and Harry Lachman's Dante's Inferno featured many naked men and women suffering in hell.

The early Tarzan films with Johnny Weissmuller featured at least partial nudity justified by the natural surroundings in which the characters lived; in Tarzan and His Mate in 1934, Jane (Maureen O'Sullivan, doubled by Olympic swimmer Josephine McKim) swims in the nude.

Under the pretense of being an educational ethnographic film, producers could justify showing half-clad natives in jungle epics and South-Sea-island documentaries. This was often done by editing in stock footage or fabricating new scenes with ethnic-looking stand-ins. Examples of docufiction include Ingagi (1930), notorious for its fake scenes of semi-nude "native" girls filmed on a back lot. Forbidden Adventure in Angkor (1937) is a 1912 Cambodia documentary with scenes added, for dramatic effect, of two explorers and a dozen topless female bearers, incongruously played by African-American women. The Sea Fiend (1935), re-issued as Devil Monster (1946), is a low-budget South-Sea drama spiced up with stock footage inserts of half-dressed native girls.

Other films of questionable authenticity in this subgenre include Moana (1926), Trader Horn, The Blonde Captive, Tabu: A Story of the South Seas (all 1931), Goona Goona aka Kriss, Isle of Paradise, Virgins of Bali, Bird of Paradise (all 1932), Gow aka Gow the Killer (1934, re-released as Cannibal Island in 1956), Inyaah, Jungle Goddess (1934), Legong: Dance of the Virgins (1935), Love Life of a Gorilla (1937), Mau-Mau (1955), and Naked Africa (1957).

Due to the diaphanous or sheer nature of 1920s and 1930s fashions, female body parts or virtual nudity, or both, can be on display even when the performer is fully clothed. As a result, when the Hays Code came into force in 1934, studio wardrobe departments had to attire actresses in more conservative as well as contemporary dress.

Though in place, the Hays Code was not enforced until 1934, spurred on in response to objections voiced by several groups to the content of Hollywood films – provoked at least partly by the notorious 1933 Czech film Ecstasy, which was highly controversial in its time largely because of a nude swimming scene by Hedy Lamarr as well as perhaps the first non-pornographic film to portray sexual intercourse,[17] although never showing more than the actors' faces. It has also been called the first on-screen depiction of a female orgasm.

The restrictions of the production code were strictly enforced from 1934 until the early 1960s to restrict nudity in films produced by the studios. United States-produced films were also under the scrutiny of moral guardians, such as the Catholic Legion of Decency, which had an influence on the content and subject matter of films in the 1930s and 1940s. They were also subject to constraints of state censorship authorities. These bodies followed inconsistent guidelines through whic

The restrictions of the production code were strictly enforced from 1934 until the early 1960s to restrict nudity in films produced by the studios. United States-produced films were also under the scrutiny of moral guardians, such as the Catholic Legion of Decency, which had an influence on the content and subject matter of films in the 1930s and 1940s. They were also subject to constraints of state censorship authorities. These bodies followed inconsistent guidelines through which the film producers had to navigate; with some films being exhibited in cut versions in some states.

The Hays Code was so strict that even the display of cleavage was controversial. Producer Howard Hughes created controversy by his emphasis on cleavage, especially that of Jane Russell, first in the 1941 film The Outlaw and also in the 1953 film The French Line. The film was found objectionable under the Hays Code because of Russell's "breast shots in bathtub, cleavage and breast exposure" while some of her decollete gowns were regarded to be "intentionally designed to give a bosom peep-show effect beyond even extreme decolletage".[18] Both films were condemned by the Legion of Decency and were released only in cut versions.

Independent film producers – i.e., those outside the studio system – were not bound by the restrictions of the Hays Code. However, they were subject to state censorship regimes and could be excluded from so-called "family" theatres. These films claimed to be educational and dealt with taboo topics such as drug parties, prostitution, and sexually transmitted infections. In the course of presenting the message, nudity at times made an appearance. These films, which emerged in the 1930s, were obliged to play in independent theaters or traveled across the United States in "roadshow" fashion. They were normally low-budget, and described as sensationalized exploitation films. Using this framework, brief nude scenes of women appeared in Maniac (1934) and Sex Madness (1937), and nude swimming sequences in Marihuana (1936) and Child Bride (1938). Child Bride was controversial because it included a topless and skinny dipping scene by 12-year-old Shirley Mills, which was described by Allmovie as "gratuitous child nudity",[19] though in some versions the topless scene was cut out.

Exploitative films with pseudo-ethnographic pretensions continued well into the 1960s. For example, Mau-Mau (1955), presented as a documentary of the violent nationalist uprising in Kenya, played the grind-house circuit. Fabricated scenes filmed in front of a painted backdrop of an African village show nude and semi-clad "native" women being raped, strangled, and stabbed by machete-wielding maniacs.

Other films containing nudity were the early underground 8mm pornographic films and fetish reels which, due to various censorship regimes, had only limited (usually clandestine) means of distribution and were only shown in private until the 1970s.

Nudist films first appeared in the early 1930s as documentaries, Utopian and docu-dramas promoting the healthy lifestyle of the naturist movement in Europe and the U.S. Earliest examples include This Nude World (1933), a narrated documentary filmed in the U.S., France, and Germany, and Elysia, Valley of the Nude (1933), a docu-drama filmed at a nudist camp in Elsinore, California. Throughout the thirties, nudist films like Why Nudism? (1933), Nudist Land (1937), and The Unashamed (1938) flourished in road shows, but disappeared entirely in the forties.

The nudist-camp movie was revived in the 1950s with Garden of Eden (1954), the first naturist film shot in color. Changes in censorship laws led to a flood of films such as Naked Venus (1958) directed by Garden of Eden (1954), the first naturist film shot in color. Changes in censorship laws led to a flood of films such as Naked Venus (1958) directed by Edgar G. Ulmer, Nudist Memories (1959), and Daughter of the Sun (1962) by David F. Friedman, and Herschell Gordon Lewis. Doris Wishman was probably the most active producer/director in the genre, with eight nudist films to her credit between 1960 and 1964, with Hideout in the Sun (1960), Nude on the Moon (1961), Diary of a Nudist (1961), Blaze Starr Goes Nudist (1962), Gentlemen Prefer Nature Girls (1963), Playgirls International (1963), Behind the Nudist Curtain (1964), and The Prince and the Nature Girl (1964).

Edward Craven Walker (1918-2000), the inventor of the lava lamp, was a major figure in the naturist movement. He made three nudist films under the name Michael Keatering. They were Travelling Light (1959), Sunswept (1962), and Eves on Skis (1963).

Ramsey Harrington produced The Nudist Story (1960) (retitled "For Members Only" or "Pussycat's Paradise" for the U.S. market), Arthur Knight produced My Bare Lady (1963) and Leo Orenstein (under the pseudonym Alan Overton) directed Have Figure, Will Travel (1963).[20] Exploitation producer George Weiss also released films such as Nudist Life (1961), which comprised vintage nudist camp footage. In the same year, in England, Harrison Marks released Naked as Nature Intended which starred Pamela Green and was a box office success (Marks soon went to make softcore pornographic and caning/spanking fetish films).[20]

Nudist films claimed to depict the lifestyles of members of the nudism or naturist movement, but were largely a vehicle for the exhibition of female nudity. They were mainly shot in naturist resorts, but augmented by attractive glamour models. The nudity was strictly non-sexual and when filmed frontally the members' pubic area was strictly covered by the angle of shot or some clothing or other objects. There was uninhibited exposure of breasts and backsides though. The acting and technical production standards were not very high and the outlets for their exhibition were very limited, as was the size of the audience interested in these films, and many films were re-released several times under new titles, to trick patrons into seeing the films additional times. What audience there was lost interest in these films by the mid-1960s and production ceased.[20]

At the same time, some independent producers produced erotic feature films which openly contained female nudity without the pretext of a naturist context. These nudie-cuties followed the formula of being humorous films with hapless, bumbling males and glorified women. The groundbreaking The Immoral Mr. Teas (1959) directed by Russ Meyer was the first of such films. In that film, the context for the presentation of female nudity was the fantasies of the main character. The film is widely considered the first pornographic feature not confined to under-the-counter distribution, and the film was commercially successful. Russ Meyer made two more nudie-cuties: Wild Gals of the Naked West, and Eve and the Handyman, starring his wife Eve in the title role. For the next few years a wave of such films, known as "nudies" or "nudie-cuties", were produced for adult theatres (in the United States sometimes called grindhouse theatres). The films bailed out movie houses that were facing stiff competition from television at the time. Nudie-cutie advertising was packed with tag-lines such as "You'll Never See This on TV". Films in this genre included Doris Wishman's science fiction spoof Nude on the Moon (1961), the Herschell Gordon Lewis and David F. Friedman film The Adventures of Lucky Pierre (1961), and Ed Wood's horror-nudie Orgy of the Dead (1965), with its bevy of topless dancers from beyond the grave, following his Western screenplay Revenge of the Virgins (1959), which shows a fierce tribe of bare-breasted Indian women hunting a group of treasure seekers. There were very many other similar films and sequels. One of the most renowned nudie-cuties is The Imp-probable Mr Weegee, a pseudo-documentary in which famed crime photographer Arthur Fellig, nicknamed "Mr. WeeGee", stars as himself. In the film, he falls in love with a store window dummy. Besides Russ Meyer, the only director in this field to go on to critical success is Francis Ford Coppola, who began his career writing and directing a pair of nudie comedies in 1962, Tonight for Sure and The Bellboy and the Playgirls. Harrison Marks's The Naked World of Harrison Marks (1967) and Nine Ages of Nakedness (1969) could be considered late additions to the genre.

Challenges to the Hays Code, 1960–1966