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Swami Nigamananda Paramahansa
Paramahansa
(18 August 1880[1] – 29 November 1935[2]) is an Indian sadguru, yogi, mystic and a Hindu
Hindu
spiritual leader well known in Eastern India.[3][4][5][6] He was associated with the shakti cult and viewed as a perfect spiritual master of tantra, gyan, yoga and prema or bhakti.[7][8][9][10][11] His followers idealized him as their worshipped and beloved thakura. Nigamananda was born into a Bengali Brahmin
Brahmin
family in the hamlet of Kutabpur in Nadia district
Nadia district
(at present Meherpur district Bangladesh). He was a sannyasi from Shankar's cult. After his ordination as a sannyasi, he came to be known as Paribrajakacharya Paramahansa
Paramahansa
Srimat Swami Nigamananda Saraswati Deva.[2] Nigamananda's followers believe that he achieved siddhi (perfection) in four different sadhanas (spiritual disciplines): tantra, gyan, yoga and prema.[12][13] Based on these experiences, he wrote five Bengali language books: Brahamcharya Sadhana
Sadhana
(ब्रह्मचर्य साधन), Yogi
Yogi
Guru
Guru
(योगिगुरु), Gyani Guru (ज्ञानीगुरु), Tantrika Guru (तांत्रिकगुरु), and Premik Guru (प्रेमिकगुरु).[14][15][16] Nigamananda reportedly experienced the state of Nirvikalpa Samadhi.[17] After retiring from Saraswata Matha, Nigamananda spent the last fourteen years of his life in Puri. Durga
Durga
Charan Mohanty, a school student, met him at Nilachala Kutir
Nilachala Kutir
in 1930 and recognized him as sadguru.[18] Mohanty became Nigamananda's disciple and wrote books for Nigamananda's establishment Nilachala Saraswata Sangha
Nilachala Saraswata Sangha
and translated Nigamananda's Bengali books into Odia. Under Mohanty's encouragement, more than 100 ashrams operate in Orissa. Mohanty continued to spread the message of Nigamananda until his death on 7 December 1985.[19]

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Childhood, studies and service life (1880–1901) 1.2 Turning point 1.3 Spiritual experience (1902–1905) 1.4 Recognition as paramahansa (1904) 1.5 Death (1935)

2 Mission 3 Jayaguru (जयगुरु ଜୟଗୁରୁ) 4 Philosophy and teachings

4.1 Avatar
Avatar
and Sadguru 4.2 Sadguru, Jagadguru and God 4.3 Order of Spiritual Attainments 4.4 Reconciliation of Monistic and Dualistic Pursuits 4.5 Other key teachings

5 Yoga, theories and techniques

5.1 Theory of jibanamukta upasana 5.2 Karmic theory 5.3 On death 5.4 Yoga

5.4.1 Hatha yoga
Hatha yoga
and Laya yoga 5.4.2 Dharana and dhyan 5.4.3 Sampragyant samadhi

6 Works

6.1 Institutions founded

6.1.1 Garohill Yoga
Yoga
Ashram 6.1.2 Saraswata Matha

6.1.2.1 Retirement 6.1.2.2 100 Years of Saraswata Matha
Matha
(1912–2011)

6.1.3 Nilachala Saraswata Sangha 6.1.4 Guru
Guru
Braham Ashrams 6.1.5 Other foundations

6.2 Publications

6.2.1 Saraswata Granthavali 6.2.2 Arya Darpan 6.2.3 Thakurer Chithi

6.3 Bhakta Sammilani

7 Legacy 8 See also 9 Further reading

9.1 Books 9.2 Libraries 9.3 Lessons 9.4 Letters

10 References 11 External links

Life[edit] Childhood, studies and service life (1880–1901)[edit]

कुतबपुर-Kutabpur(Gurudham), the birthplace of Swami Nigamananda in dist. Nadia

At his birth, Nigamananda was named Nalinikanta (নলিনীকান্ত, ନଳିନୀକାଂତ, नलिनीकांत - in Hindu
Hindu
meaning is: Lotus, water),[20] per the wishes of his father, Bhuban Mohan and the advice of his father's guru, Swami Bhaskarananda Saraswati.[21] At the age of thirteen (1893) Nalinikanta lost his mother Manikya Sundari Devi
Devi
to cholera, pushing him into depression.[22][23] In 1894-95 he passed the student scholarship examination and studied at Meherpur High School. In 1895 he entered Dhaka Asanulla Engineering College. In 1897 his father married him to a thirteen-year-old girl named Sudhansubala Devi of Halisahar. He completed his study in 1899 and joined a service in the District Board of Dinajpur, the estate of Rani Rashmoni.[24] At the end of Vadra, 1901 (approximately five years after marriage) when he was serving as the supervisor of the Narayanpur Estate (Zamindari),[2][22][25] Nalinikanta saw the shadowy image of his wife standing at the table glowering and silent while she was away at Kutabpur (Nalinikanta's village). He went to Kutabpur to inquire and learned that she had died just an hour before his vision. He unsuccessfully attempted to reach his wife through occult science.[26] Turning point[edit] Until he lost his wife, Nalinikanta had seen death as the ultimate end. Losing her led him to believe that there must be life after death.[27] Nalinikanta became obsessed with this question. His inquiry took him to Madras
Madras
(now Chennai) to study theosophy at the Theosophical Society at Adyar.[28] Through a medium, he was able to talk to his wife, but remained unsatisfied. His discussions at the society led him to search for a yogi who could fulfill his desire to meet his dead wife and educate him in the true philosophy of "life after death". Spiritual experience (1902–1905)[edit]

"Nalinikanta" took to asceticism and named after Nigamananda in 1904 (on the 11th Vadra in 1309 BS)[18]

I had ramble like a mad chap caring little for bodily comforts for god and guru(master). God never descended for a moment to assist me. The day I traced my guru and received His blessings, things turned in my favour. Prior to that although I had undertaken various practices they did not yield any result. As soon as I come under the guidance of my gurudev(master) whatever practices I followed, I got success in each of them. It is therefore very importance that a blessing of guru is very essential for success in spiritual sadhana - SWAMI NIGAMANANDA[29][30][31]

One night Nalinikanta dreamed of a sadhu with a brilliant aura. He woke up to find the sadhu standing beside his bed. The sadhu handed him a bael leaf with a mantra written on it and then vanished. Nalinikanta asked many to help him understand its meaning. Finally he met Bamakhepa, a famous tantrik of Tarapith, Birbhum district.[22][23][32] Nalinikanta took initiation (dikhshya) from Bamakhepa
Bamakhepa
and was directed to chant his mantra for 21 days.[33] Under Bamakhepa’s guidance he had physical darshan of Tara Devi
Devi
in the form of his wife.[23][34] This darshan led him to another mystery. He saw Tara Devi
Devi
coming out of his body and mingling with him. To solve this mystery, Bamakshepa advised Nalinikanta to attain the knowledge of Advaita
Advaita
from a vedantic guru. In 1902 he searched for a jnani guru.[22] He met guru Satchidananda Saraswati
Saraswati
at the holy place of Pushkar
Pushkar
in the Indian state of Rajasthan. He realized that Satchidananda Saraswati
Saraswati
was the sadhu who had given him the Tara mantra in his dream. Nalinikanta became his disciple,[35][36] and learned the theories of Brahma
Brahma
(god as the formless one), Brahma sutras and vedanta. He was initiated by the Satchidananda into renunciation and according to that principle changed his name to Nigamananda.[37] Satchidananda directed Nigamananda to undertake pilgrimages to the four institutions (Char Dham) of religious seats and realize for himself the significance of each, as the Hindus held these places of worship sacred.[38] After these pilgrimages, he returned to the ashram. On his arrival at the ashram, Sachidananda reviewed Nigamananda’s pilgrimages and said: "My boy! You have travelled widely and seen the religious places and acquired knowledge and experience. All that I had to teach you has been accomplished but it is for you now to put my teachings into practice. You have to experience for yourself the truth of your being and this can only be done through concerted efforts as well as the practice and observance of yogic principles. Thus you now have to seek out a guru who will provide you the proper guidance in this line.[39]

Gauhati(Assam)-Kamakhya Hill: This is the place, where Nigamananda experienced Nirivikalpa Samadhi
Samadhi
(निर्बिकल्प समाधि)and the place is identified by government of Assam
Assam
in 2012.[40]

Again Nigamananda went out to seek a guru. In 1903 he met a "yogi guru" (yoga master) - whom he called "Sumeru Dasji" (otherwise known as Koot Hoomi Lal Singh
Koot Hoomi Lal Singh
or Kuthumi). Nigamananda was accepted as his disciple. Under Das's guidance he learned yoga.[41] After hard practice, in the month of Poush 1904, Nigamananda was able to master Savikalpa samadhi (the trance in which the yogi loses his body consciousness and acquires a transcendental consciousness while retaining his individual identity). Soon after Nigamananda desired to experience the state of Nirvikalpa - the most advanced of yogic samadhis at Kamakshya, Guwahati
Guwahati
Assam
Assam
(Nilachal Hill).[22][42][43] Nigamananda followers believe that he did enter by way of this samadhi and was returned into his body with the residual consciousness of "I am the master or guru" and in yoga he had visualized and practically understood in his own body his guru's vedic knowledge.[44][45][46][47] (The place " Nirvikalpa samadhi" experienced by Swami Nigamananda has been identified. Assam
Assam
Governor Janaki Ballav Patnaik inaugurated the Nirbikalpa Sidhi Sthal of Swami Nigamananda at Nilachal Hills in Kamakhya Dham, Guwahati
Guwahati
on 20 December 2012.[48][49]) In 1904, he was in Kashi (now known as Varanasi), when goddess Annapurna appeared in another dream and told him that[50] his knowledge was limited to formless god and not gone beyond that, hence he was still incomplete.[51] He accepted her challenge and traveled to Gouri devi (a siddha yogini) to learn bhava sadhana. Gouri devi accepted him as disciple and taught him bhakti or prem (eternal nature of divine love play) to understand the physical world as the transformation of god in bhava sadhana.[52][53] Nigamananda's long and continued search for his guru, resembled the search undertaken by his future disciples to find him.[54][55][56] Recognition as paramahansa (1904)[edit] In 1904 Nigamananda went to Allahabad
Allahabad
to see kumbha mela and learned that his master Sachidandand was in the area, staying with Sankaracarya
Sankaracarya
of Sringeri Matha. He found Sankaracarya
Sankaracarya
(mahant or superior) sitting on an elevated throne surrounded by 125 monks, including his guru. Seeing him, Nigamananda went first to pay his respects to his guru, and then to the higher-ranking mahant. The sadhu were upset by this perceived disrespect in not honoring the "mahant" first, but in response Nigamananda quoted the scripture: "Mannatha shri jagannatha madguru shri jagadguru madatma sarvabhutatma tasmai shri gurave namaha (मनाथह श्री जगन्नाथ मदगुरु श्री जगदगुरु मदात्मा सर्वभूतात्मा तस्मै श्री गुरवे नमः)", meaning, "My guru is highest in whole world, hence I should respect my guru first".[57][58][59] Nigamananda further explained to the sadhu assemblies that "on the basis of the vedanta philosophy there was no difference between his 'Guru' (Shri Sachidanand Saraswati) and 'Jagadguru' (Shri Shankarcharya)".[60][61] Jagadguru Sankaracarya
Sankaracarya
endorsed this response and recognized Nigamananda as one who had achieved spiritual enlightenment.[62] Jagadguru conferred him with the title "paramahansa" and came to known as "Paribrajakacharay Paramahansa
Paramahansa
Shree Mad Swami Nigamananda Saraswati
Saraswati
Deva" (परिब्राजकचार्य परमहंस श्री मद स्वामी निगमानंद सरस्वती देव).[63][64][65] Death (1935)[edit] Nigamananda spent the last fourteen years of his life in Puri.[66] He died in Calcutta
Calcutta
on 29 November 1935.[2] Nigamananda's followers honor his memory, and gather at annual congregations (sammilani),[67] and other ceremonial occasions. His ashram at Halisahar,[2][68][69] Saraswata Matha
Matha
(previously Shanti Ashram) in Jorhat
Jorhat
and Sundarbans are places of pilgrimage.[70][71] Mission[edit] Nigamananda's mission was to propagate sanatana dharma (सनातन धर्म), the spiritual foundation of the Hindu religion, to spread the "right kind of education" (सत् शिक्षा बिश्तार) among people, to publish spiritual literature with emphasis on character building and to provide "service to all created beings" (नर देहे नारायण सेवा), with the attitude of serving the indwelling God.[72] In order to realize these objectives he enjoined his devotees to "lead an ideal family life" (आदर्श गृहस्थ जीवन गठन), to combine the power of spiritual associations (संघ शक्ति प्रतिष्ठा) and "to share or exchange spiritual feelings among the disciples" (भाव बिनिमय).[73][74][75] Jayaguru (जयगुरु ଜୟଗୁରୁ)[edit] To achieve the above objectives, he initiated thousands of interested men and women of all walks of life and taught them his spiritual practices. They were devoid of sectarian bias in that they did not provide a complete package of worship, prayer and meditation. He encouraged his disciples to meet periodically in groups (sangha) of three or more to offer prayer and worship to the guru, to exchange spiritual experiences and to chant "jayaguru" (जयगुरु ଜୟଗୁରୁ),[76] a non-sectarian word he invented, meaning "Glory due to the Master". He instructed them to read spiritual books and devise ways and means for managing matha and ashrams and pledging to lead the life of a spiritually inspired ideal householder. He advised his disciples that the glory of God or Guru
Guru
is experienced through the medium of the word "jayaguru". One can reach at God through this name since God is the Guru
Guru
or Master of the Universe. People belonging to any sect or creed can accept this name without any risk to their progress in the religious life.[77] Philosophy and teachings[edit]

Krishna
Krishna
had told Arjuna
Arjuna
about the relationship between Guru
Guru
and God during the course of His teaching. He had used the word "AHAM" when He meant Himself as Guru
Guru
and "TAT" when He meant God. He mentioned God in the following verses: tat-prasadat param santim sthanam prapsyasi sasvatam (Bhagvad Gita 18.62).[78]

Nigamananda was a sanyasi of the Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
cult. He studied vedanta philosophy due to Shankaracharya after he was initiated as a sanyasi of that order.[79] Nigamananda's core-teachings were that guru and istha are identical and that disciples should adopt ideals of Lord Shankar (i.e. the path of gyan) and ideals of Lord Gaurang (i.e. the path of bhakti). He indicated that Shankar's disciplines were difficult and that Lord Gaurang offered an easier path. According to Nigamananda, Shankar and Gaurang provide a sweet combination of Gyan and Bhakti
Bhakti
to lead the world in the right way.[80] Nigamananda's philosophy and teachings as per Chetanananda Saraswati are explained here: Avatar
Avatar
and Sadguru[edit] Nigamananda never admitted that he was God-incarnate or an Avatar (अवतार) although many disciples fancied him as one.[81] He stated that an incarnation is an exclusive descent of God on earth to uphold spiritual order. Although he could, the Avatar
Avatar
ordinarily does not enlighten or guide individuals. Through his agency righteousness is established and demonic forces are destroyed. Nigamananda wanted to be treated as a Sadguru (a perfect spiritual Master, also one form of God) who, on account of his quest over a succession of births and deaths, attained the knowledge of his Swaroop स्वरुप (true or potential nature, i.e., supreme universal consciousness). Scriptural evidence shows that Gautam himself had to pass through many births before realising the truth and becoming the Buddha.[82] Nigamananda further pointed out that an Avatar
Avatar
does not always remain in the state allowing leela (divine play.)[83] Sadguru, Jagadguru and God[edit] According to Nigamananda the disciple should take his Guru
Guru
to be the Jagadguru (or the World Master, the Purushottama) and not an ordinary human being, in tune with Krishna's statement in the Bhagavadgeeta:[84]

He who truly knows My birth and activities to be divine is not born again but attains to Me – Bhagavadgeeta
Bhagavadgeeta
(4.9).[85]

Patanjali's aphorism expands this idea: "By contemplating on the form of one who has no attachments, concentration of mind is attained", Nigamananda advised his disciples to meditate on his physical form such that all the admirable qualities and attributes in him would get automatically transferred into their beings and fashion their souls.[86] Further he assured that because he had, by employing three modes of spiritual practice, simultaneously experienced the nature of Brahman
Brahman
(ब्रह्म), Paramatma (परमात्मा) (supreme universal self) and Bhagawan (भगवान) (personal and universal Godhead.) He proclaimed that his disciples would simultaneously have such an experience. That, he said, "was his only expectation from his disciples and he would love to wait for the day to see that fulfilled".[87] Order of Spiritual Attainments[edit] According to Nigamananda, the theory of self-realization requires expanding the individual self to the status of the supreme universal self. The expansions can be directly practiced only by the most competent among the aspirant samyasis by means of precise intellectual inquiry, analysis and deep meditation, although service to the Master is the key to success in such pursuits as well.[88] However, Nigamananda pointed out that true transcendental divine love and ecstasy could be properly experienced by the most fortunate ones only after they had attained monistic realization of the supreme as declared by Lord Krishna
Krishna
himself in the Bhagavadgeeta:

Having realized the state of oneness with the supreme self or Parabrahman and attaining tranquility in spirit, the aspirant neither grieves nor desires and regarding all beings as alike he attains supreme devotion to Me - Bhagavadgeeta
Bhagavadgeeta
(18.54).[89]

Reconciliation of Monistic and Dualistic Pursuits[edit] Unlike saints who recognized and preached a diversity of doctrines for self / God realisation and offered multiple paths to attain them, Nigamananda suggested the realisation of the oneness of self and the supreme universal self (or Parabrahman-परंब्रह्म) as the true and the highest goal of human life.[90] For most aspirants the path is one of true devotion to the perfect spiritual master (Sadguru) who initiates them. Rendering personal service to the Master and invoking his grace through prayers, chanting and simple meditation are the chief modes of spiritual practice for them. They will acquire non-dualistic realization that their Master is a realized soul (Brahmajnani-ब्रह्मज्ञानी) and experience bliss due to intense love for him over the course of time, when they are enabled to participate in his Leela (love play-लिला) for helping others. Nigamananda pointed out that the path shown by Gouranga, who practiced and preached unconditional devotion and love for God, was rather narrow, inasmuch as it was directed to Sri Krishna
Krishna
as the only God. In order to broaden that path, Nigamananda suggested taking the master as an embodiment of Sri Krishna
Krishna
(or any other deity whom the aspirant loved), in which case the guide himself becomes the goal. In this way Nigamananda convincingly reconciled the two apparently contradictory creeds of Shankaracharya and Gauranga who advocated the principle and practice of apparent duality between the devotee and God. After all, Nigamananda pointed out that in the path of devotion and love the aspirant has to subdue or tame his ego adequately and hence he attains to the same stage as that of the monastic aspirant whose ego loses its identity on attaining to his goal. In the former case, the devotee's individuality is reduced to a trifle, overpowered by personal god-consciousness, whereas in the latter the aspirant loses his self-consciousness in the ocean of impersonal universal consciousness.[91]

Jnanachakra[92]

Nigamananda pointed out that although the doctrine of monastic vedanta philosophy treats the supreme reality in terms of oneness of individual and universal consciousness, it does not systematically explain the structure of the material creation that is addressed by Samkhya
Samkhya
philosophy.[93] This latter does not treat the supreme reality as well. Similarly, whereas Christianity emphasizes service and surrender as means to God realization, the Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
of Poorva Mimamsa
Mimamsa
prescribes various rituals for the attainment of personal and collective happiness despite cycles of birth and death. By means of a Jnanachakra (ज्ञानचक्र)[94] chart (the spheres of spiritual cosmology) which he presented in a pictorial form, Nigamananda identified different layers of consciousness inter-woven in the microcosm (body) and the macrocosm (the universe) and pointed out the levels that aspirants ultimately attain. In this chart he placed Sri Krishna
Krishna
and Sri Radha
Radha
(or the Guru-गुरु and Yogamaya-योगमाया) in the transition between the non qualified (Nirguna) Brahman
Brahman
(निर्गुण ब्रह्म)[95] and qualified (Saguna) Brahman
Brahman
(सगुण ब्रह्म),[96][97] which he called Nitya or Bhavaloka (भाव लोक).[98] (Yogamaya is a form of divine power,[99] which incessantly attracts earth-bound souls and helps them realise their true blissful nature and participate in divine play).

A Paramahamsa
Paramahamsa
can be accepted as a perfect man and is to be considered as the God-man. At this he remains in "Chinmaya" form i.e. eternal body and becomes the fountain of love (Prem).[100][101]

Other key teachings[edit] Other key teachings of Nigamananda as stated by Chetnananda Saraswati are:

Spiritual liberation requires the help of a liberated person (a Master Sadguru or simply Guru). In the Hindu
Hindu
scriptures that person is known as Guru. Without his grace or favor none can make progress. He who has attained the ultimate reality ( Paramatman or Brahman) as one and the same as himself (the Atman) is the Guru.[102] The Guru
Guru
cannot be equated in importance to formal learning, pilgrimage or divinity. No other is more worthy of respect. The Guru
Guru
is the embodiment of what the Vedanta
Vedanta
teaches – the individual self (the Atman) is one and the same as the cosmic self ( Paramatman or Brahman). A Sadguru never curses anyone. Even his anger helps the disciple. The advantage of depending on a Sadguru is unique and is superior to depending on God because God never materializes to give instructions. The Guru
Guru
and the disciple are inseparable in a way. The Guru
Guru
cannot exist without being a part of a true disciple’s personality or character. The two pathways to liberation are by initiation into and observation of the austerities of sannyasa yoga or by service to a Sadguru. The former is extremely arduous – the disciple must in a sense die. In other words, he must lose body consciousness. But if one unconditionally loves the Guru
Guru
by way of rendering service to him sincerely, spiritual liberation may be obtained relatively easily. Nothing substantial can be achieved without Guru’s grace. The mantra that Guru
Guru
gives during initiation and the disciple’s chosen divinity (or Ista) are the same. Unless the Guru
Guru
becomes the chosen divinity, the mantra received loses its power.[103][104] Acquisition of disciples is not Guru’s profession; it is his heart's inspiration. The Guru
Guru
cares for and guides the disciple hoping that one day the disciple will get spiritually enlightened.

Yoga, theories and techniques[edit] The following theories are collected from the Oriya book Shri Shri Thakur Nigamananda (श्री श्री ठाकुर निगमानंद) and the writer, Durga
Durga
Charan Mohanty-Banamali Dash: Theory of jibanamukta upasana[edit] One of Nigamananda's major precepts was the theory of Jibanamukta Upasana (जीवनमुक्त उपासना), which he believed could lead the sadhaka to quick self-realization.[88][105] Karmic theory[edit] According to Nigamananda, karma is of three kinds viz. kriyaman, sanchita and prarbdha. Enjoying the results of one's labour while alive is kriyaman; death before enjoyment produces sanchita karma or accumulated labour. Enjoying accumulated karma after rebirth is prarbdha. By virtue of sadhana, the effects of kriyaman and sanchita can be wiped out during a life but it is not possible to erase prarbdha. A person possessed with worldly ambitions is sure to continue the endless journey of birth and death. Jivatma leaves the gross body to travel in the spirit world or pret lok (ghost world). After undergoing karmic effects, it returns to the physical world with a body for the fulfillment of desires from its prior incarnation. How it moves from one world to another is a mystery. Yogis can perceive the mystery and tell the past sanskar of jiva.[106][107][108] On death[edit] Nigamananda said that one should remember that death is coming. Before working on good or evil deeds one should also remember that death is not far off. Contemplating death drives away the desire for sensual pleasure and evil thoughts and stops acts of injustice. Attachment to wealth and relations will then diminish. Earthly matters remain even after departure from this world. Only spiritual wealth remains as an asset to the individual. Those who have puffed with pride on account of their accomplishments will submit to the God of death meekly when that hour comes. Drunk with pride, some persons ill-treat their brethren. They will be left in the deserted crematory ground with the beasts and birds joyously waiting to feast upon their flesh. Thinking of this will drive evil thoughts from the mind.[109] Yoga[edit] Nigamananda wrote a great deal on Yoga. His theories and techniques can be found in his book " Yogi
Yogi
Guru".[110][111][112] Samples: Hatha yoga
Hatha yoga
and Laya yoga[edit] Hatha yoga
Hatha yoga
can be carried out when the body is made fit for the purpose. The body should be cleansed first of impurities through sat sadhna, the six elementary practices of yoga. Hatha yoga
Hatha yoga
is completely different from laya yoga. Hatha yoga
Hatha yoga
can make the body strong, enabling it to survive for four hundred years or more, whereas laya yoga helps the aspirant to attain union with the supreme. If the body is not kept purified both externally and internally with hatha yoga, attempting laya yoga would yield no result.[113][114] Dharana and dhyan[edit] Nigamananda taught that the breathing system is closely connected with the intricate workings of the mind. Therefore, practice of pranayama leads to calmer breathing and thereby maintains tranquility of mind. Mind is subjected to forces of disturbed thoughts owing to irregular breathing. He said "I had applied myself to the higher practices of yoga, thereafter, i.e. dharana and dhyan (meditation)". The sadhaka is likely to peril his life if he does not take assistance of another during these advanced practices. During Dhāraṇā, the sadhaka experiences his own progress and when the estimated height in sadhana is achieved, he enters into successive steps of progress. While being absorbed in the practice of dhyan, the sadhaka may cross over to the state of samadhi. When he achieves this state of consciousness is not predictable. Until samadhi, the sadhaka gropes in the darkness aided by Guru.[115][116] Sampragyant samadhi[edit] Nigamananda pointed out that if earlier practices are perfected, the succeeding steps yield lasting results. The sadhaka enters samadhi as a matter of his own experience, including the awakening of kundalini. The upward and downward motion of kundalini[117][118] is called Sampragyant Samadhi
Samadhi
(सम्प्रज्ञात समाधि).[119][120] Works[edit] Institutions founded[edit] Garohill Yoga
Yoga
Ashram[edit] Nigamananda founded his first Yoga
Yoga
Ashram
Ashram
in 1905 (1312 BS) at Kodaldhoa in Garo Hills, which is called now "Garohill-Yogashrama" (गारोहिल योगाश्रम). His famous book " Yogi
Yogi
Guru" (योगिगुरु), was written and composed here in 14 days.[16][18][121][122] Saraswata Matha[edit] Main article: Shanti Ashram

Nigamananda founded Shanti Ashram
Ashram
(शांति आश्रम) in 1912 at Jorhat
Jorhat
to fulfill his three missions, to propagate Sanatana Dharma
Dharma
(spreading eternal religion), spreading true education and serve everybody as god incarnate. He took a plot of land of Jorhat
Jorhat
in Sibsagar district
Sibsagar district
and founded this ashram there on Akshaya Tritiya, in the month of Baishakh (in 1319 BS according to Bengal calendar). This was called “Shanti Ashram” or Saraswata Matha
Matha
(सारस्वत मठ), which went by the name of Assam-Bengal Saraswata Matha
Matha
(आसाम बंगीय सारस्वत मठ) in the later years.[24] [123][124] Rishi Vidyalaya was an important school founded under this matha for yoga training.[2][125][126] Retirement[edit] Nigamananda initiated ten devout disciples into sanyas in the tradition of the "Saraswati" by order due to the great Sankaracharya, the juniormost among whom was "Swami Nirvanananda Saraswati"[127] (an erudite scholar, philosopher and writer who became famous as Anirvan later on) and "Swami Prajnananda Saraswati". Swearing in Swami Prajnanandaji as the mahant and Trustee of the "Saraswat Matha
Matha
and Ashrama Establishments".[128] Swami Nigamananda retired and resided in Nilachala Kutir
Nilachala Kutir
in Puri
Puri
for several years, till 1935.[129]

Swami Nigamananda's monastic organization Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswata Matha
Matha
at Kokilamukh, Jorhat, India
India
completed 100 years in 2011

100 Years of Saraswata Matha
Matha
(1912–2011)[edit] This Institution(Shanti Ashram) or "Saraswata Matha" founded by Swami Nigamananda in 1912(1319 BS) reached its hundredth anniversary on Akshaya Tritiya
Akshaya Tritiya
Baishakh, 2011 (1418 BS), i.e. 6 May 2011.[18][130] Nigamananda said, this matha is very dear to my heart, I can sacrifice my life hundred times for the sake of this matha.[131] Nilachala Saraswata Sangha[edit] Main article: Nilachala Saraswata Sangha Nigamananda accepted Jagannatha culture and advised his disciples to worship him according to their state/country's culture. He believed that Lord Jagannath is the "symbol of truth".[132][133] The day Sravan
Sravan
Purnima (fullmoon day), on 24 August 1934 Friday, Nilachala Saraswata Sangha
Nilachala Saraswata Sangha
(NSS - नीलाचल सारस्वत संघ - ନୀଳାଚଳ ସାରସ୍ବତ ସଂଘ ପୁରୀ ) was established by Nigamananda at Nilachala Kutir
Nilachala Kutir
(नीलाचल कुटीर-ନୀଳାଚଳ କୁଟିର), Puri.[134][135][136] The Oriya devotees gathered there to celebrate his birthday. He advised them to form a religious circle. As per his wishes devotees started an association for religious talk and thus Nilachala Saraswata Sangha
Nilachala Saraswata Sangha
(the Sangha)[136] came into existence to fulfill his tripartite objective: (1) leading an ideal family life, (2) establishment of combined power and (3) sharing of feelings.[74] Guru
Guru
Braham Ashrams[edit] Nigamananda established Guru
Guru
Brahama
Brahama
Ashrams (गुरु ब्रह्म आश्रम) where people from any faith can come and pray in their own ways. He instituted five Ashrams in five divisions of undivided Bengal. They are Purba Bangala Saraswat Ashram
Ashram
at Moinamati, Comilla (Bangala Desh), now at Tripura,[137] Madhya Bangala Saraswat Ashram
Ashram
at Kalni, Dacca, now Purbasthali
Purbasthali
Bardhaman district,[138] Uttar Bangala Saraswat Ashram
Ashram
at Bogra, Paschima Bangala Saraswat Ashram
Ashram
at Kharkusama, Midnapore,[139] Dakhina Bangala Saraswat Ashram
Ashram
at Halisahar, 24 Paragans.[140] Nigamananda installed Jagat Gurus Ashan (जगत गुरु आसन), in 1915 at Kokilamukh, Jorhat, Assam[141] and established many ashrams and made thousands of disciples in the guru-shishya tradition.[142] Other foundations[edit] Followers of Nigamananda run Nigamananda Education Centers in Orissa,[143] also schools and educational institutions around India. Publications[edit] Saraswata Granthavali[edit]

Sanatana Dharma
Dharma
Patrika-Arya Darapan[144]

Nigamananda wrote and published a series of books, known collectively as Saraswata Granthavali (सारस्वत ग्रंथावली). These are Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
Sadhan (ब्रह्मचर्य साधन), Yogiguru (योगिगुरु), Tantrikguru (तांत्रिकगुरु), Jnaniguru (ज्ञानीगुरु), and Premikguru (प्रेमिकगुरु) which dealt with the fundamentals of almost all modes of sadhana (spiritual practice) prevalent in Sanatan Dharma.[145]>[146] Nigamanananda's followers believe that these books are useful to any faithful person and if practiced carefully will lead to success in spiritual pursuits. By Mohanty's efforts these books were translated from Bengali to Oriya.[147] Arya Darpan[edit] Nigamananda also published Arya Darpan (आर्य दर्पण),[148][149] a monthly magazine on sanatana dharma, intended for disseminating non-sectarian spiritual knowledge among the masses. Many essays on important topics relating to religious and scriptural matters were included in this magazine. [150] Thakurer Chithi[edit] Advising his disciples, Nigamananda wrote letters, from which one hundred are collected in a book called Thakurer Chithi (ठाकुरेर चिठी). This information was published in a Calcutta
Calcutta
magazine Modern Review, founded by Ramananda Chatterjee, on 26 December 1938.[151] Other Nigamananda collections are Maayer Kripa (मायेर कृपा),[152] Vedanta
Vedanta
Vivek (वेदांत विवेक)[153] and Tattvamala (तत्वमाला). Bhakta Sammilani[edit]

Swami Nigamananda (in middle) along with disciples in Bhakta Sammilani 1922

Nigamananda created an annual conference called Bhakta Sammilani (भक्त सम्मिलनी) for householders and sanyasis,[154] to strengthen prayer groups, discuss the importance of having a guru, review the well-being of sanyasis living in the ashrams, help solve problems pertaining to them and the ashrams as a whole, provide welfare, such as schools, for communities and to hold lectures by enlightened speakers on public spiritual life.[155][156] Nigamananda categorized Bhakta Sammilani into "Sarbabhouma" (Country wide or सार्बभौम भक्त सम्मिलनी) and "Pradeshika (State wide or प्रादेशिक भक्त सम्मिलनी.) The first "Sarbabhouma Bhakta Sammilani" was established by him at Kokilamukh in 1915.[157] The first "Pradeshika Bhakta Sammilani" was held in 1947 by Nilachala Saraswata Sangha, Puri
Puri
at Ankoli in the district of Ganjam during full moon day of maagha.[158]

Swami Nigamananda's Utkal Pradeshika Bhakta Sammilani-No.61 (उत्कल प्रादेशिक भक्त सम्मिलनी), held in village Biratunga
Biratunga
on 6,7,8 Feb 2012.[159]

Nigamananda set a different prayer day for women disciples where they alone could participate and exchange their views. He said in one sammilani, "my devotees are fully aware that I am pleased to see them congregated in this sammilani, once in a year during X-mas. Such gathering would bring fame to the maths and it would also do good to the world at large".[160] Legacy[edit] Nigamananda’s birthday is celebrated every year on Sravan
Sravan
Purnima day at Nilachala Kutir
Nilachala Kutir
in Oriya culture. On 10 Aug 2014 his 134th Birthday was celebrated at Nilachala Kutir.[161] The 63rd Bhakta Sammilani was celebrated in Feb 2014 at Bhadrak See also[edit]

Indian Yogis Sri Anirvan Sri Chinmoy Nigamananda Bidyapitha Modern Review

Further reading[edit] Books[edit]

Bengali

Nigamānanda Sarasvati Deva. Yogī guru. archive.org.  Nigamānanda Sarasvati Deva. Gyānī guru. archive.org.  Nigamānanda Sarasvati Deva. Tantrika guru. archive.org.  Nigamānanda Sarasvati Deva. Premika guru. archive.org.  Nigamānanda Sarasvati Deva. Vedanta
Vedanta
Viveka. archive.org. 

English

Nigamānanda (2000). Divine way of life. B.Jain. ISBN 978-81-7021-911-8.  Sarasvati Deva (Svāmī Nigamānanda.) (1989). Tantrika guru. Saraswata Sangha.  Nigamānanda Sarasvati Deva (Svāmī.) (1989). Gyānī guru. Nilachala Saraswata Sangha.  Nigamānanda Sarasvati Deva (Svāmī.) (1989). Premika guru. Nilachala Saraswata Sangha.  Nigamānanda Sarasvati Deva (Svāmī.) (1963). Yogī guru. Nilachala Sarasvata Sangha.  Nigamānanda Sarasvati Deva (Svāmī.) (1969). Brahamacharya Sadhana. Nilachala Sarasvata Sangha. 

Libraries[edit]

English Literature

The divine universal gospels of Sri Nigamananda National Library, Ministry of Culture, Government of India
India
(Call No. E 294.598 D 496) Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography / Moni Bagchee Hathi Trust Digital Library Sadguru Nigamananda openlibrary.org

Bengali Literature

Premika Guru
Guru
Author: Paramhansa, Nigamananda, West Bengal Public Library Network Yogi
Yogi
Guru
Guru
Author: Paramhansa, Nigamananda, West Bengal Public Library Network

Lessons[edit] Sri Chinmoy
Sri Chinmoy
Library Collections

My Guru
Guru
Is The Highest Dream Becomes Reality Temptation-Power Almost Succeeds Not The Outer Form, But The Inner Essence Body's Beauty Fails; Soul's Beauty Sails Divine Love Consoles Human Loss Swami Nigamananda (Not an Avatar) The Master's Protection-Arms Attachment-Cry Versus Oneness-Sky A Mere God-Lover

Letters[edit]

Thakurer Chithi (ठाकुरेर चिठी) A collection of 100 letters written by Swami Nigamananda Paramahansa
Paramahansa
to his disciples, The Modern review (page 337)

References[edit]

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Assam
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Bangladesh
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Paramahamsa
Prajnanananda (15 August 2006). My Time with the Master. Sai Towers Publishing. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-81-7899-055-2. Retrieved 18 March 2011.  ^ Sher Singh; S. N. Sadhu
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Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 49. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ Ray, Benoy Gopal (1965). Religious movements in modern Bengal. Visva-Bharati. p. 100. Retrieved 9 June 2011. Suddenly he saw the shadowy image of his wife  ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Assam
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Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 50. Retrieved 9 June 2011.  ^ Ray, Benoy Gopal (1965). Religious movements in modern Bengal. Visva-Bharati. p. 100. Retrieved 9 June 2011. He went to the Theosophical Society at Adyar and discussed with theosphists...  ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Assam
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Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 112. Retrieved 15 July 2011. a blessing of guru is very essential for success in spiritual sadhana   ^ Biśuddhānanda Sarasvatī (Swami) (1985). In quest of myself: an autobiography. a blessing of guru is very essential for success in spiritual sadhana. Nigamananda Ashram. p. 55. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  ^ Satya
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Pal Ruhela (2000). The spiritual philosophy of Sri Shirdi Sai Baba. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. pp. 174–. ISBN 978-81-7182-090-0. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  ^ Debabrata Sen Sharma (2007). Aspects of Tantra
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Yoga. Indica Books. p. 44. ISBN 978-81-86569-67-2. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ June McDaniel (1989). The madness of the saints: ecstatic religion in Bengal. University of Chicago Press. pp. 151–. ISBN 978-0-226-55723-6. Retrieved 18 March 2011.  ^ Benoy Gopal Ray (1965). Religious movements in modern Bengal. Universal mother seen in the form of "Sudhansubala" (wife of Nigamananda). Visva-Bharati. p. 100. Retrieved 7 April 2012.  ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Assam
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Bangiya Saraswat Math. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ Sri Chinmoy
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(1 March 2003). Wisdom of Sri Chinmoy. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 81–. ISBN 978-81-208-1943-6. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ Religious movements in modern Bengal Author-Benoy Gopal Ray, Visva-Bharati, 1965,His name was changed to "Nigamananda" .... Page -101 ^ Mahadham Orissa Review, June 2006 By Govt. of Orissa ^ Benoy Gopal Ray (1965). Religious movements in modern Bengal. Visva-Bharati. p. 101. Retrieved 10 September 2011.  ^ Seven Sisters Post - Swami Nigamananda's Nirbikalpa Sidhia Sthal(निर्विकल्प सिद्धि श्थल )at Guwahati
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identified. ^ Religious movements in modern Bengal Author-Benoy Gopal Ray, Visva-Bharati, 1965,After continuous search he found a Yogi
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Guru Sumeru Das ji.... Page -101 ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 72. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ Nilachal Saraswat Sangh (Purī; India) (2001). Sadguru Swami Nigamananda. Nilachal Saraswat Sangha, Puri. p. 188. Retrieved 26 March 2011.  ^ Nigamānanda (2000). Divine way of life. B.Jain. pp. SEE FRONT PAGE reflection of the feeling and form of the universal guru was present in Sri Nigamananda it is absoutely true . ISBN 978-81-7021-911-8. Retrieved 1 September 2011.  ^ "Srimat Swami Nigamananda Saraswati Paramahamsa
Paramahamsa
Dev - Life Story".  ^ Rāmakumāra Rāya (1975). Encyclopedia of yoga. After Nirvikalpa Samadhi, the Yogi
Yogi
acquires right of becoming Jagdguru (Universal Master). Prachya Prakashan: distributors, Chaukhambha Orientalia. p. 287. Retrieved 30 July 2011.  ^ Nigamānanda (1997). The divine universal gospels of Sri Nigamananda: translation, a lucid word to word rendering to English. The total reflection of the feeling and form of the Universal Guru
Guru
was present in Sri Nigamananda. Amitabh Giri. p. 8. Retrieved 30 July 2011.  ^ The Times of India
India
- Swami Nigamananda's Nirbikalpa Sidhia Sthal(निर्विकल्प सिद्धि श्थल )at Guwahati
Guwahati
identified. ^ The Assam
Assam
Tribune - Swami Nigamananda's Nirbikalpa Sidhia Sthal(निर्विकल्प सिद्धि श्थल )at Guwahati
Guwahati
identified. ^ Sri Chinmoy
Sri Chinmoy
(1 March 2003). Wisdom of Sri Chinmoy. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-81-208-1943-6. Retrieved 2 April 2011.  ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 73. Retrieved 2 April 2011.  ^ Nilachal Saraswat Sangh (Purī; India) (2001). Sadguru Swami Nigamananda. Nilachal Saraswat Sangha, Puri. p. Page 140. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ Monika Thiel-Horstmann (1983). Bhakti
Bhakti
in current research, 1979-1982: proceedings of the Second International Conference on Early Devotional Literature in New Indo-Aryan Languages, St. Augustin, 19–21 March 1982. D. Reimer Verlag. pp. 118–120. ISBN 978-3-496-00750-0. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ Sri Chinmoy
Sri Chinmoy
(1 March 2003). Wisdom of Sri Chinmoy. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 81–. ISBN 978-81-208-1943-6. Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ Stories By Sri Chinmoy ^ Sri Chinmoy
Sri Chinmoy
(April 1998). El jardín del alma. Editorial Sirio, S.A. pp. 119–. ISBN 978-84-7808-230-8. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ Sri Chinmoy
Sri Chinmoy
(1 March 2003). Wisdom of Sri Chinmoy. Should one always consider his Guru
Guru
the Highest. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-81-208-1943-6. Retrieved 30 July 2011.  ^ " Guru
Guru
Stotram".  ^ "Not the outer form, but the inner essence".  ^ Ādi Śaṅkara Advaita
Advaita
Research Centre (Madras, India) (1982). The Voice of Śaṅkara. Ādi Śaṅkara Advaita
Advaita
Research Centre. p. 140. Retrieved 15 June 2011. Non-difference between Guru
Guru
and AcSrya JAGADGURU  ^ Michael Oren Fitzgerald (25 May 2008). Introduction to Hindu
Hindu
dharma: illustrated. World Wisdom, Inc. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-1-933316-48-2. Retrieved 15 June 2011. The voice of the Jagadguru is an essential part of his message. But Hindus believe that the guru's presence is also part of his message because his spiritual presence can be felt by sincere spiritual seekers. ...  ^ Sri Chinmoy
Sri Chinmoy
(1 March 2003). Wisdom of Sri Chinmoy
Sri Chinmoy
(The Disciple Master relationship ed.). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-81-208-1943-6. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  ^ Nilachal Saraswat Sangh (Purī; India) (2001). Sadguru Swami Nigamananda. Nilachal Saraswat Sangha, Puri. p. Page 134. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ Sri Chinmoy
Sri Chinmoy
(1 March 2003). Wisdom of Sri Chinmoy. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-81-208-1943-6. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ Shree Shree Thakur Nigamananda-Oriya Jeevani, See-"KUMBHA MELA" Writer: Durgacharan Mohanty, Banmali Das, Nilanchala Saraswata Sangha, Puri ^ Kamal K. Mohanty (2001). Orissa, the lost footsteps. Vision Publications. pp. 384, 195. ISBN 978-81-87176-00-8. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ Global English Comprehension ((Baripada Fire) ed.). Allied Publishers. pp. 180–. ISBN 978-81-7764-987-1. Retrieved 18 March 2011.  ^ Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math and Cemetery of Swami Nigamananda ^ "The Telegraph – Calcutta
Calcutta
(Kolkata) Metro Next weekend you can be at ... Halisahar". Telegraphindia.com. 2008-06-29. Retrieved 2011-03-15.  ^ Translated by Swami Swahananda (1997). Mahapurush Maharaj As We Knew Him (Swami Nigamananda's Sundarbans Ashram
Ashram
). Vedanta
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Press. pp. 207–. ISBN 978-0-87481-053-0. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ M. C. Behera (1 January 1998). Pilgrim centre Parashuram Kund: articulation of Indian society, culture, and economic dimension. Saraswata Math (Shanti Ashram) is a pilgrim sacred centre in India. Commonwealth Publishers. p. 18. ISBN 978-81-7169-503-4. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ Ray, Benoy Gopal (1965). Religious movements in modern Bengal. Visva-Bharati. p. 102. Retrieved 9 June 2011. Sanatan Dharma which is eternal and changeless. Another aim is to impart proper Education....  ^ Nilachal Saraswat Sangh (Purī; India) (2001). "Chapter-31". Sadguru Swami Nigamananda. Nilachal Saraswat Sangha, Puri. p. 339. Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ a b Mamata Swain; Minati Mallick (2007). Gender Perspective In Disaster Management. The 3 objectives of Nilachala Saraswata Sangha. Serials Publications. p. 228. ISBN 978-81-8387-121-1. Retrieved 16 July 2013.  ^ Religious movements in modern Bengal Author-Benoy Gopal Ray, Visva-Bharati, 1965,Ideals, Lead an ideal householder's life. Nigamananda laid great stress on the spirit of unity and co-operation(combined power, shangha shakti).... Page 101 ^ Nilachal Saraswat Sangh (Purī; India) (2001). Sadguru Swami Nigamananda. Nilachal Saraswat Sangha, Puri. p. 295. Retrieved 23 March 2011.  ^ An article published in www.geocities.com from Swami Chetanananda Saraswati ^ Swami Chinmayananda. Srimad Bhagawada Gita: Chapter XVIII. Chinmaya Mission. pp. 146 or (484 10.39). ISBN 978-81-7597-098-4. Retrieved 16 July 2011.  ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 76. Retrieved 2 August 2011.  ^ Nigamānanda (1997). The divine universal gospels of Sri Nigamananda: translation, a lucid word to word rendering to English. THE PHILOSOPHY OF ACHARYA SANKARA AND PATH OF GOURANGA DEVA . Amitabh Giri. p. 122. Retrieved 15 October 2011.  ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math. pp. 111–112 ("I am No Avatar, just a Sadguru"). Retrieved 26 May 2011.  ^ S. K. Gupta (1 January 1983). Elephant in Indian Art and Mythology. Abhinav Publications. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-81-7017-166-9. Retrieved 9 July 2011.  ^ Nobody should call me an Avatar
Avatar
collection at srichinmoylibrary.com ^ Nilachal Saraswat Sangh (Purī; India) (2001). Sadguru Swami Nigamananda. Nilachal Saraswat Sangha, Puri. pp. Google search string "sadguru jagadguru god nigamananda". Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ Pada, Prabhu. "PURPORT". Bhagavad-gita As It Is – Macmillan 1972 Edition. Prabhupad Book Stores. Retrieved 2011-07-09. One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna.  ^ Biśuddhānanda Sarasvatī (Swami) (1985). In quest of myself: an autobiography (Quote of Swami Nigamananda ed.). Nigamananda Ashram. p. 57. Retrieved 12 April 2011.  ^ Sri Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Math, Madras
Madras
(1967). The Vedanta
Vedanta
kesari. Sri Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Math. p. 492. Retrieved 9 July 2011.  ^ a b Swami Nigamananda's JIVANMUKTA UPASANA (realisation of truth or liberation in the present life)THEORY, Book: Sadguru Swami Nigamananda (Page:207) By NSS Puri
Puri
(India). ^ Pada, Prabhu. "PURPORT". Bhagavad-gita As It Is – Macmillan 1972 Edition. Prabhupad Book Stores. Retrieved 2011-07-09. One who is thus transcendentally situated at once realizes the Supreme Brahman. He never laments nor desires to have anything; he is equally disposed to every living entity. In that state he attains pure devotional service unto Me.  ^ Benoy Gopal Ray (1965). Religious movements in modern Bengal. Visva-Bharati. p. 102. Retrieved 9 July 2011.  ^ Nigamānanda (1997). The divine universal gospels of Sri Nigamananda: translation, a lucid word to word rendering to English. THE PHILOSOPHY OF ACHARYA SANKARA AND PATH OF GOURANGA DEVA . Amitabh Giri. p. 122. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Six Centers (Chakra)- Gyan Chakra (ज्ञानचक्र) is one. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 256. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Yoga
Yoga
philosophy in its metaphysical aspects is closely allied to Samkhya
Samkhya
philosophy. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 9. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ Linda Johnsen (25 January 2000). Meditation is boring?: putting life in your spiritual practice. Himalayan Institute Press. pp. 71–121. ISBN 978-0-89389-179-4. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Nirguna Brahama. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 108. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ Nigamānanda (1997). The divine universal gospels of Sri Nigamananda: translation, a lucid word to word rendering to English. Saguna Bramaha (Bramaha with qualities ). Amitabh Giri. p. 8. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(1 July 2001). Classical Hindu
Hindu
thought: an introduction. (CHAPTER-III Brahman: Nirguna and Saguna). Oxford University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-19-565871-2. Retrieved 11 July 2011.  ^ R. Venugopalan (1 October 2001). Soul
Soul
Searchers the Art of Breathing. ( Bhava Loka). B. Jain Publishers. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-81-7021-963-7. Retrieved 11 July 2011.  ^ Nigamānanda (1997). The divine universal gospels of Sri Nigamananda: translation, a lucid word to word rendering to English. Yoga
Yoga
Maya- The creative power of God. Amitabh Giri. p. 11. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ Grant H. Pealer (July 2007). Worlds Beyond Death: The Sacred Key. Ozark Mountain Publishing. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-1-886940-97-0. Retrieved 16 July 2011.  ^ Sri Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Paramahamsa. Ramakrishna, His Life and Sayings. Forgotten Books. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-1-60506-646-2. Retrieved 16 July 2011.  ^ Manoj Das; Neeta Gangopadhyay; Sahitya Akademi (2001). Tales told by mystics. Sahitya Akademi. pp. xii–233. ISBN 978-81-260-1175-9. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ Sir Charles Eliot (1998). Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism: an historical sketch. Psychology Press. pp. 250–. ISBN 978-0-7007-0679-2. Retrieved 15 June 2011. Guru
Guru
and Ista (deity) are one and the same  ^ Brahma
Brahma
(1 August 2007). The Fundamentals of Religion. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. pp. 252–. ISBN 978-81-203-3303-1. Retrieved 15 June 2011. No difference is supposed to exist between the guru and the ista  ^ Religious movements in modern Bengal Author-Benoy Gopal Ray, Visva-Bharati, 1965,I desire that Indian should rise once again and attain the ideals ancient Rishis who showed mankind the spirit light. Let them lead mankind to the full knowledge and realization of self.... Page -102 ^ The divine universal gospels of Sri Nigamananda:translation, a lucid word to word rendering to English, Author=Nigamānanda, Quote=Swami Nigamananda' Quote on "Prarabdha", Publisher=Amitabh Giri, Page=19 ^ Sadguru Swami Nigamananda Swami Nigamananda's theory on"Movement of jivatma... Spirit", Publisher=Nilachal Saraswat Sangha, Puri, Year=2001, Page=278 ^ N.H. Sahasrabudhe; R.D. Mahatme (May 2000). Mystic Science of Vastu ("Karma" Principles, "Past Sanskar" ed.). Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-81-207-2206-4. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ Bibudharañjana (2008). Divine death: Lord Jagannath, the new embodiment. Prajnaloka. p. 140. ISBN 978-81-89858-04-9. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ Nigamānanda Sarasvati Deva (Svāmī.) (1963). Yogi
Yogi
Guru-English. Nilachala Sarasvata Sangha. Retrieved 3 August 2011.  ^ Yogi
Yogi
Guru
Guru
-Bangla Author: Paramhansa, Nigamananda, West Bengal Public Library Network ^ Yogi Guru
Guru
Oriya Translator: Durga
Durga
Charan Mohanty, Puri. The Gita Govinda of Sri Jayadev (2006, Author: Amulya Kumar Tripathy, P. C. Tripathy, Jayadeva), Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India. ^ Yogi
Yogi
Guru
Guru
-Bangla(7th Edition), Chapter:"HATH YOGA, LAYA YOGA (हठ योग-लय योग)" , PAGES: 74-75 Author: Paramhansa, Nigamananda, West Bengal Public Library Network ^ Yogiguru NIGAMANANDA (Oriya), Edition-2011,"YOGA TATWA-योग तत्व" (YOGA CHARI PRAKAR-योग चारी प्रकार)", PAGES:88-89 Writer: Durga
Durga
Charan Mohanty, Nilanchala Saraswata Sangha, Puri ^ Yogiguru NIGAMANANDA (Oriya), Edition-2011,Chapter:"YOGA TATWA-योग तत्व, PAGE:86 Writer: Durga
Durga
Charan Mohanty, Nilanchala Saraswata Sangha, Puri ^ Yogi
Yogi
Guru
Guru
-Bangla(7th Edition), Chapter:"DHARANA, DHANA-ध्यान धारना , PAGE: 70-71 Author: Paramahansa, Nigamananda, West Bengal Public Library Network ^ Yogiguru NIGAMANANDA (Oriya), Edition-2011,KUNDALINI TATWA, PAGE:62 Writer: Durga
Durga
Charan Mohanty, Nilanchala Saraswata Sangha, Puri ^ Yogi
Yogi
Guru
Guru
-Bangla(7th Edition), Chapter:"KUNDALINI TATWA , PAGE: 41 Author: Paramhansa, Nigamananda, West Bengal Public Library Network ^ Yogiguru Nigamananda (Oriya), Edition-2011,Chapter:"SAMADHI-समाधि, PAGE:87 Writer: Durga Charan Mohanty, Nilanchala Saraswata Sangha, Puri ^ Yogi
Yogi
Guru
Guru
-Bangla(7th Edition), Chapter:"SAMADHI-समाधि , PAGE: 72 Author: Paramhansa, Nigamananda, West Bengal Public Library Network ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Nigamananda's Garo Hill-Yogashrama. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 88. Retrieved 7 September 2011.  ^ Dwijendra Lal Bhowmik; Tribal Research Institute (Tripura; India) (2003). Tribal religion of Tripura: a socio-religious analysis. Swami Nigamananda'sGarohill(Kadaldhoya) Yoga
Yoga
Ashram: Tribal Research Institute, Govt. of Tripura. p. 60. Retrieved 19 April 2011.  ^ Shanti Ashram
Ashram
(1912) presently known as ‘’’ Assam
Assam
Bongia Sarasat Math’’’ was established by ‘’’Swami Nigamananda’’’ in 1912 (JORHAT HISTORY) ^ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (February 2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9. Retrieved 18 March 2011.  Swami Nigamananda's Ashram
Ashram
at Jorhat
Jorhat
(Assam) ^ Religious movements in modern Bengal Author-Benoy Gopal Ray, Visva-Bharati, 1965, Rishi
Rishi
Vidyalaya have been founded to train up students.... Page -102 ^ Shree Shree Thakur Nigamananda-Oriya Jeevani, CHAPTER-"SARASWATA MATHA" Writer: Durgacharan Mohanty, Banmali Das, Nilanchala Saraswata Sangha, Puri ^ Banik, Nandadulal (2012). "Anirvan". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  ^ Encyclopedia of World Religions(Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Page-79) ^ Chetanananda Saraswati ^ 100 Year celebration of ABS Math ( Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswata Math) ^ "Official Website of Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math".  ^ Sachindra Kumar Maity (1 January 1997). Professor A.L. Basham, my Guruji and problems and perspectives of ancient Indian history and culture. Abhinav Publications. pp. 378–. ISBN 978-81-7017-326-7. Retrieved 23 March 2011.  ^ Ramprasad Mishra; Lakṣmīṅkarā (1995). Advayasiddhi, the Tāntric view of Lakṣmīṅkarā. Kant Publications. p. 41. ISBN 978-81-86218-00-6. Retrieved 23 March 2011.  ^ Mamata Swain; Jagannath Lenka; Minati Mallick; North Odisha University. P. G. Dept. of Economics, India. Ministry of Women and Child Development (2007). "Nilachala Saraswata Sangha". Gender perspective in disaster management. Serials Publications. p. 228. ISBN 9788183871211.  – Search String "Nilachal Saraswat" ^ Indian Anthropological Society (2001). Journal of the Indian Anthropological Society. 36. The Society. p. 156. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ a b Mamata Swain; Jagannath Lenka; Minati Mallick; North Odisha University. P. G. Dept. of Economics, India. Ministry of Women and Child Development (2007). Gender perspective in disaster management. Nilachala Saraswata Sangha, Puri: Serials Publications. p. 228. ISBN 978-81-8387-121-1. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ "ABSM - Picture Gallery".  ^ "ABSM - Picture Gallery".  ^ "ABSM - Picture Gallery".  ^ "ABSM - Picture Gallery".  ^ Benoy Gopal Ray (1965). Religious movements in modern Bengal. Visva-Bharati. p. 102. The main center is situated at Kokilamukha (Assam)....  ^ Press Institute of India; Press Trust of India
India
(1997). Data India. Press Institute of India. p. 159. Retrieved 15 March 2011.  ^ Vandana S. (1 January 1997). Indian Directory Of Environmental Organisations. Nigamananda Education Center, Jahada (Ganjam) Orissa. APH Publishing. pp. 286–. ISBN 978-81-7024-855-2. Retrieved 18 June 2012.  ^ Nigamananda Arya Darpan-निगमानंद आर्य दर्पण Press in India, Volume 49, Publisher=Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India. Page 358. (Sr.4542) ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 152. Retrieved 9 May 2012.  ^ Swami Rama
Rama
(1 July 1999). Living with the Himalayan Masters. Himalayan Institute Press. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-89389-156-5. Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ Amulya Kumar Tripathy; P. C. Tripathy; Jayadeva (2006). Sri Durga Charan Mohanty, ed. The Gita Govinda of Sri Jayadev. Yogi
Yogi
Guru
Guru
(1968) Premika Guru
Guru
(1983) Oriya Translator: DC MOHANTY (Sri Durga
Durga
Charan Mohanty) (in Odia). (Biratunga, Puri). Puri: Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India. pp. Search String "D C Mohanty". Retrieved 8 April 2011.  ^ Swami Nigamananda's Sanatan Dharama Patrika Arya Darpan at Absmath.org ^ Press in India
India
(1963 – Language Arts & Disciplines). Part 2. 1963. pp. 505 (Sr.607). Retrieved 19 March 2011.  ^ Source: Chetanananda Saraswati
Saraswati
Deva ^ Ramananda Chatterjee
Ramananda Chatterjee
(1941). Thakurer Chithi (ठाकुरेर चिठी) (A collection of 100 letters written by Swami Nigamananda Paramahansa
Paramahansa
to his disciples) The Modern review. Prabasi Press Private, Ltd. p. 337. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ June McDaniel (15 July 1989). The Madness of the Saints: Ecstatic Religion
Religion
in Bengal. Maayer Kripa- Book on Swami Nigamananda. University of Chicago Press. p. 310. ISBN 978-0-226-55723-6. Retrieved 16 July 2013.  ^ Sibajiban Bhattacharya; American Institute of Indian Studies (1970). The Encyclopedia of Indian philosophies. Vedanta Vivek"(वेदांत विवेक), Sr.6667. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 544. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ Biśuddhānanda Sarasvatī (Swami) (1985). In quest of myself: an autobiography. Nigamananda Ashram. p. 191. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 129. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ (Source: Chetanananda Saraswati) ^ Moni Bagchee (1987). Sadguru Nigamananda: a spiritual biography. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math, 1987. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswat Math. p. 130. Retrieved 17 March 2011.  ^ (Events) - Swami Nigamananda's Sarbabhouma Bhakta Sammilani & PradeshikaBhakta Sammilani ^ Swami Nigamananda's 61st Utkal Pradeshika Bhakta Sammilani (उत्कल प्रादेशिक भक्त सम्मिलनी) Published in HINEWS India, Year 2012 Bhubaneswar Orissa ^ Swami, Nigamananda; Durga
Durga
Charan Mohanty. "Swami Nigamananda's BHAKTA SAMMILANI". Bhakta Sammilani Odia book written by Durga
Durga
Charan Mohanty. Assam
Assam
Bangiya Saraswata Matha. Retrieved 2011-07-14.  ^ The Editor, Hinews Bhubaneswar

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nigamananda Paramahansa

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nigamananda.

Wikisource
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has original text related to this article: Nigamananda Paramahansa

Works by or about Nigamananda Paramahansa
Paramahansa
at Internet Archive Nigamananda, A site developed by absmath.org, dedicated to his life, works, teachings and philosophy. Sri Sri Thakur Nigamananda Nigam Sudha, A site dedicated to his Life, vaani, Ideals, Philosophy, Sammilani, Sangha, Written Books and about ABS Math( Assam
Assam
Banigiya Saraswata Matha, Jorhat). Sri Sri Thakur Nigamananda NSS, A site dedicated to his Life, vaani, Ideals, Philosophy, Sammilani, Sangha, Written Books and about ABS Math( Assam
Assam
Banigiya Saraswata Matha, Jorhat).

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Religious writers

Mirra Alfassa
Mirra Alfassa
(The Mother) Sri Anirvan Sri Aurobindo Ananda Coomaraswamy Dayananda Eknath Easwaran Satsvarupa dasa Goswami Mahendranath Gupta Jiddu Krishnamurti Nisargadatta Maharaj Ramana Maharshi Sister Nivedita Swami Prabhavananda A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Krishna
Krishna
Prem Swami Rama Swami Ramdas Chinmayananda
Chinmayananda
Saraswati Dayananda Saraswati
Saraswati
(Arya Samaj) Krishnananda Saraswati Sivananda Saraswati Swami Shraddhanand Ram Swarup Swami Vivekananda Paramahansa
Paramahansa
Yogananda

Political writers

Mahatma Gandhi François Gautier Sita
Sita
Ram Goel Ram Gopal Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan H. V. Sheshadri Arun Shourie Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Literary writers

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay Ramdhari Singh Dinkar C. Rajagopalachari K. D. Sethna Amish Tripathi

Westerners influenced by Hinduism

Annie Besant Helena Blavatsky Deepak Chopra Aleister Crowley Ram Dass Wayne Dyer T. S. Eliot R.W. Emerson Allen Ginsberg René Guénon George Harrison Aldous Huxley Christopher Isherwood David Lynch André Malraux Henry Miller Maria Montessori H.S. Olcott Oppenheimer Helena Roerich Romain Rolland Arthur Schopenhauer Erwin Schrödinger Thoreau Leo Tolstoy Voltaire Alan Watts Ken Wilber W. B. Yeats Sam Harris

Scholars

Alain Daniélou S. N. Balagangadhara Michel Danino Paul Deussen Dharampal Mircea Eliade Koenraad Elst Georg Feuerstein David Frawley Meenakshi Jain Subhash Kak Nicholas Kazanas Klaus Klostermaier Hajime Nakamura Harsh Narain Rajiv Malhotra Anantanand Rambachan Ramesh Nagaraj Rao Yvette Rosser Arvind Sharma Graham Schweig

Lists

List of modern Eastern religions writers List of writers on Hinduism

Hinduism
Hinduism
Portal Indian religions
Indian religions
Portal India
India
Portal

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Hindu
Hindu
reform movements

Ayyavazhi Arya Samaj Brahma
Brahma
Kumaris BAPS Chinmaya Mission Divine Life Society ISKCON Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
Ashram Swadhyay Parivar Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
Sampraday YSS

Topics

Bhakti Brahmacharya Caste Persecution of Hindus Shuddhi Women in Hinduism

Reformers and revivalist writers

Arumuka Navalar Bal Gangadhar Tilak Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay Dayananda Saraswati Debendranath Tagore Keshub Chandra Sen Mahatma Gandhi Mirra Alfassa Narasimha Chintaman Kelkar Pandurang Shastri Athavale Ram Mohan Roy Ramakrishna Sister Nivedita Sivananda Saraswati Sri Aurobindo Swami Shraddhanand Swami Vipulananda Swaminarayan Vivekananda more

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Philosophy of religion

Concepts in religion

Afterlife Euthyphro dilemma Faith Intelligent design Miracle Problem of evil Religious belief Soul Spirit Theodicy Theological veto

Conceptions of God

Aristotelian view Brahman Demiurge Divine simplicity Egoism Holy Spirit Misotheism Pandeism Personal god Process theology Supreme Being Unmoved mover

God in

Abrahamic religions Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism Mormonism Sikhism Bahá'í Faith Wicca

Existence of God

For

Beauty Christological Consciousness Cosmological

Kalam Contingency

Degree Desire Experience Fine-tuning of the Universe Love Miracles Morality Necessary existent Ontological Pascal's Wager Proper basis Reason Teleological

Natural law Watchmaker analogy

Transcendental

Against

747 gambit Atheist's Wager Evil Free will Hell Inconsistent revelations Nonbelief Noncognitivism Occam's razor Omnipotence Poor design Russell's teapot

Theology

Acosmism Agnosticism Animism Antireligion Atheism Creationism Dharmism Deism Demonology Divine command theory Dualism Esotericism Exclusivism Existentialism

Christian Agnostic Atheistic

Feminist theology

Thealogy Womanist theology

Fideism Fundamentalism Gnosticism Henotheism Humanism

Religious Secular Christian

Inclusivism Theories about religions Monism Monotheism Mysticism Naturalism

Metaphysical Religious Humanistic

New Age Nondualism Nontheism Pandeism Panentheism Pantheism Perennialism Polytheism Possibilianism Process theology Religious skepticism Spiritualism Shamanism Taoic Theism Transcendentalism more...

Religious language

Eschatological verification Language-game Logical positivism Apophatic theology Verificationism

Problem of evil

Augustinian theodicy Best of all possible worlds Euthyphro dilemma Inconsistent triad Irenaean theodicy Natural evil Theodicy

Philosophers of religion

(by date active)

Ancient and Medieval

Anselm of Canterbury Augustine of Hippo Avicenna Averroes Boethius Erasmus Gaunilo of Marmoutiers Pico della Mirandola Heraclitus King James VI and I Marcion of Sinope Thomas Aquinas Maimonides

Enlightenment

Augustin Calmet René Descartes Blaise Pascal Baruch Spinoza Nicolas Malebranche Gottfried W Leibniz William Wollaston Thomas Chubb David Hume Baron d'Holbach Immanuel Kant Johann G Herder

1800 1850

Friedrich Schleiermacher Karl C F Krause Georg W F Hegel

William Whewell Ludwig Feuerbach Søren Kierkegaard Karl Marx Albrecht Ritschl Afrikan Spir

1880 1900

Ernst Haeckel W. K. Clifford Friedrich Nietzsche Harald Høffding William James

Vladimir Solovyov Ernst Troeltsch Rudolf Otto Lev Shestov Sergei Bulgakov Pavel Florensky Ernst Cassirer Joseph Maréchal

1920 postwar

George Santayana Bertrand Russell Martin Buber René Guénon Paul Tillich Karl Barth Emil Brunner Rudolf Bultmann Gabriel Marcel Reinhold Niebuhr

Charles Hartshorne Mircea Eliade Frithjof Schuon J L Mackie Walter Kaufmann Martin Lings Peter Geach George I Mavrodes William Alston Antony Flew

1970 1990 2010

William L Rowe Dewi Z Phillips Alvin Plantinga Anthony Kenny Nicholas Wolterstorff Richard Swinburne Robert Merrihew Adams

Peter van Inwagen Daniel Dennett Loyal Rue Jean-Luc Marion William Lane Craig Ali Akbar Rashad

Alexander Pruss

Related topics

Criticism of religion Ethics in religion Exegesis History of religions Religion Religious language Religious philosophy Relationship between religion and science Political science of religion Faith
Faith
and rationality more...

Portal Category

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Bengali renaissance

People

Sri Aurobindo Atul Prasad Sen Rajnarayan Basu Jagadish Chandra Bose Subhash Chandra Bose Satyendra Nath Bose Bethune Upendranath Brahmachari Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay Akshay Kumar Datta Henry Derozio Alexander Duff Michael Madhusudan Dutt Romesh Chunder Dutt Anil Kumar Gain Dwarkanath Ganguly Kadambini Ganguly Monomohun Ghose Ramgopal Ghosh Aghore Nath Gupta David Hare Kazi Nazrul Islam Eugène Lafont Ashutosh Mukherjee Harish Chandra Mukherjee Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Paramahamsa Gour Govinda Ray Upendrakishore Ray Chowdhury Raja Ram Mohan Roy Meghnad Saha Akshay Chandra Sarkar Mahendralal Sarkar Brajendra Nath Seal Girish Chandra Sen Keshub Chandra Sen Haraprasad Shastri Debendranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore Satyendranath Tagore Jnanadanandini Devi Sitanath Tattwabhushan Brahmabandhav Upadhyay Ram Chandra Vidyabagish Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Swami Vivekananda Paramahansa
Paramahansa
Yogananda Begum Rokeya

Culture

Adi Dharm Bengali literature Bengali poetry Bengali music Brahmo Samaj British Raj British Indian Association History of Bengal Nazrul geeti Rabindra Nritya Natya Rabindra Sangeet Sambad Prabhakar Socialism in Bengal Swadeshi Satyagraha Tattwabodhini Patrika Tagore family Bangiya Sahitya Parishad Young Bengal

Institutions

Anandamohan College Asiatic Society Banga Mahila Vidyalaya Bangabasi College Bethune College Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur Calcutta
Calcutta
Madrasah College Calcutta
Calcutta
Medical College Fort William College General Assembly's Institution Hindu
Hindu
Mahila Vidyalaya Hindu
Hindu
Theatre Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Midnapore
Midnapore
College National Council of Education, Bengal Oriental Seminary Presidency College Ripon College Sanskrit College Scottish Church College Serampore College St. Xavier's College, Kolkata Vidyasagar College Visva-Bharati University University of Calcutta University of Dhaka

Other renaissance and revolutionary movements

Bhakti
Bhakti
movement Gaudiya Vaishnavism Brahmoism Fakir- Sannyasi
Sannyasi
rebellion Indian independence movement Kalighat painting Jugantar
Jugantar
movement Bengal School
School
of Art Hindu–German Conspiracy Kallol Gananatya Andolan Bratachari movement Bengali Little Magazine Movement Parallel cinema Indian Communism Naxalism Hungryalism Prakalpana Movement

Kolkata
Kolkata
portal Biography portal Philosophy portal Hinduism
Hinduism
portal Indian religions
Indian religions
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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 35265542 LCCN: n81131612 ISNI: 0000 0000 2474 4558 GND: 119396491

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