Madeira (/məˈdɪərə, -ˈdɛərə/ mə-DEER-ə, -DAIR-ə;
Portuguese: [mɐˈðejɾɐ, -ˈðɐj-]) is a Portuguese
archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of
Portugal. Its total population was estimated in 2011 at 267,785. The
Madeira is Funchal, located on the main island's south
The archipelago is just under 400 kilometres (250 mi) north of
Tenerife, Canary Islands. Since 1976, the archipelago has been one of
the two autonomous regions of
Portugal (the other being the Azores,
located to the northwest). It includes the islands of Madeira, Porto
Santo, and the Desertas, administered together with the separate
archipelago of the Savage Islands. The region has political and
administrative autonomy through the Administrative Political Statue of
Autonomous Region of
Madeira provided for in the Portuguese
Constitution. The autonomous region is an integral part of the
European Union, having pronounced status as an outermost region of the
European Union, as detailed in Article 299-2 of the Treaty of the
Madeira was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince
Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator in 1419 and settled after 1420. The archipelago is
considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory
period of the Portuguese Age of Discovery, which extended from 1415 to
Today, it is a popular year-round resort, being visited every year by
about one million tourists, three times its population. The region
is noted for its
Madeira wine, gastronomy, historical and cultural
value, flora and fauna, landscapes (Laurel forest) which are
classified as a
UNESCO World Heritage Site, and embroidery artisans.
Its annual New Year celebrations feature the largest fireworks show in
the world, as officially recognised by
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records in
2006. The main harbour in
Funchal is the leading Portuguese port
in cruise liner dockings, being an important stopover for
commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe, the
Caribbean and North Africa. In addition, the International Business
Madeira also known as the
Madeira Free Trade Zone, was
created formally in the 1980s as a tool of regional economic policy.
It consists of a set of incentives, mainly tax-related, granted with
the objective of attracting foreign direct investment based on
international services into Madeira.
1.5 World War I
1.6 Autonomy and modern history
2.1 Islands and islets
Flora and fauna
4.1 Native flora gallery
4.2 Native birds gallery
4.3 Madeiran wall lizard
8.1 Free Trade Zone and Public Administration
8.2.1 Whale watching
9 Renewable energy
13 Sister provinces
14 Postage stamps
15 Notable people
16 See also
18 External links
Main article: History of Madeira
Plutarch in his
Parallel Lives (Sertorius, 75 AD) referring to the
Quintus Sertorius (d. 72 BC), relates that after
his return to Cádiz, he met sailors who spoke of idyllic Atlantic
islands: "The islands are said to be two in number separated by a very
narrow strait and lie 10,000 furlongs (2,011.68 km) from Africa. They
are called the Isles of the Blessed...".
Archeological evidence suggests that the islands may have been visited
by the Vikings sometime between 900 and 1030.
During the reign of King Edward III of England, lovers Robert Machim
and Anna d'Arfet were said to flee from England to France in 1346.
They were driven off their course by a violent storm and their ship
went aground along the coast of an island that may have been Madeira.
Later this legend was the basis of the naming of the city of Machico,
in memory of the young lovers.
Knowledge of some Atlantic islands, such as Madeira, existed before
their formal discovery and settlement, as the islands were shown on
maps as early as 1339.
Statue of João Gonçalves Zarco
In 1418, two captains under service to Prince Henry the Navigator,
João Gonçalves Zarco
João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven off
course by a storm to an island which they named
Porto Santo (English:
holy harbour) in gratitude for divine deliverance from a shipwreck.
The following year, an organised expedition, under the captaincy of
Zarco, Vaz Teixeira, and Bartolomeu Perestrello, traveled to the
island to claim it on behalf of the Portuguese Crown. Subsequently,
the new settlers observed "a heavy black cloud suspended to the
southwest." Their investigation revealed it to be the larger
island they called Madeira.
Funchal with its tower of 15th-century Gothic style in
The first Portuguese settlers began colonizing the islands around 1420
Grain production began to fall and the ensuing crisis forced Henry the
Navigator to order other commercial crops to be planted so that the
islands could be profitable. These specialised
plants, and their associated industrial technology, created one of the
major revolutions on the islands and fuelled Portuguese industry.
Following the introduction of the first water-driven sugar mill on
Madeira, sugar production increased to over 6,000 arrobas (an arroba
was equal to 11 to 12 kilograms) by 1455, using advisers from
Sicily and financed by Genoese capital. (Genoa acted as an integral
part of the island economy until the 17th century.) The accessibility
Madeira attracted Genoese and Flemish traders, who were keen to
bypass Venetian monopolies.
Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the
trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. By
Madeira had overtaken
Cyprus as a producer of sugar."
Sugarcane production was the primary engine of the island's economy,
increasing the demand for labour. African slaves were used during
portions of the island's history to cultivate sugar cane, and the
proportion of imported slaves reached 10% of the total population of
Madeira by the 16th century.
Barbary corsairs from North Africa, who enslaved Europeans from ships
and coastal communities throughout the Mediterranean region, captured
1,200 people in
Porto Santo in 1617. After the 17th century,
as Portuguese sugar production was shifted to Brazil, São Tomé and
Príncipe and elsewhere, Madeira's most important commodity product
became its wine.
The British first amicably occupied the island in 1801 whereafter
William Henry Clinton
William Henry Clinton became governor. A detachment of the
85th Regiment of Foot
85th Regiment of Foot under Lieutenant-colonel James Willoughby Gordon
garrisoned the island. After the Peace of Amiens, British troops
withdrew in 1802, only to reoccupy
Madeira in 1807 until the end of
Peninsular War in 1814.
World War I
On 31 December 1916, during the Great War, a German U-boat,
SM U-38, captained by Max Valentiner, entered
Funchal harbour on
Madeira. U-38 torpedoed and sank three ships, bringing the war to
Portugal by extension. The ships sunk were:
CS Dacia (1,856 tons), a British cable-laying vessel. Dacia had
previously undertaken war work off the coast of
Casablanca and Dakar.
It was in the process of diverting the German South American cable
into Brest, France.
SS Kanguroo (2,493 tons), a French specialized "heavy-lift"
Surprise (680 tons), a French gunboat. Her commander and 34 crewmen
(including 7 Portuguese) were killed.
After attacking the ships, U-38 bombarded
Funchal for two hours from a
range of about 2 miles (3 km). Batteries on
Madeira returned fire
and eventually forced U-38 to withdraw.
On 12 December 1917, two German U-boats,
SM U-156 and SM U-157
(captained by Max Valentiner), again bombarded Funchal. This time
the attack lasted around 30 minutes. The U-boats fired 40
4.7-and-5.9-inch (120 and 150 mm) shells. There were three
fatalities and 17 wounded; a number of houses and Santa Clara church
were hit.
Charles I (Karl I), the last Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire,
Madeira after the war. Determined to prevent an attempt to
restore Charles to the throne, the Council of Allied Powers agreed he
could go into exile on
Madeira because it was isolated in the Atlantic
and easily guarded. He died there on 1 April 1922 and his coffin
lies in a chapel of the church in Monte.
Autonomy and modern history
On 1 July 1976, following the democratic revolution of 1974, Portugal
granted political autonomy to Madeira, celebrated on
Madeira Day. The
region now has its own government and legislative assembly.
On 20 February 2010 at least 42 people died and 100 were
injured by an extreme weather event that affected the Island.
NASA satellite image of wildfires on the island of
Madeira from 19
Drought conditions, coupled with hot and windy weather in summer, have
caused numerous wildfires in recent years. The largest of the fires in
August 2010 burned through 95 percent of the
Funchal Ecological Park,
a 1,000-hectare preserve set aside to restore native vegetation to the
In July 2012
Madeira was suffering again from severe drought.
Wildfires broke out on 18 July, in the midst of temperatures up to
40 °C (more than 100 °F) and high winds. By 20 July, fires
had spread to the nearby island of Porto Santo, and firefighters were
sent from mainland
Portugal to contain the multiple
In October 2012, it was reported that there was a dengue fever
epidemic on the island. There was a total of 2,168 cases
reported of dengue fever since the start in October 2012. The number
of cases was on the decline since mid November 2012 and by 4 February
2013, no new cases had been reported.
In August 2013, a hospital and some private homes were evacuated as a
wildfire approached Funchal. A number of homes were destroyed when the
fire hit Monte, a suburb of Funchal.
In August 2016, wildfires caused over 1,000 people to be evacuated,
and led to the death of three people - all of which are said to have
been elderly and destroying 150 homes. The wildfires
threatened the capital of
Funchal - specifically, however
other administrative regions of
Madeira were also threatened by
separate wildfires - e.g. Calheta.
In August 2017, a falling tree killed at least 13 people and injured
49 at a religious ceremony. People had gathered outside the Church of
Our Lady of Monte in Monte, to celebrate the Roman Catholic Feast of
the Assumption, which takes place on Tuesday and is a public holiday.
The Lady of the Mount festival is the island's biggest.
Distribution of the islands of the archipelago (not including the
Sights from Bica da Cana showing Madeira's high orography
The archipelago of
Madeira is located 520 km (280 nmi) from
the African coast and 1,000 km (540 nmi) from the European
continent (approximately a one-and-a-half hour flight from the
Portuguese capital of Lisbon). It is found in the extreme south of
Madeira Ridge, a bathymetric structure of great dimensions
oriented along a north-northeast to south-southwest axis that extends
for 1,000 kilometres (540 nmi). This submarine structure consists
of long geomorphological relief that extends from the abyssal plain to
3500 metres; its highest submersed point is at a depth of about 150
metres (around latitude 36ºN). The origins of the Tore-
are not clearly established, but may have resulted from a
morphological buckling of the lithosphere.
Islands and islets
Madeira (740.7 km²), including Ilhéu de Agostinho, Ilhéu de
São Lourenço, Ilhéu Mole (northwest); Total population: 262,456
Porto Santo (42.5 km²), including Ilhéu de Baixo ou da Cal,
Ilhéu de Ferro, Ilhéu das Cenouras, Ilhéu de Fora, Ilhéu de Cima;
Total population: 5483 (2011 Census).
Desertas Islands (14.2 km²), including the three uninhabited
islands: Deserta Grande Island,
Bugio Island and Ilhéu de Chão;
Savage Islands (3.6 km²), archipelago 280 km
Madeira Island including three main islands and 16
uninhabited islets in two groups: the Northwest Group (Selvagem Grande
Island, Ilhéu de Palheiro da Terra, Ilhéu de Palheiro do Mar) and
the Southeast Group (Selvagem Pequena Island, Ilhéu Grande, Ilhéu
Sul, Ilhéu Pequeno, Ilhéu Fora, Ilhéu Alto, Ilhéu Comprido, Ilhéu
Redondo, Ilhéu Norte).
Detailed, true-colour image of Madeira. The image shows that deep
Laurissilva survives intact on the steep northern slopes
of the island, but in the south, where terrain is gentler, the
terracotta colour of towns and the light green colour of agriculture
are more dominant
The island of
Madeira is at the top of a massive shield volcano that
rises about 6 km (20,000 ft) from the floor of the Atlantic
Ocean, on the Tore underwater mountain range. The volcano formed atop
an east-west rift in the oceanic crust along the African
Plate, beginning during the
Miocene epoch over 5 million years
ago, continuing into the
Pleistocene until about 700,000 years
ago. This was followed by extensive erosion, producing two large
amphitheatres open to south in the central part of the island.
Volcanic activity later resumed, producing scoria cones and lava flows
atop the older eroded shield. The most recent volcanic eruptions were
on the west-central part of the island only 6,500 years ago,
creating more cinder cones and lava flows.
It is the largest island of the group with an area of 741 km2
(286 sq mi), a length of 57 km (35 mi) (from Ponte
de São Lourenço to Ponte do Pargo), while approximately 22 km
(14 mi) at its widest point (from Ponte da Cruz to Ponte São
Jorge), with a coastline of 150 km (90 mi). It has a
mountain ridge that extends along the centre of the island, reaching
1,862 metres (6,109 feet) at its highest point (Pico Ruivo), while
much lower (below 200 metres) along its eastern extent. The primitive
volcanic foci responsible for the central mountainous area, consisted
of the peaks: Ruivo (1,862 m), Torres (1,851 m), Arieiro (1,818 m),
Cidrão (1,802 m), Cedro (1,759 m), Casado (1,725 m), Grande (1,657
m), Ferreiro (1,582 m). At the end of this eruptive phase, an island
circled by reefs was formed, its marine vestiges are evident in a
calcareous layer in the area of Lameiros, in São Vicente (which was
later explored for calcium oxide production). Sea cliffs, such as Cabo
Girão, valleys and ravines extend from this central spine, making the
interior generally inaccessible. Daily life is concentrated in the
many villages at the mouths of the ravines, through which the heavy
rains of autumn and winter usually travel to the sea.
Madeira has been classified as a
Mediterranean climate (Köppen
climate classification: Csa/Csb). Based on differences in sun
exposure, humidity, and annual mean temperature, there are clear
variations between north- and south-facing regions, as well as between
some islands. The islands are strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream
and Canary Current, giving mild year-round temperatures; according to
Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the average annual temperature at
Funchal weather station is 19.6 °C (67.3 °F) for the
Porto Santo has at least one weather station with
a semiarid climate (BSh). On the highest windward slopes of Madeira,
rainfall exceeds 1,250 mm (50 inches) per year, mostly falling
between October and April. In most winters snowfall occurs in the
mountains of Madeira.
View from Pico do Arieiro
Lava pools in Porto Moniz
Porto Santo's lack of higher mountains results in a paradoxical
landscape when comparing it with its sister island Madeira
Desertas Islands in the distance at sunrise
In some winters snow can occasionally be seen from Funchal, while the
temperatures in the city stay mild
Climate data for Funchal, capital of Madeira
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Instituto de Meteorologia, ClimaTemps.com for Sunshine
Flora and fauna
In the south, there is very little left of the indigenous subtropical
rainforest which once covered the whole island (the
original settlers set fire to the island to clear the land for
farming) and gave it the name it now bears (
Madeira means "wood" in
Portuguese). However, in the north, the valleys contain native trees
of fine growth. These "laurisilva" forests, called lauraceas
madeirense, notably the forests on the northern slopes of Madeira
Island, are designated as a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by UNESCO.The
paleobotanical record of
Madeira reveals that laurissilva forests has
existed in this island for at least 1.8 million years. Critically
endangered species such as the vine Jasminum azoricum or the rowan
sorbus maderensis are endemic to Madeira.
Native flora gallery
Native birds gallery
Madeiran wall lizard
Madeiran wall lizard (Lacerta dugesii) captured in
Levada do Norte,
Main article: Lacerta dugesii
The Madeiran wall lizard (Lacerta dugesii) is a species of lizard in
Lacertidae family. The species is endemic to the Island where it
is very common, and is the only small lizard, ranging from sea coasts
to altitudes of 1,850 metres (6,070 ft). It is usually found in
rocky places or among scrub and may climb into trees. It is also found
in gardens and on the walls of buildings. It feeds on small
invertebrates such as ants and also eats some vegetable matter. The
tail is easily shed and the stump regenerates slowly. Females lay two
to three clutches of eggs in a year with the juveniles being about
3 cm (1.2 in) when they hatch. The colouring is variable
and tends to match the colour of the animal's surroundings, being some
shade of brown or grey with occasionally a greenish tinge. Most
animals are finely flecked with darker markings. The underparts are
white or cream, sometimes with dark spots, with some males having
orange or red underparts and blue throats, but these bright colours
may fade if the animal is disturbed. The Madeiran wall lizard
grows to a snout-to-vent length of about 8 cm (3.1 in) with
a tail about 1.7 times the length of its body. Females lay two to
three clutches of eggs in a year with the juveniles being about
3 cm (1.2 in) when they hatch.
Main article: Levada
The island of
Madeira is wet in the northwest, but dry in the
southeast. In the 16th century the Portuguese started building levadas
or aqueducts to carry water to the agricultural regions in the south.
Madeira is very mountainous, and building the levadas was difficult
and often convicts or slaves were used. Many are cut
into the sides of mountains, and it was also necessary to dig 25 miles
(40 km) of tunnels, some of which are still accessible.
Today the levadas not only supply water to the southern parts of the
island, but provide hydro-electric power. There are over 1,350
miles (2,170 km) of levadas and they provide a network of walking
paths. Some provide easy and relaxing walks through the countryside,
but others are narrow, crumbling ledges where a slip could result in
serious injury or death.
Two of the most popular levadas to hike are the
Levada do Caldeirão
Verde and the
Levada do Caldeirão do Inferno, which should not be
attempted by hikers prone to vertigo or without torches and helmets.
Caniçal is a much easier walk, running 7.1 miles
(11.4 km) from Maroços to the
Caniçal Tunnel. It is known as
the mimosa levada, because mimosa trees are found all along the route.
Madeira (with a population of 267,302 inhabitants in
2011) and covering an area of 768.0 km2
(296.5 sq mi) is organised into eleven municipalities:
7007757000000000000♠75.7 km2 (29.2 sq mi)
7007680000000000000♠68.0 km2 (26.3 sq mi)
Câmara de Lobos
7007526000000000000♠52.6 km2 (20.3 sq mi)
Câmara de Lobos
7007676000000000000♠67.6 km2 (26.1 sq mi)
7007649000000000000♠64.9 km2 (25.1 sq mi)
7008110300000000000♠110.3 km2 (42.6 sq mi)
Ponta do Sol
7007468000000000000♠46.8 km2 (18.1 sq mi)
Ponta do Sol
7007931000000000000♠93.1 km2 (35.9 sq mi)
7007808000000000000♠80.8 km2 (31.2 sq mi)
7007424000000000000♠42.4 km2 (16.4 sq mi)
7007826000000000000♠82.6 km2 (31.9 sq mi)
Main article: Funchal
Partial view of the capital as seen from the mountains above it
Funchal is the capital and principal city of the
Autonomous Region of
Madeira, located along the southern coast of the island of Madeira. It
is a modern city, located within a natural geological "amphitheatre"
composed of vulcanological structure and fluvial hydrological forces.
Beginning at the harbour (Porto de Funchal), the neighbourhoods and
streets rise almost 1,200 metres (3,900 ft), along gentle slopes
that helped to provide a natural shelter to the early settlers.
See also: Demographics of Madeira
The island was settled by Portuguese people, especially farmers from
the Minho region, meaning that Madeirans (Portuguese:
Madeirenses), as they are called, are ethnically Portuguese, though
they have developed their own distinct regional identity and cultural
The region has a total population of just under 270,000, the majority
of whom live on the main island of
Madeira where the population
density is 337/km²; meanwhile only around 5,000 live on the Porto
Santo Island where the population density is 112/km².
About 247,000 (96%) of the population are Catholic and
Funchal is the
location of the Catholic cathedral.
Main article: Portuguese diaspora
Map of the
European Union in the world, with overseas countries and
territories (OCT) and outermost regions (OMR) for which
Madeirans migrated to the United States, Venezuela, Brazil, British
Guiana, St. Vincent and Trinidad. Madeiran immigrants in North
America mostly clustered in the
New England and mid-Atlantic states,
Toronto, Northern California, and Hawaii. The city of
New Bedford is
especially rich in Madeirans, hosting the Museum of
as well as the annual Madeiran and Luso-American celebration, the
Feast of the Blessed Sacrament, the world's largest celebration of
Madeiran heritage, regularly drawing crowds of tens of thousands to
In 1846, when a famine struck
Madeira over 6,000 of the inhabitants
migrated to British Guiana. In 1891 they numbered 4.3% of the
population. In 1902 in Honolulu,
Hawaii there were 5,000
Portuguese people, mostly Madeirans. In 1910 this grew to 21,000.
1849 saw an emigration of Protestant religious exiles from
the United States, by way of Trinidad and other locations in the West
Indies. Most of them settled in Illinois with financial and
physical aid of the American Protestant Society, headquartered in New
York City. In the late 1830s the Reverend Robert Reid Kalley, from
Scotland, a Presbyterian minister as well as a physician, made a stop
Madeira on his way to a mission in China, with his wife,
so that she could recover from an illness. The Rev. Kalley and his
wife stayed on
Madeira where he began preaching the Protestant gospel
and converting islanders from Catholicism. Eventually, the Rev.
Kalley was arrested for his religious conversion activities and
imprisoned. Another missionary from Scotland, William Hepburn
Hewitson, took on Protestant ministerial activities in Madeira. By
1846, about 1,000 Protestant Madeirenses, who were discriminated
against and the subjects of mob violence because of their religious
conversions, chose to immigrate to Trinidad and other locations in the
West Indies in answer for a call for sugar plantation workers. The
Madeirenses exiles did not fare well in the West Indies. The tropical
climate was unfamiliar and they found themselves in serious economic
difficulties. By 1848, the American Protestant Society raised money
and sent the Rev. Manuel J. Gonsalves, a Baptist minister and a
naturalized U.S. citizen from Madeira, to work with the Rev. Arsenio
da Silva, who had emigrated with the exiles from Madeira, to arrange
to resettle those who wanted to come to the United States. The Rev. da
Silva died in early 1849. Later in 1849, the Rev. Gonsalves was then
charged with escorting the exiles from Trinidad to be settled in
Sangamon and Morgan counties in
Illinois on land purchased with funds
raised by the American Protestant Society. Accounts state that
anywhere from 700 to 1,000 exiles came to the United States at this
There are several large Madeiran communities around the world, such as
the number in the UK, including Jersey, the Portuguese British
community mostly made up of Madeirans celebrate
Madeira is part of the Schengen Area.
In 2009, there were 7,105 legal immigrants living in
They come mostly from
Brazil (1,300), the
United Kingdom (912),
Venezuela (732) and
Ukraine (682), according to Serviço de
Estrangeiros e Fronteiras (SEF). In 2013, that number dropped to
5,829, also according to SEF. The latest figures available (2015)
detail a slight drop to 5,745, the majority of which are from the
United Kingdom (818),
Brazil (752) and
Venezuela (581). The
ongoing crisis in
Venezuela has increased the flux of immigrants from
the nation particularly from those with double citizenship (former
Madeira immigrants) since 2017.
Free Trade Zone and Public Administration
Caniçal on the left and
Madeira Free Trade Zone on the right
The setting-up of a free trade zone has led to the installation, under
more favourable conditions, of infrastructure, production shops and
essential services for small and medium-sized industrial enterprises.
The International Business Centre of
Madeira comprises presently three
sectors of investment: the Industrial Free Trade Zone, the
International Shipping Register - MAR and the International Services.
Madeira's tax regime has been approved by the European Commission as
legal State Aid and its deadline has recently been extended by the
E.C. until the end of 2027. The International Business Centre of
Madeira also known as
Madeira Free Trade Zone, was created formally in
the 80’s as a tool of regional economic policy. It consists of a set
of incentives, mainly of a tax nature, granted with the objective of
attracting inward investment into Madeira, recognized as the most
efficient mechanism to modernize, diversify and internationalize the
regional economy. The decision to create the International Business
Madeira was the result of a thorough process of analysis and
study. Other small island economies, with similar geographical and
economic restraints, had successfully implemented projects of
attraction of foreign direct investment based on international
services activities, becoming therefore examples of successful
economic policies. Since the beginning, favorable operational and
fiscal conditions have been offered in the context of a preferential
tax regime, fully recognized and approved by the European Commission
in the framework of State aid for regional purposes and under the
terms of the Ultra-peripheral Regions set in the Treaties, namely
Article 299º of the Treaty of the European Union. The IBC of Madeira
has therefore been fully integrated in the Portuguese and E.U. legal
systems and, as a consequence, it is regulated and supervised by the
competent Portuguese and E.U. authorities in a transparent and stable
business environment, marking a clear difference from the so-called
“tax havens” and “offshore jurisdictions”, since its
inception. In 2015, the European Commission authorized the new State
aid regime for new companies incorporated between 2015 and 2020 and
the extension of the deadline of the tax reductions until the end of
2027. The present tax regime is outlined in Article 36º-A of the
Portuguese Tax Incentives Statute. Available data clearly demonstrates
the contribution that this development programme has brought to the
local economy over its 20 years of existence: impact in the local
labour market, through the creation of qualified jobs for the young
population but also for madeiran professionals who have returned to
Madeira thanks to the opportunities now created; an increase in
productivity due to the transfer of know how and the implementation of
new business practices and technologies; Indirect influence on other
sectors of activity: business tourism benefits from the visits of
investors and their clients and suppliers, and other sectors such as
real estate, telecommunications and other services benefit from the
growth of their client base; impact on direct sources of revenue: the
companies attracted by the IBC of
Madeira represent over 40% of the
revenue in terms of corporate income tax for the Government of Madeira
and nearly 3.000 jobs, most of which qualified, amongst other
benefits. Also there's above average salaries paid by the companies in
the IBC of
Madeira in comparison with the wages paid in the other
sectors of activity in Madeira.
Madeira has been a significant recipient of
European Union funding,
totalling up to €2 billion. In 2012, it was reported that despite a
population of just 250,000, the local administration owes some €6
billion. Furthermore, the Portuguese treasury (IGCP) assumed
Madeira's debt management between 2012 and 2015. The region continues
to work with the central government on a long-term plan to reduce its
debt levels and commercial debt stock. Moody's notes that the
region has made significant fiscal consolidation efforts and that its
tax revenue collection has increased significantly in recent years due
to tax rate hikes. Madeira's tax revenues increased by 41% between
2012 and 2016, helping the region to reduce its deficit to operating
revenue ratio to 10% in 2016 from 77% in 2013.
The manufactured coastal beach of Calheta: replacing the dark
rock/sand of the volcanic island with beach sand.
Tourism is an important sector in the region's economy since it
contributes 20% to the region's GDP, providing support throughout
the year for commercial, transport and other activities and
constituting a significant market for local products. The share in
Gross Value Added of hotels and restaurants (9%) also highlights this
phenomenon. The island of Porto Santo, with its 9 km
(5.6 mi) long beach and its climate, is entirely devoted to
Visitors are mainly from the European Union, with German, British,
Scandinavian and Portuguese tourists providing the main contingents.
The average annual occupancy rate was 60.3% in 2008, reaching its
maximum in March and April, when it exceeds 70%.
Whale watching has become very popular in recent years. Many species
of dolphins, such as common dolphin, spotted dolphin, striped dolphin,
bottlenose dolphin, short-finned pilot whale, and whales such as
Bryde's whale, Sei whale, fin whale, sperm whale, beaked whales
can be spotted near the coast or offshore.
Madeira is provided solely through EEM - Empresa de
Electricidade da Madeira, SA - who hold a monopoly for the provision
of electrical supply on the autonomous region - and consists largely
of fossil fuels, but with a significant supply of seasonal
hydroelectricity from the
Levada system, wind power and a small amount
of solar. In 2011, renewable energy formed 26.5% of the electricity
used in Madeira.
Main article: Transport in Madeira
A ferry makes daily trips between
Madeira and Porto Santo.
The Islands have two airports,
Cristiano Ronaldo International Airport
Porto Santo Airport, on the islands of
Madeira and Porto Santo
Cristiano Ronaldo International Airport
Cristiano Ronaldo International Airport the most
frequent flights are to Lisbon. There are also direct flights to over
30 other airports in
Europe and nearby islands.
Transport between the two main islands is by plane, or ferries from
Porto Santo Line, the latter also carrying vehicles. Visiting
the interior of the islands is now easy thanks to construction of the
Vias Rápidas, major roads that cross the island. Modern roads reach
all points of interest on the islands.
Funchal has an extensive public transportation system. Bus companies,
including Horários do
Funchal which has been operating for over a
hundred years, have regularly scheduled routes to all points of
interest on the island.
Bailinho da Madeira
Folklore music in
Madeira is widespread and mainly uses local musical
instruments such as the machete, rajao, brinquinho and cavaquinho,
which are used in traditional folkloric dances like the bailinho da
Madeira also influenced the creation of new musical
instruments. In the 1880s, the ukulele was created, based on two small
guitar-like instruments of Madeiran origin, the cavaquinho and the
rajao. The ukulele was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands by
Portuguese immigrants from
Madeira and Cape Verde. Three
immigrants in particular, Madeiran cabinet makers Manuel Nunes, José
do Espírito Santo, and Augusto Dias, are generally credited as the
first ukulele makers. Two weeks after they disembarked from the SS
Ravenscrag in late August 1879, the Hawaiian Gazette reported that
Madeira Islanders recently arrived here, have been delighting the
people with nightly street concerts."
"Lapas", the true limpet species Patella vulgata
Because of the geographic situation of
Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean,
the island has an abundance of fish of various kinds. The species that
are consumed the most are espada (black scabbardfish), blue fin tuna,
white marlin, blue marlin, albacore, bigeye tuna, wahoo, spearfish,
skipjack tuna and many others are found in the local dishes as they
are found up and down the coast of Madeira. Espada is often served
Bacalhau is also popular, as it is in Portugal.
There are many meat dishes on Madeira, one of the most popular being
Espetada is traditionally made of large chunks of beef
rubbed in garlic, salt and bay leaf and marinated for 4 to 6 hours in
Madeira wine, red wine vinegar and olive oil then skewered onto a bay
laurel stick and left to grill over smouldering wood chips. These are
so integral a part of traditional eating habits that a special iron
stand is available with a T-shaped end, each branch of the "T" having
a slot in the middle to hold a brochette (espeto in Portuguese); a
small plate is then placed underneath to collect the juices. The
brochettes are very long and have a V-shaped blade in order to pierce
the meat more easily. It is usually accompanied with the local bread
called bolo do caco.
Other popular dishes in
Madeira include açorda, feijoada, carne de
Traditional pastries in
Madeira usually contain local ingredients, one
of the most common being mel de cana, literally "sugarcane honey"
(molasses). The traditional cake of
Madeira is called Bolo de Mel,
which translates as (Sugarcane) "Honey Cake" and according to custom,
is never cut with a knife, but broken into pieces by hand. It is a
rich and heavy cake. The cake commonly well known as "
Madeira Cake" in
England also finds its naming roots in the Island of Madeira.
Malasadas are a Madeiran creation which were taken around the world by
emigrants to places such as Hawaii. In Madeira, Malasadas are mainly
consumed during the Carnival of Madeira. Pastéis de nata, as in the
rest of Portugal, are also very popular.
Milho frito is a very popular dish in
Madeira which is very similar to
the Italian dish polenta.
Açorda Madeirense is another popular local
Madeira labelled by the different grape varieties used to
produce the many styles of wine
Coral Beer, produced since 1872 in the Island's main brewery, has
Monde Selection medals
Madeira is a fortified wine, produced in the
varieties may be sweet or dry. It has a history dating back to the Age
of Exploration when
Madeira was a standard port of call for ships
heading to the
New World or East Indies. To prevent the wine from
spoiling, neutral grape spirits were added. However, wine producers of
Madeira discovered, when an unsold shipment of wine returned to the
islands after a round trip, that the flavour of the wine had been
transformed by exposure to heat and movement. Today,
Madeira is noted
for its unique winemaking process which involves heating the wine and
deliberately exposing the wine to some levels of oxidation. Most
countries limit the use of the term
Madeira to those wines that come
Madeira Islands, to which the
European Union grants Protected
Designation of Origin (PDO) status.
A local beer called Coral is produced by the
Madeira Brewery, which
dates from 1872. It has achieved 2
Monde Selection Grand Gold Medals,
Monde Selection Gold Medals and 2
Monde Selection Silver
Medals. Other alcoholic drinks are also popular in Madeira, such
as the locally created Poncha, Niquita, Pé de Cabra, Aniz, as well as
Portuguese drinks such as Macieira Brandy, Licor Beirão.
Laranjada is a type of carbonated soft drink with an orange flavour,
its name being derived from the Portuguese word laranja ("orange").
Launched in 1872 it was the first soft drink to be produced in
Portugal, and remains very popular to the present day. Brisa drinks, a
brand name, are also very popular and come in a range of flavours.
There is also a huge coffee culture in Madeira. Like in mainland
Portugal, popular coffee-based drinks include Garoto, Galão, Bica,
Café com Cheirinho, Mazagran,
Chinesa and many more.
Main article: Sport in Madeira
Madeira Island has the following sister provinces:
Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley,
: Bailiwick of Jersey,
British Crown Dependencies
British Crown Dependencies (1998)
: Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
: Jeju Province,
South Korea (2007)
: Gibraltar, British Overseas
Territory (2009) 
Main article: Postage stamps and postal history of Madeira
Portugal has issued postage stamps for
Madeira during several periods,
beginning in 1868.
Cristiano Ronaldo, born in Madeira, was the 2008, 2013, 2014, 2016 and
FIFA World Player of the Year
Joe Berardo is a businessman, stock investor, speculator and art
collector. He is also one of the wealthiest people in Portugal.
The following people were either born or have lived part of their
lives in Madeira:
Charles I of Austria, last
Emperor of Austria
Emperor of Austria and last King of Hungary
Joe Berardo, Portuguese millionaire, and art collector
Rubina Berardo, Portuguese politician
António de Abreu, naval officer and navigator
Nadia Almada, a winner of the British reality show Big Brother
Menasseh Ben Israel, Jewish Rabbi.
Charles I of Austria, deposed monarch, died in exile on
Catarina Fagundes, Olympic athlete for windsurf
Vânia Fernandes, Portuguese singer who represented
José Vicente de Freitas, military general and politician
Vasco da Gama Rodrigues, poet, born in Paul do Mar
Teodósio Clemente de Gouveia, Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church
George Walter Grabham, geologist
Herberto Hélder, poet
Moisés Henriques, former Australian Under-19 Captain and current NSW
Blues and Australian international
Alberto João Jardim, second President of the Regional Government
Luís Jardim, producer of music
Paul Langerhans, German pathologist and biologist
Fátima Lopes, fashion designer
Jaime Ornelas Camacho, first and former President of the Regional
Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos, former Archbishop of the former
Portuguese colonial enclave
Goa (in India)
Lloyd Mathews, British naval officer, politician and abolitionist
Dionísio Pestana, president of the Pestana Group
Rigo 23, artist
João Rodrigues, Olympic windsurfer
Cristiano Ronaldo, Real Madrid,
Portugal and former Manchester United
John Santos, photographer
Ana da Silva, founding member of the post-punk band The Raincoats
Pedro Macedo Camacho, composer
Flávia Brito, Miss Universo
Portugal 2016, beauty pageant
Manoel Dias Soeyro or
Menasseh Ben Israel
Menasseh Ben Israel (1604–1657), Sephardi
Rabbi and publisher
Artur de Sousa Pinga, former
CS Marítimo and FC Porto football player
Maximiano de Sousa (Max), popular singer, born in Funchal
Virgílio Teixeira, actor
José Travassos Valdez, 1st Count of Bonfim, governor during
Miguel Albuquerque, third and current President of the Regional
Bernardo Sousa, rally driver in the WRC
List of birds of Madeira
Madeira Islands Open, an annual European Tour golf tournament
Surfing in Madeira
Ribeiro Frio, a village on the island of Madeira
^ Until 2002, the
Portuguese escudo was used in financial
transactions, and until 1910 the
Portuguese real was the currency used
by the monarchy of Portugal.
^ a b "Regiões de Portugal". AICEP. Archived from the original on 29
^ INE, ed. (2010), Censos 2011 - Resultadas Preliminares [2011 Census
- Preliminary Results] (in Portuguese), Lisbon, Portugal: Instituto
Nacional de Estatística, retrieved 1 July 2011
^ IGP, ed. (2010), Carta Administrativa Oficial de
Portuguese), Lisbon, Portugal: Instituto Geográfico Português,
archived from the original on 21 May 2011, retrieved 1 July 2011
^ "Hotelaria da
Madeira suaviza quebras em 2010 apesar de impacto
devastador dos temporais". presstur.com. October 2, 2011. Retrieved 16
^  Archived 23 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "A Guinness World Record Fireworks Show –
2006-2007 New Year Eve at Wayfaring Travel Guide". Wayfaring.info.
Archived from the original on 14 January 2007. Retrieved 16 September
Madeira welcomes most cruisers". The
Portugal News. Retrieved 12
^ About IBC, International Business Centre of Madeira, 19.03.2018
^ Plutarch, The Parallel Lives : Sertorius, ch. 8
^ World Archaeology, Issue 66, August/September 2014, Volume 6, No. 6,
^ Nicholas Cayetano de Bettencourt Pitta, 1812, p.11-17
^ Fernández-Armesto, Felipe (2004). "Machim (supp. fl. 14th cent.)".
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/17535. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
^ Nicholas Cayetano de Bettencourt Pitta, 1812, p.20
^ The discoveries of
Porto Santo and
Madeira were first described by
Gomes Eanes de Zurara
Gomes Eanes de Zurara in Chronica da Descoberta e Conquista da Guiné.
(Eng. version by Edgar Prestage in 2 vols. issued by the Hakluyt
Society, London, 1896–1899: The Chronicle of Discovery and Conquest
of Guinea.) French author
Arkan Simaan refers to these discoveries in
his historical novel based on Azurara's Chronicle: L'Écuyer d'Henri
le Navigateur (2007), published by Éditions l'Harmattan, Paris.
^ Dervenn, Claude (1957). Madeira. Translated by Hogarth-Gaute,
Frances. London, UK:
George G. Harrap and Co. p. 20.
OCLC 645870163. Retrieved 2016-06-07. And when he returned in May
1420 to take possession of "his" island, it was with his wife and the
sons and daughters that the virtuous Constanga had given him.
^ Alfred W. Crosby (6 October 2015). Ecological Imperialism, The
Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900 (2 ed.). Cambridge
University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-107-56987-4.
^ Ponting, Clive (2000) . World history: a new perspective.
London: Chatto & Windus. p. 482.
^ Godinho, V. M. Os Descobrimentos e a Economia Mundial, Arcádia,
1965, Vol 1 and 2, Lisboa
^ Fernando Augusto da Silva & Carlos Azevedo de Menezes, "Porto
Santo", Elucidário Madeirense, vol. 3 (O-Z), Funchal, DRAC, p. 124.
^ Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the
Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800. Robert Davis
(2004). p.7. ISBN 1-4039-4551-9.
^ "Officer's presentation sword given to Brigadier General William
Henry Clinton from the British Consul and Factory in Madeira, 1802".
National Army Museum. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
^ "GORDON, Sir James Willoughby, 1st bt. (1772-1851), of Niton,
I.o.W". UK Parliament. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
^ "The Map Room: Africa: Madeira". British Empire. Retrieved 30 July
^ "Cable ship Dacia". Ships hit by U-boats - German and Austrian
U-boats of World War One - Kaiserliche Marine. uboat.net. 13 November
2010. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
^ Glover, Bill (10 July 2015). "CS Dacia". History of the Atlantic
Cable & Undersea Communications. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
^ "Submarine carrier Kanguroo". Ships hit by U-boats - German and
Austrian U-boats of World War One - Kaiserliche Marine. uboat.net. 13
November 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
Gunboat Surprise". Ships hit by U-boats - German and Austrian
U-boats of World War One - Kaiserliche Marine. uboat.net. 13 November
2010. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
^ "A bit of History". Retrieved 2016-10-16.
^ Valentiner, Max (1917). 300000 tonnen versenkt! Meine
U-boots-fahrten (50. bis 100. tausend. ed.). Berlin: Ullstein &
co. p. 118. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
^ The New York Times, 6 November 1921 (accessed 4 May 2009)
^ "Madeira: Número de mortos aumentou para 42", Público (in
Portuguese), 26 February 2010, archived from the original on 11 June
^ "Sobe para 43 o número de mortos, já se contam mais de 100
feridos", Público (in Portuguese), 21 February 2010, archived from
the original on 19 September 2011
^ Riebeek, Holli. "Fires in Madeira, Portugal". Earth Observatory.
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
^ Sapa-DPA (16 August 2010). "Wildfires ravage Portuguese nature
parks". IOL News. Retrieved 8 September 2013. Fires that had raged
there in the recent days had devastated 95 percent of Funchal
Ecological Park, destroying a decade of efforts to replant indigenous
species in the area measuring 1 000 hectares, the daily Publico quoted
environmentalists as saying.
^ "Fires ravage
Madeira islands and mainland Portugal". Reuters. 19
July 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2013. .
^ Scott, Michon. "
Madeira Wildfires". Earth Observatory. NASA Goddard
Space Flight Center. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
^ Miller, Shari (20 July 2012). "Holiday resorts under threat as
towering walls of flame ravage
Madeira islands". Daily Mail. Retrieved
8 September 2013. Dds.
Madeira hit by forest fires". BBC News. 20 July 2012.
Retrieved 8 September 2013. ces.
^ "Denguekuume leviää Madeiralla ('Dengue Fever Spreads In
Madeira')". YLE.fi. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
^ "Dengue Fever in Madeira, Portugal". WHO. 17 October 2012. Retrieved
20 October 2012.
^ "Dengue outbreak in
Madeira controlled". Retrieved 11 April
^ Porter, Tom (17 August 2013). "Hospital Evacuated as Fire Rages on
Madeira". IBTimes UK. Retrieved 8 September 2013. .
^ "Wildfire inferno forces hospital and homes to be evacuated on
Portuguese island Madeira". euronews. 17 August 2013. Retrieved 8
September 2013. .
^ Minder, Raphael (August 11, 2016). "Deadly Wildfires on Portuguese
Madeira Reach Its Largest City". nytimes.com. Retrieved
August 11, 2016.
^ Falling tree kills 13 on Portuguese island of Madeira, BBC,
Madeira Islands Tourism". Madeiraislands.travel. Archived from the
original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
^ Ribeiro et al., 1996
^ Kullberg & Kullberg, 2000
^ Geldemacher et al., 2000
^ Ribeiro, 2001
^ a b "Madeira". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian
^ "MadeiraHelp.com". MadeiraHelp.com. 22 February 1999. Archived from
the original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
^ Robert White, 1851, p.4
^ "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". Archived
from the original on 6 September 2010.
^ "Lava Pools". tripadvisor.com.
^ "Weather Information for Funchal".
Madeira Climate, Temperature, Average Weather History,
^ Góis-Marques, Carlos A.; Madeira, José; Menezes de Sequeira,
Miguel (7 February 2017). "Inventory and review of the
Pleistocene São Jorge flora (
Madeira Island, Portugal):
palaeoecological and biogeographical implications". Journal of
Systematic Palaeontology: 1–19.
^ Fernandes, F. (2011). "Jasminum azoricum". IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
^ a b c Arnold, E. Nicholas; Ovenden, Denys W. (2002). Field Guide:
Reptiles & Amphibians of Britain & Europe. London: Collins
& Co. pp. 154–155. ISBN 9780002199643.
UNESCO World Heritage. "Levadas of
Madeira Island —
UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved
^ a b "Censos 2011 Resultados Preliminares 2011". INE.
^ Map of municipalities at FreguesiasDePortugas l.com
^ Statistics include Savage Islands, which are administered by the
parish of Sé
^ Statistics include the mainland parish of Santa Cruz and the islands
of the Desertas
^ Statistics represent island population;
Porto Santo is the second
largest island in the archipelago of Madeira
^ "Alberto Vieira, ''O Infante e a Madeira: dúvidas e certezas,
Centro Estudos História Atlântico". Ceha-madeira.net. Archived from
the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
^ "Diocese of Funchal". Catholic Hierarchy. Retrieved 16 January
^ "Madeiran Portuguese Migration to Guyana, St. Vincent, Antigua and
Trinidad: A Comparative Overview" (PDF). Jo-Anne S. Ferreira,
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine
Madeira and Emigration"
^ "Portuguese emigration from
Madeira to British Guiana"
^ "Portuguese Immigrants in the United States: Chronology, 1900-1919".
Library of Congress. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
^ "Protestant Exiles from
Madeira in Illinois". loc.gov.
^ "Portuguese Immigration To Jacksonville In 1849".
^ "History of Sangamon County, Illinois". google.com.
^ "Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois". google.com.
^ "The Christian World". google.com.
^ "BBC –
^ a b c "SEFSTAT –
Portal de Estatística". Sefstat.sef.pt.
Retrieved 30 July 2010.
^ "International Business Centre of
Madeira - About IBC".
^ "Billions of euros of EU money yet
Madeira has built up massive
debts". Retrieved 10 July 2016.
Autonomous Region of -- Moody's changes outlook to positive
on the ratings of
Azores and Madeira; ratings affirmed, Markets
^ Moody's changes outlook to positive on the ratings of
Madeira; ratings affirmed, Moody's, 19.03.2018
^ "Telegraph article". www.telegraph.co.uk. 23 February 2010.
Retrieved 8 March 2015.
^ "Statistics from DRE of
Madeira tourism (2008)" (PDF). Retrieved 30
^ Sei Whale, Balaenoptera borealis off Madeira, Portugal. YouTube. 3
Madeira whale and Dolphin watching". www.madeirawindbirds.com. 30
August 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
Madeira > Departures > Destinations and Airlines >
Destinations and Airlines". Retrieved 10 July 2016.
^ Administrator. "
Porto Santo Line". Retrieved 10 July 2016.
^ Nidel, Richard (2004). World Music: The Basics. Routledge.
p. 312. ISBN 978-0-415-96800-3.
^ Roberts, Helen (1926). Ancient Hawaiian Music. Bernice P. Bishop
Museum. pp. 9–10.
^ King, John (2000). "Prolegomena to a History of the 'Ukulele".
Ukulele Guild of Hawai'i. Archived from the original on 3 August 2004.
Retrieved February 2, 2016.
^ "Fish that can be found in
Archipelago undersea". Madeira
Birdwatching. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
Madeira Espetada". theworldwidegourmet.com. Retrieved 30 August
^ a b Coral Branca, Empresa de Cervejas da Madeira, ECM.pt, 30.10.2017
^ T. Stevenson "The Sotheby's
Wine Encyclopedia" pg 340–341 Dorling
Kindersley 2005 ISBN 0-7566-1324-8
^ "Labelling of wine and certain other wine sector products".
Europa.eu. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
Pitta, Nicholas Cayetano de Bettencourt (1812). Account of the Island
of Madeira. London, UK: C.Stewart Printer.
Koebel, William Henry (1909). Madeira : old and new. London, UK:
Dervenn, Claude (1957). Madeira. Translated by Hogarth-Gaute, Frances.
London, UK: George G. Harrap and Co.
Walvin, James (2000). Making the Black Atlantic: Britain and the
African Diaspora. London, UK: Cassell.
Find more aboutMadeiraat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Wikimedia Atlas of Madeira
Madeira's Government Website
Madeira at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Statistical divisions of Portugal
Tâmega e Sousa
Terras de Trás-os-Montes
Beiras e Serra da Estrela
Região de Aveiro
Região de Coimbra
Região de Leiria
Viseu Dão Lafões
Lezíria do Tejo
All these divisions are further subdivided into municipalities and
Districts and autonomous regions of Portugal
Viana do Castelo
Countries and territories of North Africa
Partially recognized state
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Vélez de la Gomera2
Wadi Halfa Salient4
1Entirely claimed by both
Morocco and the SADR. 2Spanish exclaves
claimed by Morocco. 3Portuguese archipelago claimed by Spain.
Sudan and Egypt. 5
Terra nullius located between
Egypt and Sudan. 6Disputed between
Sudan and South Sudan. 7Part of
Chad, formerly claimed by Libya. 8Disputed between
Morocco and Spain
Outlying territories of European countries
Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents
Europe (see inclusion criteria for further information).
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Wallis and Futuna
Peter I Island
Queen Maud Land
Plazas de soberanía
Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera
British Antarctic Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Portuguese overseas empire
Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)
Mazagan (El Jadida)
Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)
Aguz (Souira Guedima)
Mazagan (El Jadida)
São João da Mamora (Mehdya)
Fernando Poo (Bioko)
Elmina (São Jorge da Mina)
Portuguese Gold Coast
São João Baptista de Ajudá
Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe
1 Part of São Tomé and
Príncipe from 1753.
2 Or 1600.
3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases.
4 Part of
Portuguese Guinea from 1879.
5 Part of
Portuguese Angola from the 1920s.
Middle East [Persian Gulf]
Gamru (Bandar Abbas)
Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)
Bahrain (Muharraq • Manama)
(Coulão / Kollam)
Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)
Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)
(Porto Grande De Bengala)
Daman and Diu
Portuguese Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
East Asia and Oceania
Portuguese Malacca [Malaysia]
Portuguese Timor (East Timor)1
Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)
1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and
subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence
was fully recognized.
North America & North Atlantic
15th century [Atlantic islands]
16th century [Canada]
Terra Nova (Newfoundland)
South America & Antilles
Captaincy Colonies of Brazil
Rio de Janeiro
Nova Colónia do Sacramento
Grão-Pará and Maranhão
Grão-Pará and Rio Negro
Maranhão and Piauí
Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)
Upper Peru (Bolivia)
Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies
Evolution of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese colonial architecture
Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia
Portuguese colonization of the Americas
Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia
Outermost regions of
European Union states