Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈneːdərlɑntsə
ˈspoːrʋeːɣə(n)]; English: "Dutch Railways") is the principal
passenger railway operator in the Netherlands. NS provides rail
services on the Dutch main rail network (hoofdrailnet). The rail
infrastructure is maintained by network manager ProRail, which was
split off from NS in 2003. Freight services, formerly operated by NS
Cargo, merged with the
DB Schenker group in 2000.
NS runs 4,800 scheduled domestic trains a day, serving
1.1 million passengers. Also, NS provides international rail
services from the
Netherlands to other European destinations and
carries out concessions on some foreign rail markets through its
1.2 NS as a state enterprise
1.3 Reforms of the 1990s
1.4 Symmetry minute
3 Types of train service
4 Fares and tickets
4.1 Fixed point fares subscription
4.2 Off-peak discount passes
6 Divisions of NS
8 Technological assistance for train staff
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
See also: History of rail transport in the Netherlands
Former NS headquarters, Utrecht
The NS was founded in 1938 when the two largest Dutch railway
Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg-Maatschappij
Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg-Maatschappij (HSM) and the
Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Staatsspoorwegen
Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Staatsspoorwegen (SS), formally
merged. These two companies had already been intensively cooperating
as early as 1917. There were both economic and ideological reasons for
As a result of the First World War, the Dutch economy had declined
causing HSM and SS to fall from profitability. Given their national
importance, allowing them to slip into bankruptcy was not considered
acceptable. While remaining independent companies, HSM and SS improved
overall efficiency by cooperatively integrating their operations. The
Dutch government further supported HSM and SS by purchasing shares in
both firms. In 1938, the government merged the two companies to form
Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS). In the process, the government bought
all remaining shares, yet never nationalized the company. Therefore,
NS remained, and still is, a private company solely owned by the Dutch
NS as a state enterprise
Second World War
Second World War the NS remained an independent company,
but was forced to do the Germans' bidding; NS was forced to construct
the railway lines to camp Westerbork and help in the deportation of
almost a hundred thousand Jews to extermination camps. The NS went on
a strike once during the war, in the winter of 1944-45, after it had
declined to participate in one a year earlier.
The NS played a pivotal role in the reconstruction of the country.
There was little alternative transport in the country besides the
train, while there was a huge demand for logistical services which the
NS could provide.
While the 1950s were a good time for the company, it started to
decline in the 1960s, like most other railways around the world. Not
only did the NS suffer from the competition of the car and other modes
of transport, but it also suffered from a loss of income when natural
gas started to replace coal as the main fuel in power stations and
homes after a gas field was found near Slochteren. The NS had been
involved in the transport of coal from the mines in Limburg to the
remainder of the country.
The NS responded with an aggressive strategy named Spoorslag '70. This
strategy meant, among other things, that the NS substantially
increased the number of trains per hour and also introduced the
Intercity services. However, it was quite clear that this would never
return the company to profitability. Nevertheless, the company was
declared to be of national importance, meaning that it would receive
large amounts of subsidies every year.
Reforms of the 1990s
Current headquarters, Utrecht
In the early 1990s, the government started to question the subsidies
given to the NS. Not only were there questions regarding the way the
NS spent the subsidies, but, after the neo-liberal reforms of the
1980s, it was also considered not done to award generic subsidies to
companies. The government decided on the verzelfstandiging of the NS.
(Although technically, this is not the case, but instead refers here
to withdrawal of the subsidies.) The idea was that not only rail
transport was economically viable, but that there could be competition
There were two external circumstances which allowed for this to
happen. Firstly, the
European Union passed Directive 91/440, which
prescribed, among other things, the (formal) separation of the
national railways into two separate companies, one which deals with
the infrastructure, and the other which deals with the transport
activities. Secondly, the old
CEO of the NS, Leo Ploeger, retired,
which allowed the government to name a new
CEO which would execute the
government's plans. The new
CEO was Rob den Besten.
The plans entailed that the government would remain responsible for
the rail infrastructure, while the NS would provide the (passenger)
transport on a commercial basis. Where the services would prove to be
economically inviable, the government would subsidize that route. The
division which was responsible for the infrastructure would later be
turned into NS Railinfratrust.
To facilitate the government plans for the commercial operation of the
NS, den Besten planned to split the NS into many smaller independent
divisions. The idea was that these smaller divisions would be better
able to respond to the market. The plans, however, received massive
opposition from the unions, which meant that the only divisions
created were NS Reizigers, and locomotive maintenance company
NedTrain. There were also other internal changes in the company. The
route managers got de facto control over the operation, but they were
dependent of a different organ in the company.
The freight sector NS Cargo became part of the
Deutsche Bahn after its
merger with Railion in 2000.
These reforms were never much of a success and left the company in an
uncontrollable state. The result was that the company started to
decline rapidly, and that the employees started many unorganized
strikes. Following this, the complete board of directors felt it
necessary to resign in late 2001.
In 2002 Karel Noordzij was named as new
CEO of the NS with the mission
to restore the confidence in the company. In essence, he did this by
reversing most the reforms of the late 90s and restoring the company
to the old state. Meanwhile, the government had changed its opinion of
the railways, it no longer considered competition on (passenger)
transport a viable goal. Thus, the government started to commission
railway operators to run routes on the network. The NS was granted (by
the national government) the concession to run on the main lines,
whereas other companies received a number of the concessions on the
secondary lines. The goal is to give individual concessions for the
individual lines, but (at least) until 2025 the NS holds the
concessions for main lines.
The timetable change on 10 December 2006 saw the most routes to
approximate the Symmetry time in clock-face schedules to the one used
in most other European countries. Previously, this was different at
minute: 46 and led to problems by cross-border trains.
NS has been involved in various controversies.
Technical problems with the high-speed
Fyra (V250) trains, which
started its services on 29 July 2012, and ended on 17 January 2013,
led to the resignation of
CEO Bert Meerstadt in June 2013 and to a
parliamentary investigation in 2015. The High Speed Alliance (HSA), a
daughter company of NS (90%) and
KLM (10%) almost went broke due to
the late introduction of the trains in combination with a too high
price for the concession which the company paid to the Dutch
government. HSA was liquidated in 2015.
In 2013, it appeared that the NS used a daughter company in Ireland,
"NS Financial Services Company", to evade taxes in the Netherlands.
The procedure was determined to be lawful, but it was unfavorable for
the Dutch taxpayers who do not believe that the Nederlandse
Spoorwegen, which operates fixed trains in the Netherlands, can be
Irish. From 1998 the NS used the favorable tax
climate in Ireland, which resulted in a profit of more than 270
million euros. The corporate tax in Ireland was 12.5%, in the
Netherlands 25% at that time. The Dutch company NS used the Irish
daughter to buy new trains, among others the high-speed
from the Italian firm Ansaldo Breda. The Dutch Minister of Finance,
Jeroen Dijsselbloem, wrote to the parliament that NS would stop this
In 2015 it became clear that a daughter company of the NS, Abellio,
had shown unfair behavior with regard to a tendering for public
transport in the province of Limburg. The company had obtained
confidential information from a competitor
Veolia through a former
Veolia who had been hired by the daughter company of
Abellio, Qbuzz. On 5 June 2015, it became clear that
CEO Timo Huges
of the NS had given incomplete and incorrect information about the
tendering procedure. According to Minister Dijsselbloem, Huges had
acted "sloppy, inaccurate and in violation of the law."
Consequently, Huges resigned from his position.
The main hall of
Rotterdam Central, with information desk
The NS covers most of the country, with almost all cities connected,
mostly with a service frequency of two trains an hour or more (and at
least four trains per hour between all of the largest 5 cities:
Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and
Eindhoven as well as some
smaller cities Nijmegen, Amersfoort, Arnhem, 's-Hertogenbosch,
Dordrecht and Leiden). From December 2008 train frequencies were
increased on following services: Arnhem-
Nijmegen (8 trains per hour)
and Den Haag -
Rotterdam (12 trains per hour), Amsterdam
Centraal-Hoofddorp (16 trains per hour). A night train service was
added between Utrecht, Gouda and Rotterdam. "
Train routes in the
Netherlands" shows all the routes of the NS and private companies.
Trains usually run between 5:00 am and 1:00 am, although
there is also a night line which connects major cities in the Randstad
throughout the night, and in weekends also some major cities in
In addition to its domestic services, NS is also a partner (along with
Stena Line and their British railway company Greater Anglia) in the
Dutchflyer service. NS has also entered into a partnership with
operate services on the new
HSL-Zuid under the name NS International.
The hoofdrailnet is the official core internal passenger railnetwork
of the Netherlands. Currently NS has a concession until 1 January 2015
to provide all passenger services on this network, except that on some
stretches there is an overlap with lines for which other operators
have a concession. Some of the most notable of these stretches are
Elst railway station
Elst railway station to
Arnhem railway station, where NS
shares tracks with Arriva, and further on to
Arnhem Velperpoort. Here
the tracks are shared by three operators, as Breng, ultimately part of
Transdev, operates there in addition to the two previously mentioned
operators. Officially the overlaps do not constitute competition on
the same lines.
The concession was free of charge until 2009, and costs an increasing
amount since then, up to €30 million for the year 2014.
The concession distinguishes main stations and other stations. Except
on New Year's Eve, the main stations have to be served twice an hour
per direction from 6:00-24:00, and the other stations once an hour.
Exceptions are possible until the start of the next concession
The next concession period is 2015-2025. Therefore, before 2015 it has
to be decided whether NS will keep the concession, and under what
terms. Requirements will include:
for every train service where on average more than one-third of the
passengers travel longer than 30 minutes, a train with a toilet is
every newly ordered train has a toilet
in 2025 every train has a toilet
Currently trains on the hoofdrailnet without a toilet include:
NS Stadsgewestelijk Materieel
NS Stadsgewestelijk Materieel nrs. 2111 - 2125, the so-called
Types of train service 
There are two kinds of passenger trains:
A Sprinter stops at all stations, and is mainly used for local
traffic. On some smaller lines, though, it is the only kind of
service. The name is derived from the 'Sprinter' (2900 class) rolling
stock; however, the service was sometimes operated using older style
rolling stock (such as 'Plan V/T': 400, 500, 800 and 900 class).
Intercity services only stop at larger stations, and were introduced
in the 1970s to provide fast train connections throughout the country.
As was with the former popular Sneltrein service, Intercity services
are usually operated by DD-IRM and ICM/Koploper class trains. On some
stretches, Intercity trains stop at all stations, including small
ones, on Alkmaar - Den Helder, Bergen op Zoom - Flushing, Hoorn -
Leiden - Woerden, and Deurne - Venlo. The label "Intercity"
indicates that the train does not stop at all stations elsewhere on
its route. See also Intercity services in the
Netherlands and the list
of Dutch stations served by Intercitys (nl) (in Dutch).
There are also two former train categories, which are now used only by
Stoptrein: This is the original name for Sprinter trains. Between 2003
and 2013 NS discharged the Stoptrein formula in favour of Sprinter.
Private operators do not use Sprinter so all private services in the
Netherland (except of the four Sneltreins of Arriva, see below) are
Sneltrein: Sneltrein (in the English section of the old paper time
tables, they were translated as "semi fast train" and were a class
between Stoptrain and Intercity) was abandoned by NS in 2008. The NS
Sneltrein services are now called Intercity, but they stop more often
than "real" Intercities. The result is that some stations (like
Woerden) are served by some Intercities while others pass it. As of
2015, there are four Sneltrein services by Arriva.
Fares and tickets
A NS Dagretour (one-time chip card), from Rijssen to Almelo and back.
OV-chipkaart is the most common form of fare payment, but paper
tickets are still available and becoming increasingly popular due to
repeated NFC failures and unagreed charges.
On buses and trams, hourly tickets are for sale for those who have too
little credit to travel but enough cash. For train travel, one can
also buy a one-use chip card.
Traditional paper tickets were finally abandoned in July 2014 for both
NS and regional rail operators. Single or return tickets, used by
incidental travellers and tourists, are still available at ticket
machines and service counters, but are now loaded on a disposable
OV-chipkaart so tickets must be validated by "checking in" at a ticket
barrier or card reader before the train is boarded.
There is partly a common tariff system with four smaller passenger
train operating companies:
Connexxion in the centre and the
Veolia on the 'Maaslijn' and 'Heuvellandlijn' in the south east,
Arriva in the north and most of the east of the country and on the
Dordrecht to Geldermalsen).
Not all the ticket machines accept banknotes, but since 2014 do all
machines at all train stations accept various credit or debit cards. A
€0.50 supplement is required for using a credit card, a €1
supplement for buying a disposable, one-use, chipcard.
It is also possible to buy e-tickets online on the Dutch Railways
website, but payment is accepted only by transfer from Dutch bank
accounts (iDEAL). E-tickets can also be purchased on the NMBS/SNCB
B-Europe website, which accepts payment by MasterCard and Visa credit
During the annual
Boekenweek (Bookweek), it is possible to travel for
free on Sunday upon showing the Boekenweekgeschenk (Bookweekgift).
Increasingly, operators apply separate tariffs, partly related to the
gradually introduced OV-chipkaart, which combines card integration
with price differentiation. However, several new passes introduced by
NS in 2011 are now also valid in trains of the other operators Arriva,
Connexxion, Syntus, and Veolia.
Even so, the developments require travellers to be aware of the
various companies and often increase the fare for journeys requiring a
change from one to another.
Travelling with the OV-chipkaart, one has to register starting a
journey (check in) and ending it (check out), and one always has to
travel away from the point of one's latest check-in. Thus, in the case
of a voluntary detour, one has to check out and check in to register
starting a new journey.
Fixed point fares subscription
Fixed point fares known as "Traject Vrij" is a monthly or
yearly train pass subscription(In Dutch abonnementen). It is provided
Netherlands railway system (NS Nederlandse Spoorwegen) to
significantly reduce regular travel costs. It can also carry across
other train operating companies within the Netherlands, such as Veolia
Traject Vrij (Fixed point fares) allow a customer to stipulate their
daily travel between two points. Point A and point B (For example,
Amsterdam to Rotterdam). A monthly fee/subscription covers travel
costs between the points. A person can travel during all hours at a
significantly reduced price, 30 percent or more cheaper than an
average ticket. The price depends on how many zones of travel are used
kilometres. Pricing also depends on first class or second class. The
NS has a pricing Matrix that calculates a fixed price for a travel
A subscription only covers travel within the borders or route between
point A and B. If travel occurs beyond or outside these areas, the
person is billed via the OV-ChipKaart applicably.
Traject Vrij is commonly used by workers or younger students (12 to
17) who travel or use the same locations or routes every day. A user
is required to link the OV-ChipKaart to a created NS account and
from there, a user can take out a subscription which can be linked to
the existing OV-ChipKaart.
There are in addition other fixed price subscriptions provided by
the NS, which cover peak hours, day passes, unlimited country travel,
intercity and more.
Off-peak discount passes
NS defines off-peak hours as weekdays 00:00-06:30, 09:00-16:00 and
18:30-24:00 and on Saturdays and Sundays the whole day. With a
discount product on the pass one is automatically granted the discount
based on the type of the discount product and the time of checking in.
The term discount includes 100 percent discount, i.e. free travel.
There is an Off-Peak Discount Pass (in Dutch: Dal Voordeel (nl))
for €29 per year, allowing a 40 percent discount on journeys
starting in off-peak hours. In the case of a group of up to four
people, all get the discount even if only one has a pass. This card
replaced the old off peak discount pass (in Dutch:
Voordeelurenabonnement, which can still be renewed but is otherwise no
longer available). These are the advantages of Dal Voordeel compared
to the Voordeelurenabonnement:
Discount during the week, from 9:00-16:00 and 18:30-6:30
Slightly cheaper by €10
Up to three free "kids vrij" passes (kids travel free with the
cardholder of the Dal Voordeel)
These are the disadvantages:
No discount in the busy afternoon rush hour (6:30-9:00 and
No discount in the morning and afternoon rush hours in July and August
and from 25 to 31 December
No discount on the NS-24 hours card (from 09:00 valid)
Travellers aged 60 years and older can buy a supplement for €14 for
free travel during off-peak hours on 7 days of choice (with some
limitations) during the year. It is not possible to buy multiple
supplements for the same year.
There is also an Off-Peak Free Pass (in Dutch: Dal Vrij (nl)) for
€1188 per year, allowing free journeys, which start in the off-peak
hours (compare the OV-Jaarabonnement).
For €318 per month, travelers can buy an unlimited travel pass which
is always valid, even during the peak hours. Even with the card,
checking in and out is always required, or the traveller risks a fine.
Regulations involving time periods (for NS, may be different for other
5 minutes: margin for traveller applied to times of start and end of
off-peak hours, compared to those published
30 minutes: maximum allowed time between checking in and scheduled
departure time of the train
1 hour: maximum allowed time between checking in and out at the same
station without travelling, free of charge
6 hours: maximum allowed time between checking in and checking out
Northern Rail logo with
Serco-Abellio logo including the Nederlandse
Spoorwegen logo at Darlington on a Class 142
Nederlandse Spoorwegen corporate logo was designed in 1968 by Gert
Dumbar and Gert-Jan Leuvelink both of the graphic design company Tel
Design. Introduced in that same year, it replaced an earlier design
which had been used since 1946. The logo, pervasive within trains and
railway stations in the Netherlands, plays a significant part in the
NS' signage, promotions, advertising and graphic design.
The logo usually appears in blue or black on a dark yellow or white
background. Since its introduction, NS livery has also had this same
distinct dark yellow or white colour. The logo is a widened letter 'N'
and a sideways (reversed) 'S'-shape. The two arrows in the logo
represent the train's movement, and the two lines in the middle
represent the track.
Divisions of NS
Greater Anglia Class 90 at Stratford in October 2014
Abellio is the subsidiary for operations outside the Netherlands.
Abellio has won several franchises in the United Kingdom and Germany.
In February 2012, Greater Anglia commenced operating the Greater
Anglia franchise, and in April 2015,
Abellio ScotRail commenced
operating the ScotRail franchise. In 2016, Abellio
successfully bid to retain the renamed
East Anglia franchise
East Anglia franchise until
2025. Abellio has partnered with Mitsui for both the East Anglia
and the West Midlands franchises, the latter also with JR East.
In May 2009, the
Travel London bus business was purchased from
National Express and rebranded as Abellio London.
NS Reizigers (NSR) - NS Travellers, responsible for passenger train
services and for employing train drivers and conductors.
NS Stations - the result of merging the former :
NS Stations - in charge of the operation of all 404 railway stations
in the Netherlands, i.e., also those served by other railway companies
than NS Reizigers; see also station facilities.
NS Vastgoed - owns 48 km² of land, often near stations, and
develops and operates these areas as public traffic nodes, offices and
NedTrain - train maintenance.
NS Commercie - product- and customer management (business and product
development, marketing, sales and customer service).
NS International - operator, in conjunction with NS Reizigers and
foreign partners, of high-speed international
Fyra services on the
Amsterdam to Paris), ICE (to the German Ruhr
area), Intercities (to
Berlin and Brussels) and the Swiss
Munich and Zurich).
In dealing with the general public, these distinctions are not made
and the terms
Nederlandse Spoorwegen and NS are used.
NS has contracts with
Connexxion and BBA, now
Veolia Transport for the
provision of bus services to replace train services in the case of
planned and unplanned cancellations.
On 23 July 2010 NS sold its daughter company Strukton to the
construction company Oranjewoud N.V.. This concluded a long history of
planning, designing and executing track development done by the
There is a delay refund scheme entitling passengers to a partial or
full refund of the ticket price if a journey is delayed by half an
hour or more. The scheme does not apply on short-distance journeys
(tickets less than €2.30) and cases in which the delay is the result
of planned cancellations that were announced some days in advance.
Refunds are, in general, half the ticket price of a one-way trip after
a delay of over 30 minutes, the full ticket price after a delay of one
hour or more. That applies to nearly all kinds of tickets. The refund
is not considered a monetary compensation for lost time but rather as
a reduction in charges where a poor service has been provided. Many do
not claim because the system is perceived as cumbersome[citation
needed]; however, the system has improved for holders of some rail
passes. Part of the cost of the scheme is paid by ProRail, since they
are responsible for part of the delays.
Since 1 January 2004, tobacco smoking is prohibited on domestic
trains, station halls and covered parts of platforms. The smoking of
cannabis was already prohibited. Smoking is allowed near smoking-zones
(Rookzones), posts with an ash-tray built in, scattered around
Since June 2003, the sale of coffee, soft drinks, beer, sandwiches,
candy, etc., has ceased aboard domestic trains. The increasing number
Servex convenience stores at railway stations and the relatively
short duration of most train journeys in the
Netherlands have lowered
the demand for on-train services. In 2005, a much reduced in-train
service of drinks and small snacks has been reintroduced on longer
journeys. Now, the RailTender service primarily operates in the
intercity trains on the trajectory between Utrecht and
Zwolle/Eindhoven, Zwolle and Almere,
's-Hertogenbosch and Nijmegen,
Apeldoorn and Amersfoort,
Rotterdam and Breda/Roosendaal/Antwerp
Technological assistance for train staff
Conductors have a small computer called Railpocket with timetable,
fares information, and capabilities to read the OV-chipkaart. The
latest version is the HP iPaq h4350 Pocket PC, which can communicate
Bluetooth with their
Sony Ericsson T610
Sony Ericsson T610 GPRS-telephone. NS is
currently studying the upgrade to a next generation platform.
14.73 billion passenger km per year (2005), which is 30% of the
Dutch railway services
Rail transport by country
Rail transport in the Netherlands
Railway stations in the Netherlands
Train categories in Europe
Train routes in the Netherlands
Trains in the Netherlands
Transport in the Netherlands
^ "Van Boxtel nieuwe topman van NS - Economie - de Volkskrant".
volkskrant.nl. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
^ "Annual report 2010". Nederlandse Spoorwegen. 1 January 2011.
Archived from the original on 30 June 2011. Retrieved 18 July
^ "DB And NS Sign Freight Merger Deal.(Brief Article)(Statistical Data
Included)". elibrary.ibtimes.com. International Railway Journal. 1
October 1999. [permanent dead link]
^ "NS-topman Bert Meerstadt stapt op". Archived from the original on
25 June 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
^ "NS stopt met fiscale truc: treinen niet langer gekocht door Ierse
dochter". Retrieved 5 June 2015.
^ "NS doet nog steeds zaken via de Ierse route". NRC Q. Retrieved 5
^ "Limburg gunt concessie openbaar vervoer aan Arriva". Retrieved 5
^ "Nog meer problemen voor ex-NS-topman Timo Huges". Retrieved 19 June
^ "'NS-topman Timo Huges stapt op wegens mogelijk machtsmisbruik'".
Retrieved 5 June 2015.
^ www.treinreiziger.nl Archived 11 December 2008 at the Wayback
^ "Nieuws". ns.nl. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
^ "Welke kaart past bij u". Trans Link Systems B.V. Retrieved 7 August
^ "Betalen met creditcard mogelijk bij grootste deel kaartautomaten".
Treinreiziger.nl. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
^ "The e-ticket". Nederlandse Spoorwegen. Retrieved 19 February
^ nl:Trajectabonnement, Retrieved 28 August
2015[better source needed]
^ "Traject Vrij Jaar". NS International. Retrieved 28 August
^ "Overzicht reisproducten Veolia".
Veolia Transport Nederland.
Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 28 August
^ "Welkom bij Mijn NS". NS International. Retrieved 28 August
^ "abonnementen". NS International. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
^ For more passes, see .
^ Greater Anglia rail franchise announcement Department for Transport
20 October 2011
^ Dutch firms wins ScotRail franchise from FirstGroup BBC News 8
^ Abellio awarded ScotRail franchise
Railway Gazette International 8
^ Abellio awarded contract to operate Scotland's National Railway,
^ Better journeys for rail passengers and boost for Derby train
industry as new
East Anglia franchise
East Anglia franchise announced Department for
Transport 10 August 2016
National Express Group plc agreement to sell
Travel London Archived
2 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
National Express Group 21 May
^ NedRailways acquisition reinforces long term commitment to UK
transport market Archived 18 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
NedRailways 9 June 2009
^ "NS agrees to sell Strukton". Railway Gazette International. 29 July
2010. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
^ Oranjewoud N.V., the holding company that owns Strukton.
Johnston, Howard (18–31 May 1989). "A brief guide to the NS". Rail
Magazine. No. 96. EMAP National Publications. NS 150 special
supplement. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.
Media related to
Nederlandse Spoorwegen at Wikimedia Commons
Nederlandse Spoorwegen, English website
National railway companies of Europe
List of railway companies
Rail transport by country
Railway companies by country
Bosnia ŽFBH2 and ŽRS3
Czech Republic ČD
Estonia EVR and Elron
Serbia ŽS (Kargo, Voz)7
Spain Renfe Operadora
Sweden SJ AB
Switzerland SBB CFF FFS
United Kingdom NR5 / NIR6
1Country partly in Asia
2For the Federation BH
4State with limited recognition
5For Great Britain
6For Northern Ireland