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Madeira
Madeira
(/məˈdɪərə, -ˈdɛərə/ mə-DEER-ə, -DAIR-ə; Portuguese: [mɐˈðejɾɐ, -ˈðɐj-]) is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal. Its total population was estimated in 2011 at 267,785. The capital of Madeira
Madeira
is Funchal, located on the main island's south coast. The archipelago is just under 400 kilometres (250 mi) north of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Since 1976, the archipelago has been one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal
Portugal
(the other being the Azores, located to the northwest). It includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, and the Desertas, administered together with the separate archipelago of the Savage Islands. The region has political and administrative autonomy through the Administrative Political Statue of the Autonomous Region
Autonomous Region
of Madeira
Madeira
provided for in the Portuguese Constitution. The autonomous region is an integral part of the European Union, having pronounced status as an outermost region of the European Union, as detailed in Article 299-2 of the Treaty of the European Union.[6] Madeira
Madeira
was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
in 1419 and settled after 1420. The archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Portuguese Age of Discovery, which extended from 1415 to 1542. Today, it is a popular year-round resort, being visited every year by about one million tourists,[7] three times its population. The region is noted for its Madeira
Madeira
wine, gastronomy, historical and cultural value, flora and fauna, landscapes (Laurel forest) which are classified as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, and embroidery artisans. Its annual New Year celebrations feature the largest fireworks show in the world, as officially recognised by Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records
in 2006.[8][9] The main harbour in Funchal
Funchal
is the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings,[10] being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe, the Caribbean
Caribbean
and North Africa. In addition, the International Business Centre of Madeira
Madeira
also known as the Madeira
Madeira
Free Trade Zone, was created formally in the 1980s as a tool of regional economic policy. It consists of a set of incentives, mainly tax-related, granted with the objective of attracting foreign direct investment based on international services into Madeira.[11]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Exploration 1.2 Legend 1.3 Discovery 1.4 Settlement 1.5 World War I 1.6 Autonomy and modern history

2 Geography

2.1 Islands and islets

2.1.1 Madeira
Madeira
Island

3 Climate 4 Flora
Flora
and fauna

4.1 Native flora gallery 4.2 Native birds gallery 4.3 Madeiran wall lizard

5 Levadas 6 Governance

6.1 Funchal

7 Population

7.1 Demographics 7.2 Diaspora 7.3 Immigration

8 Economy

8.1 Free Trade Zone and Public Administration 8.2 Tourism

8.2.1 Whale watching

9 Renewable energy 10 Transport 11 Culture

11.1 Music 11.2 Cuisine 11.3 Beverages

12 Sports 13 Sister provinces 14 Postage stamps 15 Notable people 16 See also 17 References

17.1 Notes 17.2 Bibliography

18 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Madeira Exploration[edit] Plutarch
Plutarch
in his Parallel Lives
Parallel Lives
(Sertorius, 75 AD) referring to the military commander Quintus Sertorius
Quintus Sertorius
(d. 72 BC), relates that after his return to Cádiz, he met sailors who spoke of idyllic Atlantic islands: "The islands are said to be two in number separated by a very narrow strait and lie 10,000 furlongs (2,011.68 km) from Africa. They are called the Isles of the Blessed...".[12] Archeological evidence suggests that the islands may have been visited by the Vikings sometime between 900 and 1030.[13] Legend[edit] During the reign of King Edward III of England, lovers Robert Machim and Anna d'Arfet were said to flee from England to France in 1346. They were driven off their course by a violent storm and their ship went aground along the coast of an island that may have been Madeira. Later this legend was the basis of the naming of the city of Machico, in memory of the young lovers.[14] Discovery[edit] Knowledge of some Atlantic islands, such as Madeira, existed before their formal discovery and settlement, as the islands were shown on maps as early as 1339.[15]

Statue of João Gonçalves Zarco

In 1418, two captains under service to Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco
João Gonçalves Zarco
and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven off course by a storm to an island which they named Porto Santo
Porto Santo
(English: holy harbour) in gratitude for divine deliverance from a shipwreck. The following year, an organised expedition, under the captaincy of Zarco, Vaz Teixeira, and Bartolomeu Perestrello, traveled to the island to claim it on behalf of the Portuguese Crown. Subsequently, the new settlers observed "a heavy black cloud suspended to the southwest."[16] Their investigation revealed it to be the larger island they called Madeira.[17] Settlement[edit]

Cathedral of Funchal
Funchal
with its tower of 15th-century Gothic style in the background

The first Portuguese settlers began colonizing the islands around 1420 or 1425.[18] Grain production began to fall and the ensuing crisis forced Henry the Navigator to order other commercial crops to be planted so that the islands could be profitable.[citation needed] These specialised plants, and their associated industrial technology, created one of the major revolutions on the islands and fuelled Portuguese industry. Following the introduction of the first water-driven sugar mill on Madeira, sugar production increased to over 6,000 arrobas (an arroba was equal to 11 to 12 kilograms) by 1455,[19] using advisers from Sicily
Sicily
and financed by Genoese capital. (Genoa acted as an integral part of the island economy until the 17th century.) The accessibility of Madeira
Madeira
attracted Genoese and Flemish traders, who were keen to bypass Venetian monopolies.

"By 1480 Antwerp
Antwerp
had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira
Madeira
sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. By the 1490s Madeira
Madeira
had overtaken Cyprus
Cyprus
as a producer of sugar."[20]

Sugarcane production was the primary engine of the island's economy, increasing the demand for labour. African slaves were used during portions of the island's history to cultivate sugar cane, and the proportion of imported slaves reached 10% of the total population of Madeira
Madeira
by the 16th century.[21] Barbary corsairs
Barbary corsairs
from North Africa, who enslaved Europeans from ships and coastal communities throughout the Mediterranean region, captured 1,200 people in Porto Santo
Porto Santo
in 1617.[22][23] After the 17th century, as Portuguese sugar production was shifted to Brazil, São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
and elsewhere, Madeira's most important commodity product became its wine.[citation needed] The British first amicably occupied the island in 1801 whereafter Colonel William Henry Clinton
William Henry Clinton
became governor.[24] A detachment of the 85th Regiment of Foot
85th Regiment of Foot
under Lieutenant-colonel James Willoughby Gordon garrisoned the island.[25] After the Peace of Amiens, British troops withdrew in 1802, only to reoccupy Madeira
Madeira
in 1807 until the end of the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
in 1814.[26] World War I[edit] On 31 December 1916, during the Great War, a German U-boat, SM U-38, captained by Max Valentiner, entered Funchal
Funchal
harbour on Madeira. U-38 torpedoed and sank three ships, bringing the war to Portugal
Portugal
by extension. The ships sunk were:

CS Dacia (1,856 tons), a British cable-laying vessel.[27] Dacia had previously undertaken war work off the coast of Casablanca
Casablanca
and Dakar. It was in the process of diverting the German South American cable into Brest, France.[28] SS Kanguroo
SS Kanguroo
(2,493 tons), a French specialized "heavy-lift" transport.[29] Surprise (680 tons), a French gunboat. Her commander and 34 crewmen (including 7 Portuguese) were killed.[30]

After attacking the ships, U-38 bombarded Funchal
Funchal
for two hours from a range of about 2 miles (3 km). Batteries on Madeira
Madeira
returned fire and eventually forced U-38 to withdraw.[31] On 12 December 1917, two German U-boats, SM U-156 and SM U-157 (captained by Max Valentiner), again bombarded Funchal.[32] This time the attack lasted around 30 minutes. The U-boats fired 40 4.7-and-5.9-inch (120 and 150 mm) shells. There were three fatalities and 17 wounded; a number of houses and Santa Clara church were hit.[citation needed] Charles I (Karl I), the last Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, went to Madeira
Madeira
after the war. Determined to prevent an attempt to restore Charles to the throne, the Council of Allied Powers agreed he could go into exile on Madeira
Madeira
because it was isolated in the Atlantic and easily guarded.[33] He died there on 1 April 1922 and his coffin lies in a chapel of the church in Monte. Autonomy and modern history[edit] On 1 July 1976, following the democratic revolution of 1974, Portugal granted political autonomy to Madeira, celebrated on Madeira
Madeira
Day. The region now has its own government and legislative assembly. On 20 February 2010 at least 42 people died[34] and 100 were injured[35] by an extreme weather event that affected the Island.

NASA satellite image of wildfires on the island of Madeira
Madeira
from 19 July 2012

Drought conditions, coupled with hot and windy weather in summer, have caused numerous wildfires in recent years. The largest of the fires in August 2010 burned through 95 percent of the Funchal
Funchal
Ecological Park, a 1,000-hectare preserve set aside to restore native vegetation to the island.[36][37] In July 2012 Madeira
Madeira
was suffering again from severe drought. Wildfires broke out on 18 July, in the midst of temperatures up to 40 °C (more than 100 °F) and high winds. By 20 July, fires had spread to the nearby island of Porto Santo, and firefighters were sent from mainland Portugal
Portugal
to contain the multiple blazes.[38][39][40][41] In October 2012, it was reported that there was a dengue fever epidemic on the island.[42][43] There was a total of 2,168 cases reported of dengue fever since the start in October 2012. The number of cases was on the decline since mid November 2012 and by 4 February 2013, no new cases had been reported.[44] In August 2013, a hospital and some private homes were evacuated as a wildfire approached Funchal. A number of homes were destroyed when the fire hit Monte, a suburb of Funchal.[45][46] In August 2016, wildfires caused over 1,000 people to be evacuated, and led to the death of three people - all of which are said to have been elderly and destroying 150 homes.[47][48][49] The wildfires threatened the capital of Madeira
Madeira
- Funchal
Funchal
- specifically, however other administrative regions of Madeira
Madeira
were also threatened by separate wildfires - e.g. Calheta. In August 2017, a falling tree killed at least 13 people and injured 49 at a religious ceremony. People had gathered outside the Church of Our Lady of Monte in Monte, to celebrate the Roman Catholic Feast of the Assumption, which takes place on Tuesday and is a public holiday. The Lady of the Mount festival is the island's biggest.[50] Geography[edit]

Distribution of the islands of the archipelago (not including the Savage Islands)

Sights from Bica da Cana showing Madeira's high orography

The archipelago of Madeira
Madeira
is located 520 km (280 nmi) from the African coast and 1,000 km (540 nmi) from the European continent (approximately a one-and-a-half hour flight from the Portuguese capital of Lisbon).[51] It is found in the extreme south of the Tore- Madeira
Madeira
Ridge, a bathymetric structure of great dimensions oriented along a north-northeast to south-southwest axis that extends for 1,000 kilometres (540 nmi). This submarine structure consists of long geomorphological relief that extends from the abyssal plain to 3500 metres; its highest submersed point is at a depth of about 150 metres (around latitude 36ºN). The origins of the Tore- Madeira
Madeira
Ridge are not clearly established, but may have resulted from a morphological buckling of the lithosphere.[52][53] Islands and islets[edit] Madeira
Madeira
(740.7 km²), including Ilhéu de Agostinho, Ilhéu de São Lourenço, Ilhéu Mole (northwest); Total population: 262,456 (2011 Census). Porto Santo
Porto Santo
(42.5 km²), including Ilhéu de Baixo ou da Cal, Ilhéu de Ferro, Ilhéu das Cenouras, Ilhéu de Fora, Ilhéu de Cima; Total population: 5483 (2011 Census). Desertas Islands
Desertas Islands
(14.2 km²), including the three uninhabited islands: Deserta Grande Island, Bugio Island
Bugio Island
and Ilhéu de Chão; Savage Islands
Savage Islands
(3.6 km²), archipelago 280 km south-southeast of Madeira Island
Madeira Island
including three main islands and 16 uninhabited islets in two groups: the Northwest Group (Selvagem Grande Island, Ilhéu de Palheiro da Terra, Ilhéu de Palheiro do Mar) and the Southeast Group (Selvagem Pequena Island, Ilhéu Grande, Ilhéu Sul, Ilhéu Pequeno, Ilhéu Fora, Ilhéu Alto, Ilhéu Comprido, Ilhéu Redondo, Ilhéu Norte). Madeira
Madeira
Island[edit] Main article: Madeira
Madeira
Island

Detailed, true-colour image of Madeira. The image shows that deep green forest Laurissilva
Laurissilva
survives intact on the steep northern slopes of the island, but in the south, where terrain is gentler, the terracotta colour of towns and the light green colour of agriculture are more dominant

The island of Madeira
Madeira
is at the top of a massive shield volcano that rises about 6 km (20,000 ft) from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, on the Tore underwater mountain range. The volcano formed atop an east-west rift[54][55] in the oceanic crust along the African Plate, beginning during the Miocene
Miocene
epoch over 5 million years ago, continuing into the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
until about 700,000 years ago.[56] This was followed by extensive erosion, producing two large amphitheatres open to south in the central part of the island. Volcanic activity later resumed, producing scoria cones and lava flows atop the older eroded shield. The most recent volcanic eruptions were on the west-central part of the island only 6,500 years ago, creating more cinder cones and lava flows.[56] It is the largest island of the group with an area of 741 km2 (286 sq mi), a length of 57 km (35 mi) (from Ponte de São Lourenço to Ponte do Pargo), while approximately 22 km (14 mi) at its widest point (from Ponte da Cruz to Ponte São Jorge), with a coastline of 150 km (90 mi). It has a mountain ridge that extends along the centre of the island, reaching 1,862 metres (6,109 feet) at its highest point (Pico Ruivo), while much lower (below 200 metres) along its eastern extent. The primitive volcanic foci responsible for the central mountainous area, consisted of the peaks: Ruivo (1,862 m), Torres (1,851 m), Arieiro (1,818 m), Cidrão (1,802 m), Cedro (1,759 m), Casado (1,725 m), Grande (1,657 m), Ferreiro (1,582 m). At the end of this eruptive phase, an island circled by reefs was formed, its marine vestiges are evident in a calcareous layer in the area of Lameiros, in São Vicente (which was later explored for calcium oxide production). Sea cliffs, such as Cabo Girão, valleys and ravines extend from this central spine, making the interior generally inaccessible.[57] Daily life is concentrated in the many villages at the mouths of the ravines, through which the heavy rains of autumn and winter usually travel to the sea.[58] Climate[edit] Madeira
Madeira
has been classified as a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Köppen climate classification: Csa/Csb).[59] Based on differences in sun exposure, humidity, and annual mean temperature, there are clear variations between north- and south-facing regions, as well as between some islands. The islands are strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream and Canary Current, giving mild year-round temperatures; according to the Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the average annual temperature at Funchal
Funchal
weather station is 19.6 °C (67.3 °F) for the 1980–2010 period. Porto Santo
Porto Santo
has at least one weather station with a semiarid climate (BSh). On the highest windward slopes of Madeira, rainfall exceeds 1,250 mm (50 inches) per year, mostly falling between October and April. In most winters snowfall occurs in the mountains of Madeira.

View from Pico do Arieiro

Lava pools[60] in Porto Moniz

Porto Santo's lack of higher mountains results in a paradoxical landscape when comparing it with its sister island Madeira

The Desertas Islands
Desertas Islands
in the distance at sunrise

In some winters snow can occasionally be seen from Funchal, while the temperatures in the city stay mild

Climate data for Funchal, capital of Madeira

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 25.5 (77.9) 27.0 (80.6) 30.5 (86.9) 32.6 (90.7) 34.2 (93.6) 34.7 (94.5) 37.7 (99.9) 38.5 (101.3) 38.4 (101.1) 34.1 (93.4) 29.5 (85.1) 25.9 (78.6) 38.5 (101.3)

Average high °C (°F) 19.7 (67.5) 19.7 (67.5) 20.4 (68.7) 20.6 (69.1) 21.6 (70.9) 23.4 (74.1) 25.1 (77.2) 26.4 (79.5) 26.4 (79.5) 24.9 (76.8) 22.6 (72.7) 20.7 (69.3) 22.6 (72.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) 16.7 (62.1) 16.6 (61.9) 17.2 (63) 17.5 (63.5) 18.6 (65.5) 20.6 (69.1) 22.2 (72) 23.2 (73.8) 23.2 (73.8) 21.8 (71.2) 19.6 (67.3) 17.9 (64.2) 19.6 (67.3)

Average low °C (°F) 13.7 (56.7) 13.4 (56.1) 13.9 (57) 14.4 (57.9) 15.6 (60.1) 17.7 (63.9) 19.2 (66.6) 20.0 (68) 20.0 (68) 18.6 (65.5) 16.6 (61.9) 15.0 (59) 16.5 (61.7)

Record low °C (°F) 8.2 (46.8) 7.4 (45.3) 8.1 (46.6) 9.8 (49.6) 9.7 (49.5) 13.2 (55.8) 14.6 (58.3) 16.4 (61.5) 16.6 (61.9) 13.4 (56.1) 9.8 (49.6) 6.4 (43.5) 6.4 (43.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 74.1 (2.917) 83.0 (3.268) 60.2 (2.37) 44.0 (1.732) 28.9 (1.138) 7.2 (0.283) 1.6 (0.063) 2.0 (0.079) 32.9 (1.295) 89.5 (3.524) 88.8 (3.496) 115.0 (4.528) 627.2 (24.693)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12 10 9 8 6 3 1 2 6 9 10 13 87

Mean monthly sunshine hours 167.4 171.1 204.6 225.0 213.9 198.0 244.9 260.4 225.0 204.6 168.0 164.3 2,447.2

Source: Instituto de Meteorologia,[61] ClimaTemps.com[62] for Sunshine hours data

Flora
Flora
and fauna[edit] In the south, there is very little left of the indigenous subtropical rainforest which once covered the whole island[citation needed] (the original settlers set fire to the island to clear the land for farming) and gave it the name it now bears ( Madeira
Madeira
means "wood" in Portuguese). However, in the north, the valleys contain native trees of fine growth. These "laurisilva" forests, called lauraceas madeirense, notably the forests on the northern slopes of Madeira Island, are designated as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO.The paleobotanical record of Madeira
Madeira
reveals that laurissilva forests has existed in this island for at least 1.8 million years.[63] Critically endangered species such as the vine Jasminum azoricum[64] or the rowan sorbus maderensis are endemic to Madeira. Native flora gallery[edit]

Native birds gallery[edit]

Madeiran wall lizard[edit]

Madeiran wall lizard (Lacerta dugesii) captured in Levada
Levada
do Norte, Madeira

Main article: Lacerta dugesii The Madeiran wall lizard (Lacerta dugesii) is a species of lizard in the Lacertidae
Lacertidae
family. The species is endemic to the Island where it is very common, and is the only small lizard, ranging from sea coasts to altitudes of 1,850 metres (6,070 ft). It is usually found in rocky places or among scrub and may climb into trees. It is also found in gardens and on the walls of buildings. It feeds on small invertebrates such as ants and also eats some vegetable matter. The tail is easily shed and the stump regenerates slowly. Females lay two to three clutches of eggs in a year with the juveniles being about 3 cm (1.2 in) when they hatch.[65] The colouring is variable and tends to match the colour of the animal's surroundings, being some shade of brown or grey with occasionally a greenish tinge. Most animals are finely flecked with darker markings. The underparts are white or cream, sometimes with dark spots, with some males having orange or red underparts and blue throats, but these bright colours may fade if the animal is disturbed.[65] The Madeiran wall lizard grows to a snout-to-vent length of about 8 cm (3.1 in) with a tail about 1.7 times the length of its body. Females lay two to three clutches of eggs in a year with the juveniles being about 3 cm (1.2 in) when they hatch.[65] Levadas[edit]

A levada

Main article: Levada The island of Madeira
Madeira
is wet in the northwest, but dry in the southeast. In the 16th century the Portuguese started building levadas or aqueducts to carry water to the agricultural regions in the south. Madeira
Madeira
is very mountainous, and building the levadas was difficult and often convicts or slaves were used.[citation needed] Many are cut into the sides of mountains, and it was also necessary to dig 25 miles (40 km) of tunnels, some of which are still accessible. Today the levadas not only supply water to the southern parts of the island, but provide hydro-electric power.[66] There are over 1,350 miles (2,170 km) of levadas and they provide a network of walking paths. Some provide easy and relaxing walks through the countryside, but others are narrow, crumbling ledges where a slip could result in serious injury or death. Two of the most popular levadas to hike are the Levada
Levada
do Caldeirão Verde and the Levada
Levada
do Caldeirão do Inferno, which should not be attempted by hikers prone to vertigo or without torches and helmets. The Levada
Levada
do Caniçal
Caniçal
is a much easier walk, running 7.1 miles (11.4 km) from Maroços to the Caniçal
Caniçal
Tunnel. It is known as the mimosa levada, because mimosa trees are found all along the route. Governance[edit] Administratively, Madeira
Madeira
(with a population of 267,302 inhabitants in 2011[67]) and covering an area of 768.0 km2 (296.5 sq mi) is organised into eleven municipalities:[68]

Municipality Population (2011)[67] Area Main settlement Parishes

Funchal[69] 111,892 7007757000000000000♠75.7 km2 (29.2 sq mi) Funchal 10

Santa Cruz[70] 43,005 7007680000000000000♠68.0 km2 (26.3 sq mi) Santa Cruz 5

Câmara de Lobos 35,666 7007526000000000000♠52.6 km2 (20.3 sq mi) Câmara de Lobos 5

Machico 21,828 7007676000000000000♠67.6 km2 (26.1 sq mi) Machico 5

Ribeira Brava 13,375 7007649000000000000♠64.9 km2 (25.1 sq mi) Ribeira Brava 4

Calheta 11,521 7008110300000000000♠110.3 km2 (42.6 sq mi) Calheta 8

Ponta do Sol 8,862 7007468000000000000♠46.8 km2 (18.1 sq mi) Ponta do Sol 3

Santana 7,719 7007931000000000000♠93.1 km2 (35.9 sq mi) Santana 6

São Vicente 5,723 7007808000000000000♠80.8 km2 (31.2 sq mi) São Vicente 3

Porto Santo[71] 5,483 7007424000000000000♠42.4 km2 (16.4 sq mi) Vila Baleira 1

Porto Moniz 2,711 7007826000000000000♠82.6 km2 (31.9 sq mi) Porto Moniz 4

Funchal[edit] Main article: Funchal

Partial view of the capital as seen from the mountains above it

Funchal
Funchal
is the capital and principal city of the Autonomous Region
Autonomous Region
of Madeira, located along the southern coast of the island of Madeira. It is a modern city, located within a natural geological "amphitheatre" composed of vulcanological structure and fluvial hydrological forces. Beginning at the harbour (Porto de Funchal), the neighbourhoods and streets rise almost 1,200 metres (3,900 ft), along gentle slopes that helped to provide a natural shelter to the early settlers. Population[edit] Demographics[edit] See also: Demographics of Madeira The island was settled by Portuguese people, especially farmers from the Minho region,[72] meaning that Madeirans (Portuguese: Madeirenses), as they are called, are ethnically Portuguese, though they have developed their own distinct regional identity and cultural traits. The region has a total population of just under 270,000, the majority of whom live on the main island of Madeira
Madeira
where the population density is 337/km²; meanwhile only around 5,000 live on the Porto Santo Island where the population density is 112/km². About 247,000 (96%) of the population are Catholic and Funchal
Funchal
is the location of the Catholic cathedral.[73] Diaspora[edit] Main article: Portuguese diaspora

Map of the European Union
European Union
in the world, with overseas countries and territories (OCT) and outermost regions (OMR) for which Madeira
Madeira
is included

Madeirans migrated to the United States, Venezuela, Brazil, British Guiana, St. Vincent and Trinidad.[74][75] Madeiran immigrants in North America mostly clustered in the New England
New England
and mid-Atlantic states, Toronto, Northern California, and Hawaii. The city of New Bedford
New Bedford
is especially rich in Madeirans, hosting the Museum of Madeira
Madeira
Heritage, as well as the annual Madeiran and Luso-American celebration, the Feast of the Blessed Sacrament, the world's largest celebration of Madeiran heritage, regularly drawing crowds of tens of thousands to the city's Madeira
Madeira
Field. In 1846, when a famine struck Madeira
Madeira
over 6,000 of the inhabitants migrated to British Guiana. In 1891 they numbered 4.3% of the population.[76] In 1902 in Honolulu, Hawaii
Hawaii
there were 5,000 Portuguese people, mostly Madeirans. In 1910 this grew to 21,000.[77] 1849 saw an emigration of Protestant religious exiles from Madeira
Madeira
to the United States, by way of Trinidad and other locations in the West Indies. Most of them settled in Illinois[78] with financial and physical aid of the American Protestant Society, headquartered in New York City. In the late 1830s the Reverend Robert Reid Kalley, from Scotland, a Presbyterian minister as well as a physician, made a stop at Funchal, Madeira
Madeira
on his way to a mission in China, with his wife, so that she could recover from an illness. The Rev. Kalley and his wife stayed on Madeira
Madeira
where he began preaching the Protestant gospel and converting islanders from Catholicism.[79] Eventually, the Rev. Kalley was arrested for his religious conversion activities and imprisoned. Another missionary from Scotland, William Hepburn Hewitson, took on Protestant ministerial activities in Madeira. By 1846, about 1,000 Protestant Madeirenses, who were discriminated against and the subjects of mob violence because of their religious conversions, chose to immigrate to Trinidad and other locations in the West Indies in answer for a call for sugar plantation workers.[80] The Madeirenses exiles did not fare well in the West Indies. The tropical climate was unfamiliar and they found themselves in serious economic difficulties. By 1848, the American Protestant Society raised money and sent the Rev. Manuel J. Gonsalves, a Baptist minister and a naturalized U.S. citizen from Madeira, to work with the Rev. Arsenio da Silva, who had emigrated with the exiles from Madeira, to arrange to resettle those who wanted to come to the United States. The Rev. da Silva died in early 1849. Later in 1849, the Rev. Gonsalves was then charged with escorting the exiles from Trinidad to be settled in Sangamon and Morgan counties in Illinois
Illinois
on land purchased with funds raised by the American Protestant Society. Accounts state that anywhere from 700 to 1,000 exiles came to the United States at this time.[81][82] There are several large Madeiran communities around the world, such as the number in the UK, including Jersey,[83] the Portuguese British community mostly made up of Madeirans celebrate Madeira
Madeira
Day. Immigration[edit] Madeira
Madeira
is part of the Schengen Area. In 2009, there were 7,105 legal immigrants living in Madeira
Madeira
Islands. They come mostly from Brazil
Brazil
(1,300), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(912), Venezuela
Venezuela
(732) and Ukraine
Ukraine
(682), according to Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras (SEF).[84] In 2013, that number dropped to 5,829, also according to SEF.[84] The latest figures available (2015) detail a slight drop to 5,745, the majority of which are from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(818), Brazil
Brazil
(752) and Venezuela
Venezuela
(581).[84] The ongoing crisis in Venezuela
Venezuela
has increased the flux of immigrants from the nation particularly from those with double citizenship (former Madeira
Madeira
immigrants) since 2017. Economy[edit] Free Trade Zone and Public Administration[edit]

Caniçal
Caniçal
on the left and Madeira
Madeira
Free Trade Zone on the right

The setting-up of a free trade zone has led to the installation, under more favourable conditions, of infrastructure, production shops and essential services for small and medium-sized industrial enterprises. The International Business Centre of Madeira
Madeira
comprises presently three sectors of investment: the Industrial Free Trade Zone, the International Shipping Register - MAR and the International Services. Madeira's tax regime has been approved by the European Commission as legal State Aid and its deadline has recently been extended by the E.C. until the end of 2027. The International Business Centre of Madeira
Madeira
also known as Madeira
Madeira
Free Trade Zone, was created formally in the 80’s as a tool of regional economic policy. It consists of a set of incentives, mainly of a tax nature, granted with the objective of attracting inward investment into Madeira, recognized as the most efficient mechanism to modernize, diversify and internationalize the regional economy. The decision to create the International Business Centre of Madeira
Madeira
was the result of a thorough process of analysis and study. Other small island economies, with similar geographical and economic restraints, had successfully implemented projects of attraction of foreign direct investment based on international services activities, becoming therefore examples of successful economic policies. Since the beginning, favorable operational and fiscal conditions have been offered in the context of a preferential tax regime, fully recognized and approved by the European Commission in the framework of State aid for regional purposes and under the terms of the Ultra-peripheral Regions set in the Treaties, namely Article 299º of the Treaty of the European Union. The IBC of Madeira has therefore been fully integrated in the Portuguese and E.U. legal systems and, as a consequence, it is regulated and supervised by the competent Portuguese and E.U. authorities in a transparent and stable business environment, marking a clear difference from the so-called “tax havens” and “offshore jurisdictions”, since its inception. In 2015, the European Commission authorized the new State aid regime for new companies incorporated between 2015 and 2020 and the extension of the deadline of the tax reductions until the end of 2027. The present tax regime is outlined in Article 36º-A of the Portuguese Tax Incentives Statute. Available data clearly demonstrates the contribution that this development programme has brought to the local economy over its 20 years of existence: impact in the local labour market, through the creation of qualified jobs for the young population but also for madeiran professionals who have returned to Madeira
Madeira
thanks to the opportunities now created; an increase in productivity due to the transfer of know how and the implementation of new business practices and technologies; Indirect influence on other sectors of activity: business tourism benefits from the visits of investors and their clients and suppliers, and other sectors such as real estate, telecommunications and other services benefit from the growth of their client base; impact on direct sources of revenue: the companies attracted by the IBC of Madeira
Madeira
represent over 40% of the revenue in terms of corporate income tax for the Government of Madeira and nearly 3.000 jobs, most of which qualified, amongst other benefits. Also there's above average salaries paid by the companies in the IBC of Madeira
Madeira
in comparison with the wages paid in the other sectors of activity in Madeira.[85] Madeira
Madeira
has been a significant recipient of European Union
European Union
funding, totalling up to €2 billion. In 2012, it was reported that despite a population of just 250,000, the local administration owes some €6 billion.[86] Furthermore, the Portuguese treasury (IGCP) assumed Madeira's debt management between 2012 and 2015. The region continues to work with the central government on a long-term plan to reduce its debt levels and commercial debt stock.[87] Moody's notes that the region has made significant fiscal consolidation efforts and that its tax revenue collection has increased significantly in recent years due to tax rate hikes. Madeira's tax revenues increased by 41% between 2012 and 2016, helping the region to reduce its deficit to operating revenue ratio to 10% in 2016 from 77% in 2013.[88] Tourism[edit]

The manufactured coastal beach of Calheta: replacing the dark rock/sand of the volcanic island with beach sand.

Tourism is an important sector in the region's economy since it contributes 20%[89] to the region's GDP, providing support throughout the year for commercial, transport and other activities and constituting a significant market for local products. The share in Gross Value Added of hotels and restaurants (9%) also highlights this phenomenon. The island of Porto Santo, with its 9 km (5.6 mi) long beach and its climate, is entirely devoted to tourism. Visitors are mainly from the European Union, with German, British, Scandinavian and Portuguese tourists providing the main contingents. The average annual occupancy rate was 60.3% in 2008,[90] reaching its maximum in March and April, when it exceeds 70%.

Whale watching[edit] Whale watching
Whale watching
has become very popular in recent years. Many species of dolphins, such as common dolphin, spotted dolphin, striped dolphin, bottlenose dolphin, short-finned pilot whale, and whales such as Bryde's whale, Sei whale,[91] fin whale, sperm whale, beaked whales can be spotted near the coast or offshore.[92] Renewable energy[edit] Electricity on Madeira
Madeira
is provided solely through EEM - Empresa de Electricidade da Madeira, SA - who hold a monopoly for the provision of electrical supply on the autonomous region - and consists largely of fossil fuels, but with a significant supply of seasonal hydroelectricity from the Levada
Levada
system, wind power and a small amount of solar. In 2011, renewable energy formed 26.5% of the electricity used in Madeira.[93] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Madeira

A ferry makes daily trips between Madeira
Madeira
and Porto Santo.

The Islands have two airports, Cristiano Ronaldo
Cristiano Ronaldo
International Airport and Porto Santo
Porto Santo
Airport, on the islands of Madeira
Madeira
and Porto Santo respectively. From Cristiano Ronaldo International Airport
Cristiano Ronaldo International Airport
the most frequent flights are to Lisbon. There are also direct flights to over 30 other airports in Europe
Europe
and nearby islands.[94] Transport between the two main islands is by plane, or ferries from the Porto Santo
Porto Santo
Line,[95] the latter also carrying vehicles. Visiting the interior of the islands is now easy thanks to construction of the Vias Rápidas, major roads that cross the island. Modern roads reach all points of interest on the islands. Funchal
Funchal
has an extensive public transportation system. Bus companies, including Horários do Funchal
Funchal
which has been operating for over a hundred years, have regularly scheduled routes to all points of interest on the island. Culture[edit] Music[edit]

Bailinho da Madeira

Folklore
Folklore
music in Madeira
Madeira
is widespread and mainly uses local musical instruments such as the machete, rajao, brinquinho and cavaquinho, which are used in traditional folkloric dances like the bailinho da Madeira. Emigrants from Madeira
Madeira
also influenced the creation of new musical instruments. In the 1880s, the ukulele was created, based on two small guitar-like instruments of Madeiran origin, the cavaquinho and the rajao. The ukulele was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands by Portuguese immigrants from Madeira
Madeira
and Cape Verde.[96] Three immigrants in particular, Madeiran cabinet makers Manuel Nunes, José do Espírito Santo, and Augusto Dias, are generally credited as the first ukulele makers.[97] Two weeks after they disembarked from the SS Ravenscrag in late August 1879, the Hawaiian Gazette reported that " Madeira
Madeira
Islanders recently arrived here, have been delighting the people with nightly street concerts."[98] Cuisine[edit]

"Lapas", the true limpet species Patella vulgata

Because of the geographic situation of Madeira
Madeira
in the Atlantic Ocean, the island has an abundance of fish of various kinds. The species that are consumed the most are espada (black scabbardfish), blue fin tuna, white marlin, blue marlin, albacore, bigeye tuna, wahoo, spearfish, skipjack tuna and many others are found in the local dishes as they are found up and down the coast of Madeira.[99] Espada is often served with banana. Bacalhau
Bacalhau
is also popular, as it is in Portugal. There are many meat dishes on Madeira, one of the most popular being espetada.[100] Espetada
Espetada
is traditionally made of large chunks of beef rubbed in garlic, salt and bay leaf and marinated for 4 to 6 hours in Madeira
Madeira
wine, red wine vinegar and olive oil then skewered onto a bay laurel stick and left to grill over smouldering wood chips. These are so integral a part of traditional eating habits that a special iron stand is available with a T-shaped end, each branch of the "T" having a slot in the middle to hold a brochette (espeto in Portuguese); a small plate is then placed underneath to collect the juices. The brochettes are very long and have a V-shaped blade in order to pierce the meat more easily. It is usually accompanied with the local bread called bolo do caco. Other popular dishes in Madeira
Madeira
include açorda, feijoada, carne de vinha d'alhos. Traditional pastries in Madeira
Madeira
usually contain local ingredients, one of the most common being mel de cana, literally "sugarcane honey" (molasses). The traditional cake of Madeira
Madeira
is called Bolo de Mel, which translates as (Sugarcane) "Honey Cake" and according to custom, is never cut with a knife, but broken into pieces by hand. It is a rich and heavy cake. The cake commonly well known as " Madeira
Madeira
Cake" in England also finds its naming roots in the Island of Madeira. Malasadas are a Madeiran creation which were taken around the world by emigrants to places such as Hawaii. In Madeira, Malasadas are mainly consumed during the Carnival of Madeira. Pastéis de nata, as in the rest of Portugal, are also very popular. Milho frito is a very popular dish in Madeira
Madeira
which is very similar to the Italian dish polenta. Açorda
Açorda
Madeirense is another popular local dish. Beverages[edit] Main article: Madeira
Madeira
wine

Bottles of Madeira
Madeira
labelled by the different grape varieties used to produce the many styles of wine

Coral Beer, produced since 1872[101] in the Island's main brewery, has achieved several Monde Selection medals

Madeira
Madeira
is a fortified wine, produced in the Madeira
Madeira
Islands; varieties may be sweet or dry. It has a history dating back to the Age of Exploration when Madeira
Madeira
was a standard port of call for ships heading to the New World
New World
or East Indies. To prevent the wine from spoiling, neutral grape spirits were added. However, wine producers of Madeira
Madeira
discovered, when an unsold shipment of wine returned to the islands after a round trip, that the flavour of the wine had been transformed by exposure to heat and movement. Today, Madeira
Madeira
is noted for its unique winemaking process which involves heating the wine and deliberately exposing the wine to some levels of oxidation.[102] Most countries limit the use of the term Madeira
Madeira
to those wines that come from the Madeira
Madeira
Islands, to which the European Union
European Union
grants Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status.[103] A local beer called Coral is produced by the Madeira
Madeira
Brewery, which dates from 1872. It has achieved 2 Monde Selection Grand Gold Medals, 24 Monde Selection Gold Medals and 2 Monde Selection Silver Medals.[101] Other alcoholic drinks are also popular in Madeira, such as the locally created Poncha, Niquita, Pé de Cabra, Aniz, as well as Portuguese drinks such as Macieira Brandy, Licor Beirão. Laranjada
Laranjada
is a type of carbonated soft drink with an orange flavour, its name being derived from the Portuguese word laranja ("orange"). Launched in 1872 it was the first soft drink to be produced in Portugal, and remains very popular to the present day. Brisa drinks, a brand name, are also very popular and come in a range of flavours. There is also a huge coffee culture in Madeira. Like in mainland Portugal, popular coffee-based drinks include Garoto, Galão, Bica, Café com Cheirinho, Mazagran, Chinesa
Chinesa
and many more. Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Madeira Sister provinces[edit] Madeira Island
Madeira Island
has the following sister provinces:

: Autonomous Region
Autonomous Region
of Aosta Valley, Italy
Italy
(1987) : Bailiwick of Jersey, British Crown Dependencies
British Crown Dependencies
(1998) : Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : Jeju Province, South Korea
South Korea
(2007) : Gibraltar, British Overseas Territory
Territory
(2009) [104]

Postage stamps[edit] Main article: Postage stamps and postal history of Madeira Portugal
Portugal
has issued postage stamps for Madeira
Madeira
during several periods, beginning in 1868. Notable people[edit]

Cristiano Ronaldo, born in Madeira, was the 2008, 2013, 2014, 2016 and 2017 FIFA
FIFA
World Player of the Year

Joe Berardo
Joe Berardo
is a businessman, stock investor, speculator and art collector. He is also one of the wealthiest people in Portugal.

The following people were either born or have lived part of their lives in Madeira:

Charles I of Austria, last Emperor of Austria
Emperor of Austria
and last King of Hungary Joe Berardo, Portuguese millionaire, and art collector Rubina Berardo, Portuguese politician António de Abreu, naval officer and navigator Nadia Almada, a winner of the British reality show Big Brother Menasseh Ben Israel, Jewish Rabbi. Charles I of Austria, deposed monarch, died in exile on Madeira
Madeira
in 1922 Catarina Fagundes, Olympic athlete for windsurf Vânia Fernandes, Portuguese singer who represented Portugal
Portugal
in Eurovision 2008 José Vicente de Freitas, military general and politician Vasco da Gama Rodrigues, poet, born in Paul do Mar Teodósio Clemente de Gouveia, Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church George Walter Grabham, geologist Herberto Hélder, poet Moisés Henriques, former Australian Under-19 Captain and current NSW Blues and Australian international Twenty20
Twenty20
cricketer Alberto João Jardim, second President of the Regional Government Luís Jardim, producer of music Paul Langerhans, German pathologist and biologist Fátima Lopes, fashion designer Jaime Ornelas Camacho, first and former President of the Regional Government Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos, former Archbishop of the former Portuguese colonial enclave Goa
Goa
(in India) Lloyd Mathews, British naval officer, politician and abolitionist Dionísio Pestana, president of the Pestana Group Rigo 23, artist João Rodrigues, Olympic windsurfer Cristiano Ronaldo, Real Madrid, Portugal
Portugal
and former Manchester United footballer John Santos, photographer Ana da Silva, founding member of the post-punk band The Raincoats Pedro Macedo Camacho, composer Flávia Brito, Miss Universo Portugal
Portugal
2016, beauty pageant Manoel Dias Soeyro or Menasseh Ben Israel
Menasseh Ben Israel
(1604–1657), Sephardi Rabbi
Rabbi
and publisher Artur de Sousa Pinga, former CS Marítimo
CS Marítimo
and FC Porto football player Maximiano de Sousa (Max), popular singer, born in Funchal Virgílio Teixeira, actor José Travassos Valdez, 1st Count of Bonfim, governor during 1827–1828 Miguel Albuquerque, third and current President of the Regional Government Bernardo Sousa, rally driver in the WRC

See also[edit]

"Have Some Madeira
Madeira
M'Dear" List of birds of Madeira Madeira
Madeira
Islands Open, an annual European Tour golf tournament Surfing in Madeira Ribeiro Frio, a village on the island of Madeira

Portugal
Portugal
portal Geography portal

References[edit] Notes[edit]

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Portuguese escudo
was used in financial transactions, and until 1910 the Portuguese real
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was the currency used by the monarchy of Portugal. ^ a b "Regiões de Portugal". AICEP. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014.  ^ INE, ed. (2010), Censos 2011 - Resultadas Preliminares [2011 Census - Preliminary Results] (in Portuguese), Lisbon, Portugal: Instituto Nacional de Estatística, retrieved 1 July 2011  ^ IGP, ed. (2010), Carta Administrativa Oficial de Portugal
Portugal
(in Portuguese), Lisbon, Portugal: Instituto Geográfico Português, archived from the original on 21 May 2011, retrieved 1 July 2011  ^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:12002E299:EN:HTML ^ "Hotelaria da Madeira
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suaviza quebras em 2010 apesar de impacto devastador dos temporais". presstur.com. October 2, 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.  ^ [1] Archived 23 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "A Guinness World Record Fireworks Show – Madeira
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Porto Santo
and Madeira
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were first described by Gomes Eanes de Zurara
Gomes Eanes de Zurara
in Chronica da Descoberta e Conquista da Guiné. (Eng. version by Edgar Prestage in 2 vols. issued by the Hakluyt Society, London, 1896–1899: The Chronicle of Discovery and Conquest of Guinea.) French author Arkan Simaan refers to these discoveries in his historical novel based on Azurara's Chronicle: L'Écuyer d'Henri le Navigateur (2007), published by Éditions l'Harmattan, Paris. ^ Dervenn, Claude (1957). Madeira. Translated by Hogarth-Gaute, Frances. London, UK: George G. Harrap and Co. p. 20. OCLC 645870163. Retrieved 2016-06-07. And when he returned in May 1420 to take possession of "his" island, it was with his wife and the sons and daughters that the virtuous Constanga had given him.  ^ Alfred W. Crosby (6 October 2015). Ecological Imperialism, The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900 (2 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-107-56987-4.  ^ Ponting, Clive (2000) [2000]. World history: a new perspective. London: Chatto & Windus. p. 482. ISBN 0-7011-6834-X.  ^ Godinho, V. M. Os Descobrimentos e a Economia Mundial, Arcádia, 1965, Vol 1 and 2, Lisboa ^ Fernando Augusto da Silva & Carlos Azevedo de Menezes, "Porto Santo", Elucidário Madeirense, vol. 3 (O-Z), Funchal, DRAC, p. 124. ^ Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800. Robert Davis (2004). p.7. ISBN 1-4039-4551-9. ^ "Officer's presentation sword given to Brigadier General William Henry Clinton from the British Consul and Factory in Madeira, 1802". National Army Museum. Retrieved 15 August 2016.  ^ "GORDON, Sir James Willoughby, 1st bt. (1772-1851), of Niton, I.o.W". UK Parliament. Retrieved 15 August 2016.  ^ "The Map Room: Africa: Madeira". British Empire. Retrieved 30 July 2010.  ^ "Cable ship Dacia". Ships hit by U-boats - German and Austrian U-boats of World War One - Kaiserliche Marine. uboat.net. 13 November 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2010.  ^ Glover, Bill (10 July 2015). "CS Dacia". History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications. Retrieved 7 June 2016.  ^ "Submarine carrier Kanguroo". Ships hit by U-boats - German and Austrian U-boats of World War One - Kaiserliche Marine. uboat.net. 13 November 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2010.  ^ " Gunboat
Gunboat
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Madeira
islands and mainland Portugal". Reuters. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2013. .  ^ Scott, Michon. " Madeira
Madeira
Wildfires". Earth Observatory. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Retrieved 8 September 2013.  ^ Miller, Shari (20 July 2012). "Holiday resorts under threat as towering walls of flame ravage Madeira
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Madeira
hit by forest fires". BBC News. 20 July 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2013. ces.  ^ "Denguekuume leviää Madeiralla ('Dengue Fever Spreads In Madeira')". YLE.fi. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.  ^ "Dengue Fever in Madeira, Portugal". WHO. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.  ^ "Dengue outbreak in Madeira
Madeira
controlled". Retrieved 11 April 2013.  ^ Porter, Tom (17 August 2013). "Hospital Evacuated as Fire Rages on Madeira". IBTimes UK. Retrieved 8 September 2013. .  ^ "Wildfire inferno forces hospital and homes to be evacuated on Portuguese island Madeira". euronews. 17 August 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013. .  ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-37030217 ^ https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/08/10/three-dead-including-elderly-woman-as-wildfire-hits-island-of-ma/ ^ Minder, Raphael (August 11, 2016). "Deadly Wildfires on Portuguese Island of Madeira
Madeira
Reach Its Largest City". nytimes.com. Retrieved August 11, 2016.  ^ Falling tree kills 13 on Portuguese island of Madeira, BBC, 28.10.2017 ^ " Madeira
Madeira
Islands Tourism". Madeiraislands.travel. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.  ^ Ribeiro et al., 1996 ^ Kullberg & Kullberg, 2000 ^ Geldemacher et al., 2000 ^ Ribeiro, 2001 ^ a b "Madeira". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.  ^ "MadeiraHelp.com". MadeiraHelp.com. 22 February 1999. Archived from the original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.  ^ Robert White, 1851, p.4 ^ "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". Archived from the original on 6 September 2010.  ^ "Lava Pools". tripadvisor.com.  ^ "Weather Information for Funchal".  ^ "Funchal, Madeira
Madeira
Climate, Temperature, Average Weather History, Rainfall/Precipitation, Sunshine".  ^ Góis-Marques, Carlos A.; Madeira, José; Menezes de Sequeira, Miguel (7 February 2017). "Inventory and review of the Mio– Pleistocene
Pleistocene
São Jorge flora ( Madeira
Madeira
Island, Portugal): palaeoecological and biogeographical implications". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology: 1–19. doi:10.1080/14772019.2017.1282991.  ^ Fernandes, F. (2011). "Jasminum azoricum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Retrieved 8 January 2013.  ^ a b c Arnold, E. Nicholas; Ovenden, Denys W. (2002). Field Guide: Reptiles & Amphibians of Britain & Europe. London: Collins & Co. pp. 154–155. ISBN 9780002199643.  ^ Centre, UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage. "Levadas of Madeira
Madeira
Island — UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2017-10-19.  ^ a b "Censos 2011 Resultados Preliminares 2011". INE.  ^ Map of municipalities at FreguesiasDePortugas l.com ^ Statistics include Savage Islands, which are administered by the parish of Sé ^ Statistics include the mainland parish of Santa Cruz and the islands of the Desertas ^ Statistics represent island population; Porto Santo
Porto Santo
is the second largest island in the archipelago of Madeira ^ "Alberto Vieira, ''O Infante e a Madeira: dúvidas e certezas, Centro Estudos História Atlântico". Ceha-madeira.net. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.  ^ "Diocese of Funchal". Catholic Hierarchy. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Madeiran Portuguese Migration to Guyana, St. Vincent, Antigua and Trinidad: A Comparative Overview" (PDF). Jo-Anne S. Ferreira, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine ^ " Madeira
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and Emigration" ^ "Portuguese emigration from Madeira
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to British Guiana" ^ "Portuguese Immigrants in the United States: Chronology, 1900-1919". Library of Congress. Retrieved August 26, 2017.  ^ "Protestant Exiles from Madeira
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in Illinois". loc.gov.  ^ "Portuguese Immigration To Jacksonville In 1849". orgsites.com.  ^ "History of Sangamon County, Illinois". google.com.  ^ "Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois". google.com.  ^ "The Christian World". google.com.  ^ "BBC – Jersey
Jersey
Voices" ^ a b c "SEFSTAT – Portal
Portal
de Estatística". Sefstat.sef.pt. Retrieved 30 July 2010.  ^ "International Business Centre of Madeira
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- About IBC". ibc-madeira.com.  ^ "Billions of euros of EU money yet Madeira
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has built up massive debts". Retrieved 10 July 2016.  ^ Madeira, Autonomous Region
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of -- Moody's changes outlook to positive on the ratings of Azores
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and Madeira; ratings affirmed, Markets Insider, 19.03.2018 ^ Moody's changes outlook to positive on the ratings of Azores
Azores
and Madeira; ratings affirmed, Moody's, 19.03.2018 ^ "Telegraph article". www.telegraph.co.uk. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2015.  ^ "Statistics from DRE of Madeira
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whale and Dolphin watching". www.madeirawindbirds.com. 30 August 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.  ^ http://www.apca.pt/publicacoes/6/paper64.pdf ^ " Madeira
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> Departures > Destinations and Airlines > Destinations and Airlines". Retrieved 10 July 2016.  ^ Administrator. " Porto Santo
Porto Santo
Line". Retrieved 10 July 2016.  ^ Nidel, Richard (2004). World Music: The Basics. Routledge. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-415-96800-3.  ^ Roberts, Helen (1926). Ancient Hawaiian Music. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. pp. 9–10.  ^ King, John (2000). "Prolegomena to a History of the 'Ukulele". Ukulele
Ukulele
Guild of Hawai'i. Archived from the original on 3 August 2004. Retrieved February 2, 2016.  ^ "Fish that can be found in Madeira
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Espetada". theworldwidegourmet.com. Retrieved 30 August 2010.  ^ a b Coral Branca, Empresa de Cervejas da Madeira, ECM.pt, 30.10.2017 ^ T. Stevenson "The Sotheby's Wine
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Bibliography[edit]

Pitta, Nicholas Cayetano de Bettencourt (1812). Account of the Island of Madeira. London, UK: C.Stewart Printer.  Koebel, William Henry (1909). Madeira : old and new. London, UK: Francis Griffiths.  Dervenn, Claude (1957). Madeira. Translated by Hogarth-Gaute, Frances. London, UK: George G. Harrap and Co.  Walvin, James (2000). Making the Black Atlantic: Britain and the African Diaspora. London, UK: Cassell. 

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Azores Madeira

All these divisions are further subdivided into municipalities and parishes.

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Districts and autonomous regions of Portugal

Districts

Aveiro Beja Braga Bragança Castelo Branco Coimbra Évora Faro Guarda Leiria Lisboa Portalegre Porto Santarém Setúbal Viana do Castelo Vila Real Viseu

Autonomous regions

Azores Madeira

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Countries and territories of North Africa

Sovereign states

 Algeria  Egypt  Libya  Morocco  Sudan  Tunisia

Partially recognized state

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

Territories

Morocco/SADR

Western Sahara1

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta2 Melilla2 Alboran Alhucemas2 Chafarinas2 Vélez de la Gomera2

Portugal

Madeira Savage Islands3

Sudan/Egypt

Hala'ib Triangle4 Wadi Halfa Salient4 Bir Tawil5

Sudan/South Sudan

Abyei6 Kafia Kingi6

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Libya/Chad

Aouzou Strip7

Morocco/Spain

Perejil8

1Entirely claimed by both Morocco
Morocco
and the SADR. 2Spanish exclaves claimed by Morocco. 3Portuguese archipelago claimed by Spain. 4Disputed between Sudan
Sudan
and Egypt. 5 Terra nullius
Terra nullius
located between Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan. 6Disputed between Sudan
Sudan
and South Sudan. 7Part of Chad, formerly claimed by Libya. 8Disputed between Morocco
Morocco
and Spain

International membership

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Outlying territories of European countries

Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe
Europe
(see inclusion criteria for further information).

Denmark

Greenland

France

Clipperton Island French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Adélie Land Crozet Islands Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Kerguelen Islands Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean

Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte New Caledonia Réunion Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Lampedusa Lampione Linosa

Netherlands

Aruba Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Curaçao Sint Maarten

Norway

Bouvet Island Peter I Island Queen Maud Land

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía

Chafarinas Islands Alhucemas Islands Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

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Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America
North America
& North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

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Outermost regions of European Union
European Union
states

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands

France

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Ré

.