Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one
god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the
world. A broader definition of monotheism is the belief in
one god. A distinction may be made between exclusive
monotheism, and both inclusive monotheism and pluriform
(panentheistic) monotheism which, while recognising various distinct
gods, postulate some underlying unity.
Monotheism is distinguished from henotheism, a religious system in
which the believer worships one god without denying that others may
worship different gods with equal validity, and monolatrism, the
recognition of the existence of many gods but with the consistent
worship of only one deity.
The broader definition of monotheism characterizes the traditions of
Bábism, the Bahá'í Faith, Balinese Hinduism,
Cao Dai (Caodaiism),
Cheondoism (Cheondogyo), Christianity, Deism, Eckankar, Hindu sects
Shaivism and Vaishnavism, Islam, Judaism, Mandaeism,
Rastafari, Seicho no Ie, Sikhism,
Tengrism (Tangrism), Tenrikyo
(Tenriism), Yazidism, and Zoroastrianism, and elements of
pre-monotheistic thought are found in early religions such as Atenism,
Ancient Chinese religion, and Yahwism.
3 Abrahamic religions
3.1.1 In Ancient Israel
3.1.2 The Shema
3.5 Bahá'í Faith
5 Chinese view
6 Indigenous African religion
7 Indo-European religions
7.1 Proto-Indo-European religion
7.2 Indo-Iranian religions
Ancient Greek religion
7.3.1 Classical Greece
7.3.2 Hellenistic Religion
8 New religious movements
10 Native American religion
11 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
The word monotheism comes from the Greek μόνος (monos)
meaning "single" and θεός (theos) meaning "god". The
English term was first used by
Henry More (1614–1687).
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Quasi-monotheistic claims of the existence of a universal deity date
to the Late Bronze Age, with Akhenaten's Great Hymn to the Aten. A
possible inclination towards monotheism emerged during the Vedic
period in Iron-Age South Asia. The
Rigveda exhibits notions of
monism of the Brahman, particularly in the comparatively late tenth
book, which is dated to the early Iron Age, e.g. in the Nasadiya
sukta. Bonpa Dharma, perhaps from twentieth century BCE, was the
first recorded religion to declare that there is one
God above all,
whom it calls Sangpo Bumtri. However, it does not encourage
monotheistic worship of a Sangpo Bumtri or any god for salvation but
rather it focuses on karma.
Since the sixth century BCE, Zoroastrians have believed in the
supremacy of one
God above all:
Ahura Mazda as the "Maker of All"
and the first being before all others. Nonetheless,
Zoroastrianism was not strictly monotheistic because it venerated
other yazatas alongside Ahura Mazda. Ancient Hindu theology,
meanwhile, was monist, but was not strictly monotheistic in worship
because it still maintained the existence of many gods, who were
envisioned as aspects of one supreme God, Brahman. Numerous
ancient Greek philosophers, including
Xenophanes of Colophon
Xenophanes of Colophon and
Antisthenes believed in a similar polytheistic monism that came close
to monotheism, but fell short.
Judaism was the first religion to
conceive the notion of a personal monotheistic
God within a monist
context. The concept of ethical monotheism, which holds that
morality stems from
God alone and that its laws are
unchanging, first occurred in Judaism, but is now a core
tenet of most modern monotheistic religions, including Zoroastrianism,
Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, and Bahá'í Faith.
According to Jewish, Christian and Islamic tradition, monotheism was
the original religion of humanity; this original religion is sometimes
referred to as "the Adamic religion", or, in the terms of Andrew Lang,
the "Urreligion". Scholars of religion largely abandoned that view in
the 19th century in favour of an evolutionary progression from animism
via polytheism to monotheism, but by 1974 this theory was less widely
held, and a modified view similar to Lang's became more
prominent.[need quotation to verify] Austrian anthropologist
Wilhelm Schmidt had postulated an Urmonotheismus, "original" or
"primitive monotheism" in the 1910s. It was objected[by whom?]
that Judaism, Christianity, and
Islam had grown up in opposition to
polytheism as had Greek philosophical monotheism. More recently,
Karen Armstrong and other authors have returned to the idea of an
evolutionary progression beginning with animism, which developed into
polytheism, which developed into henotheism, which developed into
monolatry, which developed into true monotheism.
Further information: Abrahamic religions
While all adherents of the
Abrahamic religions consider themselves to
Judaism does not consider
Christianity to be
monotheistic, recognizing only
Islam as monotheistic. Islam
likewise does not recognize modern-day
Christianity as monotheistic,
primarily due to the Christian doctrine of Trinity, which
was not a part of the original monotheistic
Christianity as preached
by Jesus. Christians, on the other hand, argue that the doctrine
Trinity is a valid expression of monotheism, citing that the
Trinity does not consist of three separate deities, but rather the
three persons, who exist consubstantially (as one substance) within a
God in Judaism
The tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE),
old Aramaic (10th century BCE to 4th century CE) and square Hebrew
(3rd century BCE to present) scripts.
Judaism is one of the oldest monotheistic religions in the world.
Judaism is strictly monotheistic, an absolute one,
indivisible, and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all
Babylonian Talmud references other, "foreign gods" as
non-existent entities to whom humans mistakenly ascribe reality and
power. One of the best-known statements of Rabbinical
monotheism is the Second of Maimonides' 13 Principles of faith:
God, the Cause of all, is one. This does not mean one as in one of a
pair, nor one like a species (which encompasses many individuals), nor
one as in an object that is made up of many elements, nor as a single
simple object that is infinitely divisible. Rather,
God is a unity
unlike any other possible unity.
Islam reject the Christian idea of monotheism. Judaism
uses the term shituf to refer to the worship of
God in a manner which
Judaism does not deem to be monotheistic.
In Ancient Israel
See also: Yahweh, Elohim, and Baal
During the 8th century BCE, the worship of YHWH in Israel was in
competition with many other cults, described by the
collectively as Baals. The oldest books of the
Hebrew Bible reflect
this competition, as in the books of Hosea and Nahum, whose authors
lament the "apostasy" of the people of Israel, threatening them with
the wrath of
God if they do not give up their polytheistic
Ancient Israelite religion was originally polytheistic; the
Israelites worshipped many deities, including El, Baal, Asherah,
and Astarte. YHWH was originally the national god of the Kingdom of
Israel and the Kingdom of Judah. As time progressed, the
henotheistic cult of
Yahweh grew increasingly militant in its
opposition to the worship of other gods. Later, the reforms of
King Josiah imposed a form of strict monolatrism. After the fall of
Judah to Babylon, a small circle of priests and scribes gathered
around the exiled royal court, where they first developed the concept
of YHWH as the sole
God of the world.
Main article: Shema Yisrael
Shema Yisrael ("Hear, [O] Israel") are the first two words of a
section of the Torah, and is the title of a prayer that serves as a
centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services. The
first verse encapsulates the monotheistic essence of Judaism: "Hear, O
Israel: the LORD our God, the LORD is one" (Hebrew: שְׁמַע
יִשְׂרָאֵל ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד),
found in Deuteronomy 6:4, sometimes alternatively translated as "The
LORD is our God, the LORD alone." Observant Jews consider the Shema to
be the most important part of the prayer service in Judaism, and its
twice-daily recitation as a mitzvah (religious commandment). It is
traditional for Jews to say the Shema as their last words, and for
parents to teach their children to say it before they go to sleep at
Christianity and Trinity
Trinity is the belief in
God is one
essence but three persons:
God the Father,
God the Son (Jesus), and
God the Holy Spirit.
Among early Christians there was considerable debate over the nature
of the Godhead, with some denying the incarnation but not the deity of
Jesus (Docetism) and others later calling for an Arian conception of
God. Despite at least one earlier local synod rejecting the claim of
Arius, this Christological issue was to be one of the items addressed
at the First Council of Nicaea.
The First Council of Nicaea, held in
Nicaea (in present-day Turkey),
convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first
ecumenical council of bishops of the Roman Empire, and most
significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called
the Nicene Creed. With the creation of the creed, a precedent was
established for subsequent general ecumenical councils of bishops
(synods) to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal
orthodoxy— the intent being to define a common creed for the Church
and address heretical ideas.
One purpose of the council was to resolve disagreements in Alexandria
over the nature of
Jesus in relationship to the Father; in particular,
Jesus was of the same substance as
God the Father or merely of
similar substance. All but two bishops took the first position; while
Arius' argument failed.
Christian orthodox traditions (Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox,
Roman Catholic, and most Protestants) follow this decision, which was
reaffirmed in 381 at the
First Council of Constantinople
First Council of Constantinople and reached
its full development through the work of the Cappadocian Fathers. They
God to be a triune entity, called the Trinity, comprising
God the Father,
God the Son, and
God the Holy Spirit.
These three are described as being "of the same substance"
Christians overwhelmingly assert that monotheism is central to the
Christian faith, as the
Nicene Creed (and others), which gives the
orthodox Christian definition of the Trinity, begins: "I believe in
one God". From earlier than the times of the Nicene Creed,
325 CE, various Christian figures advocated the triune
God as a normative profession of faith. According to
Roger E. Olson and Christopher Hall, through prayer, meditation, study
and practice, the Christian community concluded "that
God must exist
as both a unity and trinity", codifying this in ecumenical council at
the end of the 4th century.
Most modern Christians believe the Godhead is triune, meaning that the
three persons of the
Trinity are in one union in which each person is
also wholly God. They also hold to the doctrine of a man-god Christ
God incarnate. These Christians also do not believe that one
of the three divine figures is
God alone and the other two are not but
that all three are mysteriously
God and one. Other Christian
religions, including Unitarian Universalism, Jehovah's Witnesses,
Mormonism and others, do not share those views on the Trinity.
Some Christian faiths, such as Mormonism, argue that the Godhead is in
fact three separate individuals which include
God the Father, His Son
Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost. Each individual having a
distinct purpose in the grand existence of human kind.
Furthermore, Mormons believe that before the Council of Nicaea, the
predominant belief among many early Christians was that the Godhead
was three separate individuals. In support of this view, they cite
early Christian examples of belief in subordinationism.
Unitarianism is a theological movement, named for its understanding of
God as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism.
God in Islam, Tawhid, and Hanif
Arabic calligraphy reading "Allah, may his glory be glorified"
God (Allāh) is all-powerful and all-knowing, the creator,
sustainer, ordainer and judge of the universe.
strictly singular (tawhid) unique (wahid) and inherently One
(ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent.
Allāh exists without
place and the
Qur'an states that "No vision can grasp Him, but His
grasp is over all vision.
God is above all comprehension, yet is
acquainted with all things" (
Allāh is the only God
and the same
God worshiped in
Christianity and Judaism. (29:46).
Islam emerged in the 7th century CE in the context of both
Christianity and Judaism, with some thematic elements similar to
Gnosticism. Islamic belief states that
Muhammad did not bring a new religion from God, but is rather the same
religion as practiced by Abraham, Moses, David,
Jesus and all the
other prophets of God. The assertion of
Islam is that the message
God had been corrupted, distorted or lost over time and the Quran
was sent to
Muhammad in order to correct the lost message of the
New Testament and prior scriptures from God.
Qur'an asserts the existence of a single and absolute truth that
transcends the world; a unique and indivisible being who is
independent of the creation. The
Qur'an rejects binary modes of
thinking such as the idea of a duality of
God by arguing that both
good and evil generate from God's creative act.
God is a universal god
rather than a local, tribal or parochial one; an absolute who
integrates all affirmative values and brooks no evil. Ash'ari
theology, which dominated Sunni
Islam from the tenth to the nineteenth
century, insists on ultimate divine transcendence and holds that
divine unity is not accessible to human reason. Ash'arism teaches that
human knowledge regarding it is limited to what was has been revealed
through the prophets, and on such paradoxes as God's creation of evil,
revelation has to accepted bila kayfa (without [asking] how).
Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession of
faith, "There is no god but God,
Muhammad is the messenger of God.
To attribute divinity to a created entity is the only unpardonable sin
mentioned in the Qur'an. The entirety of the Islamic teaching
rests on the principle of tawhid.
As they traditionally profess a concept of monotheism with a singular
person as God, Judaism and
Islam reject the Christian idea of
Judaism uses the term
Shituf to refer to non-monotheistic
ways of worshiping God. Though Muslims venerate
Jesus (Isa in Arabic)
as a prophet, they do not accept the doctrine that he was a begotten
son of God.
Main article: Sabians
According to the Quran, the
Sabians were a monotheistic religious
group. Some Hadiths account them as converts to Islam. However
this interpretation may be related to the fact that Quraysh
polytheists used to describe anyone who converted to
Islam with the
word "Saba" (صبى/صبوت) which may either mean
that this term was used for anyone who changed his religion or that
they identified the message of Muhammed as a "Sabian belief". The
former linguistic explanation (i.e. saba = changed his religion) is
the one adopted by most Muslim scholars.
Sabians are often identified with Mandaeism, a small monotheistic
community which lives today in
Iraq and call themselves Yahyawiya
(Arabic: يحياوية). Muslim scholars traditionally viewed them
as followers of the prophets
Noah and Yahya (i.e. John the
God in the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í House of Worship, Langenhain, Germany
God in the Bahá'í
Faith is taught to be a personal god, too great
for humans to fully comprehend. Human primitive understanding of God
is achieved through his revelations via his divine intermediary
Manifestations. In the Bahá'í faith, such Christian
doctrines as the
Trinity are seen as compromising the Bahá'í view
God is single and has no equal. And the very existence of the
Faith is a challenge to the Islamic doctrine of the finality
of Muhammad's revelation.
God in the Bahá'í
to humanity through divine intermediaries, known as Manifestations of
God. These Manifestations establish religion in the world. It
is through these divine intermediaries that humans can approach God,
and through them
God brings divine revelation and law.
The Oneness of
God is one of the core teachings of the Bahá'í Faith.
The obligatory prayers in the Bahá'í
Faith involve explicit
God is the imperishable, uncreated
being who is the source of all existence. He is described as "a
personal God, unknowable, inaccessible, the source of all Revelation,
eternal, omniscient, omnipresent and almighty". Although
transcendent and inaccessible directly, his image is reflected in his
creation. The purpose of creation is for the created to have the
capacity to know and love its creator.
God communicates his will
and purpose to humanity through intermediaries, known as
Manifestations of God, who are the prophets and messengers that have
founded religions from prehistoric times up to the present day.
Main article: Atenism
Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten.
Amenhotep IV initially introduced
Atenism in Year 5 of his reign
(1348/1346 BCE) during the
18th dynasty of the New Kingdom. He raised
Aten, once a relatively obscure Egyptian
Solar deity representing the
disk of the sun, to the status of Supreme
God in the Egyptian
pantheon. To emphasise the change, Aten's name was written in the
cartouche form normally reserved for Pharaohs, an innovation of
Atenism. This religious reformation appears to coincide with the
proclamation of a Sed festival, a sort of royal jubilee intended to
reinforce the Pharaoh's divine powers of kingship. Traditionally held
in the thirtieth year of the Pharaoh's reign, this possibly was a
festival in honour of Amenhotep III, who some Egyptologists think had
a coregency with his son
Amenhotep IV of two to twelve years.
Year 5 is believed to mark the beginning of Amenhotep IV's
construction of a new capital,
Akhetaten (Horizon of the Aten), at the
site known today as Amarna. Evidence of this appears on three of the
boundary stelae used to mark the boundaries of this new capital. At
Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten
(Agreeable to Aten) as evidence of his new worship. The date given for
the event has been estimated to fall around January 2 of that year. In
Year 7 of his reign (1346/1344 BCE), the capital was moved from Thebes
Akhetaten (near modern Amarna), though construction of the city
seems to have continued for two more years. In shifting his court from
the traditional ceremonial centres
Akhenaten was signalling a dramatic
transformation in the focus of religious and political power.
The move separated the Pharaoh and his court from the influence of the
priesthood and from the traditional centres of worship, but his decree
had deeper religious significance too—taken in conjunction with his
name change, it is possible that the move to
Amarna was also meant as
a signal of Akhenaten's symbolic death and rebirth. It may also have
coincided with the death of his father and the end of the coregency.
In addition to constructing a new capital in honor of Aten, Akhenaten
also oversaw the construction of some of the most massive temple
complexes in ancient Egypt, including one at
Karnak and one at Thebes,
close to the old temple of Amun.
In Year 9 (1344/1342 BCE),
Akhenaten declared a more radical version
of his new religion, declaring
Aten not merely the supreme god of the
Egyptian pantheon, but the only
God of Egypt, with himself as the sole
intermediary between the
Aten and the Egyptian people. Key features of
Atenism included a ban on idols and other images of the Aten, with the
exception of a rayed solar disc, in which the rays (commonly depicted
ending in hands) appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten. Aten
was addressed by
Akhenaten in prayers, such as the Great Hymn to the
Aten: "O Sole
God beside whom there is none".
The details of Atenist theology are still unclear. The exclusion of
all but one god and the prohibition of idols was a radical departure
from Egyptian tradition, but most scholars see
Akhenaten as a
practitioner of monolatry rather than monotheism, as he did not
actively deny the existence of other gods; he simply refrained from
worshiping any but Aten. It is known that
Atenism did not solely
attribute divinity to the Aten.
Akhenaten continued the cult of the
Pharaoh, proclaiming himself the son of
Aten and encouraging the
Egyptian people to worship him. The Egyptian people were to
worship Akhenaten; only
Akhenaten and Nefertiti could worship Aten
Under Akhenaten's successors, Egypt reverted to its traditional
Akhenaten himself came to be reviled as a heretic.
Main articles: Shangdi, Tian, and Mohism
Shang Dynasty bronze script character for tian (天), which translates
Heaven and sky.
The orthodox faith system held by most dynasties of
China since at
Shang Dynasty (1766 BCE) until the modern period
centered on the worship of
Shangdi (literally "Above Sovereign",
generally translated as "God") or
Heaven as an omnipotent force.
This faith system pre-dated the development of
Confucianism and Taoism
and the introduction of
Buddhism and Christianity. It has features of
monotheism in that
Heaven is seen as an omnipotent entity, a
noncorporeal force with a personality transcending the world. From the
Confucius in the Analects, it is known
Heaven cannot be deceived,
Heaven guides people's lives and
maintains a personal relationship with them, and that
tasks for people to fulfill in order to teach them of virtues and
morality. However, this faith system was not truly monotheistic
since other lesser gods and spirits, which varied with locality, were
also worshiped along with Shangdi. Still, later variants such as
Mohism (470 BCE–c.391 BCE) approached true monotheism, teaching that
the function of lesser gods and ancestral spirits is merely to carry
out the will of Shangdi, akin to angels in Abrahamic religions. In
Mozi's Will of
Heaven (天志), he writes:
Heaven loves men dearly not without reason.
Heaven ordered the
sun, the moon, and the stars to enlighten and guide them. Heaven
ordained the four seasons, Spring, Autumn, Winter, and Summer, to
Heaven sent down snow, frost, rain, and dew to grow the
five grains and flax and silk that so the people could use and enjoy
Heaven established the hills and rivers, ravines and valleys,
and arranged many things to minister to man's good or bring him evil.
He appointed the dukes and lords to reward the virtuous and punish the
wicked, and to gather metal and wood, birds and beasts, and to engage
in cultivating the five grains and flax and silk to provide for the
people's food and clothing. This has been so from antiquity to the
Will of Heaven, Chapter 27, Paragraph 6, ca. 5th century BCE
Heaven in ancient
China includes the erection
of shrines, the last and greatest being the
Temple of Heaven
Temple of Heaven in
Beijing, and the offering of prayers. The ruler of
China in every
Chinese dynasty would perform annual sacrificial rituals to Shangdi,
usually by slaughtering a completely healthy bull as sacrifice.
Although its popularity gradually diminished after the advent of
Taoism and Buddhism, among other religions, its concepts remained in
use throughout the pre-modern period and have been incorporated in
later religions in China, including terminology used by early
Christians in China. Despite the rising of non-theistic and
pantheistic spirituality contributed by
Taoism and Buddhism, Shangdi
was still praised up until the end of the
Qing Dynasty as the last
ruler of the Qing declared himself son of heaven.
Indigenous African religion
Himba people of Namibia practice a form of monotheistic
panentheism, and worship the god Mukuru. The deceased ancestors of the
Himba and Herero are subservient to him, acting as intermediaries.
Igbo people practice a form of monotheism called Odinani.
Odinani has monotheistic and panentheistic attributes, having a single
God as the source of all things. Although a pantheon of spirits
exists, these are lesser spirits prevalent in Odinani expressly
serving as elements of Chineke (or Chukwu), the supreme being or high
Some (approximately 3%) of
Oromo people follow a traditional
monotheistic religion called Waaqeffannaa and
God called Waaq.
Main article: Proto-Indo-European religion
The supreme god of the
Proto-Indo-European religion was the god
*Dyḗus Pḥatḗr . A number of words derived from the name of this
supreme deity are used in various
Indo-European languages to denote a
monotheistic God. Nonetheless, in spite of this, Proto-Indo-European
religion itself was not monotheistic.
In western Eurasia, the ancient traditions of the Slavic religion
contained elements of monotheism. In the sixth century AD, the
Procopius recorded that the Slavs "acknowledge
that one god, creator of lightning, is the only lord of all: to him do
they sacrifice an ox and all sacrificial animals." The deity to
Procopius is referring is the storm god Perún, whose name is
derived from *Perkwunos, the Proto-Indo-European god of lightning. The
ancient Slavs syncretized him with the Germanic god
Thor and the
Biblical prophet Elijah.
Main articles: Proto-Indo-Iranian religion, Indian religions, and
Hindu views on monotheism
Hindu views on monotheism and
God in Hinduism
See also: Hindu denominations
Krishna displays his
Vishvarupa (universal form) to
Arjuna on the
battlefield of Kurukshetra.
As an old religion,
Hinduism inherits religious concepts spanning
monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism, and atheism
among others; and its concept of
God is complex and
depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy
Hindu views are broad and range from monism, through pantheism and
panentheism (alternatively called monistic theism by some scholars) to
monotheism and even atheism.
Hinduism cannot be said to be purely
polytheistic. Hindu religious leaders have repeatedly stressed that
while God's forms are many and the ways to communicate with him are
God is one. The puja of the murti is a way to communicate with
the abstract one god (Brahman) which creates, sustains and dissolves
Rig Veda 1.164.46,
Indraṃ mitraṃ varuṇamaghnimāhuratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo
ekaṃ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyaghniṃ yamaṃ
"They call him Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa, Agni, and he is heavenly
To what is One, sages give many a title they call it Agni, Yama,
Mātariśvan." (trans. Griffith)
Traditions of Gaudiya Vaishnavas, the
Nimbarka Sampradaya and
Krishna to be the
source of all avatars, and the source of
Vishnu himself, or to be
the same as Narayana. As such, he is therefore regarded as Svayam
Krishna is recognized to be Svayam Bhagavan, it can be understood
that this is the belief of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, the Vallabha
Sampradaya, and the Nimbarka Sampradaya, where
accepted to be the source of all other avatars, and the source of
Vishnu himself. This belief is drawn primarily "from the famous
statement of the Bhagavatam" (1.3.28). A viewpoint differing
from this theological concept is the concept of
Krishna as an avatar
Narayana or Vishnu. It should be however noted that although it is
usual to speak of
Vishnu as the source of the avataras, this is only
one of the names of the
God of Vaishnavism, who is also known as
Krishna and behind each of those names there is
a divine figure with attributed supremacy in Vaishnavism.
Rig Veda discusses monotheistic thought, as do the Atharva Veda
and Yajur Veda: "Devas are always looking to the supreme abode of
Vishnu" (tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṁ padaṁ sadā paśyanti
Rig Veda 1.22.20)
"The One Truth, sages know by many names" (
Rig Veda 1.164.46)
"When at first the unborn sprung into being, He won His own dominion
beyond which nothing higher has been in existence" (Atharva Veda
"There is none to compare with Him. There is no parallel to Him, whose
glory, verily, is great." (
Yajur Veda 32.3)
The number of auspicious qualities of
God are countless, with the
following six qualities (bhaga) being the most important:
Jñāna (omniscience), defined as the power to know about all beings
Aishvarya (sovereignty, derived from the word Ishvara), which consists
in unchallenged rule over all
Shakti (energy), or power, which is the capacity to make the
Bala (strength), which is the capacity to support everything by will
and without any fatigue
Vīrya (vigor), which indicates the power to retain immateriality as
the supreme being in spite of being the material cause of mutable
Tejas (splendor), which expresses His self-sufficiency and the
capacity to overpower everything by His spiritual effulgence
Shaivite tradition, the
Shri Rudram (
रुद्रम्), to which the Chamakam (चमकम्) is
added by scriptural tradition, is a Hindu stotra dedicated to Rudra
(an epithet of Shiva), taken from the
Yajurveda (TS 4.5,
Shri Rudram is also known as Sri Rudraprasna,
Śatarudrīya, and Rudradhyaya. The text is important in
Shiva is equated to the Universal supreme God. The hymn is an early
example of enumerating the names of a deity, a tradition
developed extensively in the sahasranama literature of Hinduism.
Nyaya school of
Hinduism has made several arguments regarding a
monotheistic view. The Naiyanikas have given an argument that such a
god can only be one. In the
Nyaya Kusumanjali, this is discussed
against the proposition of the
Mimamsa school that let us assume there
were many demigods (devas) and sages (rishis) in the beginning, who
wrote the Vedas and created the world.
Nyaya says that:
[If they assume such] omniscient beings, those endowed with the
various superhuman faculties of assuming infinitesimal size, and so
on, and capable of creating everything, then we reply that the law of
parsimony bids us assume only one such, namely Him, the adorable Lord.
There can be no confidence in a non-eternal and non-omniscient being,
and hence it follows that according to the system which rejects God,
the tradition of the Veda is simultaneously overthrown; there is no
other way open.
In other words,
Nyaya says that the polytheist would have to give
elaborate proofs for the existence and origin of his several celestial
spirits, none of which would be logical, and that it is more logical
to assume one eternal, omniscient god.
Main article: Sikhism
Sikh temple, known as Nanaksar Gurudwara, in Alberta, Canada.
Ik Onkār, a
Sikh symbol representing "the One Supreme Reality"
Sikhi is a monotheistic and a revealed religion.
Sikhi is called Vāhigurū, and is shapeless, timeless, and sightless:
niraṅkār, akaal, and alakh.
God is present (sarav viāpak) in all
God must be seen from "the inward eye", or the "heart".
Sikhi devotees must meditate to progress towards enlightenment, as its
rigorous application permits the existence of communication between
God and human beings.
Sikhism is a monotheistic faith that arose in northern India
during the 16th and 17th centuries. Sikhs believe in one, timeless,
omnipresent, supreme creator. The opening verse of the Guru Granth
Sahib, known as the Mul Mantra, signifies this:
Punjabi: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ
ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ
ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥
Transliteration: ikk ōankār sat(i)-nām(u) karatā purakh(u)
nirabha'u niravair(u) akāla mūrat(i) ajūnī saibhan(g) gur(a)
One Universal creator God, The supreme Unchangeable Truth, The Creator
of the Universe, Beyond Fear, Beyond Hatred, Beyond Death, Beyond
Birth, Self-Existent, by Guru's Grace.
The word "ੴ" ("Ik ōaṅkār") has two components. The first is ੧,
the digit "1" in
Gurmukhi signifying the singularity of the creator.
Together the word means: "One Universal creator God".
It is often said that the 1430 pages of the
Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib are all
expansions on the Mul Mantra. Although the Sikhs have many names for
God, some derived from
Islam and Hinduism, they all refer to the same
Sikh holy scriptures refer to the One
God who pervades the whole
of space and is the creator of all beings in the universe. The
following quotation from the
Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib highlights this point:
"Chant, and meditate on the One God, who permeates and pervades the
many beings of the whole Universe.
God created it, and
through it everywhere. Everywhere I look, I see God. The Perfect Lord
is perfectly pervading and permeating the water, the land and the sky;
there is no place without Him."
— Guru Granth Sahib, Page 782
However, there is a strong case for arguing that the Guru Granth Sahib
teaches monism due to its non-dualistic tendencies:
Punjabi: ਸਹਸ ਪਦ ਬਿਮਲ ਨਨ ਏਕ ਪਦ ਗੰਧ
ਬਿਨੁ ਸਹਸ ਤਵ ਗੰਧ ਇਵ ਚਲਤ ਮੋਹੀ
"You have thousands of Lotus Feet, and yet You do not have even one
foot. You have no nose, but you have thousands of noses. This Play of
Yours entrances me."
— Guru Granth Sahib, Page 13
Sikhs believe that
God has been given many names, but they all refer
to the One God, VāhiGurū. Sikhs believe that members of other
religions such as Islam,
Christianity all worship the
same God, and the names Allah, Rahim, Karim, Hari, Raam and Paarbrahm
are frequently mentioned in the
Sikh holy scriptures. Although there
is no set reference to
God in Sikhism, the most commonly used Sikh
Akal Purakh (which means "the true immortal") or
Waheguru, the Primal Being.
Main article: Zoroastrianism
Faravahar (or Ferohar), one of the primary symbols of Zoroastrianism,
believed to be the depiction of a Fravashi (guardian spirit)
Zoroastrianism combines cosmogonic dualism and eschatological
monotheism which makes it unique among the religions of the world.
Zoroastrianism proclaims an evolution through time from dualism to
Zoroastrianism is a monotheistic religion, although
Zoroastrianism is often regarded as dualistic, duotheistic or
bitheistic, for its belief in the hypostatis of the ultimately good
Ahura Mazda (creative spirit) and the ultimately evil Angra Mainyu
(destructive spirit). Zorastrianism was once one of the largest
religions on Earth, as the official religion of the Persian Empire. By
some scholars,[who?] the Zoroastrians ("Parsis" or "Zartoshtis") are
credited with being some of the first monotheists and having had
influence on other world religions. Gathered statistics shows the
number of adherents at as many as 3.5 million, with adherents
living in many regions, including South Asia.
Ancient Greek religion
Ancient Greek religion
Fictionalized portrait of
Xenophanes from a 17th-century engraving
The surviving fragments of the poems of the classical Greek
Xenophanes of Colophon
Xenophanes of Colophon suggest that he held views very
similar to those of modern monotheists. His poems harshly
criticize the traditional notion of anthropomorphic gods, commenting
that "...if cattle and horses and lions had hands or could paint with
their hands and create works such as men do,... [they] also would
depict the gods' shapes and make their bodies of such a sort as the
form they themselves have." Instead,
Xenophanes declares that
there is "...one god, greatest among gods and humans, like mortals
neither in form nor in thought." Xenophanes's theology appears to
have been monist, but not truly monotheistic in the strictest
sense. Although some later philosophers, such as Antisthenes,
believed in doctrines similar to those expounded by Xenophanes, his
ideas do not appear to have become widely popular.
Plato himself was a polytheist, in his writings, he often
Socrates as speaking of "the god" in the singular form. He
does, however, often speak of the gods in the plural form as well. The
Euthyphro dilemma, for example, is formulated as "Is that which is
holy loved by the gods because it is holy, or is it holy because it is
loved by the gods?"
Main article: Hellenistic religion
The development of pure (philosophical) monotheism is a product of the
Late Antiquity. During the 2nd to 3rd centuries, early Christianity
was just one of several competing religious movements advocating
"The One" (Τὸ Ἕν) is a concept that is prominent in the writings
of the Neoplatonists, especially those of the philosopher
Plotinus. In the writings of Plotinus, "The One" is described as
an inconceivable, transcendent, all-embodying, permanent, eternal,
causative entity that permeates throughout all of existence.
Remains of the Temple of
Apollo at Delphi, Greece.
A number of oracles of
Didyma and Clarus, the so-called
"theological oracles", dated to the 2nd and 3rd century CE, proclaim
that there is only one highest god, of whom the gods of polytheistic
religions are mere manifestations or servants. 4th century CE
Cyprus had, besides Christianity, an apparently monotheistic cult of
Aristotle's concept of the "Uncaused Cause"—never incorporated into
the polytheistic ancient Greek religion—has been used by many
Abrahamic religions to justify their arguments for the
existence of the Judeo-Christian-Islamic
God of the Abrahamic
The Hypsistarians were a religious group who believed in a most high
god, according to Greek documents. Later revisions of this Hellenic
religion were adjusted towards
Monotheism as it gained consideration
among a wider populace. The worship of Zeus as the head-god signaled a
trend in the direction of monotheism, with less honour paid to the
fragmented powers of the lesser gods.
New religious movements
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July
Various New religious movements, such as Cao Đài, Tenrikyo, Seicho
no Ie, and Cheondoism, are monotheistic.
See also: Tengrism
Tengrism or Tangrism (sometimes stylized as Tengriism), occasionally
referred to as Tengrianism , is a modern term for a Central Asian
religion characterized by features of shamanism, animism, totemism,
both polytheism and monotheism, and ancestor
worship. Historically, it was the prevailing religion of the
Bulgarians, Turks, Mongols, and Hungarians, as well as the
the Huns. It was the state religion of the six ancient
Turkic states: Avar Khaganate, Old Great Bulgaria, First Bulgarian
Göktürks Khaganate, Eastern Tourkia and Western Turkic
Khaganate. In Irk Bitig, Tengri is mentioned as Türük Tängrisi (God
of Turks). The term is perceived among
Turkic peoples as a
In Sino-Tibetan and Turco-Mongol traditions, the Supreme
commonly referred to as the ruler of Heaven, or the Sky Lord granted
with omnipotent powers, but it has largely diminished in those regions
due to ancestor worship, Taoism's pantheistic views and Buddhism's
rejection of a creator God, although Mahayana
Buddhism does seem to
keep a sense of divinity. On some occasions in the mythology, the Sky
Lord as identified as a male has been associated to mate with an Earth
Mother, while some traditions kept the omnipotence of the Sky Lord
Native American religion
Native American theology may be monotheistic, polytheistic,
henotheistic, animistic, or some combination thereof.
Cherokee for example are monotheist as well as pantheist.
The Great Spirit, called
Wakan Tanka among the Sioux, and Gitche
Manitou in Algonquian, is a conception of universal spiritual force,
or supreme being prevalent among some Native American and First Nation
cultures. According to Lakota activist
Russell Means a better
Wakan Tanka is the Great Mystery.
Some researchers have interpreted
Aztec philosophy as fundamentally
monotheistic or panentheistic. While the populace at large believed in
a polytheistic pantheon, Aztec priests and nobles might have come to
an interpretation of
Teotl as a single universal force with many
facets. There has been criticism to this idea, however, most
notably that many assertions of this supposed monotheism might
actually come from post-Conquistador bias, imposing an Antiquity pagan
model unto the Aztec.
Criticism of monotheism
I am the Lord thy God
The People of Monotheism
Thou shalt have no other gods before me
Hutchinson Encyclopedia (12th edition).
^ a b c Cross, F.L.; Livingstone, E.A., eds. (1974). "Monotheism". The
Oxford Dictionary of the
Christian Church (2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford
^ William Wainwright. "Monotheism". Stanford Encyclopedia of
^ "Monotheism". Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ "monotheism". oxforddictionaries.com.
^ "Monotheism". Merriam-Webster.
^ "monotheism". Cambridge Dictionary.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online, art. "Monotheism" Accessed 23
A Modern Hindu Monotheism: Indonesian Hindus as ‘People of the
Book’. The Journal of Hindu Studies, Oxford University Press, June
McDaniel – 2013, doi:10.1093/jhs/hit030
Zoroastrian Studies: The Iranian
Religion and Various Monographs,
1928 – Page 31, A. V. Williams Jackson – 2003
Global Institutions of Religion: Ancient Movers, Modern
Shakers – Page 88, Katherine Marshall – 2013
Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia –
Page 348, James B. Minahan – 2012
Introduction To Sikhism – Page 15, Gobind Singh
Mansukhani – 1993
The Popular Encyclopedia of World Religions – Page 95, Richard
Wolff – 2007
Focus: Arrogance and Greed, America's Cancer – Page 102, Jim
Gray – 2012
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 12 January
2012, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/390101/monotheism
^ Monos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon,
^ Theos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon,
^ The compound μονοθεισμός is current only in Modern Greek.
There is a single attestation of μονόθεον in a Byzantine hymn
(Canones Junii 20.6.43; A. Acconcia Longo and G. Schirò, Analecta
hymnica graeca, vol. 11 e codicibus eruta Italiae inferioris. Rome:
Istituto di Studi Bizantini e Neoellenici. Università di Roma, 1978)
^ More, Henry (1660). An Explanation of the Grand Mystery of
Godliness. London: Flesher & Morden. p. 62.
^ Sharma, Chandradhar (1962). "Chronological Summary of History of
Indian Philosophy". Indian Philosophy: A Critical Survey. New York:
Barnes & Noble. p. vi.
^ HYMN CXC. Creation.
^ Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche
Bon By Himanshu Bhatt
^ Yasna, XLIV.7
^ "First and last for all Eternity, as the Father of the Good Mind,
the true Creator of Truth and Lord over the actions of life." (Yasna
^ "Vispanam Datarem", Creator of All (Yasna 44.7)
^ "Data Angheush", Creator of Life (Yasna 50.11)
^ Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques. "Zoroastrianism". Britannica.com.
Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
^ a b c d e f Gnuse, Robert Karl (1 May 1997). "No Other Gods:
Monotheism in Israel". Sheffield Academic Press. p. 225.
^ "Ethical monotheism". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved 25 December 2014.
^ Prager, Dennis. "Ethical Monotheism". jewishvirtuallibrary.org.
American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 25 December
^ Fischer, Paul. "
Judaism and Ethical Monotheism". platophilosophy.
The University of Vermont Blogs. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
^ Nikiprowetzky, V. (1975). Ethical monotheism. (2 ed., Vol. 104, pp.
69-89). New York: The MIT Press Article Stable. JSTOR 20024331
^ Armstrong, Karen (1994). A History of God: The 4,000-Year Quest of
Christianity and Islam. New York City, New York: Ballantine
Books. p. 3. ISBN 978-0345384560.
^ Armstrong, Karen (1994). A History of God: The 4,000-Year Quest of
Christianity and Islam. New York City, New York: Ballantine
Books. ISBN 978-0345384560.
^ Compare: Theissen, Gerd (1985). "III: Biblical
Monotheism in an
Evolutionary Perspective". Biblical Faith: An Evolutionary Approach.
Translated by Bowden, John. Minneapolis: Fortress Press (published
2007). p. 64. ISBN 9781451408614. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
Evolutionary interpretations of the history of religion are usually
understood to be an explanation of the phenomenon of religion as a
result of a continuous development. The model for such development is
the growth of living beings which leads to increasingly subtle
differentiation and integration. Within such a framework of thought,
monotheism would be interpreted as the result of a continuous
development from animism, polytheism, henotheism and monolatry to
belief in the one and only God. Such a development cannot be proved.
Monotheism appeared suddenly, though not without being prepared
^ Mohammed Amin. "Triangulating the Abrahamic faiths – measuring the
closeness of Judaism,
Christianity and Islam". Christians were seen as
polytheists, due to the doctrine of the Trinity. In the last few
hundred years, rabbis have moderated this view slightly, but they
still do not regard Christians as being fully monotheistic in the same
manner as Jews or Muslims. Muslims were acknowledged as
^ "Islamic Practices". Universal Life Church Ministries. It is the
Islamic belief that
Christianity is not monotheistic, as it claims,
but rather polytheistic with the trinity-the father, son and the Holy
International Catholic University, The One True God: "The fatherhood
Person of the Father, the sonship constitutes the
Person of the Son, and the passive spiration constitutes the
the Holy Spirit. But in
God "everything is one where there is no
distinction by relative opposition." Consequently, even though in God
there are three Persons, there is only one consciousness, one thinking
and one loving. The three Persons share equally in the internal divine
activity because they are all identified with the divine essence. For,
if each divine
Person possessed his own distinct and different
consciousness, there would be three gods, not the one
God of Christian
revelation. So you will see that in this regard there is an immense
difference between a divine
Person and a human person."
^ https://orthodoxwiki.org/Holy_Trinity ; Holy Trinity, Orthodox
Wiki: "Orthodox Christians worship the Father, Son, and Holy
Spirit—the Holy Trinity, the one God. Following the Holy Scriptures
and the Church Fathers, the Church believes that the
Trinity is three
divine persons (hypostases) who share one essence (ousia). It is
paradoxical to believe thus, but that is how
God has revealed himself.
All three persons are consubstantial with each other, that is, they
are of one essence (homoousios) and coeternal. There never was a time
when any of the persons of the
Trinity did not exist.
God is beyond
and before time and yet acts within time, moving and speaking within
^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/Trinity-Christianity ;
Britannica, Trinity: "The Council of
Nicaea in 325 stated the crucial
formula for that doctrine in its confession that the Son is “of the
same substance [homoousios] as the Father,” even though it said very
little about the Holy Spirit. Over the next half century, Athanasius
defended and refined the Nicene formula, and, by the end of the 4th
century, under the leadership of Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nyssa,
and Gregory of Nazianzus (the Cappadocian Fathers), the doctrine of
Trinity took substantially the form it has maintained ever since.
It is accepted in all of the historic confessions of Christianity,
even though the impact of the Enlightenment decreased its importance."
^ "BBC - Religion: Judaism".
^ Maimonides, 13 principles of faith, Second Principle
^ e.g., Babylonian Talmud, Megilla 7b-17a.
^ Yesode Ha-
^ a b Boteach, Shmuley (2012) . Kosher Jesus. Springfield, NJ:
Gefen Books. pp. 47ff, 111ff, 152ff,.
^ 1 Kings 18, Jeremiah 2; Othmar Keel, Christoph Uehlinger, Gods,
Goddesses, and Images of
God in Ancient Israel, Fortress Press (1998);
Mark S. Smith, The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel’s
Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts, Oxford University
^ Othmar Keel, Christoph Uehlinger, Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God
in Ancient Israel, Fortress Press (1998); Mark S. Smith, The Origins
of Biblical Monotheism: Israel’s Polytheistic Background and the
Ugaritic Texts, Oxford University Press (2001)
^ a b Albertz, Rainer (1994). A History of Israelite Religion, Volume
I: From the Beginnings to the End of the Monarchy. Westminster John
Knox. p. 61. ISBN 9780664227197.
^ a b Israel Drazin. "Ancient Jews believed in the existence of many
^ Definition of the
Fourth Lateran Council
Fourth Lateran Council quoted in Catechism of the
Catholic Church §253.
^ Ecumenical, from
Koine Greek oikoumenikos, literally meaning
worldwide the earliest extant uses of the term for a council are in
Eusebius's Life of Constantine 3.6  around 338 "σύνοδον
οἰκουμενικὴν συνεκρότει" (he convoked an
Ecumenical council), Athanasius's Ad Afros Epistola Synodica in 369
, and the Letter in 382 to
Pope Damasus I
Pope Damasus I and the Latin bishops
from the First Council of Constantinople
^ Examples of ante-Nicene statements:
Hence all the power of magic became dissolved; and every bond of
wickedness was destroyed, men's ignorance was taken away, and the old
God Himself appearing in the form of a man, for the
renewal of eternal life.
— St. Ignatius of Antioch in Letter to the Ephesians, ch.4,
shorter version, Roberts-Donaldson translation
We have also as a Physician the Lord our
Jesus the Christ the
only-begotten Son and Word, before time began, but who afterwards
became also man, of Mary the virgin. For 'the Word was made flesh.'
Being incorporeal, He was in the body; being impassible, He was in a
passable body; being immortal, He was in a mortal body; being life, He
became subject to corruption, that He might free our souls from death
and corruption, and heal them, and might restore them to health, when
they were diseased with ungodliness and wicked lusts
— St. Ignatius of Antioch in Letter to the Ephesians, ch.7,
shorter version, Roberts-Donaldson translation
The Church, though dispersed throughout the whole world, even to the
ends of the earth, has received from the apostles and their disciples
this faith: ...one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and
earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them; and in one Christ
Jesus, the Son of God, who became incarnate for our salvation; and in
the Holy Spirit, who proclaimed through the prophets the dispensations
of God, and the advents, and the birth from a virgin, and the passion,
and the resurrection from the dead, and the ascension into heaven in
the flesh of the beloved Christ Jesus, our Lord, and His manifestation
from heaven in the glory of the Father ‘to gather all things in
one,' and to raise up anew all flesh of the whole human race, in order
that to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Savior, and King,
according to the will of the invisible Father, ‘every knee should
bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the
earth, and that every tongue should confess; to him, and that He
should execute just judgment towards all...
— St. Irenaeus in Against Heresies, ch.X, v.I, Donaldson, Sir
James (1950), Ante Nicene Fathers, Volume 1: Apostolic Fathers, Justin
Martyr, Irenaeus, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.,
For, in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of
Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, they then receive the
washing with water
— Justin Martyr in First Apology, ch. LXI, Donaldson, Sir James
(1950), Ante Nicene Fathers, Volume 1: Apostolic Fathers, Justin
Martyr, Irenaeus, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company,
^ Olson, Roger E. (2002). The Trinity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
^ "Articles of Faith".
^ "Offenders for a Word".
^ Unitarians at 'Catholic Encyclopedia', ed. Kevin Knight at New
^ Gerhard Böwering,
God and his Attributes, Encyclopedia of the Quran
^ a b John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University
Press, 1998, p.22
^ John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press,
^ "Allah." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica
^ Britannica Encyclopedia, Islam, p. 3
^ F.E. Peters, Islam, p.4, Princeton University Press, 2003
^ Lawson, Todd (2011). Gnostic Apocalypse and Islam: Qur'an, Exegesis,
Messianism and the Literary Origins of the Babi Religion. London:
Routledge. ISBN 978-0415495394.
^ Tisdall, William (1911). The Sources of Islam: A Persian Treatise.
London: Morrison and Gibb LTF. pp. 46–74.
^ Rudolph, Kurt (2001). Gnosis: The Nature And History of Gnosticism.
London: T&T Clark Int'l. pp. 367–390.
^ Hoeller, Stephan A. (2002). Gnosticism: New Light on the Ancient
Tradition of Inner Knowing. Wheaton, IL, USA: Quest Books.
pp. 155–174. ISBN 978-0835608169.
^ Smith, Andrew (2008). The Gnostics: History, Tradition, Scriptures,
Influence. Watkins. ISBN 978-1905857784.
^ Smith, Andrew (2006). The Lost Sayings of Jesus: Teachings from
Ancient Christian, Jewish, Gnostic, and Islamic Sources--Annotated
& Explained. Skylight Paths Publishing.
^ Van Den Broek, Roelof (1998).
Hermeticism from Antiquity
to Modern Times. State University of New York Press.
pp. 87–108. ISBN 978-0791436110.
^ Tillman, Nagel (2000). The History of Islamic
Theology from Muhammad
to the Present. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers.
pp. 215–234. ISBN 978-1558762039.
^ "People of the Book". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved
^ See: * Accad (2003): According to Ibn Taymiya, although only some
Muslims accept the textual veracity of the entire Bible, most Muslims
will grant the veracity of most of it. * Esposito (1998,
pp. 6,12) * Esposito (2002, pp. 4–5)* Peters (2003,
p. 9) *F. Buhl; A. T. Welch. "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam
Online. * Hava Lazarus-Yafeh. "Tahrif". Encyclopaedia of Islam
^ Vincent J. Cornell, Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol 5, pp.3561-3562
^ a b Asma Barlas, Believing Women in Islam, p.96
^ Tamara Sonn (2009). "Tawḥīd". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford
Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(Subscription required (help)).
^ D. Gimaret, Tawhid, Encyclopedia of Islam
^ Ramadan (2005), p.230
^ "the Jews, the Sabians, and the Christians." Bernard Lewis, The Jews
of Islam, 1987, page 13
^ e.g. Sahih Bukhari
Hadith #628, and
Hadith #299 etc.
^ Khalil ‘ibn Ahmad (d. 786–787), who was in Basra before his
death, wrote: "The
Sabians believe they belong to the prophet Noah,
Zaboor (see also
Book of Psalms), and their religion looks
like Christianity." He also states that "they worship the angels."
^ Hatcher, John S. (2005). Unveiling the Hurí of Love. Journal of
Bahá'í Studies. 15. pp. 1–38.
^ a b Cole, Juan (1982). The Concept of Manifestation in the Bahá'í
Writings. Bahá'í Studies. monograph 9. pp. 1–38.
^ Stockman, Robert. "
Jesus Christ in the Baha'i Writings". Baha'i
Studies Review. 2 (1).
^ *Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton: Princeton
University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8.
^ a b Smith 2008, pp. 107–108
^ Hatcher, William (1985). The Bahá'í Faith. San Francisco: Harper
& Row. pp. 115–123. ISBN 0060654414.
^ Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith.
Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
^ Momen, M. (1997). A Short Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith.
Oxford, UK: One World Publications. ISBN 1-85168-209-0.
^ Hatcher 1985, p. 74
^ Smith 2008, p. 106
^ Effendi 1944, p. 139
^ Smith 2008, p. 111
^ Rosalie David, op. cit., p.125
^ "Ancient Egypt Gods: The Aten".
^ Hart, George (2005). The Routledge dictionary of Egyptian gods and
goddesses (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 39.
^ a b Homer H. Dubs, "
Theism and Naturalism in Ancient Chinese
Philosophy of East and West, Vol. 9, No. 3/4, 1959
^ *Crandall, David P. (2000). The Place of Stunted Ironwood Trees: A
Year in the Lives of the Cattle-Herding Himba of Namibia. New York:
Continuum International Publishing Group Inc. pp. 47.
^ Ikenga International Journal of African Studies. Institute of
African Studies, University of Nigeria. 1972. p. 103. Retrieved
26 July 2013.
^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D.Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to
Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford,
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Book 1, AuthorHouse,
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Hinduism By Dr Naik". Islam101.com. Retrieved
Swaminarayan bicentenary commemoration volume, 1781-1981. p. 154:
...Shri Vallabhacharya [and] Shri Swaminarayan... Both of them
designate the highest reality as Krishna, who is both the highest
avatara and also the source of other avataras. To quote R. Kaladhar
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Bhakti), the sole
Deity and only" is Krishna. New Dimensions in
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Monotheism And Modern
Chaitanya Vaishnavism". The Hare
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Mysticism in the Vaisnava-Sahajiya Cult of Bengal. University
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Cambridge University Press. p. 341. ISBN 0-521-43878-0.
Retrieved 2008-04-21. "Early Vaishnava worship focuses on three
deities who become fused together, namely Vasudeva-Krishna,
Krishna-Gopala, and Narayana, who in turn all become identified with
Vishnu. Put simply, Vasudeva-
Krishna and Krishna-Gopala were worshiped
by groups generally referred to as Bhagavatas, while
worshipped by the Pancaratra sect."
^ Gupta, Ravi M. (2007). Caitanya Vaisnava
Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami.
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Hinduism S. Rosen, 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group p.124
^ Matchett, Freda (2000). Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship
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^ "Rig Veda: A Metrically Restored Text with an Introduction and
Notes, HOS, 1994". Vedavid.org. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
^ Atharva Veda: Spiritual & Philosophical Hymns Archived October
7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Shukla Yajur Veda: The transcendental "That" Archived October 11,
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^ Tapasyananda (1991). Bhakti Schools of Vedānta. Madras: Sri
Ramakrishna Math. ISBN 81-7120-226-8.
^ For an overview of the Śatarudriya see: Kramrisch, pp. 71-74.
^ For a full translation of the complete hymn see: Sivaramamurti
^ For the Śatarudrīya as an early example of enumeration of divine
names, see: Flood (1996), p. 152.
^ Studies, Institute for Metaphysical; Inc, The Institute for
Metaphysi Studies; MM, MR Charles D. Levy; Levy, Charles D.
(2010-08-30). The Arian Christian Doctrines: The Origins of
Christianity. Metaphysical Institute. p. 161.
^ Mark Juergensmeyer, Gurinder Singh Mann (2006). The Oxford Handbook
of Global Religions. US: Oxford University Press. p. 41.
^ Ardinger, Barbara (2006). Pagan Every Day: Finding the Extraordinary
in Our Ordinary Lives. Weisfer. p. 13.
^ Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (15 November 2005). Sikhi: a very short
introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 136.
ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
^ Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions:From Ancient History to
the Present. USA: Hamlyn Publishing Group. p. 252.
Sikh Beliefs and Doctrine". ReligionFacts. Retrieved
^ "A Short Introduction to Sikhism". Multifaithcentre.org. Archived
from the original on 2009-12-21. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
Buddhism in China: A Historical Sketch", The Journal of
^ Boyce, Mary (2007). Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and
Practices. London: Routledge. pp. 19–20.
^ Catholic Encyclopedia -
Eschatology "The radical defect of the
Persian religion was its dualistic conception of deity."
^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents.com. Retrieved
^ McKirahan, Richard D. "
Xenophanes of Colophon.
Socrates. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1994. 61. Print.
^ Diels-Kranz, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker,
Xenophanes frr. 15-16.
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^ Wyller, Egil A. (1997). Henologische Perspektiven II: zu Ehren Egil
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^ Dictionary of
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^ E. Kessler, Dionysian
Monotheism in Nea Paphos, Cyprus: "two
monotheistic religions, Dionysian and Christian, existed
contemporaneously in Nea Paphos during the 4th century C.E. [...] the
particular iconography of Hermes and Dionysos in the panel of the
Epiphany of Dionysos [...] represents the culmination of a pagan
iconographic tradition in which an infant divinity is seated on the
lap of another divine figure; this pagan motif was appropriated by
early Christian artists and developed into the standardized icon of
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^ The spelling
Tengrism is found in the 1960s, e.g. Bergounioux (ed.),
Primitive and prehistoric religions, Volume 140, Hawthorn Books, 1966,
p. 80. Tengrianism is a reflection of the Russian term,
Тенгрианство. It is reported in 1996 ("so-called
Tengrianism") in Shnirelʹman (ed.), Who gets the past?: competition
for ancestors among non-Russian intellectuals in Russia, Woodrow
Wilson Center Press, 1996, ISBN 978-0-8018-5221-3, p. 31 in the
context of the nationalist rivalry over Bulgar legacy. The spellings
Tengriism and Tengrianity are later, reported (deprecatingly, in scare
quotes) in 2004 in Central Asiatic journal, vol. 48-49 (2004), p. 238.
The Turkish term Tengricilik is also found from the 1990s. Mongolian
Тэнгэр шүтлэг is used in a 1999 biography of Genghis Khan
(Boldbaatar et. al, Чингис хаан, 1162-1227, Хаадын
сан, 1999, p. 18).
^ R. Meserve, Religions in the central Asian environment. In: History
of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume IV, The age of achievement:
A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century, Part Two: The
achievements, p. 68:
"[...] The ‘imperial’ religion was more monotheistic, centred
around the all-powerful god Tengri, the sky god."
^ Michael Fergus, Janar Jandosova, Kazakhstan: Coming of Age, Stacey
International, 2003, p.91:
"[...] a profound combination of monotheism and polytheism that has
come to be known as Tengrism."
^ H. B. Paksoy, Tengri in Eurasia, 2008
^ Napil Bazylkhan, Kenje Torlanbaeva in: Central Eurasian Studies
Society, Central Eurasian Studies Society, 2004, p.40
^ "There is no doubt that between the 6th and 9th centuries Tengrism
was the religion among the nomads of the steppes" Yazar András
Hungarians and Europe in the early Middle Ages: an
introduction to early Hungarian history, Yayıncı Central European
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Hungarians & Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to
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^ Jean-Paul Roux, Die alttürkische Mythologie, p. 255
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Sioux and U.S. Colonialism from Lewis and
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^ Means, Robert. Where White Men Fear to Tread: The Autobiography of
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^ James Maffie (2005). "Aztec Philosophy". Internet Encyclopedia of
^ James Maffie, Aztec Philosophy: Understanding a World in Motion,
University Press of Colorado, 15/03/2014
Dever, William G. Who Were the Early Israelites?, Grand Rapids, MI:
Köchler, Hans. The Concept of
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God Against The Gods: The History of the War Between
Monotheism and Polytheism. Penguin Books. 2005.
Judaism as a Harbinger of Science,
Eretz Acheret Magazine
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