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Martinique
Martinique
(French pronunciation: ​[maʁtinik]) is an insular region of France
France
located in the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
in the eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, with a land area of 1,128 square kilometres (436 sq mi) and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.[2] Like Guadeloupe, it is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department. One of the Windward Islands, it is directly north of Saint Lucia, southeast of Greater Antilles, northwest of Barbados, and south of Dominica. As with the other overseas departments, Martinique
Martinique
is one of the eighteen regions of France
France
(being an overseas region) and an integral part of the République française (French Republic). As part of France, Martinique
Martinique
is part of the European Union, and its currency is the euro. The official language is French, and virtually the entire population also speaks Antillean Creole
Antillean Creole
(Créole Martiniquais).[4]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-European contact 2.2 1493–1688 2.3 Post-1688

3 Governance

3.1 Subdivisions

4 Geography

4.1 Flora and fauna

5 Economy

5.1 Tourism 5.2 Infrastructure

5.2.1 Transport 5.2.2 Communications

6 Society

6.1 Demographics 6.2 Ethnic groups 6.3 Languages 6.4 Religion

7 Culture

7.1 Cuisine 7.2 Music

8 In popular culture 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Etymology[edit] Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
landed on 15 June 1502, after a 21-day trade wind passage, his fastest ocean voyage. He spent three days there refilling his water casks, bathing and washing laundry.[5] The island was then called "Jouanacaëra-Matinino", which came from a mythical island described by the Tainos
Tainos
of Hispaniola. According to historian Sydney Daney, the island was called "Jouanacaëra" by the Caribs, which means "the island of iguanas".[citation needed] When Columbus landed on the island in 1502, he christened the island as Martinica. The name then evolved into Madinina (" Island
Island
of Flowers"), Madiana, and Matinite.[citation needed] Finally, through the influence of the neighboring island of Dominica
Dominica
(La Dominique), it came to be known as Martinique.[vague] History[edit] Main article: History of Martinique

Saint-Pierre. Before the total destruction of Saint-Pierre in 1902 by a volcanic eruption, it was the most important city of Martinique culturally and economically, being known as "the Paris
Paris
of the Caribbean".

Pre-European contact[edit] The island was occupied first by Arawaks, then by Caribs. The Carib people had migrated from the mainland to the islands about 1201 CE, according to carbon dating of artifacts. They were largely displaced, exterminated and assimilated by the Taino, who were resident on the island in the 1490s.[6] 1493–1688[edit] Martinique
Martinique
was charted by Columbus in 1493, but Spain had little interest in the territory. On 15 September 1635, Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc, French governor of the island of St. Kitts, landed in the harbor of St. Pierre with 150 French settlers after being driven off St. Kitts
St. Kitts
by the English. D'Esnambuc claimed Martinique
Martinique
for the French King Louis XIII
Louis XIII
and the French "Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique" (Company of the American Islands), and established the first European settlement at Fort Saint-Pierre (now St. Pierre). D'Esnambuc died in 1636, leaving the company and Martinique
Martinique
in the hands of his nephew, Jacques Dyel du Parquet, who in 1637, became governor of the island. In 1636, the indigenous Caribs rose against the settlers to drive them off the island in the first of many skirmishes. The French successfully repelled the natives and forced them to retreat to the eastern part of the island, on the Caravelle Peninsula in the region then known as the Capesterre. When the Carib revolted against French rule in 1658, the Governor Charles Houël du Petit Pré retaliated with war against them. Many were killed; those who survived were taken captive and expelled from the island. Some Carib had fled to Dominica or St. Vincent, where the French agreed to leave them at peace.

The attack on the French ships at Martinique
Martinique
in 1667

Because there were few Catholic
Catholic
priests in the French Antilles, many of the earliest French settlers were Huguenots
Huguenots
who sought greater religious freedom than what they could experience in mainland France. They were quite industrious and became quite prosperous. Although edicts from King Louis XIV's court regularly came to the islands to suppress the Protestant
Protestant
"heretics", these were mostly ignored by island authorities until Louis XIV's Edict of Revocation in 1685. From September 1686 to early 1688, the French crown used Martinique
Martinique
as a threat and a dumping ground for mainland Huguenots
Huguenots
who refused to reconvert to Catholicism. Over 1,000 Huguenots
Huguenots
were transported to Martinique
Martinique
during this period, usually under miserable and crowded ship conditions that caused many of them to die en route. Those that survived the trip were distributed to the island planters as Engagés (Indentured servants) under the system of serf peonage that prevailed in the French Antilles
French Antilles
at the time. As many of the planters on Martinique
Martinique
were themselves Huguenot, and who were sharing in the suffering under the harsh strictures of the Revocation, they began plotting to emigrate from Martinique
Martinique
with many of their recently arrived brethren. Many of them were encouraged by their Catholic
Catholic
brethren who looked forward to the departure of the heretics and seizing their property for themselves. By 1688, nearly all of Martinique's French Protestant
Protestant
population had escaped to the British American colonies or Protestant
Protestant
countries back home. The policy decimated the population of Martinique
Martinique
and the rest of the French Antilles
French Antilles
and set back their colonization by decades, causing the French king to relax his policies in the islands yet leaving the islands susceptible to British occupation over the next century.[7] Post-1688[edit]

Jolly Roger flag of pirate Bartholomew Roberts

Under Governor of the Antilles
Antilles
Charles de Courbon, comte de Blénac, Martinique
Martinique
served as a home port for French pirates including Captain Crapeau, Etienne de Montauban, and Mathurin Desmarestz.[8] In later years pirate Bartholomew Roberts
Bartholomew Roberts
styled his jolly roger as a black flag depicting a pirate standing on two skulls labeled "ABH" and "AMH" for "A Barbadian's Head" and "A Martinican's Head", after Governors of those two islands sent warships to capture Roberts.[9]

The Battle of Martinique
Martinique
between British and French fleets in 1779

Martinique
Martinique
was occupied several times by the British including once during the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
and twice during the Napoleonic Wars. Britain controlled the island almost continuously from 1794–1815, when it was traded back to France
France
at the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars.[10] Martinique
Martinique
has remained a French possession since then. As sugar prices declined in the early 1800s, the planter class lost political influence. In 1848, Victor Schoelcher
Victor Schoelcher
persuaded the French government to end slavery in the French West Indies.[10] On 8 May 1902, Mont Pelée
Mont Pelée
erupted and completely destroyed St. Pierre, killing 30,000 people. Due to the eruption refugees from Martinique
Martinique
arrived in boats to the southern villages of Dominica
Dominica
with some remaining permanently on the island. In Martinique
Martinique
the only survivor in the town of Saint-Pierre, Auguste Cyparis, was saved by the thick walls of his prison cell.[11] Shortly thereafter the capital shifted to Fort-de-France, where it remains today.[10] During WWII, the Vichy government controlled Martinique
Martinique
and Guadeloupe. German U-boats used Martinique
Martinique
for refueling and re-supply during the Battle of the Caribbean. In 1942, 182 ships were sunk in the Caribbean, dropping to 45 in 1943, and 5 in 1944. Free French forces took over on the island on Bastille Day, 14 July 1943, as Admiral Robert fled.[12] In 1946, the French National Assembly voted unanimously to transform the colony into an Overseas Department of France. In 1974, it became simply a Department.[10] In 2009, the French Caribbean
Caribbean
general strikes exposed deep ethnic, and class tensions and disparities within Martinique.[13] Governance[edit] Main article: Politics of Martinique Together with Guadeloupe, La Réunion, Mayotte
Mayotte
and French Guiana, Martinique
Martinique
is one of the Overseas Departments of France. It is also an outermost region of the European Union. The inhabitants of Martinique are French citizens with full political and legal rights. Martinique sends four deputies to the French National Assembly and two senators to the French Senate. January 24, 2010, during a referendum, the Inhabitants of Martinique approved in 68.4% the passage in a " unique(only) community ", within the framework of the article 73 of the Constitution, this one replaces and exercises the skills of the General Council and the regional council. Subdivisions[edit]

A map of Martinique
Martinique
showing the island's four arrondissements

Main article: Arrondissements of the Martinique
Martinique
department Further information: Communes of the Martinique department and Cantons of the Martinique
Martinique
department Martinique
Martinique
is divided into four arrondissements, 34 communes, and 45 cantons. The four arrondissements of the island, with their respective locations, are as follows:

Fort-de- France
France
is the sole prefecture of Martinique. It takes up the central zone of the island. It includes four communes and sixteen cantons. In 2013 the population was 161,021.[2] Besides the capital, it includes the communities of Saint-Joseph and Schœlcher. La Trinité is one of the three subprefectures on the island and occupies the northeast region. It has ten communes and eleven cantons. In 2013 the population was 81,475.[2] La Trinité contains the communities of La Trinité, Ajoupa-Bouillon, Basse-Pointe, Le Gros-Morne, Le Lorrain, Macouba, Le Marigot, Le Robert
Le Robert
and Sainte-Marie. Le Marin, the second subprefecture of Martinique, makes up the southern part of the island and is composed of twelve communes and thirteen cantons. In 2013 the population was 119,653.[2] The subprefecture includes the communities of La Marin, Les Anses d'Arlet, Le Diamant, Ducos, Le François, Rivière-Pilote, Rivière-Salée, Sainte-Anne, Sainte-Luce, Saint-Esprit, Les Trois-Îlets
Les Trois-Îlets
and Le Vauclin. Saint-Pierre is the third subprefecture of the island. It comprises eight communes and five cantons, lying in the northwest of Martinique. In 2013 the population was 23,402.[2] Together with Saint-Pierre, its communities include Le Carbet, Case-Pilote-Bellefontaine, Le Morne-Rouge and Le Prêcheur.

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Martinique

A map of Martinique

Part of the archipelago of the Antilles, Martinique
Martinique
is located in the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
about 450 km (280 mi) northeast of the coast of South America
South America
and about 700 km (435 mi) southeast of the Dominican Republic. It is directly north of St. Lucia, northwest of Barbados, southeast of both Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
and south of Dominica. The total area of Martinique
Martinique
is 1,100 square kilometres (420 sq mi), of which 40 square kilometres (15 sq mi) is water and the rest land. Martinique
Martinique
is the 3rd largest island in The Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
after Trinidad
Trinidad
and Guadeloupe. It stretches 70 km (43 mi) in length and 30 km (19 mi) in width. The highest point is the volcano of Mont Pelée at 1,397 metres (4,583 ft) above sea level. The island is volcanic in origin, lying along the subduction fault where the South American Plate
South American Plate
slides beneath the Caribbean
Caribbean
Plate.[14] Martinique
Martinique
has eight different centers of volcanic activity. The oldest rocks are andesitic lavas dated to about 24 million years ago, mixed with tholeiitic magma containing iron and magnesium. Mont Pelée, the island's most dramatic feature, formed about 400,000 years ago.[15] Pelée erupted in 1792, 1851, and twice in 1902.[11] The eruption of 8 May 1902, destroyed Saint-Pierre and killed 28,000 people in 2 minutes; that of 30 August 1902 caused nearly 1,100 deaths, mostly in Morne-Red and Ajoupa-Bouillon.[16] [17] The Atlantic, or "windward" coast of Martinique
Martinique
is difficult for the navigation of ships. A combination of coastal cliffs, shallow coral reefs and cays, and strong winds make the area a notoriously hazardous zone for sea traffic. The peninsula of Caravelle clearly separates the north Atlantic and south Atlantic coast. The Caribbean, or "leeward" coast of Martinique
Martinique
is much more favorable to sea traffic. In addition to being shielded from the harsh Atlantic trade winds by the island, it also descends steeply from the shore. This ensures most potential hazards are too deep underwater to be an issue and also prevents the growth of corals that could otherwise pose a threat to passing ships.

A tropical forest near Fond St-Denis

Les Salines, wide sand beach at the south eastern end of the island

The north of the island is mountainous. It features four ensembles of pitons (volcanoes) and mornes (mountains): the Piton Conil on the extreme North, which dominates the Dominica
Dominica
Channel; Mont Pelée, an active volcano; the Morne Jacob; and the Pitons du Carbet, an ensemble of five extinct volcanoes covered with rainforest and dominating the Bay of Fort de France
France
at 1,196 metres (3,924 ft). Mont Pelée's volcanic ash has created gray and black sand beaches in the north (in particular between Anse Ceron and Anse des Gallets), contrasting markedly from the white sands of Les Salines in the south. The south is more easily traversed, though it still features some impressive geographic features. Because it is easier to travel and because of the many beaches and food facilities throughout this region, the south receives the bulk of the tourist traffic. The beaches from Pointe de Bout, through Diamant (which features right off the coast of Roche de Diamant), St. Luce, the department of St. Anne and down to Les Salines are popular. Flora and fauna[edit] The northern end of the island catches most of the rainfall and is heavily forested, featuring species such as bamboo, mahogany, rosewood and locust. The south is drier and dominated by savanna-like brush, including cacti, Copaiba balsam, logwood and acacia. Anole
Anole
lizards and fer-de-lance snakes are native to the island. Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus), introduced in the 1800s to control the snake population, have become a particularly cumbersome introduced species[18] as they prey upon bird eggs and have exterminated or endangered a number of native birds, including the Martinique
Martinique
trembler, white-breasted trembler and white-breasted thrasher.[10] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Martinique In 2003, Martinique
Martinique
had a total GDP
GDP
of 5.496 billion euros. In 2000 its per capita GDP
GDP
was 14,283 euros. In that year services constituted 82.2% of GDP, while industry represented 8.6% and agriculture 3.5%. In 2002, the island exported 26 million euros-worth of goods, primarily fruit, beverages and refined petroleum products. It imported 486 million euros-worth of goods, including vehicles, furniture, medicine and raw petroleum (used in the island's refinery).[19] Historically, Martinique's economy relied on agriculture, but by the beginning of the 21st century this sector had dwindled considerably. Sugar
Sugar
production has declined, with most of the sugarcane now used for the production of rum. Banana exports are increasing, going mostly to mainland France. The bulk of meat, vegetable and grain requirements must be imported. This contributes to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from mainland France. All goods entering Martinique
Martinique
are charged a variable "sea toll" which may reach 30% of the value of the cargo and provides 40% of the island's total revenue. Additionally the government charges an "annual due" of 1–2.5% and a value added tax of 2.2–8.5%.[19] Tourism[edit] Tourism has become more important than agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange. In 2000, the island hosted 500,000 tourists, and the tourism industry employed 7% of the total workforce. Roughly 16% of the total businesses on the island (some 6,000 companies) provide tourist-related services.[19] Infrastructure[edit] Main articles: Transportation in Martinique
Transportation in Martinique
and Communications in Martinique Transport[edit] Martinique's main and only airport with commercial flights is Martinique
Martinique
Aimé Césaire
Aimé Césaire
International Airport. It serves flights to and from Europe, the Caribbean, Venezuela, the United States, and Canada.[11] See List of airports in Martinique. Fort-de- France
France
is the major harbor. The island has regular ferry service to Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Les Saintes
Les Saintes
and Marie Galante.[10][11] There are also several local ferry companies that connect Fort-de- France
France
with Pointe du Bout.[10] The road network is extensive and well-maintained, with freeways in the area around Fort-de-France. Buses run frequently between the capital and St. Pierre.[10] Communications[edit] The country code top-level domain for Martinique
Martinique
is .mq, but .fr is often used instead. The country code for international dialling is 596. The entire island uses a single area code (also 596) for landline phones and 696 for cell phones. (596 would be dialled twice if calling a Martinique
Martinique
landline from another country.)[20] Society[edit] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Martinique Martinique
Martinique
had a population of 385,551 as of January 2013.[2] There are an estimated 260,000 people of Martinican origin living in mainland France, most of them in the Paris
Paris
region. Emigration was highest in the 1970s, causing population growth to almost stop, but it is comparatively light today.

Historical population

1700 estimate 1738 estimate 1848 estimate 1869 estimate 1873 estimate 1878 estimate 1883 estimate 1888 estimate 1893 estimate 1900 estimate

24,000 74,000 120,400 152,925 157,805 162,861 167,119 175,863 189,599 203,781

1954 census 1961 census 1967 census 1974 census 1982 census 1990 census 1999 census 2006 census 2011 census 2013 census

239,130 292,062 320,030 324,832 328,566 359,572 381,325 397,732 392,291 385,551

Official figures from past censuses and INSEE estimates

Ethnic groups[edit] The population of Martinique
Martinique
is mainly of African descent, but also includes people whose ancestry is French, Amerindian (Carib), Indo-Martiniquais (descendants of 19th century immigrants from India), Lebanese or Chinese. Martinique
Martinique
also has a small Syro-Lebanese community, a small but increasing Chinese community, and the Béké community, descendants of the first French and Spanish settlers, who still dominate parts of the agricultural and trade sectors of the economy. Whites in total represent 5% of the population.[21] The Béké population (which totals around 1% of Martinique's population,[22] most of them being of aristocratic origin by birth or after buying the title) generally live in mansions on the Atlantic coast of the island (mostly in the François – Cap Est district). In addition to the island population, the island hosts a metropolitan French community, most of which lives on the island on a temporary basis (generally from 3 to 5 years). Languages[edit] The official language is French, which is spoken by virtually the entire population. In addition, most residents can also speak Martiniquan Creole, a form of Antillean Creole
Antillean Creole
closely related to the varieties spoken in neighboring English-speaking islands of Saint Lucia and Dominica. Martiniquan Creole is based on French, Carib and African languages with elements of English, Spanish, and Portuguese. It continues to be used in oral storytelling traditions and other forms of speech and to a lesser extent in writing. Use of Creole is predominant among friends and close family. Though it is normally not used in professional situations, members of the media and politicians have begun to use it more frequently as a way to redeem national identity and prevent cultural assimilation by mainland France. Indeed, unlike other varieties of French creole such as Mauritian Creole, Martinican Creole is not readily understood by speakers of Standard French due to significant differences in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and pronunciation, though over the years it has progressively adapted features of Standard French. Religion[edit] An estimated 90% of residents are Roman Catholic; 5% are Hindu and another 5% practice other faiths, including Protestantism, African belief systems, Judaism, or are non-religious. Culture[edit]

Martinique
Martinique
dancers in traditional dress

Main article: Culture of Martinique As an overseas département of France, Martinique's culture blends French and Caribbean
Caribbean
influences. The city of Saint-Pierre (destroyed by a volcanic eruption of Mount Pelée), was often referred to as the " Paris
Paris
of the Lesser Antilles". Following traditional French custom, many businesses close at midday to allow a lengthy lunch, then reopen later in the afternoon. Today, Martinique
Martinique
has a higher standard of living than most other Caribbean
Caribbean
countries. French products are easily available, from Chanel fashions to Limoges porcelain. Studying in the métropole (mainland France, especially Paris) is common for young adults. Martinique
Martinique
has been a vacation hotspot for many years, attracting both upper-class French and more budget-conscious travelers. Cuisine[edit] Martinique
Martinique
has a hybrid cuisine, mixing elements of African, French, Carib Amerindian and South Asian traditions. One of its most famous dishes is the Colombo (compare Tamil word kuzhambu for gravy or broth), a unique curry of chicken (curry chicken), meat or fish with vegetables, spiced with a distinctive masala of Tamil origins, sparked with tamarind, and often containing wine, coconut milk, cassava and rum. A strong tradition of Martiniquan desserts and cakes incorporate pineapple, rum, and a wide range of local ingredients. Music[edit] See also: Music of Martinique Martinique
Martinique
has a large popular music industry, which gained in international renown after the success of zouk music in the later 20th century. Zouk's popularity was particularly intense in France, where the genre became an important symbol of identity for Martinique
Martinique
and Guadeloupe.[23] Zouk's origins are in the folk music of Martinique
Martinique
and Guadeloupe, especially Martinican chouval bwa, and Guadeloupan gwo ka. There's also notable influence of the pan- Caribbean
Caribbean
calypso tradition and Haitian kompa. In popular culture[edit]

Les Anses d'Arlet

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In 1887, the artist Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
lived in Martinique. Gauguin painted the tropical landscape and the native women. The Paul Gauguin Interpretation Centre (former Gauguin Museum) is dedicated to his stay on the island. Martinique
Martinique
is the main setting of the 1944 film To Have and Have Not starring Humphrey Bogart
Humphrey Bogart
and Lauren Bacall. Mexican writer Caridad Bravo Adams wrote Corazon Salvaje (published in 1957), which was set in Martinique. Martinique
Martinique
was featured in the 1999 remake of The Thomas Crown Affair, and in the movie Sugar
Sugar
Cane Alley (1983). Much of the 1979 Italian thriller Concorde Affaire '79
Concorde Affaire '79
took place on and around the island. In Assassin's Creed III, Benjamin Church was trying to escape from Boston
Boston
to get away from Haytham Kenway and Ratonhnhaké: ton until they caught him in Martinique. Martinique
Martinique
is the main setting of Patrick Chamoiseau's novel Solibo Magnificent. Martinique
Martinique
is referenced frequently in Jean Rhys' novel Wide Sargasso Sea (1966) as the previous home of the protagonist's mother and caretaker. Aimé Césaire's seminal poem, Cahier d'un retour au pays natal (Notebook of a Return to the Native Land), envisions the poet's imagined journey back to his homeland Martinique
Martinique
to find it in a state of colossal poverty and psychological inferiority due to the French colonial presence. Lafcadio Hearn
Lafcadio Hearn
in 1890 published an extraordinary travel book titled Two Years in the French West Indies, in which Martinique
Martinique
[Martinique Sketches] is its main topic; his descriptions of the island, people and history are lively observations of life before the Mont Pelèe eruption in 1902 that would change the island forever. The Library of America republished his works in 2009 entitled Hearn: American Writings. The Island: Martinique
Martinique
by John Edgar Wideman
John Edgar Wideman
is a travel memoir of a black man visiting "a place built on slavery" and a "deeply personal journal of his romance with a Frenchwoman" (2003, National Geographic Society). Alya Césaire from Miraculous Ladybug
Miraculous Ladybug
is from Martinique. Martinique
Martinique
Island
Island
by Rex Bestle. Based on the volcanic eruption of Mount Pelee on May 8, 1902, killing 30,000 people and destroying the town of St. Pierre. Martinique
Martinique
on the Gulf is a small beach house resort in Gulf Shores, Alabama. Its architecture reflects that of the islands. Carolly Erickson's 2007 romance novel, The Secret Life of Josephine: Napoleon's Bird of Paradise takes place in 18th century Martinique
Martinique
and France.

See also[edit]

2009 French Caribbean
Caribbean
general strikes Bibliography of Martinique Index of Martinique-related articles Le Tour de Yoles Rondes de Martinique List of colonial and departmental heads of Martinique Regional Council of Martinique

References[edit]

^ "Mot du Président de l'Exécutif".  ^ a b c d e f g INSEE. "Recensement de la population en Martinique
Martinique
– 385 551 habitants au 1er janvier 2013" (in French). Retrieved 21 May 2016.  ^ INSEE, Produits intérieurs bruts régionaux et valeurs ajoutées régionales de 1990 à 2012, retrieved 4 March 2014  ^ Baker, Colin; Jones, Sylvia Prys (1998), Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education, p. 390, ISBN 1853593621  ^ Morison, Samuel (1942). Admiral of the Ocean Sea. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 588–589. ISBN 9780316584784.  ^ Sweeney, James L. (March 2004), "Caribs, Maroons, Jacobins, Brigands, and Sugar
Sugar
Barons: The Last Stand of the Black Caribs on St. Vincent" (PDF), African Diaspora Archaeology Network, retrieved 26 April 2004 [permanent dead link] ^ History of the Huguenot Migration to America, pp. 205–107  ^ Gasser, Jacques (1992–1993). "De la mer des Antilles
Antilles
à l'océan Indien (From the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
to the Indian Ocean)". Bulletin du Cercle généalogique de Bourbon (Bulletin of the Bourbon Genealogical Circle). 38-41. Retrieved 31 August 2017.  French language original, as reprinted in Le Diable Volant : Une histoire de la flibuste : de la mer des Antilles
Antilles
à l'océan Indien (1688-1700) / ('The Flying Devil : A History of the Filibusters : From the Antilles
Antilles
to the Indian Ocean (1688-1700)'). ^ Little, Benerson (2016). The Golden Age of Piracy: The Truth Behind Pirate Myths. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. ISBN 9781510713048. Retrieved 15 September 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h Ver Berkmoes, Ryan; et al. (2008), Caribbean
Caribbean
Islands (print)format= requires url= (help) (5th ed.), Lonely Planet  ^ a b c d Baker, Christopher; et al. (2009), Caribbean
Caribbean
(print)format= requires url= (help) (1st ed.), Eyewitness Travel  ^ Hubbard, Vincent (2002). A History of St. Kitts. Macmillan Caribbean. pp. 136–139. ISBN 9780333747605.  ^ "Race, class fuel social conflict on French Caribbean
Caribbean
islands", Agence France-Presse
Agence France-Presse
(AFP), retrieved 17 February 2009 [dead link] ^ Atlas of the World (10th ed.). National Geographic. p. 6.  ^ Explore Volcanoes: Mount Pelée, Martinique
Martinique
(web), Maple Creative, c. 2010  ^ Scarth, Alwyn (2002), La Catastrophe (print)format= requires url= (help), Oxford  ^ Notes, Nature (print)format= requires url= (help), 66 (1714), 1902  ^ Global Invasive Species Database:Martinique  ^ a b c Informations Economie Martinique, archived from the original on 28 May 2007, retrieved 15 September 2013  ^ Martinique
Martinique
Telephones, IIWINC, 2013, retrieved 23 April 2013  ^ Martinique: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA ^ Béatrice Gurrey et Benoît Hopquin (28 February 2009), "Békés : Une affaire d'héritage", Le Monde (in French)  ^ Ledesma and Scaramuzzo, pp. 289–303

External links[edit]

Government

Martinique : the island of flowers – Official French website (in English) Prefecture Région Martinique
Martinique
– Official site Regional Council of Martinique
Regional Council of Martinique
– Official site

General information

Martinique
Martinique
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Wikimedia Atlas of Martinique

Travel

One Girl One World Guide to Martinique
Martinique
– Travel Blog about Martinique Martinique
Martinique
Tourism Authority – Official site Zananas Martinique
Martinique
– Informations site Martinique
Martinique
travel guide from Wikivoyage

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Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean

Bassas da India3 Europa Island3 Glorioso Islands2, 3 Juan de Nova Island3 Tromelin Island4

1 Also known as overseas regions 2 Claimed by Comoros 3 Claimed by Madagascar 4 Claimed by Mauritius

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Outermost regions of European Union
European Union
states

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands

France

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion Saint-Martin

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Countries and dependencies of North America

Sovereign states

Entire

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama St. Kitts
St. Kitts
and Nevis Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago United States

In part

Colombia

San Andrés and Providencia

France

Guadeloupe Martinique

Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Dependencies

Denmark

Greenland

France

Clipperton Island St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon

Netherlands

Aruba Curaçao Sint Maarten

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Montserrat Turks and Caicos Islands

United States

Navassa Island Puerto Rico United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Venezuela

Federal Dependencies Nueva Esparta

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La Francophonie

Membership

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Belgium

French Community

Benin Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada

New Brunswick Quebec

Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Cyprus1 Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Dominica Egypt Equatorial Guinea France

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique St. Pierre and Miquelon

Gabon Ghana1 Greece Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Ivory Coast Laos Luxembourg Lebanon Macedonia2 Madagascar Mali Mauritania Mauritius Moldova Monaco Morocco Niger Qatar Romania Rwanda St. Lucia São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Switzerland Togo Tunisia Vanuatu Vietnam

Observers

Argentina Austria Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Czech Republic Dominican Republic Georgia Hungary Kosovo Latvia Lithuania Montenegro Mozambique Ontario Poland Serbia Slovakia Slovenia South Korea Thailand Ukraine United Arab Emirates Uruguay

1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

Organization

Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique Agence universitaire de la Francophonie

Secretaries-General

Boutros Boutros-Ghali Abdou Diouf Michaëlle Jean

Culture

French language UN French Language Day International Francophonie Day Jeux de la Francophonie Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie Senghor University AFFOI TV5Monde LGBT rights

Category

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Administrative regions of France

Current administrative regions (since 2016)

Metropolitan regions

Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Brittany Centre-Val de Loire Corsica Grand Est Hauts-de-France Île-de-France Normandy Nouvelle-Aquitaine Occitanie Pays de la Loire Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Overseas regions

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion

Former administrative regions (1982–2015)

Metropolitan regions

Alsace Aquitaine Auvergne Burgundy Brittany Centre-Val de Loire Champagne-Ardenne Corsica Franche-Comté Île-de-France Languedoc-Roussillon Limousin Lorraine Midi-Pyrénées Nord-Pas-de-Calais Lower Normandy Upper Normandy Pays de la Loire Picardy Poitou-Charentes Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Rhône-Alpes

Overseas regions

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion

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Departments of France

01 Ain 02 Aisne 03 Allier 04 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence 05 Hautes-Alpes 06 Alpes-Maritimes 07 Ardèche 08 Ardennes 09 Ariège 10 Aube 11 Aude 12 Aveyron 13 Bouches-du-Rhône 14 Calvados 15 Cantal 16 Charente 17 Charente-Maritime 18 Cher 19 Corrèze 2A Corse-du-Sud 2B Haute-Corse 21 Côte-d'Or 22 Côtes-d'Armor 23 Creuse 24 Dordogne 25 Doubs 26 Drôme 27 Eure 28 Eure-et-Loir 29 Finistère 30 Gard 31 Haute-Garonne 32 Gers 33 Gironde 34 Hérault 35 Ille-et-Vilaine 36 Indre 37 Indre-et-Loire 38 Isère 39 Jura 40 Landes 41 Loir-et-Cher 42 Loire 43 Haute-Loire 44 Loire-Atlantique 45 Loiret 46 Lot 47 Lot-et-Garonne 48 Lozère 49 Maine-et-Loire 50 Manche 51 Marne 52 Haute-Marne 53 Mayenne 54 Meurthe-et-Moselle 55 Meuse 56 Morbihan 57 Moselle 58 Nièvre 59 Nord 60 Oise 61 Orne 62 Pas-de-Calais 63 Puy-de-Dôme 64 Pyrénées-Atlantiques 65 Hautes-Pyrénées 66 Pyrénées-Orientales 67 Bas-Rhin 68 Haut-Rhin 69D Rhône 70 Haute-Saône 71 Saône-et-Loire 72 Sarthe 73 Savoie 74 Haute-Savoie 75 Paris 76 Seine-Maritime 77 Seine-et-Marne 78 Yvelines 79 Deux-Sèvres 80 Somme 81 Tarn 82 Tarn-et-Garonne 83 Var 84 Vaucluse 85 Vendée 86 Vienne 87 Haute-Vienne 88 Vosges 89 Yonne 90 Territoire de Belfort 91 Essonne 92 Hauts-de-Seine 93 Seine-Saint-Denis 94 Val-de-Marne 95 Val-d'Oise

Overseas departments 971 Guadeloupe 972 Martinique 973 French Guiana 974 Réunion 976 Mayotte

Metropolis with territorial collectivity statute 69M Lyon

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Outlying territories of European countries

Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe
Europe
(see inclusion criteria for further information).

Denmark

Greenland

France

Clipperton Island French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Adélie Land Crozet Islands Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Kerguelen Islands Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean

Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte New Caledonia Réunion Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Lampedusa Lampione Linosa

Netherlands

Aruba Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Curaçao Sint Maarten

Norway

Bouvet Island Peter I Island Queen Maud Land

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía

Chafarinas Islands Alhucemas Islands Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Coordinates: 14°40′N 61°00′W / 14.667°N 61.000°W / 14.667; -61.000

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 135646462 GND: 40377

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