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Monotheism
Monotheism
has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.[1][2][3] A broader definition of monotheism is the belief in one god.[4][5][6][7] A distinction may be made between exclusive monotheism, and both inclusive monotheism and pluriform (panentheistic) monotheism which, while recognising various distinct gods, postulate some underlying unity.[8] Monotheism
Monotheism
is distinguished from henotheism, a religious system in which the believer worships one god without denying that others may worship different gods with equal validity, and monolatrism, the recognition of the existence of many gods but with the consistent worship of only one deity.[citation needed] The broader definition of monotheism characterizes the traditions of Bábism, the Bahá'í Faith, Balinese Hinduism, Cao Dai
Cao Dai
(Caodaiism), Cheondoism
Cheondoism
(Cheondogyo), Christianity, Deism, Eckankar, Hindu sects such as Shaivism
Shaivism
and Vaishnavism, Islam, Judaism, Mandaeism, Rastafari, Seicho no Ie, Sikhism, Tengrism
Tengrism
(Tangrism), Tenrikyo (Tenriism), Yazidism, and Zoroastrianism, and elements of pre-monotheistic thought are found in early religions such as Atenism, Ancient Chinese religion, and Yahwism.[9]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Abrahamic religions

3.1 Judaism

3.1.1 In Ancient Israel 3.1.2 The Shema

3.2 Christianity 3.3 Islam 3.4 Sabianism 3.5 Bahá'í Faith

4 Atenism 5 Chinese view 6 Indigenous African religion 7 Indo-European religions

7.1 Proto-Indo-European religion 7.2 Indo-Iranian religions

7.2.1 Hinduism 7.2.2 Sikhism 7.2.3 Zoroastrianism

7.3 Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
religion

7.3.1 Classical Greece 7.3.2 Hellenistic Religion

8 New religious movements 9 Tengrism 10 Native American religion 11 See also 12 Notes 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit] The word monotheism comes from the Greek μόνος (monos)[10] meaning "single" and θεός (theos)[11] meaning "god".[12] The English term was first used by Henry More
Henry More
(1614–1687).[13] Origins[edit]

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Quasi-monotheistic claims of the existence of a universal deity date to the Late Bronze Age, with Akhenaten's Great Hymn to the Aten. A possible inclination towards monotheism emerged during the Vedic period[14] in Iron-Age South Asia. The Rigveda
Rigveda
exhibits notions of monism of the Brahman, particularly in the comparatively late tenth book,[15] which is dated to the early Iron Age, e.g. in the Nasadiya sukta. Bonpa Dharma, perhaps from twentieth century BCE,[16] was the first recorded religion to declare that there is one God
God
above all, whom it calls Sangpo Bumtri.[17] However, it does not encourage monotheistic worship of a Sangpo Bumtri or any god for salvation but rather it focuses on karma. Since the sixth century BCE, Zoroastrians have believed in the supremacy of one God
God
above all: Ahura Mazda
Ahura Mazda
as the "Maker of All"[18] and the first being before all others.[19][20][21][22] Nonetheless, Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
was not strictly monotheistic[23] because it venerated other yazatas alongside Ahura Mazda. Ancient Hindu theology, meanwhile, was monist, but was not strictly monotheistic in worship because it still maintained the existence of many gods, who were envisioned as aspects of one supreme God, Brahman.[24] Numerous ancient Greek philosophers, including Xenophanes of Colophon
Xenophanes of Colophon
and Antisthenes
Antisthenes
believed in a similar polytheistic monism that came close to monotheism, but fell short.[24] Judaism
Judaism
was the first religion to conceive the notion of a personal monotheistic God
God
within a monist context.[24] The concept of ethical monotheism, which holds that morality stems from God
God
alone and that its laws are unchanging,[25][26] first occurred in Judaism,[27] but is now a core tenet of most modern monotheistic religions, including Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, and Bahá'í Faith.[28] According to Jewish, Christian and Islamic tradition, monotheism was the original religion of humanity; this original religion is sometimes referred to as "the Adamic religion", or, in the terms of Andrew Lang, the "Urreligion". Scholars of religion largely abandoned that view in the 19th century in favour of an evolutionary progression from animism via polytheism to monotheism, but by 1974 this theory was less widely held, and a modified view similar to Lang's became more prominent.[2][need quotation to verify] Austrian anthropologist Wilhelm Schmidt had postulated an Urmonotheismus, "original" or "primitive monotheism" in the 1910s.[29] It was objected[by whom?] that Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Islam
had grown up in opposition to polytheism as had Greek philosophical monotheism.[2] More recently, Karen Armstrong[30] and other authors have returned to the idea of an evolutionary progression beginning with animism, which developed into polytheism, which developed into henotheism, which developed into monolatry, which developed into true monotheism.[31] Abrahamic religions[edit] Further information: Abrahamic religions While all adherents of the Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
consider themselves to be monotheists, Judaism
Judaism
does not consider Christianity
Christianity
to be monotheistic, recognizing only Islam
Islam
as monotheistic.[32] Islam likewise does not recognize modern-day Christianity
Christianity
as monotheistic, primarily due to the Christian doctrine of Trinity, which Islam
Islam
argues was not a part of the original monotheistic Christianity
Christianity
as preached by Jesus.[33] Christians, on the other hand, argue that the doctrine of the Trinity
Trinity
is a valid expression of monotheism, citing that the Trinity
Trinity
does not consist of three separate deities, but rather the three persons, who exist consubstantially (as one substance) within a single Godhead.[34][35][36] Judaism[edit] Main article: God
God
in Judaism

The tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), old Aramaic (10th century BCE to 4th century CE) and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts.

Judaism
Judaism
is one of the oldest monotheistic religions in the world.[37] God
God
in Judaism
Judaism
is strictly monotheistic,[38] an absolute one, indivisible, and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. The Babylonian Talmud
Babylonian Talmud
references other, "foreign gods" as non-existent entities to whom humans mistakenly ascribe reality and power.[39] One of the best-known statements of Rabbinical Judaism
Judaism
on monotheism is the Second of Maimonides' 13 Principles of faith:

God, the Cause of all, is one. This does not mean one as in one of a pair, nor one like a species (which encompasses many individuals), nor one as in an object that is made up of many elements, nor as a single simple object that is infinitely divisible. Rather, God
God
is a unity unlike any other possible unity.[40]

Judaism[41] and Islam
Islam
reject the Christian idea of monotheism. Judaism uses the term shituf to refer to the worship of God
God
in a manner which Judaism
Judaism
does not deem to be monotheistic. In Ancient Israel[edit] See also: Yahweh, Elohim, and Baal During the 8th century BCE, the worship of YHWH in Israel was in competition with many other cults, described by the Yahwist faction collectively as Baals. The oldest books of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
reflect this competition, as in the books of Hosea and Nahum, whose authors lament the "apostasy" of the people of Israel, threatening them with the wrath of God
God
if they do not give up their polytheistic cults.[42][43] Ancient Israelite religion was originally polytheistic;[44] the Israelites worshipped many deities,[45] including El, Baal, Asherah, and Astarte. YHWH was originally the national god of the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah.[45] As time progressed, the henotheistic cult of Yahweh
Yahweh
grew increasingly militant in its opposition to the worship of other gods.[44] Later, the reforms of King Josiah
King Josiah
imposed a form of strict monolatrism. After the fall of Judah to Babylon, a small circle of priests and scribes gathered around the exiled royal court, where they first developed the concept of YHWH as the sole God
God
of the world.[24] The Shema[edit] Main article: Shema Yisrael Shema Yisrael
Shema Yisrael
("Hear, [O] Israel") are the first two words of a section of the Torah, and is the title of a prayer that serves as a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services. The first verse encapsulates the monotheistic essence of Judaism: "Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God, the LORD is one" (Hebrew: שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד‬), found in Deuteronomy 6:4, sometimes alternatively translated as "The LORD is our God, the LORD alone." Observant Jews consider the Shema to be the most important part of the prayer service in Judaism, and its twice-daily recitation as a mitzvah (religious commandment). It is traditional for Jews to say the Shema as their last words, and for parents to teach their children to say it before they go to sleep at night. Christianity[edit] Main articles: God
God
in Christianity
Christianity
and Trinity

The Trinity
Trinity
is the belief in Christianity
Christianity
that God
God
is one God
God
in essence but three persons: God
God
the Father, God
God
the Son (Jesus), and God
God
the Holy Spirit.[46]

Among early Christians there was considerable debate over the nature of the Godhead, with some denying the incarnation but not the deity of Jesus
Jesus
(Docetism) and others later calling for an Arian conception of God. Despite at least one earlier local synod rejecting the claim of Arius, this Christological issue was to be one of the items addressed at the First Council of Nicaea. The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea
Nicaea
(in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[47] council of bishops of the Roman Empire, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. With the creation of the creed, a precedent was established for subsequent general ecumenical councils of bishops (synods) to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy— the intent being to define a common creed for the Church and address heretical ideas. One purpose of the council was to resolve disagreements in Alexandria over the nature of Jesus
Jesus
in relationship to the Father; in particular, whether Jesus
Jesus
was of the same substance as God
God
the Father or merely of similar substance. All but two bishops took the first position; while Arius' argument failed. Christian orthodox traditions (Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and most Protestants) follow this decision, which was reaffirmed in 381 at the First Council of Constantinople
First Council of Constantinople
and reached its full development through the work of the Cappadocian Fathers. They consider God
God
to be a triune entity, called the Trinity, comprising three "persons", God
God
the Father, God
God
the Son, and God
God
the Holy Spirit. These three are described as being "of the same substance" (ὁμοούσιος). Christians overwhelmingly assert that monotheism is central to the Christian faith, as the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
(and others), which gives the orthodox Christian definition of the Trinity, begins: "I believe in one God". From earlier than the times of the Nicene Creed, 325 CE, various Christian figures advocated[48] the triune mystery-nature of God
God
as a normative profession of faith. According to Roger E. Olson and Christopher Hall, through prayer, meditation, study and practice, the Christian community concluded "that God
God
must exist as both a unity and trinity", codifying this in ecumenical council at the end of the 4th century.[49] Most modern Christians believe the Godhead is triune, meaning that the three persons of the Trinity
Trinity
are in one union in which each person is also wholly God. They also hold to the doctrine of a man-god Christ Jesus
Jesus
as God
God
incarnate. These Christians also do not believe that one of the three divine figures is God
God
alone and the other two are not but that all three are mysteriously God
God
and one. Other Christian religions, including Unitarian Universalism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism
Mormonism
and others, do not share those views on the Trinity. Some Christian faiths, such as Mormonism, argue that the Godhead is in fact three separate individuals which include God
God
the Father, His Son Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and the Holy Ghost.[50] Each individual having a distinct purpose in the grand existence of human kind.[51] Furthermore, Mormons believe that before the Council of Nicaea, the predominant belief among many early Christians was that the Godhead was three separate individuals. In support of this view, they cite early Christian examples of belief in subordinationism.[52] Unitarianism
Unitarianism
is a theological movement, named for its understanding of God
God
as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism.[53] Islam[edit] Main articles: God
God
in Islam, Tawhid, and Hanif

Arabic calligraphy reading "Allah, may his glory be glorified"

In Islam, God
God
(Allāh) is all-powerful and all-knowing, the creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of the universe.[54][55] God
God
in Islam
Islam
is strictly singular (tawhid)[56] unique (wahid) and inherently One (ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent.[57] Allāh
Allāh
exists without place[58] and the Qur'an
Qur'an
states that "No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. God
God
is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things" ( Qur'an
Qur'an
6:103)[55] Allāh
Allāh
is the only God and the same God
God
worshiped in Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism. (29:46).[59] Islam
Islam
emerged in the 7th century CE in the context of both Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism, with some thematic elements similar to Gnosticism.[60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67] Islamic belief states that Muhammad
Muhammad
did not bring a new religion from God, but is rather the same religion as practiced by Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus
Jesus
and all the other prophets of God.[68] The assertion of Islam
Islam
is that the message of God
God
had been corrupted, distorted or lost over time and the Quran was sent to Muhammad
Muhammad
in order to correct the lost message of the Torah, New Testament
New Testament
and prior scriptures from God.[69] The Qur'an
Qur'an
asserts the existence of a single and absolute truth that transcends the world; a unique and indivisible being who is independent of the creation.[70] The Qur'an
Qur'an
rejects binary modes of thinking such as the idea of a duality of God
God
by arguing that both good and evil generate from God's creative act. God
God
is a universal god rather than a local, tribal or parochial one; an absolute who integrates all affirmative values and brooks no evil.[71] Ash'ari theology, which dominated Sunni Islam
Islam
from the tenth to the nineteenth century, insists on ultimate divine transcendence and holds that divine unity is not accessible to human reason. Ash'arism teaches that human knowledge regarding it is limited to what was has been revealed through the prophets, and on such paradoxes as God's creation of evil, revelation has to accepted bila kayfa (without [asking] how).[72] Tawhid
Tawhid
constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession of faith, "There is no god but God, Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[73] To attribute divinity to a created entity is the only unpardonable sin mentioned in the Qur'an.[71] The entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of tawhid.[74] As they traditionally profess a concept of monotheism with a singular person as God, Judaism[41] and Islam
Islam
reject the Christian idea of monotheism. Judaism
Judaism
uses the term Shituf to refer to non-monotheistic ways of worshiping God. Though Muslims venerate Jesus
Jesus
(Isa in Arabic) as a prophet, they do not accept the doctrine that he was a begotten son of God. Sabianism[edit] Main article: Sabians According to the Quran, the Sabians
Sabians
were a monotheistic religious group.[75] Some Hadiths account them as converts to Islam.[76] However this interpretation may be related to the fact that Quraysh polytheists used to describe anyone who converted to Islam
Islam
with the word "Saba"[citation needed] (صبى/صبوت) which may either mean that this term was used for anyone who changed his religion or that they identified the message of Muhammed as a "Sabian belief". The former linguistic explanation (i.e. saba = changed his religion) is the one adopted by most Muslim scholars. Sabians
Sabians
are often identified with Mandaeism, a small monotheistic community which lives today in Iraq
Iraq
and call themselves Yahyawiya (Arabic: يحياوية‎). Muslim scholars traditionally viewed them as followers of the prophets Noah
Noah
and Yahya (i.e. John the Baptist).[77] Bahá'í Faith[edit] Main article: God
God
in the Bahá'í Faith

Bahá'í House of Worship, Langenhain, Germany

God
God
in the Bahá'í Faith
Faith
is taught to be a personal god, too great for humans to fully comprehend. Human primitive understanding of God is achieved through his revelations via his divine intermediary Manifestations.[78][79] In the Bahá'í faith, such Christian doctrines as the Trinity
Trinity
are seen as compromising the Bahá'í view that God
God
is single and has no equal.[80] And the very existence of the Bahá'í Faith
Faith
is a challenge to the Islamic doctrine of the finality of Muhammad's revelation.[81] God
God
in the Bahá'í Faith
Faith
communicates to humanity through divine intermediaries, known as Manifestations of God.[82] These Manifestations establish religion in the world.[79] It is through these divine intermediaries that humans can approach God, and through them God
God
brings divine revelation and law.[83] The Oneness of God
God
is one of the core teachings of the Bahá'í Faith. The obligatory prayers in the Bahá'í Faith
Faith
involve explicit monotheistic testimony.[84][85] God
God
is the imperishable, uncreated being who is the source of all existence.[86] He is described as "a personal God, unknowable, inaccessible, the source of all Revelation, eternal, omniscient, omnipresent and almighty".[87][88] Although transcendent and inaccessible directly, his image is reflected in his creation. The purpose of creation is for the created to have the capacity to know and love its creator.[89] God
God
communicates his will and purpose to humanity through intermediaries, known as Manifestations of God, who are the prophets and messengers that have founded religions from prehistoric times up to the present day.[82] Atenism[edit] Main article: Atenism

Pharaoh Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and his family adoring the Aten.

Amenhotep IV
Amenhotep IV
initially introduced Atenism
Atenism
in Year 5 of his reign (1348/1346 BCE) during the 18th dynasty
18th dynasty
of the New Kingdom. He raised Aten, once a relatively obscure Egyptian Solar deity
Solar deity
representing the disk of the sun, to the status of Supreme God
God
in the Egyptian pantheon.[90] To emphasise the change, Aten's name was written in the cartouche form normally reserved for Pharaohs, an innovation of Atenism. This religious reformation appears to coincide with the proclamation of a Sed festival, a sort of royal jubilee intended to reinforce the Pharaoh's divine powers of kingship. Traditionally held in the thirtieth year of the Pharaoh's reign, this possibly was a festival in honour of Amenhotep III, who some Egyptologists think had a coregency with his son Amenhotep IV
Amenhotep IV
of two to twelve years. Year 5 is believed to mark the beginning of Amenhotep IV's construction of a new capital, Akhetaten
Akhetaten
(Horizon of the Aten), at the site known today as Amarna. Evidence of this appears on three of the boundary stelae used to mark the boundaries of this new capital. At this time, Amenhotep IV
Amenhotep IV
officially changed his name to Akhenaten (Agreeable to Aten) as evidence of his new worship. The date given for the event has been estimated to fall around January 2 of that year. In Year 7 of his reign (1346/1344 BCE), the capital was moved from Thebes to Akhetaten
Akhetaten
(near modern Amarna), though construction of the city seems to have continued for two more years. In shifting his court from the traditional ceremonial centres Akhenaten
Akhenaten
was signalling a dramatic transformation in the focus of religious and political power. The move separated the Pharaoh and his court from the influence of the priesthood and from the traditional centres of worship, but his decree had deeper religious significance too—taken in conjunction with his name change, it is possible that the move to Amarna
Amarna
was also meant as a signal of Akhenaten's symbolic death and rebirth. It may also have coincided with the death of his father and the end of the coregency. In addition to constructing a new capital in honor of Aten, Akhenaten also oversaw the construction of some of the most massive temple complexes in ancient Egypt, including one at Karnak
Karnak
and one at Thebes, close to the old temple of Amun. In Year 9 (1344/1342 BCE), Akhenaten
Akhenaten
declared a more radical version of his new religion, declaring Aten
Aten
not merely the supreme god of the Egyptian pantheon, but the only God
God
of Egypt, with himself as the sole intermediary between the Aten
Aten
and the Egyptian people. Key features of Atenism
Atenism
included a ban on idols and other images of the Aten, with the exception of a rayed solar disc, in which the rays (commonly depicted ending in hands) appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten. Aten was addressed by Akhenaten
Akhenaten
in prayers, such as the Great Hymn to the Aten: "O Sole God
God
beside whom there is none". The details of Atenist theology are still unclear. The exclusion of all but one god and the prohibition of idols was a radical departure from Egyptian tradition, but most scholars see Akhenaten
Akhenaten
as a practitioner of monolatry rather than monotheism, as he did not actively deny the existence of other gods; he simply refrained from worshiping any but Aten. It is known that Atenism
Atenism
did not solely attribute divinity to the Aten. Akhenaten
Akhenaten
continued the cult of the Pharaoh, proclaiming himself the son of Aten
Aten
and encouraging the Egyptian people to worship him.[91] The Egyptian people were to worship Akhenaten; only Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and Nefertiti could worship Aten directly.[92] Under Akhenaten's successors, Egypt reverted to its traditional religion, and Akhenaten
Akhenaten
himself came to be reviled as a heretic. Chinese view[edit] Main articles: Shangdi, Tian, and Mohism

Shang Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
bronze script character for tian (天), which translates to Heaven
Heaven
and sky.

The orthodox faith system held by most dynasties of China
China
since at least the Shang Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
(1766 BCE) until the modern period centered on the worship of Shangdi
Shangdi
(literally "Above Sovereign", generally translated as "God") or Heaven
Heaven
as an omnipotent force.[93] This faith system pre-dated the development of Confucianism
Confucianism
and Taoism and the introduction of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Christianity. It has features of monotheism in that Heaven
Heaven
is seen as an omnipotent entity, a noncorporeal force with a personality transcending the world. From the writings of Confucius
Confucius
in the Analects, it is known Confucius
Confucius
believed that Heaven
Heaven
cannot be deceived, Heaven
Heaven
guides people's lives and maintains a personal relationship with them, and that Heaven
Heaven
gives tasks for people to fulfill in order to teach them of virtues and morality.[93] However, this faith system was not truly monotheistic since other lesser gods and spirits, which varied with locality, were also worshiped along with Shangdi. Still, later variants such as Mohism
Mohism
(470 BCE–c.391 BCE) approached true monotheism, teaching that the function of lesser gods and ancestral spirits is merely to carry out the will of Shangdi, akin to angels in Abrahamic religions. In Mozi's Will of Heaven
Heaven
(天志), he writes:

"I know Heaven
Heaven
loves men dearly not without reason. Heaven
Heaven
ordered the sun, the moon, and the stars to enlighten and guide them. Heaven ordained the four seasons, Spring, Autumn, Winter, and Summer, to regulate them. Heaven
Heaven
sent down snow, frost, rain, and dew to grow the five grains and flax and silk that so the people could use and enjoy them. Heaven
Heaven
established the hills and rivers, ravines and valleys, and arranged many things to minister to man's good or bring him evil. He appointed the dukes and lords to reward the virtuous and punish the wicked, and to gather metal and wood, birds and beasts, and to engage in cultivating the five grains and flax and silk to provide for the people's food and clothing. This has been so from antiquity to the present." 且吾所以知天之愛民之厚者有矣,曰以磨為日月星辰,以昭道之;制為四時春秋冬夏,以紀綱之;雷降雪霜雨露,以長遂五穀麻絲,使民得而財利之;列為山川谿谷,播賦百事,以臨司民之善否;為王公侯伯,使之賞賢而罰暴;賊金木鳥獸,從事乎五穀麻絲,以為民衣食之財。自古及今,未嘗不有此也。

Will of Heaven, Chapter 27, Paragraph 6, ca. 5th century BCE

Worship
Worship
of Shangdi
Shangdi
and Heaven
Heaven
in ancient China
China
includes the erection of shrines, the last and greatest being the Temple of Heaven
Temple of Heaven
in Beijing, and the offering of prayers. The ruler of China
China
in every Chinese dynasty would perform annual sacrificial rituals to Shangdi, usually by slaughtering a completely healthy bull as sacrifice. Although its popularity gradually diminished after the advent of Taoism
Taoism
and Buddhism, among other religions, its concepts remained in use throughout the pre-modern period and have been incorporated in later religions in China, including terminology used by early Christians in China. Despite the rising of non-theistic and pantheistic spirituality contributed by Taoism
Taoism
and Buddhism, Shangdi was still praised up until the end of the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
as the last ruler of the Qing declared himself son of heaven. Indigenous African religion[edit] The Himba people
Himba people
of Namibia practice a form of monotheistic panentheism, and worship the god Mukuru. The deceased ancestors of the Himba and Herero are subservient to him, acting as intermediaries.[94] The Igbo people
Igbo people
practice a form of monotheism called Odinani.[95] Odinani has monotheistic and panentheistic attributes, having a single God
God
as the source of all things. Although a pantheon of spirits exists, these are lesser spirits prevalent in Odinani expressly serving as elements of Chineke (or Chukwu), the supreme being or high god. Some (approximately 3%) of Oromo people
Oromo people
follow a traditional monotheistic religion called Waaqeffannaa and God
God
called Waaq. Indo-European religions[edit] Proto-Indo-European religion[edit] Main article: Proto-Indo-European religion The supreme god of the Proto-Indo-European religion
Proto-Indo-European religion
was the god *Dyḗus Pḥatḗr . A number of words derived from the name of this supreme deity are used in various Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
to denote a monotheistic God. Nonetheless, in spite of this, Proto-Indo-European religion itself was not monotheistic.[96] In western Eurasia, the ancient traditions of the Slavic religion contained elements of monotheism. In the sixth century AD, the Byzantine chronicler Procopius
Procopius
recorded that the Slavs "acknowledge that one god, creator of lightning, is the only lord of all: to him do they sacrifice an ox and all sacrificial animals."[97] The deity to whom Procopius
Procopius
is referring is the storm god Perún, whose name is derived from *Perkwunos, the Proto-Indo-European god of lightning. The ancient Slavs syncretized him with the Germanic god Thor
Thor
and the Biblical prophet Elijah.[98] Indo-Iranian religions[edit] Main articles: Proto-Indo-Iranian religion, Indian religions, and Iranian religions Hinduism[edit] Main articles: Hindu views on monotheism
Hindu views on monotheism
and God
God
in Hinduism See also: Hindu denominations

Krishna
Krishna
displays his Vishvarupa
Vishvarupa
(universal form) to Arjuna
Arjuna
on the battlefield of Kurukshetra.

As an old religion, Hinduism
Hinduism
inherits religious concepts spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism, and atheism among others;[99][100][101][102] and its concept of God
God
is complex and depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy followed. Hindu views are broad and range from monism, through pantheism and panentheism (alternatively called monistic theism by some scholars) to monotheism and even atheism. Hinduism
Hinduism
cannot be said to be purely polytheistic. Hindu religious leaders have repeatedly stressed that while God's forms are many and the ways to communicate with him are many, God
God
is one. The puja of the murti is a way to communicate with the abstract one god (Brahman) which creates, sustains and dissolves creation.[103] Rig Veda
Rig Veda
1.164.46,

Indraṃ mitraṃ varuṇamaghnimāhuratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo gharutmān, ekaṃ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyaghniṃ yamaṃ mātariśvānamāhuḥ "They call him Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa, Agni, and he is heavenly nobly-winged Garuda. To what is One, sages give many a title they call it Agni, Yama, Mātariśvan." (trans. Griffith)

Traditions of Gaudiya Vaishnavas, the Nimbarka Sampradaya
Nimbarka Sampradaya
and followers of Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
and Vallabha
Vallabha
consider Krishna
Krishna
to be the source of all avatars,[104] and the source of Vishnu
Vishnu
himself, or to be the same as Narayana. As such, he is therefore regarded as Svayam Bhagavan.[105][106][107] When Krishna
Krishna
is recognized to be Svayam Bhagavan, it can be understood that this is the belief of Gaudiya Vaishnavism,[108] the Vallabha Sampradaya,[109] and the Nimbarka Sampradaya, where Krishna
Krishna
is accepted to be the source of all other avatars, and the source of Vishnu
Vishnu
himself. This belief is drawn primarily "from the famous statement of the Bhagavatam"[110] (1.3.28).[111] A viewpoint differing from this theological concept is the concept of Krishna
Krishna
as an avatar of Narayana
Narayana
or Vishnu. It should be however noted that although it is usual to speak of Vishnu
Vishnu
as the source of the avataras, this is only one of the names of the God
God
of Vaishnavism, who is also known as Narayana, Vasudeva
Vasudeva
and Krishna
Krishna
and behind each of those names there is a divine figure with attributed supremacy in Vaishnavism.[112] The Rig Veda
Rig Veda
discusses monotheistic thought, as do the Atharva Veda and Yajur Veda: "Devas are always looking to the supreme abode of Vishnu" (tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṁ padaṁ sadā paśyanti sṻrayaḥ Rig Veda
Rig Veda
1.22.20) "The One Truth, sages know by many names" ( Rig Veda
Rig Veda
1.164.46)[113] "When at first the unborn sprung into being, He won His own dominion beyond which nothing higher has been in existence" (Atharva Veda 10.7.31)[114] "There is none to compare with Him. There is no parallel to Him, whose glory, verily, is great." ( Yajur Veda
Yajur Veda
32.3)[115] The number of auspicious qualities of God
God
are countless, with the following six qualities (bhaga) being the most important:

Jñāna (omniscience), defined as the power to know about all beings simultaneously Aishvarya
Aishvarya
(sovereignty, derived from the word Ishvara), which consists in unchallenged rule over all Shakti (energy), or power, which is the capacity to make the impossible possible Bala (strength), which is the capacity to support everything by will and without any fatigue Vīrya (vigor), which indicates the power to retain immateriality as the supreme being in spite of being the material cause of mutable creations Tejas (splendor), which expresses His self-sufficiency and the capacity to overpower everything by His spiritual effulgence[116]

In the Shaivite
Shaivite
tradition, the Shri Rudram
Shri Rudram
( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
श्रि रुद्रम्), to which the Chamakam (चमकम्) is added by scriptural tradition, is a Hindu stotra dedicated to Rudra (an epithet of Shiva), taken from the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
(TS 4.5, 4.7).[117][118] Shri Rudram
Shri Rudram
is also known as Sri Rudraprasna, Śatarudrīya, and Rudradhyaya. The text is important in Vedanta
Vedanta
where Shiva
Shiva
is equated to the Universal supreme God. The hymn is an early example of enumerating the names of a deity,[119] a tradition developed extensively in the sahasranama literature of Hinduism. The Nyaya
Nyaya
school of Hinduism
Hinduism
has made several arguments regarding a monotheistic view. The Naiyanikas have given an argument that such a god can only be one. In the Nyaya
Nyaya
Kusumanjali, this is discussed against the proposition of the Mimamsa
Mimamsa
school that let us assume there were many demigods (devas) and sages (rishis) in the beginning, who wrote the Vedas and created the world. Nyaya
Nyaya
says that:

[If they assume such] omniscient beings, those endowed with the various superhuman faculties of assuming infinitesimal size, and so on, and capable of creating everything, then we reply that the law of parsimony bids us assume only one such, namely Him, the adorable Lord. There can be no confidence in a non-eternal and non-omniscient being, and hence it follows that according to the system which rejects God, the tradition of the Veda is simultaneously overthrown; there is no other way open.[citation needed]

In other words, Nyaya
Nyaya
says that the polytheist would have to give elaborate proofs for the existence and origin of his several celestial spirits, none of which would be logical, and that it is more logical to assume one eternal, omniscient god.[120] Sikhism[edit] Main article: Sikhism

A Sikh
Sikh
temple, known as Nanaksar Gurudwara, in Alberta, Canada.

Ik Onkār, a Sikh
Sikh
symbol representing "the One Supreme Reality"

Sikhi is a monotheistic[121][122] and a revealed religion.[123] God
God
in Sikhi is called Vāhigurū, and is shapeless, timeless, and sightless: niraṅkār, akaal, and alakh. God
God
is present (sarav viāpak) in all of creation. God
God
must be seen from "the inward eye", or the "heart". Sikhi devotees must meditate to progress towards enlightenment, as its rigorous application permits the existence of communication between God
God
and human beings.[124] Sikhism
Sikhism
is a monotheistic faith[125][126] that arose in northern India during the 16th and 17th centuries. Sikhs believe in one, timeless, omnipresent, supreme creator. The opening verse of the Guru Granth Sahib, known as the Mul Mantra, signifies this:

Punjabi: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥ Transliteration: ikk ōankār sat(i)-nām(u) karatā purakh(u) nirabha'u niravair(u) akāla mūrat(i) ajūnī saibhan(g) gur(a) prasād(i). One Universal creator God, The supreme Unchangeable Truth, The Creator of the Universe, Beyond Fear, Beyond Hatred, Beyond Death, Beyond Birth, Self-Existent, by Guru's Grace.

The word "ੴ" ("Ik ōaṅkār") has two components. The first is ੧, the digit "1" in Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
signifying the singularity of the creator. Together the word means: "One Universal creator God". It is often said that the 1430 pages of the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
are all expansions on the Mul Mantra. Although the Sikhs have many names for God, some derived from Islam
Islam
and Hinduism, they all refer to the same Supreme Being. The Sikh
Sikh
holy scriptures refer to the One God
God
who pervades the whole of space and is the creator of all beings in the universe. The following quotation from the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
highlights this point:

"Chant, and meditate on the One God, who permeates and pervades the many beings of the whole Universe. God
God
created it, and God
God
spreads through it everywhere. Everywhere I look, I see God. The Perfect Lord is perfectly pervading and permeating the water, the land and the sky; there is no place without Him." — Guru Granth Sahib, Page 782

However, there is a strong case for arguing that the Guru Granth Sahib teaches monism due to its non-dualistic tendencies:

Punjabi: ਸਹਸ ਪਦ ਬਿਮਲ ਨਨ ਏਕ ਪਦ ਗੰਧ ਬਿਨੁ ਸਹਸ ਤਵ ਗੰਧ ਇਵ ਚਲਤ ਮੋਹੀ ॥੨॥ "You have thousands of Lotus Feet, and yet You do not have even one foot. You have no nose, but you have thousands of noses. This Play of Yours entrances me." — Guru Granth Sahib, Page 13

Sikhs believe that God
God
has been given many names, but they all refer to the One God, VāhiGurū. Sikhs believe that members of other religions such as Islam, Hinduism
Hinduism
and Christianity
Christianity
all worship the same God, and the names Allah, Rahim, Karim, Hari, Raam and Paarbrahm are frequently mentioned in the Sikh
Sikh
holy scriptures. Although there is no set reference to God
God
in Sikhism, the most commonly used Sikh reference to God
God
is Akal Purakh (which means "the true immortal") or Waheguru, the Primal Being. Zoroastrianism[edit] Main article: Zoroastrianism

Faravahar
Faravahar
(or Ferohar), one of the primary symbols of Zoroastrianism, believed to be the depiction of a Fravashi (guardian spirit)

Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
combines cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism which makes it unique among the religions of the world. Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
proclaims an evolution through time from dualism to monotheism.[127] Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
is a monotheistic religion,[128] although Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
is often regarded[129] as dualistic, duotheistic or bitheistic, for its belief in the hypostatis of the ultimately good Ahura Mazda
Ahura Mazda
(creative spirit) and the ultimately evil Angra Mainyu (destructive spirit). Zorastrianism was once one of the largest religions on Earth, as the official religion of the Persian Empire. By some scholars,[who?] the Zoroastrians ("Parsis" or "Zartoshtis") are credited with being some of the first monotheists and having had influence on other world religions. Gathered statistics shows the number of adherents at as many as 3.5 million,[130] with adherents living in many regions, including South Asia. Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
religion[edit] Main article: Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
religion Classical Greece[edit]

Fictionalized portrait of Xenophanes
Xenophanes
from a 17th-century engraving

The surviving fragments of the poems of the classical Greek philosopher Xenophanes of Colophon
Xenophanes of Colophon
suggest that he held views very similar to those of modern monotheists.[131] His poems harshly criticize the traditional notion of anthropomorphic gods, commenting that "...if cattle and horses and lions had hands or could paint with their hands and create works such as men do,... [they] also would depict the gods' shapes and make their bodies of such a sort as the form they themselves have."[132] Instead, Xenophanes
Xenophanes
declares that there is "...one god, greatest among gods and humans, like mortals neither in form nor in thought."[133] Xenophanes's theology appears to have been monist, but not truly monotheistic in the strictest sense.[24] Although some later philosophers, such as Antisthenes, believed in doctrines similar to those expounded by Xenophanes, his ideas do not appear to have become widely popular.[24] Although Plato
Plato
himself was a polytheist, in his writings, he often presents Socrates
Socrates
as speaking of "the god" in the singular form. He does, however, often speak of the gods in the plural form as well. The Euthyphro dilemma, for example, is formulated as "Is that which is holy loved by the gods because it is holy, or is it holy because it is loved by the gods?"[134] Hellenistic Religion[edit] Main article: Hellenistic religion The development of pure (philosophical) monotheism is a product of the Late Antiquity. During the 2nd to 3rd centuries, early Christianity was just one of several competing religious movements advocating monotheism. "The One" (Τὸ Ἕν) is a concept that is prominent in the writings of the Neoplatonists, especially those of the philosopher Plotinus.[135] In the writings of Plotinus, "The One" is described as an inconceivable, transcendent, all-embodying, permanent, eternal, causative entity that permeates throughout all of existence.[136]

Remains of the Temple of Apollo
Apollo
at Delphi, Greece.

A number of oracles of Apollo
Apollo
from Didyma
Didyma
and Clarus, the so-called "theological oracles", dated to the 2nd and 3rd century CE, proclaim that there is only one highest god, of whom the gods of polytheistic religions are mere manifestations or servants.[137] 4th century CE Cyprus had, besides Christianity, an apparently monotheistic cult of Dionysus.[138] Aristotle's concept of the "Uncaused Cause"—never incorporated into the polytheistic ancient Greek religion—has been used by many exponents of Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
to justify their arguments for the existence of the Judeo-Christian-Islamic God
God
of the Abrahamic religions. The Hypsistarians were a religious group who believed in a most high god, according to Greek documents. Later revisions of this Hellenic religion were adjusted towards Monotheism
Monotheism
as it gained consideration among a wider populace. The worship of Zeus as the head-god signaled a trend in the direction of monotheism, with less honour paid to the fragmented powers of the lesser gods. New religious movements[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2012)

Various New religious movements, such as Cao Đài, Tenrikyo, Seicho no Ie, and Cheondoism, are monotheistic. Tengrism[edit] See also: Tengrism Tengrism
Tengrism
or Tangrism (sometimes stylized as Tengriism), occasionally referred to as Tengrianism , is a modern term[139] for a Central Asian religion characterized by features of shamanism, animism, totemism, both polytheism and monotheism,[140][141][142][143] and ancestor worship. Historically, it was the prevailing religion of the Bulgarians, Turks, Mongols, and Hungarians, as well as the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
and the Huns.[144][145] It was the state religion of the six ancient Turkic states: Avar Khaganate, Old Great Bulgaria, First Bulgarian Empire, Göktürks
Göktürks
Khaganate, Eastern Tourkia and Western Turkic Khaganate. In Irk Bitig, Tengri is mentioned as Türük Tängrisi (God of Turks).[146] The term is perceived among Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
as a national religion. In Sino-Tibetan and Turco-Mongol traditions, the Supreme God
God
is commonly referred to as the ruler of Heaven, or the Sky Lord granted with omnipotent powers, but it has largely diminished in those regions due to ancestor worship, Taoism's pantheistic views and Buddhism's rejection of a creator God, although Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
does seem to keep a sense of divinity. On some occasions in the mythology, the Sky Lord as identified as a male has been associated to mate with an Earth Mother, while some traditions kept the omnipotence of the Sky Lord unshared. Native American religion[edit] Native American theology may be monotheistic, polytheistic, henotheistic, animistic, or some combination thereof. Cherokee for example are monotheist as well as pantheist. The Great Spirit, called Wakan Tanka among the Sioux,[147] and Gitche Manitou in Algonquian, is a conception of universal spiritual force, or supreme being prevalent among some Native American and First Nation cultures.[148] According to Lakota activist Russell Means
Russell Means
a better translation of Wakan Tanka is the Great Mystery.[149] Some researchers have interpreted Aztec philosophy
Aztec philosophy
as fundamentally monotheistic or panentheistic. While the populace at large believed in a polytheistic pantheon, Aztec priests and nobles might have come to an interpretation of Teotl as a single universal force with many facets.[150] There has been criticism to this idea, however, most notably that many assertions of this supposed monotheism might actually come from post-Conquistador bias, imposing an Antiquity pagan model unto the Aztec.[151] See also[edit]

Religion
Religion
portal

Criticism of monotheism I am the Lord thy God Kashmir Shaivism Monophysitism Post-monotheism The People of Monotheism Thou shalt have no other gods before me Unmoved mover

Notes[edit]

^ Monotheism. Hutchinson Encyclopedia
Hutchinson Encyclopedia
(12th edition). p. 644.  ^ a b c Cross, F.L.; Livingstone, E.A., eds. (1974). "Monotheism". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
Christian Church
(2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ^ William Wainwright. "Monotheism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ "Monotheism". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ "monotheism". oxforddictionaries.com.  ^ "Monotheism". Merriam-Webster.  ^ "monotheism". Cambridge Dictionary.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online, art. "Monotheism" Accessed 23 January 2013, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/390101/monotheism ^ References:

A Modern Hindu Monotheism: Indonesian Hindus as ‘People of the Book’. The Journal of Hindu Studies, Oxford University Press, June McDaniel – 2013, doi:10.1093/jhs/hit030 Zoroastrian Studies: The Iranian Religion
Religion
and Various Monographs, 1928 – Page 31, A. V. Williams Jackson – 2003 Global Institutions of Religion: Ancient Movers, Modern Shakers – Page 88, Katherine Marshall – 2013 Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia – Page 348, James B. Minahan – 2012 Introduction To Sikhism – Page 15, Gobind Singh Mansukhani – 1993 The Popular Encyclopedia of World Religions – Page 95, Richard Wolff – 2007 Focus: Arrogance and Greed, America's Cancer – Page 102, Jim Gray – 2012 Monotheism
Monotheism
2012. Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Retrieved 12 January 2012, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/390101/monotheism

^ Monos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus ^ Theos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus ^ The compound μονοθεισμός is current only in Modern Greek. There is a single attestation of μονόθεον in a Byzantine hymn (Canones Junii 20.6.43; A. Acconcia Longo and G. Schirò, Analecta hymnica graeca, vol. 11 e codicibus eruta Italiae inferioris. Rome: Istituto di Studi Bizantini e Neoellenici. Università di Roma, 1978) ^ More, Henry (1660). An Explanation of the Grand Mystery of Godliness. London: Flesher & Morden. p. 62.  ^ Sharma, Chandradhar (1962). "Chronological Summary of History of Indian Philosophy". Indian Philosophy: A Critical Survey. New York: Barnes & Noble. p. vi.  ^ HYMN CXC. Creation. ^ Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche ^ Yungdrung Bon
Bon
By Himanshu Bhatt ^ Yasna, XLIV.7 ^ "First and last for all Eternity, as the Father of the Good Mind, the true Creator of Truth and Lord over the actions of life." (Yasna 31.8) ^ "Vispanam Datarem", Creator of All (Yasna 44.7) ^ "Data Angheush", Creator of Life (Yasna 50.11) ^ NYÂYIS. ^ Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques. "Zoroastrianism". Britannica.com. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 16 July 2017.  ^ a b c d e f Gnuse, Robert Karl (1 May 1997). "No Other Gods: Emergent Monotheism
Monotheism
in Israel". Sheffield Academic Press. p. 225. ISBN 1-85075-657-0.  ^ "Ethical monotheism". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 25 December 2014.  ^ Prager, Dennis. "Ethical Monotheism". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 25 December 2014.  ^ Fischer, Paul. " Judaism
Judaism
and Ethical Monotheism". platophilosophy. The University of Vermont Blogs. Retrieved 16 July 2017.  ^ Nikiprowetzky, V. (1975). Ethical monotheism. (2 ed., Vol. 104, pp. 69-89). New York: The MIT Press Article Stable. JSTOR 20024331 ^ Armstrong, Karen (1994). A History of God: The 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam. New York City, New York: Ballantine Books. p. 3. ISBN 978-0345384560.  ^ Armstrong, Karen (1994). A History of God: The 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam. New York City, New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0345384560.  ^ Compare: Theissen, Gerd (1985). "III: Biblical Monotheism
Monotheism
in an Evolutionary Perspective". Biblical Faith: An Evolutionary Approach. Translated by Bowden, John. Minneapolis: Fortress Press (published 2007). p. 64. ISBN 9781451408614. Retrieved 2017-01-13. Evolutionary interpretations of the history of religion are usually understood to be an explanation of the phenomenon of religion as a result of a continuous development. The model for such development is the growth of living beings which leads to increasingly subtle differentiation and integration. Within such a framework of thought, monotheism would be interpreted as the result of a continuous development from animism, polytheism, henotheism and monolatry to belief in the one and only God. Such a development cannot be proved. Monotheism
Monotheism
appeared suddenly, though not without being prepared for.  ^ Mohammed Amin. "Triangulating the Abrahamic faiths – measuring the closeness of Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam". Christians were seen as polytheists, due to the doctrine of the Trinity. In the last few hundred years, rabbis have moderated this view slightly, but they still do not regard Christians as being fully monotheistic in the same manner as Jews or Muslims. Muslims were acknowledged as monotheists.  ^ "Islamic Practices". Universal Life Church Ministries. It is the Islamic belief that Christianity
Christianity
is not monotheistic, as it claims, but rather polytheistic with the trinity-the father, son and the Holy Ghost.  ^ https://icucourses.com/pages/025-10-three-persons-are-subsistent-relations ; International Catholic University, The One True God: "The fatherhood constitutes the Person
Person
of the Father, the sonship constitutes the Person
Person
of the Son, and the passive spiration constitutes the Person
Person
of the Holy Spirit. But in God
God
"everything is one where there is no distinction by relative opposition." Consequently, even though in God there are three Persons, there is only one consciousness, one thinking and one loving. The three Persons share equally in the internal divine activity because they are all identified with the divine essence. For, if each divine Person
Person
possessed his own distinct and different consciousness, there would be three gods, not the one God
God
of Christian revelation. So you will see that in this regard there is an immense difference between a divine Person
Person
and a human person." ^ https://orthodoxwiki.org/Holy_Trinity ; Holy Trinity, Orthodox Wiki: "Orthodox Christians worship the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit—the Holy Trinity, the one God. Following the Holy Scriptures and the Church Fathers, the Church believes that the Trinity
Trinity
is three divine persons (hypostases) who share one essence (ousia). It is paradoxical to believe thus, but that is how God
God
has revealed himself. All three persons are consubstantial with each other, that is, they are of one essence (homoousios) and coeternal. There never was a time when any of the persons of the Trinity
Trinity
did not exist. God
God
is beyond and before time and yet acts within time, moving and speaking within history." ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/Trinity-Christianity ; Britannica, Trinity: "The Council of Nicaea
Nicaea
in 325 stated the crucial formula for that doctrine in its confession that the Son is “of the same substance [homoousios] as the Father,” even though it said very little about the Holy Spirit. Over the next half century, Athanasius defended and refined the Nicene formula, and, by the end of the 4th century, under the leadership of Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzus (the Cappadocian Fathers), the doctrine of the Trinity
Trinity
took substantially the form it has maintained ever since. It is accepted in all of the historic confessions of Christianity, even though the impact of the Enlightenment decreased its importance." ^ "BBC - Religion: Judaism".  ^ Maimonides, 13 principles of faith, Second Principle ^ e.g., Babylonian Talmud, Megilla 7b-17a. ^ Yesode Ha- Torah
Torah
1:7 ^ a b Boteach, Shmuley (2012) [5772]. Kosher Jesus. Springfield, NJ: Gefen Books. pp. 47ff, 111ff, 152ff,. ISBN 9789652295781.  ^ 1 Kings 18, Jeremiah 2; Othmar Keel, Christoph Uehlinger, Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God
God
in Ancient Israel, Fortress Press (1998); Mark S. Smith, The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel’s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts, Oxford University Press (2001) ^ Othmar Keel, Christoph Uehlinger, Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel, Fortress Press (1998); Mark S. Smith, The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel’s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts, Oxford University Press (2001) ^ a b Albertz, Rainer (1994). A History of Israelite Religion, Volume I: From the Beginnings to the End of the Monarchy. Westminster John Knox. p. 61. ISBN 9780664227197.  ^ a b Israel Drazin. "Ancient Jews believed in the existence of many gods".  ^ Definition of the Fourth Lateran Council
Fourth Lateran Council
quoted in Catechism of the Catholic Church §253. ^ Ecumenical, from Koine Greek
Koine Greek
oikoumenikos, literally meaning worldwide the earliest extant uses of the term for a council are in Eusebius's Life of Constantine 3.6 [1] around 338 "σύνοδον οἰκουμενικὴν συνεκρότει" (he convoked an Ecumenical council), Athanasius's Ad Afros Epistola Synodica in 369 [2], and the Letter in 382 to Pope Damasus I
Pope Damasus I
and the Latin bishops from the First Council of Constantinople[3] ^ Examples of ante-Nicene statements:

Hence all the power of magic became dissolved; and every bond of wickedness was destroyed, men's ignorance was taken away, and the old kingdom abolished God
God
Himself appearing in the form of a man, for the renewal of eternal life. — St. Ignatius of Antioch in Letter to the Ephesians, ch.4, shorter version, Roberts-Donaldson translation

We have also as a Physician the Lord our God
God
Jesus
Jesus
the Christ the only-begotten Son and Word, before time began, but who afterwards became also man, of Mary the virgin. For 'the Word was made flesh.' Being
Being
incorporeal, He was in the body; being impassible, He was in a passable body; being immortal, He was in a mortal body; being life, He became subject to corruption, that He might free our souls from death and corruption, and heal them, and might restore them to health, when they were diseased with ungodliness and wicked lusts — St. Ignatius of Antioch in Letter to the Ephesians, ch.7, shorter version, Roberts-Donaldson translation

The Church, though dispersed throughout the whole world, even to the ends of the earth, has received from the apostles and their disciples this faith: ...one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them; and in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God, who became incarnate for our salvation; and in the Holy Spirit, who proclaimed through the prophets the dispensations of God, and the advents, and the birth from a virgin, and the passion, and the resurrection from the dead, and the ascension into heaven in the flesh of the beloved Christ Jesus, our Lord, and His manifestation from heaven in the glory of the Father ‘to gather all things in one,' and to raise up anew all flesh of the whole human race, in order that to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Savior, and King, according to the will of the invisible Father, ‘every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth, and that every tongue should confess; to him, and that He should execute just judgment towards all... — St. Irenaeus in Against Heresies, ch.X, v.I, Donaldson, Sir James (1950), Ante Nicene Fathers, Volume 1: Apostolic Fathers, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., ISBN 978-0802880871 

For, in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Savior Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, they then receive the washing with water — Justin Martyr in First Apology, ch. LXI, Donaldson, Sir James (1950), Ante Nicene Fathers, Volume 1: Apostolic Fathers, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, ISBN 978-0802880871 

^ Olson, Roger E. (2002). The Trinity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 15.  ^ "Articles of Faith".  ^ " Jesus
Jesus
Christ".  ^ "Offenders for a Word".  ^ Unitarians at 'Catholic Encyclopedia', ed. Kevin Knight at New Advent website ^ Gerhard Böwering, God
God
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Gnosis
and Hermeticism
Hermeticism
from Antiquity to Modern Times. State University of New York Press. pp. 87–108. ISBN 978-0791436110.  ^ Tillman, Nagel (2000). The History of Islamic Theology
Theology
from Muhammad to the Present. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers. pp. 215–234. ISBN 978-1558762039.  ^ "People of the Book". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved 2010-12-18.  ^ See: * Accad (2003): According to Ibn Taymiya, although only some Muslims accept the textual veracity of the entire Bible, most Muslims will grant the veracity of most of it. * Esposito (1998, pp. 6,12) * Esposito (2002, pp. 4–5)* Peters (2003, p. 9) *F. Buhl; A. T. Welch. "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. * Hava Lazarus-Yafeh. "Tahrif". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.  ^ Vincent J. Cornell, Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol 5, pp.3561-3562 ^ a b Asma Barlas, Believing Women in Islam, p.96 ^ Tamara Sonn (2009). "Tawḥīd". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ D. Gimaret, Tawhid, Encyclopedia of Islam ^ Ramadan (2005), p.230 ^ "the Jews, the Sabians, and the Christians." Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, 1987, page 13 ^ e.g. Sahih Bukhari Book
Book
#7 Hadith
Hadith
#340, Book
Book
#59 Hadith
Hadith
#628, and Book
Book
#89 Hadith
Hadith
#299 etc. ^ Khalil ‘ibn Ahmad (d. 786–787), who was in Basra before his death, wrote: "The Sabians
Sabians
believe they belong to the prophet Noah, they read Zaboor
Zaboor
(see also Book
Book
of Psalms), and their religion looks like Christianity." He also states that "they worship the angels." ^ Hatcher, John S. (2005). Unveiling the Hurí of Love. Journal of Bahá'í Studies. 15. pp. 1–38.  ^ a b Cole, Juan (1982). The Concept of Manifestation in the Bahá'í Writings. Bahá'í Studies. monograph 9. pp. 1–38.  ^ Stockman, Robert. " Jesus
Jesus
Christ in the Baha'i Writings". Baha'i Studies Review. 2 (1).  ^ *Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8.  ^ a b Smith 2008, pp. 107–108 ^ Hatcher, William (1985). The Bahá'í Faith. San Francisco: Harper & Row. pp. 115–123. ISBN 0060654414.  ^ Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.  ^ Momen, M. (1997). A Short Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: One World Publications. ISBN 1-85168-209-0.  ^ Hatcher 1985, p. 74 ^ Smith 2008, p. 106 ^ Effendi 1944, p. 139 ^ Smith 2008, p. 111 ^ Rosalie David, op. cit., p.125 ^ "Ancient Egypt Gods: The Aten".  ^ Hart, George (2005). The Routledge dictionary of Egyptian gods and goddesses (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-415-34495-1.  ^ a b Homer H. Dubs, " Theism
Theism
and Naturalism in Ancient Chinese Philosophy," Philosophy
Philosophy
of East and West, Vol. 9, No. 3/4, 1959 ^ *Crandall, David P. (2000). The Place of Stunted Ironwood Trees: A Year in the Lives of the Cattle-Herding Himba of Namibia. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group Inc. pp. 47. ISBN 0-8264-1270-X.  ^ Ikenga International Journal of African Studies. Institute of African Studies, University of Nigeria. 1972. p. 103. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D.Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 408–411 and 423–434. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2.  ^ Katičić, Radoslav (2008). Božanski boj: Tragovima svetih pjesama naše pretkršćanske starine (PDF). Zagreb: IBIS GRAFIKA. ISBN 978-953-6927-41-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-18.  ^ Puhvel, Jaan (1987), Comparative Mythology, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 234–235, ISBN 0-8018-3938-6  ^ Rogers, Peter (2009), Ultimate Truth, Book
Book
1, AuthorHouse, p. 109, ISBN 978-1-4389-7968-7  ^ Chakravarti, Sitansu (1991), Hinduism, a way of life, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., p. 71, ISBN 978-81-208-0899-7  ^ "Polytheism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-05.  ^ Pattanaik, Devdutt (2002), The man who was a woman and other queer tales of Hindu lore, Routledge, p. 38, ISBN 978-1-56023-181-3  ^ "Concept Of God
God
In Hinduism
Hinduism
By Dr Naik". Islam101.com. Retrieved 2012-06-05.  ^ Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
bicentenary commemoration volume, 1781-1981. p. 154: ...Shri Vallabhacharya [and] Shri Swaminarayan... Both of them designate the highest reality as Krishna, who is both the highest avatara and also the source of other avataras. To quote R. Kaladhar Bhatt in this context. "In this transcendental devotieon (Nirguna Bhakti), the sole Deity
Deity
and only" is Krishna. New Dimensions in Vedanta
Vedanta
Philosophy
Philosophy
- Page 154, Sahajānanda, Vedanta. 1981 ^ Delmonico, N. (2004). "The History Of Indic Monotheism
Monotheism
And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism". The Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. ISBN 978-0-231-12256-6. Retrieved 2008-04-12.  ^ Elkman, S.M.; Gosvami, J. (1986). Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaishnava Movement. Motilal Banarsidass Pub.  ^ Dimock Jr, E.C.; Dimock, E.C. (1989). The Place of the Hidden Moon: Erotic Mysticism
Mysticism
in the Vaisnava-Sahajiya Cult of Bengal. University Of Chicago Press.  page 132 ^ Kennedy, M.T. (1925). The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
of Bengal. H. Milford, Oxford university press.  ^ Flood, Gavin D. (1996). An introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 341. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. Retrieved 2008-04-21.  "Early Vaishnava worship focuses on three deities who become fused together, namely Vasudeva-Krishna, Krishna-Gopala, and Narayana, who in turn all become identified with Vishnu. Put simply, Vasudeva- Krishna
Krishna
and Krishna-Gopala were worshiped by groups generally referred to as Bhagavatas, while Narayana
Narayana
was worshipped by the Pancaratra sect." ^ Gupta, Ravi M. (2007). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta
Vedanta
of Jiva Gosvami. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40548-3.  ^ Essential Hinduism
Hinduism
S. Rosen, 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group p.124 ISBN 0-275-99006-0 ^ Matchett, Freda (2000). Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana. Surrey: Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 0-7007-1281-X.  ^ "Rig Veda: A Metrically Restored Text with an Introduction and Notes, HOS, 1994". Vedavid.org. Retrieved 2012-06-05.  ^ Atharva Veda: Spiritual & Philosophical Hymns Archived October 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Shukla Yajur Veda: The transcendental "That" Archived October 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Tapasyananda (1991). Bhakti Schools of Vedānta. Madras: Sri Ramakrishna Math. ISBN 81-7120-226-8.  ^ For an overview of the Śatarudriya see: Kramrisch, pp. 71-74. ^ For a full translation of the complete hymn see: Sivaramamurti (1976) ^ For the Śatarudrīya as an early example of enumeration of divine names, see: Flood (1996), p. 152. ^ Studies, Institute for Metaphysical; Inc, The Institute for Metaphysi Studies; MM, MR Charles D. Levy; Levy, Charles D. (2010-08-30). The Arian Christian Doctrines: The Origins of Christianity. Metaphysical Institute. p. 161. ISBN 9781453764619.  ^ Mark Juergensmeyer, Gurinder Singh Mann (2006). The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions. US: Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-19-513798-9.  ^ Ardinger, Barbara (2006). Pagan Every Day: Finding the Extraordinary in Our Ordinary Lives. Weisfer. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-57863-332-6.  ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (15 November 2005). Sikhi: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7. Retrieved 19 July 2010.  ^ Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions:From Ancient History to the Present. USA: Hamlyn Publishing Group. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-87196-129-7.  ^ " Sikh
Sikh
Beliefs and Doctrine". ReligionFacts. Retrieved 2012-06-05.  ^ "A Short Introduction to Sikhism". Multifaithcentre.org. Archived from the original on 2009-12-21. Retrieved 2012-06-05.  ^ " Buddhism
Buddhism
in China: A Historical Sketch", The Journal of Religion.  ^ Boyce, Mary (2007). Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. London: Routledge. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-415-23903-5  ^ Catholic Encyclopedia - Eschatology
Eschatology
"The radical defect of the Persian religion was its dualistic conception of deity." ^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2012-06-05.  ^ McKirahan, Richard D. " Xenophanes
Xenophanes
of Colophon. Philosophy
Philosophy
Before Socrates. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1994. 61. Print. ^ Diels-Kranz, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, Xenophanes
Xenophanes
frr. 15-16. ^ Osborne, Catherine. "Chapter 4." Presocratic Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford UP. 62. Print. ^ Lamb, W. R. M. "Euthyphro". Perseus. Tufts University. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ Wyller, Egil A. (1997). Henologische Perspektiven II: zu Ehren Egil A. Wyller, Internales Henologie-Symposium. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi. pp. 5–6. ISBN 90-420-0357-X. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ Schürmann, Reiner; Lily, Reginald (2003). Broken Hegemonies. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN 0-253-34144-2. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ Dictionary of Deities
Deities
and Demons in the Bible, s.v. "Apollo". ^ E. Kessler, Dionysian Monotheism
Monotheism
in Nea Paphos, Cyprus: "two monotheistic religions, Dionysian and Christian, existed contemporaneously in Nea Paphos during the 4th century C.E. [...] the particular iconography of Hermes and Dionysos in the panel of the Epiphany of Dionysos [...] represents the culmination of a pagan iconographic tradition in which an infant divinity is seated on the lap of another divine figure; this pagan motif was appropriated by early Christian artists and developed into the standardized icon of the Virgin and Child. Thus the mosaic helps to substantiate the existence of pagan monotheism." [(Abstract Archived 2008-04-21 at the Wayback Machine.) ^ The spelling Tengrism
Tengrism
is found in the 1960s, e.g. Bergounioux (ed.), Primitive and prehistoric religions, Volume 140, Hawthorn Books, 1966, p. 80. Tengrianism is a reflection of the Russian term, Тенгрианство. It is reported in 1996 ("so-called Tengrianism") in Shnirelʹman (ed.), Who gets the past?: competition for ancestors among non-Russian intellectuals in Russia, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996, ISBN 978-0-8018-5221-3, p. 31 in the context of the nationalist rivalry over Bulgar legacy. The spellings Tengriism and Tengrianity are later, reported (deprecatingly, in scare quotes) in 2004 in Central Asiatic journal, vol. 48-49 (2004), p. 238. The Turkish term Tengricilik is also found from the 1990s. Mongolian Тэнгэр шүтлэг is used in a 1999 biography of Genghis Khan (Boldbaatar et. al, Чингис хаан, 1162-1227, Хаадын сан, 1999, p. 18). ^ R. Meserve, Religions in the central Asian environment. In: History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume IV, The age of achievement: A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century, Part Two: The achievements, p. 68:

"[...] The ‘imperial’ religion was more monotheistic, centred around the all-powerful god Tengri, the sky god."

^ Michael Fergus, Janar Jandosova, Kazakhstan: Coming of Age, Stacey International, 2003, p.91:

"[...] a profound combination of monotheism and polytheism that has come to be known as Tengrism."

^ H. B. Paksoy, Tengri in Eurasia, 2008 ^ Napil Bazylkhan, Kenje Torlanbaeva in: Central Eurasian Studies Society, Central Eurasian Studies Society, 2004, p.40 ^ "There is no doubt that between the 6th and 9th centuries Tengrism was the religion among the nomads of the steppes" Yazar András Róna-Tas, Hungarians
Hungarians
and Europe in the early Middle Ages: an introduction to early Hungarian history, Yayıncı Central European University Press, 1999, ISBN 978-963-9116-48-1, p. 151. ^ Hungarians
Hungarians
& Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early ... - András Róna-Tas - Google Kitaplar. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-02-19.  ^ Jean-Paul Roux, Die alttürkische Mythologie, p. 255 ^ Ostler, Jeffry. The Plains Sioux
Sioux
and U.S. Colonialism from Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee. Cambridge University Press, Jul 5, 2004. ISBN 0521605903, pg 26. ^ Thomas, Robert Murray. Manitou and God: North-American Indian Religions and Christian Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. ISBN 0313347794 pg 35. ^ Means, Robert. Where White Men Fear to Tread: The Autobiography of Russell Means. Macmillan, 1995. ISBN 0312147619 pg 241. ^ James Maffie (2005). "Aztec Philosophy". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ James Maffie, Aztec Philosophy: Understanding a World in Motion, University Press of Colorado, 15/03/2014

Further reading[edit]

Dever, William G. Who Were the Early Israelites?, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 2003. Köchler, Hans. The Concept of Monotheism
Monotheism
in Islam
Islam
and Christianity. Vienna: Braumüller, 1982. ISBN 3-7003-0339-4 (Google Print) Kirsch, Jonathan. God
God
Against The Gods: The History of the War Between Monotheism
Monotheism
and Polytheism. Penguin Books. 2005. Leibowitz, Ilya. Monotheism
Monotheism
in Judaism
Judaism
as a Harbinger of Science, Eretz Acheret Magazine Silberman, Neil A. et al.; The Bible Unearthed, New York: Simon & Schuster 2001. Whitelam, Keith). The Invention of Ancient Israel, Routledge, New York 1997. Smith, Peter (7 April 2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86251-6. 

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