LIMA (/ˈliːmə/ , Spanish pronunciation: , Quechua : , Aymara :
) is the capital and the largest city of
Peru . It is located in the
valleys of the Chillón , Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central
coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together
with the seaport of
Callao , it forms a contiguous urban area known as
Lima Metropolitan Area . With a population of more than 10
Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of
Peru and the
third-largest city in the
Americas (as defined by "city proper"),
São Paulo and
Mexico City .
Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador
Francisco Pizarro on January
18, 1535, as _Ciudad de los Reyes_. It became the capital and most
important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of
Peru . Following the
Peruvian War of Independence , it became the capital of the Republic
of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the
metropolitan area .
Lima is home to one of the oldest higher-learning institutions in the
New World. The
National University of San Marcos , founded on May 12,
1551 during the Spanish colonial regime , is the oldest continuously
functioning university in the
In October 2013
Lima was chosen to host the
2019 Pan American Games .
It also hosted the December 2014 United Nations Climate Change
Conference and the
Miss Universe 1982 pageant.
In October 2015
Lima hosted the 2015 Annual Meetings of the World
Bank Group and the
International Monetary Fund .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Symbols
* 2.1 Flag
* 2.2 Anthem
* 3 History
* 4 Geography
* 4.1 Climate
* 5 Demographics
* 6 Economy
* 7 Government
* 7.1 National
* 7.2 Local
* 7.3 Political system
* 7.4 International organizations
* 8 Cityscape
* 9 Society and culture
* 9.1 Language
* 9.2 Museums
* 9.3 Tourism
* 9.4 Food
* 9.5 Sports
* 10 Subdivisions
* 11 Education
* 12 Transport
* 12.1 Air
* 12.2 Road
* 12.3 Maritime
* 12.4 Rail
* 12.5 Public
* 12.5.1 Colectivos
* 12.5.2 Metropolitan Transport System
* 12.5.3 Metro
* 12.6 Other transportation issues
* 13 Challenges
* 13.1 Environment
* 13.1.1 Air
* 13.1.2 Water
* 13.1.3 Solid Waste
* 13.2 Access to basic services
* 13.3 Security
* 14 International relations
* 15 See also
* 16 References
* 16.1 Notes
* 16.2 Further reading
* 17 External links
According to early Spanish articles the
Lima area was once called
_Itchyma_, after its original inhabitants. However, even before the
Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in
the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as _Limaq_ (LIMAQ,
pronounced , which means "talker" or "speaker" in the coastal Quechua
that was the area's primary language before the Spanish arrival). This
oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a
church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing
"Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the
Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence
seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish consistently rejects
stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers
may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation
of "lime ", the citrus fruit.
The city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings
(Spanish : _Ciudad de los Reyes_) because its foundation was decided
on January 6, date of the feast of the Epiphany . This name quickly
fell into disuse and _Lima_ became the city's name of choice; on the
oldest Spanish maps of Peru, both _Lima_ and _Ciudad de los Reyes_ can
be seen together.
The river that feeds
Lima is called _Rímac_ and many people
erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is
"Talking River" (the Incas spoke a highland variety of Quechua where
the word for "talker" was pronounced ). However, the original
inhabitants of the valley were not Incas. This name is an innovation
arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to
standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of
Cuzco Quechua . Later, as the original inhabitants died out and the
local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between
the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it.
They often assume that the valley is named after the river; however,
Spanish documents from the colonial period show the opposite to be
Flag of Lima has been known as the «Banner of
Peru's Kings' City». It is made from a golden color silk canvas and
embroidered in the center is its coat of arms.
Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on January 18, 2008, in a
formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian
Alan García , and other authorities. The anthem was created
by Luis Enrique Tord (lyrics), Euding Maeshiro (music) and record
producer Ricardo Núñez (arranger ).
History of Lima and
Timeline of Lima Pachacamac
was an important religious centre before the arrival of Spanish
conquistadors Balconies were a major architectural feature
during the colonial period
In the pre-Columbian era , what is now
Lima was inhabited by
indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, which was incorporated into
Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish
_conquistadors _, led by
Francisco Pizarro , defeated the Inca ruler
Atahualpa and took over his Empire. As the Spanish Crown had named
Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac
valley to found his capital on January 18, 1535 as _Ciudad de los
Reyes_ (City of the Kings). In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by
Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the
Spaniards and their native allies.
Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the
Peru and site of a _
Real Audiencia _ in 1543. During
the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade
network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas,
Europe and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers;
the presence of pirates and privateers in the Pacific Ocean lead to
the building of the
Walls of Lima between 1684 and 1687. The 1687
Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings; the earthquake
marked a turning point in the city's history as it coincided with a
trade recession and growing economic competition with cities such as
Buenos Aires .
In 1746, another powerful earthquake severely damaged
Callao , forcing a massive rebuilding effort under Viceroy
José Antonio Manso de Velasco . In the later half of the 18th
century, Enlightenment ideas on public health and social control
shaped development. During this period,
Lima was adversely affected
Bourbon Reforms as it lost its monopoly on overseas trade and
its control over the mining region of Upper
Peru . The city's
economic decline left its elite dependent on royal and ecclesiastical
appointment and thus, reluctant to advocate independence.
A combined expedition of Argentine and Chilean patriots under General
José de San Martín landed south of
Lima in 1820 but did not attack
the city. Faced with a naval blockade and the action of guerrillas on
José de la Serna e Hinojosa evacuated its capital in
July 1821 to save the Royalist army. Fearing a popular uprising and
lacking any means to impose order, the city council invited San
Martín to enter
Lima and signed a Declaration of Independence at his
request. However, the war was not over; in the next two years the
city changed hands several times. The
Walls of Lima were built
between 1684 and 1687 by viceroy Melchor de Navarra .
Lima became the capital of the Republic of Peru
but economic stagnation and political turmoil brought urban
development to a halt. This hiatus ended in the 1850s, when increased
public and private revenues from guano exports led to a rapid
development of the city. The export-led expansion also widened the
gap between rich and poor, fostering social unrest. During the
War of the Pacific , Chilean troops occupied Lima, looting
public museums, libraries and educational institutions. At the same
time, angry mobs attacked wealthy citizens and the Asian population;
sacking their properties and businesses. The city underwent renewal
and expansion from the 1890s to the 1920s. During this period the
urban layout was modified by the construction of broad avenues that
crisscrossed the city and connected it with neighboring towns.
On May 24, 1940 an earthquake destroyed most of the city, which at
that time was mostly built of adobe and _quincha _. In the 1940s Lima
started a period of rapid growth spurred by migration from the Andean
region, as rural people sought opportunities for work and education.
The population, estimated at 0.6 million in 1940, reached 1.9 million
by 1960 and 4.8 million by 1980. At the start of this period, the
urban area was confined to a triangular area bounded by the city's
historic centre ,
Callao and Chorrillos ; in the following decades
settlements spread to the north, beyond the Rímac River, to the east,
along the Central Highway and to the south. The new migrants, at
first confined to slums in downtown Lima, led this expansion through
large-scale land invasions, which evolved into shanty towns, known as
_pueblos jóvenes _.
Lima as seen from the
International Space Station
International Space Station Lima
at night from space
The urban area covers about 800 km2 (310 sq mi). It is located on
mostly flat terrain in the Peruvian coastal plain , within the valleys
of the Chillón , Rímac and Lurín rivers. The city slopes gently
from the shores of the Pacific Ocean into valleys and mountain slopes
located as high as 1,550 meters (5,090 ft) above sea level. Within the
city are isolated hills that are not connected to the surrounding hill
chains, such as El Agustino, San Cosme, El Pino, La Milla, Muleria and
Pro hills. The San Cristobal hill in the Rímac District, which lies
directly north of the downtown area, is the local extreme of an Andean
Lima covers 2,672.28 km2 (1,031.77 sq mi), of which 825.88 km2
(318.87 sq mi) (31%) comprise the actual city and 1,846.40 km2 (712.90
sq mi) (69%) the city outskirts. The urban area extends around 60 km
(37 mi) from north to south and around 30 km (19 mi) from west to
east. The city center is located 15 km (9.3 mi) inland at the shore of
the Rímac River, a vital resource for the city, since it carries what
will become drinking water for its inhabitants and fuels the
hydroelectric dams that provide electricity to the area. While no
official administrative definition for the city exists, it is usually
considered to be composed of the central 30 of 43 districts of Lima
Province , corresponding to an urban area centered around the historic
Lima district. The city is the core of the
Lima Metro Area
, one of the ten largest metro areas in the
Lima is the
world's second largest desert city, after
Weather averages for the
Jorge Chávez International Airport
Despite its location in the tropics and in a desert , Lima's
proximity to the cool waters of the Pacific Ocean leads to
temperatures much lower than those expected for a tropical desert and
Lima can be classified as a mild desert climate (Köppen : _BWn_)
with subtropical temperature ranges. Temperatures rarely fall below 14
°C (57 °F) or rise above 29 °C (84 °F). Two distinct seasons can
be identified: summer, from December through April; and winter from
June through October. May and November are generally transition
months, with a more dramatic warm-to-cool weather transition.
Daily temperatures oscillate between lows of 18 °C (64 °F) to 22
°C (72 °F) and highs of 24 °C (75 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F).
Occasional coastal fogs on some mornings and high clouds in some
afternoons and evenings can be present. Summer sunsets are colorful,
labeled by locals as "cielo de brujas" (Spanish for "sky of witches"),
since the sky commonly turns shades of orange, pink and red around 7
pm. Winter weather is dramatically different. Grey skies, breezy
conditions, higher humidity and cooler temperatures prevail. Long
(1-week or more) stretches of dark overcast skies are not uncommon.
Persistent morning drizzle occurs occasionally from June through
September, coating the streets with a thin layer of water that
generally dries up by early afternoon. Winter temperatures vary little
between day and night. They range from lows of 14 °C (57 °F) to 16
°C (61 °F) and highs of 16 °C (61 °F) to 19 °C (66 °F), rarely
exceeding 20 °C (68 °F) except in the easternmost districts.
Relative humidity is always very high, particularly in the mornings.
High humidity produces brief morning fog in the early summer and a
usually persistent low cloud deck during the winter (generally
developing in May and persisting into late November or even early
December). The predominantly onshore flow makes the
Lima area one of
the cloudiest among the entire Peruvian coast.
Lima has only 1284
hours of sunshine a year, 28.6 hours in July and 184 hours in April,
which is exceptionally little for the latitude. Winter cloudiness
prompts locals to seek for sunshine in Andean valleys located at
elevations generally above 500 meters above sea level .
While relative humidity is high, rainfall is very low due to strong
atmospheric stability. The severely low rainfall impacts on water
supply in the city, which originates from wells and from rivers that
flow from the
Andes . Inland districts receive anywhere between 1 and
6 cm (2.4 in) of rainfall per year, which accumulates mainly during
the winter months. Coastal districts receive only 1 to 3 cm (1.2 in).
As previously mentioned, winter precipitation occurs in the form of
persistent morning drizzle events. These are locally called 'garúa',
'llovizna' or 'camanchacas '. Summer rain, on the other hand, is
infrequent and occurs in the form of isolated light and brief showers.
These generally occur during afternoons and evenings when leftovers
from Andean storms arrive from the east. The lack of heavy rainfall
arises from high atmospheric stability caused, in turn, by the
combination of cool waters from semi-permanent coastal upwelling and
the presence of the cold
Humboldt Current and warm air aloft
associated with the South Pacific anticyclone.
Lima's climate (like that of most of coastal Peru) gets severely
disrupted in El Niño events. Coastal waters usually average around
17–19 °C (63–66 °F), but get much warmer (as in 1998 when the
water reached 26 °C (79 °F)). Air temperatures rise accordingly.
CLIMATE DATA FOR LIMA (JORGE CHáVEZ INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT )
1961–1990, EXTREMES 1960–PRESENT
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM)
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Deutscher Wetterdienst , Meteo Climat (record highs and
Source #2: Universidad Complutense de
Madrid (sunshine and
Demographics of Lima People of Lima.
With a municipal population of 8,852,000 and 9,752,000 for the
metropolitan area and a population density of 3,008.8 inhabitants per
square kilometre (7,793/sq mi) as of 2007 .
Lima ranks as the 30th
most populous \'agglomeration\' in the world , as of 2014 , and the
second biggest city in
South America in terms of population within
city limits, after
São Paulo . Its population features a complex mix
of racial and ethnic groups. Mestizos of mixed Amerindian and European
(mostly Spanish and Italians ) ancestry are the largest ethnic group.
European Peruvians (White people) are the second largest group. Many
are of Spanish , Italian or German descent; many others are of French
, British , or Croatian descent. The minorities in
Amerindians (mostly Aymara and Quechua ) and Afro-Peruvians , whose
African ancestors were initially brought to the region as slaves .
Jews of European descent and Middle Easterners are there. Asians ,
especially of Chinese (Cantonese) and Japanese descent, came mostly in
the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Lima has, by far, the largest
ethnic Chinese community in
Latin America. _ Children at an
elementary school in
Santiago de Surco .
Pueblos jóvenes _ on
The first settlement in what would become
Lima was made up of 117
housing blocks. In 1562, another district was built across the Rímac
River and in 1610, the first stone bridge was built.
Lima then had a
population of around 26,000; blacks made up around 40% and whites made
up around 38%. By 1748, the white population totaled 16,000–18,000.
In 1861, the number of inhabitants surpassed 100,000 and by 1927, had
During the early 20th century, thousands of immigrants came to the
city, including people of German, French, Italian and British descent.
They organized social clubs and built their own schools. Examples are
The American-Peruvian school , the Alianza Francesa de
Lima , the
Lycée Franco-Péruvien and the hospital Maison de Sante; Markham
College , the British-Peruvian school in Monterrico, Antonio Raymondi
District Italian School, the Pestalozzi Swiss School and also, several
Immigrants influenced Peruvian cuisine, with Italians in particular
exerting a strong influence in the Miraflores and San Isidro areas
with their _trattorias _.
Chinese and a lesser number of Japanese came to
Lima and established
themselves in the
Barrios Altos neighborhood near downtown Lima. Lima
residents refer to their Chinatown as _Calle Capon_ and the city's
Chifa restaurants – small, sit-down, usually Chinese-run
restaurants serving the Peruvian spin on Chinese cuisine – can be
found by the dozens in this enclave.
In 2014, the National Institute for Statistics and Information
(Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica) reported that the
population in Lima's 49 districts was 9,752,000 people, including the
Constitutional Province of Callao. The city and (metropolitan area)
represents around 29% of the national population. Of the city's
population 48.7% are men and 51.3% are women. The 49 districts in
Lima are divided into 5 areas:
Cono Norte (North Lima),
Lima Este (East Lima), Constitutional Province of Callao,
(Central Lima) and
Lima Sur (South Lima). The largest areas are Lima
Norte with 2,475,432 people and
Lima Este with 2,619,814 people,
including the largest single district San Juan de Lurigancho, which
hosts 1 million people.
Lima is considered a "young" city. According to INEI, by mid 2014 the
age distribution in
Lima was: 24.3% between 0 and 14, 27.2% between 15
and 29, 22.5% between 30 and 44, 15.4% between 45 and 59 and 10.6%
Lima from the rest of
Peru is substantial. In 2013,
3,480,000 people reported arriving from other regions. This represents
almost 36% of the entire population of Metropolitan Lima. The three
regions that supply most of the migrants are Junin, Ancash and
Ayacucho. By contrast only 390,000 emigrated from
Lima to other
The annual population growth rate is 1.57%. Some of the 43
metropolitan districts are considerably more populous than others. For
example, San Juan de Lurigancho, San Martin de Porres, Ate, Comas,
Villa El Salvador and Villa Maria del Triunfo host more than 400,000,
while San Luis, San Isidro, Magdalena del Mar, Lince and Barrancohave
have less than 60,000 residents.
A 2005 household survey study shows a socio-economic distribution for
households in Lima. It used a monthly family income of 6000 Nuevos
Soles or more for socioeconomic level A, 2000 to 6000 Nuevos Soles for
level B, 840 to 2000 Nuevos Soles for level C, 420 to 1200 Nuevos
Soles for level D and up to 840 Nuevos Soles for level E. In
were level E, 32.3% level D, 31.7% level C, 14.6% level B and 3.4%
level A. In this sense, 82% of the population lives in households that
earn less than 2000 Nuevos Soles monthly. Other salient differences
between socioeconomic levels include levels of higher education, car
ownership and home size.
Lima in 2013, the percentage of the population living
in households in poverty was 12.8%. The level of poverty is measured
by households that are unable to access a basic food and other
household goods and services, such as clothing, housing, education,
transportation and health. The level of poverty has decreased from
2011 (15.6%) and 2012 (14.5%).
Lima Sur is the area in
Lima with the
highest proportion of poverty (17.7%), followed by
Lima Este (14.5%),
Lima Norte (14.1%) and
Lima Centro (6.2%). In addition 0.2% of the
population lives in extreme poverty, meaning that they are unable to
access a basic food basket.
Lima is the country's industrial and financial centre and one of
Latin America's most important financial centers, home to many
national companies and hotels. It accounts for more than two thirds of
Peru's industrial production and most of its tertiary sector .
The Metropolitan area, with around 7,000 factories, leads industrial
development, thanks to the quantity and quality of the available
workforce , transport and other infrastructure. Products include
textiles, clothing and food. Chemicals, fish, leather and oil
derivatives are manufactured and/or processed. The financial district
is in San Isidro , while much of the industrial activity takes place
west of downtown, extending to the airport in
Lima has the
largest export industry in
South America and is a regional hub for the
Industrialization began in the 1930s and by 1950, through import
substitution policies, manufacturing made up 14% of
GNP . In the late
1950s, up to 70% of consumer goods were manufactured in factories
located in Lima.
Callao seaport is one of the main fishing and commerce ports in
South America, covering over 47 hectares (120 acres) and shipping 20.7
million metric tons of cargo in 2007. The main export goods are
commodities: oil, steel, silver, zinc, cotton, sugar and coffee.
As of 2003 ,
Lima generated 53% of GDP. Most foreign companies in
Peru settled in Lima. Financial center of Lima.
In 2007, the Peruvian economy grew 9%, the largest growth rate in
South America. The
Lima Stock Exchange rose 185.24% in 2006 and in
2007 by another 168.3%, making it then one of the fastest growing
stock exchanges in the world. In 2006, the
Lima Stock Exchange was the
world's most profitable.
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit 2008 and the Latin
America, the Caribbean and the European Union Summit were held there.
Lima is headquarters to banks such as
Banco de Crédito del Perú ,
Interbank , Bank of the Nation , Banco Continental,
MiBanco, Banco Interamericano de Finanzas, Banco Finaciero, Banco de
Comercio and CrediScotia. It is a regional headquarters to Standard
Chartered . Insurance corporations based in
Lima include Rimac
Seguros, Mapfre Peru, Interseguro, Pacifico, Protecta and La Positiva.
Government Palace of Perú
Lima is the capital city of the Republic of
Lima province .
As such, it is home to the three branches of the Government of
The executive branch is headquartered in the Government Palace ,
located in the Plaza Mayor . All ministries are located in the city.
The legislative branch is headquartered in the Legislative Palace and
is home to the Congress of the Republic of
The Judicial branch is headquartered in the Palace of Justice and is
home to the Supreme Court of
Peru . The Palace of Justice in
seat of the Supreme Court of Justice the highest judicial court in
Peru with jurisdiction over the entire territory of Peru.
Lima is seat
of two of the 28 second highest or Superior Courts of Justice . The
first and oldest Superior Court in
Lima is the _Superior Court of
Justice,_ belonging to the Judicial District and . Due to the judicial
Peru , the highest concentration of courts is located
Lima despite the fact that its judicial district has jurisdiction
over only 35 of the 43 districts . The _Superior Court of the Cono
Norte_ is the second Superior Court located in
Lima and is part of the
Judicial District of North
Lima . This judicial district has
jurisdiction over the remaining eight districts, all located in
Lima City Hall building at night
Metropolitan Municipality of Lima
The city is roughly equivalent to the
Province of Lima , which is
subdivided into 43 districts . The Metropolitan Municipality has
authority over the entire city, while each district has its own local
government. Unlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan
Municipality, although a provincial municipality , acts as and has
functions similar to a regional government , as it does not belong to
any of the 25 regions of
Peru . Each of the 43 districts has their own
distrital municipality that is in charge of its own district and
coordinate with the metropolitan municipality.
Unlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan Municipality has
functions of regional government and is not part of any administrative
region, according to Article 65. 27867 of the Law of Regional
Governments enacted on 16 November 2002, 87 The previous political
organization remains in the sense that a Governor is the political
authority for the department and the city. The functions of this
authority are mostly police and military. The same city administration
covers the local municipal authority.
Lima is home to the headquarters of the
Andean Community of Nations ,
along with other regional and international organizations.
Lima's main square, c. 1843
Lima's architecture offers a mix of styles. Examples of early
colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco , the
Cathedral and the
Torre Tagle Palace . These constructions are
generally influenced by Spanish Baroque , Spanish Neoclassical and
Spanish Colonial styles. After independence, preferences gradually
shifted toward neoclassical and
Art Nouveau styles. Many of these
works were influenced by French architectural styles. Many government
buildings and major cultural institutions were constructed in this
period. During the 1960s, the brutalist style began appearing in Lima
due to the military government of
Juan Velasco Alvarado . Examples of
this architecture include the
Museum of the Nation and the Ministry of
Defense . The early 21st century added glass skyscrapers ,
particularly around the financial district.
The largest parks are near the downtown area, including the Park of
the Reserve ,
Park of the Exposition , Campo de Marte and University
Park of the Reserve is home to the largest fountain complex
in the world known as the Magical Circuit of Water. Many large parks
lie outside the city center, including Reducto Park, Pantanos de Villa
Wildlife Refuge , El
Golf (San Isidro), Parque de las Leyendas (Lima
Zoo), El Malecon de Miraflores and the
Golf Los Incas.
The street grid is laid out with a system of plazas that are similar
to roundabouts or junctions . In addition to this practical purpose,
plazas serve as principal green spaces and contain monuments, statues
and water fountains. Overview of the
Historic Centre of Lima
SOCIETY AND CULTURE
Woman in White Poncho on Horseback.
Cantonese watercolor, sold
Lima mid-19th century. These paintings were copies of works of
Francisco Fierro , a popular
Afro-Peruvian artist of the time.
Collections of the
Museum of International Folk Art , Santa Fe.
Strongly influenced by European , Andean , African and Asian culture,
Lima is a melting pot, due to colonization , immigration and
indigenous influences . The Historic Centre was declared a UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site in 1988.
The city is known as the _Gastronomical Capital of the Americas,_
mixing Spanish , Andean and Asian culinary traditions.
Lima's beaches, located along the northern and southern ends of the
city, are heavily visited during the summer. Restaurants, clubs and
hotels serve the beachgoers.
Lima has a vibrant and active theater
scene, including classic theater, cultural presentations, modern
theater, experimental theater, dramas, dance performances and theater
Lima is home to the Municipal Theater , Segura Theater,
Japanese-Peruvian Theater, Marsano Theater, British theater, Theater
of the PUCP Cultural Center and the Yuyachkani Theater.
Peruvian Coast Spanish , Lima's Spanish is characterized by
the lack of strong intonations as found in many other Spanish-speaking
regions. It is heavily influenced by Castilian Spanish. Throughout the
colonial era, most of the Spanish nobility based in
originally from Castile. Limean Castillian is also characterized by
the lack of _voseo _, unlike many other
Latin American countries. This
is because _voseo_ was primarily used by Spain's lower socioeconomic
classes, a social group that did not begin to appear in
Lima until the
late colonial era.
Limean Spanish is distinguished by its clarity in comparison to other
Latin American accents and has been influenced by immigrant groups
including Italians, Andalusians , West Africans, Chinese and Japanese.
It also has been influenced by anglicisms as a result of globalization
, as well as by Andean Spanish and Quechua , due to migration from the
Museums in Lima
Lima is home to the country's highest concentration of museums, most
notably the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia
del Perú , Museum of Art, the Museo Pedro de Osma , the Museum of
Natural History , the
Museum of the Nation , The Sala Museo Oro del
Perú Larcomar, the
Museum of Italian Art the Museum of Gold and the
Larco Museum . These museums focus on art, pre-Columbian cultures ,
natural history, science and religion. The Museum of Italian Art
shows European art.
Tourism in Lima
UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE
Lima Province ,
12°02′06″S 77°01′07″W / 12.035°S 77.0186°W /
2,672 km2 (2.876×1010 sq ft)
1988 (12th Session )
Miraflores Hotel Skyline.
The Historic Centre , made up of the districts of
Lima and Rímac ,
was declared a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by
UNESCO in 1988. Some examples
of colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco , the
Plaza Mayor , the Cathedral , Convent of
Santo Domingo and the Palace
of Torre Tagle .
A tour of the city's churches is a popular circuit. A trip through
the central district visits churches dating from the 16th and 17th
centuries, the most noteworthy of which are the Cathedral and the
Monastery of San Francisco, said to be connected by subterranean
catacombs . Both contain paintings, Sevilian tile and sculpted wood
Also notable is the
Sanctuary of Las Nazarenas , the point of origin
Lord of Miracles , whose festivities in the month of October
constitute the city's most important religious event. Some sections of
the Walls remain and are frequented by tourists. These examples of
medieval Spanish fortifications were built to defend the city from
attacks by pirates and privateers .
Beaches are visited during the summer months, located along the
Pan-American Highway , to the south of the city in districts such as
Punta Hermosa ,
Santa María del Mar (Peru) , San Bartolo,
Miraflores beach and Asia .
The suburban districts of
Pachacamac and the city of
Chosica , are tourist attractions among locals. Because they are
located at a higher elevation than Lima, they receive more sunshine in
winter months, something that the city frequently lacks under seasonal
Lima is known as the _Gastronomical Capital of the Americas_. A
center of immigration and the center of the Spanish Viceroyalty, chefs
incorporated dishes brought by the conquistadors and waves of
immigrants: African, European, Chinese and Japanese. Since the second
half of the 20th century, international immigrants were joined by
internal migrants from rural areas.
Lima cuisines include Creole food
, Chifas , Cebicherias and Pollerias .
In the 21st century, its restaurants became recognized
In 2007, the Peruvian Society for Gastronomy was born with the
objective of uniting Peruvian gastronomy to put together activities
that would promote Peruvian food and reinforce the Peruvian national
identity. The society, called APEGA, gathered chefs, nutritionists,
institutes for gastronomical training, restaurant owners, chefs and
cooks, researchers and journalists. They worked with universities,
food producers, artisanal fishermen and sellers in food markets. One
of their first projects (2008) was to create the largest food festival
Latin America, called Mistura ("mixture" in Portuguese). The fair
takes place in September every year. The number of attendees has grown
from 30,000 to 600,000 in 2014. The fair congregates restaurants,
food producers, bakers, chefs, street vendors and cooking institutes
from for ten days to celebrate excellent food.
Since 2011, several
Lima restaurants have been recognized as among
The World\'s 50 Best Restaurants .
ASTRID Y GASTON
In 2016, Central was awarded #4 (chefs Virgilio Martinez and Pia
Leon), Maido was awarded #13 (chef Mitsuharu Tsumura) and Astrid &
Gaston was awarded #30 (chef Diego Muñoz and owned by chef Gaston
Acurio). In addition, Central was named #1 restaurant in the list of
Latin America's 50 Best Restaurants 2015. Out of the 50 best
Latin America, we find: Central #1, Astrid ">
Lima is made up of thirty densely populated districts, each headed by
a local mayor and the Mayor of Lima, whose authority extends to these
and the thirteen outer districts of the
The city's historic centre is located in the Cercado de Lima
district, locally known as simply Lima, or as "El Centro" ("Downtown
") and it is home to most of the vestiges the colonial past, the
Presidential Palace (Spanish: _Palacio de Gobierno_), the Metropolitan
Municipality and (Spanish: _Consejo municipal metropolitano de Lima_),
Chinatown and dozens of hotels, some operating and some defunct, that
cater to the national and international elite.
The upscale San Isidro District is the city's financial center. It is
home to politicians and celebrities. San Isidro has parks, including
Parque El Olivar, which is home to olive trees imported from Spain
during the seventeenth century. The
Golf Club, a prominent golf
club , is located within the district.
Another upscale district is Miraflores , which has luxury hotels,
shops and restaurants. Miraflores has parks and green areas, more than
most other districts. Larcomar, a popular shopping mall and
entertainment center built on cliffs overlooking the Pacific Ocean,
featuring bars, dance clubs, movie theaters, cafes, shops, boutiques
and galleries, is also located in this district. Nightlife, shopping
and entertainment center around Parque Kennedy, a park in the heart of
La Molina , San Borja ,
Santiago de Surco and Jesús María , home to
the American Embassy, the exclusive Club Polo
Lima and one of the
largest parks in Lima, El Campo De Marte, are the other four wealthy
The most densely populated districts lie in the northern and southern
ends of the city (Spanish:
Cono Norte and Cono Sur , respectively) and
they are mostly composed of Andean immigrants who arrived during the
mid- and late- 20th century looking for a better life and economic
opportunity, or as refugees of the country's internal conflict with
Shining Path during the late 1980s and early 1990s. In the case of
Cono Norte (now called
Lima Norte ), shopping malls such as Megaplaza
and Royal Plaza were built in the Independencia district, on the
border with the Los Olivos district (the most residential neighborhood
in the northern part). Most inhabitants are middle or lower middle
Barranco , which borders Miraflores by the Pacific Ocean, is the
city's bohemian district, home or once home of writers and
Mario Vargas Llosa ,
Chabuca Granda and
Alfredo Bryce Echenique . This district has acclaimed restaurants,
music venues called "peñas" featuring the traditional folk music of
Peru (in Spanish, "música criolla") and beautiful
Victorian-style chalets. Along with Miraflores it serves as the home
to the foreign nightlife scene.
_ View of the Cultural Center of the National University of San
Marcos , to left side is located the University Park , the Clock
University and illustrious monuments of San Marcos; the right side of
the historical Casona de San Marcos_.
Home to universities, institutions and schools,
Lima has the highest
concentration of institutions of higher learning on the continent.
Lima is home to the oldest continuously operating higher learning
institution in the New World,
National University of San Marcos ,
founded in 1551.
Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería (UNI) was founded in 1876 by
Edward Habich and is the country's most important
engineering school. Other public universities offer teaching and
research, such as the
Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (the
second largest), the
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (where
Alberto Fujimori once taught) and the National University
The Pontifical Catholic University of
Peru , established in 1917, is
the oldest private university. Other private institutions include
Universidad del Pacifico , Universidad ESAN ,
Universidad de Lima ,
Universidad de San Martín de Porres , Universidad Peruana Cayetano
Universidad Cientifica del Sur , Universidad San Ignacio de
Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas , Universidad
Privada San Juan Bautista and Universidad Ricardo Palma.
The city and has a total of 8,047 elementary and high schools, both
public and private, which educate more than one and a half million
students. The number of private schools is much greater than public
schools (6,242 vs 1,805) while the average size of private schools is
100 for elementary and 130 for high school. Public schools average 400
students in elementary and 500 in high school.
Lima has one of the country's highest levels of enrollment in high
school and preschool. 86.1% of high school-age students are in school,
vs the national average of 80.7%. In early childhood, the enrollment
Lima is 84.7%, while the national average is 74.5%. Early
childhood enrollment has improved by 12.1% since 2005. In elementary
school, the enrollment in
Lima is 90.7%, while the national average
for this level is 92.9%.
The dropout rate for
Lima is lower than the national average, except
for elementary school, which is higher. In Lima, the dropout rate in
elementary is 1.3% and 5.7% in high school, while the national average
is 1.2% in elementary and 8.3% in high school.
In Peru, students grade second and fourth students take a test called
"Evaluacion Censal de Estudiantes" (ECE). The test assesses skills in
reading comprehension and math. Scores are grouped in three levels:
Below level 1 means that students were not able to respond to even the
most simple questions; level 1 means the students did not achieve the
expected level in skills but could respond to simple questions; and
level 2 means they achieved/exceeded the expected skills for their
grade level. In 2012, 48.7% of students in
Lima achieved level 2 in
reading comprehension compared to 45.3% in 2011. In math, only 19.3%
students achieved level 2, with 46.4% at level 1 and 34.2% less than
level 1. Even though the results for Math are lower than for reading,
in both subject areas performance increased in 2012 over 2011. The
city performs much better than the national average in both
The educational system in
Lima is organized under the authority of
the "Direccion Regional de Educacion (DRE) de
which is in turn divided into 7 sub-directions or "UGEL" (Unidad de
Gestion Educativa Local): UGEL 01 (San Juan de Miraflores, Villa Maria
del Triunfo, Villa El Salvador, Lurin, Pachacamac, San Bartolo, Punta
Negra, Punta Hermosa, Pucusana, Santa Maria and Chilca), UGEL 02
(Rimac, Los Olivos, Independencia, Rimac and San Martin de Porres),
UGEL 03 (Cercado, Lince, Breña, Pueblo Libre, San Miguel, Magdalena,
Jesus Maria, La Victoria and San Isidro), UGEL 04 (Comas, Carabayllo,
Puente Piedra, Santa Rosa and Ancon), UGEL 05 (San Juan de Lurigancho
and El Agustino), UGEL 06 (Santa Anita, Lurigancho-Chosica, Vitarte,
Cieneguilla and Chaclacayo) and UGEL 07 (San Borja, San
Luis, Surco, Surquillo, Miraflores, Barranco and Chorrillos).
The UGELes with highest results on the ECE 2012 are UGEL 07 and 03 in
both reading comprehension and math. UGEL 07 had 60.8% students
achieving level 2 in reading comprehension and 28.6% students
achieving level 2 in Math. UGEL 03 had 58.5% students achieve level 2
in reading comprehension and 24.9% students achieving level 2 in math.
The lowest achieving UGELs are UGEL 01, 04 and 05.
23% of men have completed university education in Lima, compared to
20% of women. Additionally, 16.2% of men have completed non-university
higher education along with 17% of women. The average years of
schooling in the city is 11.1 years (11.4 for men and 10.9 for women).
Transport in Lima
Jorge Chávez International Airport .
Lima is served by
Jorge Chávez International Airport , located in
Callao (LIM). It is the country's largest airport hosting the largest
number of domestic and international passengers. It serves as the
fourth largest hub in the
Latin American air network.
five other airports: the Las Palmas Air Force Base, Collique Airport
and runways in Santa María del Mar , San Bartolo and
For more details on this topic, see Highways in
Lima is a major stop on the
Pan-American Highway . Because of its
location on the country's central coast,
Lima is an important junction
in Peru's highway system. Three major highways originate in Lima.
* The Northern Panamerican Highway extends more than 1,330
kilometers (830 mi) to the border with
Ecuador connecting the northern
districts and with many major cities along the northern Peruvian
* The Central Highway (Spanish: _Carretera Central_) connects the
eastern districts and with cities in central Peru. The highway extends
860 kilometers (530 mi) with its terminus at the city of
* The Southern Panamerican Highway connects the southern districts
and to cities on the southern coast. The highway extends 1,450
kilometers (900 mi) to the border with Chile.
The city has one big bus terminal next to the mall Plaza Norte. This
bus station is the point of departure and arrival point for national
and international destinations. Other bus stations serve private bus
companies around the city. In addition, informal bus stations are
located in the south, center and north of the city.
The Port of
Lima's proximity to the port of
Callao to act as the
metropolitan area's major port and one of
Latin America's largest.
Callao hosts nearly all maritime transport for the metropolitan area.
A small port in Lurín serves oil tankers due to a nearby refinery.
Maritime transport inside
Lima city limits is relatively insignificant
compared to that of Callao.
Lima is connected to the Central Andean region by the Ferrocarril
Central Andino which runs from
Lima through the departments of Junín
Huancavelica , Pasco and Huánuco . Major cities along this line
La Oroya ,
Cerro de Pasco
Cerro de Pasco .
Another inactive line runs from
Lima northwards to the city of Huacho
Buses in Avenida Arequipa.
Lima's road network is based mostly on large divided avenues rather
than freeways .
Lima operates a network of nine freeways - the Via
Expresa Paseo de la Republica, Via Expresa Javier Prado, Via Expresa
Grau, Panamericana Norte, Panamericana Sur, Carretera Central, Via
Expresa Callao, Autopista Chillon Trapiche and the Autopista Ramiro
According to a 2012 survey, the majority of the population uses
public or collective transportation (75.6%), while 12.3% uses a car,
taxi or motorcycle.
The urban transport system is composed of over 652 transit routes
that are served by buses, microbuses and combis. The system is
unorganized and is characterized by its informality. The service is
run by 464 private companies that are poorly regulated by local
government. Fares average one sol or US$0.40.
Taxis are mostly informal and unmetered; they are cheap but feature
poor driving habits. Fares are agreed upon before the passenger enters
the taxi. Taxis vary in size from small four-door compacts to large
vans. They account for a large part of the car stock. In many cases
they are just a private car with a taxi sticker on the windshield.
Additionally, several companies provide on-call taxi service.
Colectivos render express service on some major roads. The colectivos
signal their specific destination with a sign on their windshield.
Their routes are not generally publicitized but are understood by
frequent users. The cost is generally higher than public transport;
however, they cover greater distances at greater speeds due to the
lack of stops. This service is informal and is illegal. Some people
in the periphery use so-called "mototaxis" for short distances.
Metropolitan Transport System
El Metropolitano .
The Metropolitan Transport System or
El Metropolitano is a new,
integrated system, consisting of a network of buses that run in
exclusive corridors under the Bus Rapid Transit system (BST). The goal
is to reduce passengers' commute times, protect the environment,
provide improved security and overall quality of service.
Metropolitano was executed with funds from the City of
financing from the
Inter-American Development Bank
Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank
. Metropolitana is the first BRT system to operate with natural gas,
seeking to reduce air pollution. This system links the principal
points of the
Lima Metropolitan Area. The first phase of this project
has 33 kilometres (21 mi) of line (north) to Chorrillos (south). It
began commercial operations on July 28, 2010. Since 2014,
operates the "Sistema Integrado de Transporte Urbano" (Urban
integrated transport system), which comprises buses over Avenida
Arequipa. By the end of 2012, the Metropolitano system counted 244
buses in its central routes and 179 buses in its feeding routes.
Weekday use averages 437,148 passengers. Usage increased since 2011 by
28.2% for weekdays, 29.1% for Saturdays and 33.3% for Sundays.
Lima Metro .
Lima Metro has twenty six passenger stations, located at an
average distance of 1.2 km (0.7 miles). It begins in the Industrial
Park of Villa El Salvador, south of the city, continuing on to Av.
Villa María del Triunfo and then to Av. Los Héroes in
San Juan de Miraflores. Afterwards, it continues through Av. Tomás
Marsano in Surco to reach Ov. Los Cabitos, to Av. Aviación and then
cross the river Rimac to finish, after almost 35 km (22 mi), in the
east of the capital in
San Juan de Lurigancho The system operates five
trains, each with six wagons. Each wagon has the capacity to transport
233 people. The metro system began operating in December 2012 and
transported 78,224 people on average on a daily basis.
OTHER TRANSPORTATION ISSUES
Lima has high traffic congestion, especially at peak hours. 1 million
397 thousand vehicles were in use by the end of 2012. The region
operates 65.3% of the cars in the country.
The Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) offered economic incentives
for municipalities to implement bicycle routes in their districts.
Recreational bike lanes can be found in 39 districts. The Proyecto
Especial Metropolitano de Transporte No Motorizado (PEMTNM) estimates
that more than a million and a half people used the bike lanes in
2012. The bike lanes ran for 71 km (44 mi). They estimate that the use
of the bike lanes prevented the emission of 526 tons of carbon dioxide
San Borja district was the first to implement a bike-share program
called San Borja en Bici. It supplied 200 bicycles and six stations
across the district (two of them connecting with the Metro). By
December 2012, the program had 2,776 subscribers.
Lima suffers most from air pollution. The sedimentary dust has solid
particles that settle as dust on different surfaces or float through
the air. The fine particles are the most dangerous given that they are
able to damage human respiratory systems. The recommended limit of
these particles by the
World Health Organization is 5 tons/km2/month.
In February 2014,
Lima recorded an average of 15.2 tons/km2. The two
districts with the highest concentration of sedimentary dust are El
Agustino (46.1 tons/km2) and Independencia (25.5 tons/km2) in February
The permissible limit of lead in the water supply is 0.05 milligrams
per liter, according to the Norm ITINTEC. In January 2014, the
concentration of minerals in water treatment facilities of SEDAPAL was
0.051 iron, 0.005 lead, 0.0012 cadmium and 0.0810 aluminum. These
values increased 15.9% and 33.3% in iron and cadmium with respect to
January 2013 and a decrease of 16.7% and 12.4% in lead and aluminum.
The values are within the recommended limits.
The amount of solid waste produced per capita in
Lima is about 0.7 kg
(2 lb) per day. In 2012, each resident produced 273.36 kg (603 lb) of
solid waste. The district municipalities only collect about 67% of the
solid waste they generate. The rest ends up in informal landfills,
rivers, or the ocean. Three municipalities recycle 20% or more of
ACCESS TO BASIC SERVICES
In Lima, 93% of households have access to water supply in their
homes. In addition, 92% of homes connect with sewage systems. 99.6% of
homes have grid electric service. Although most households have water
and sewage systems, some are available for only a few hours a day.
The perception of security varies by district. For example, San
Isidro has the lowest perception of insecurity (21.4%), while Rimac
has the highest perception of insecurity (85%), according to a 2012
survey. The five districts with the lowest perception of insecurity
are San Isidro, San Borja, Miraflores, La Molina and Jesus Maria. The
districts with the highest perception of insecurity are Rimac, San
Juan de Miraflores, La Victoria, Comas and Ate.
Overall, 40% of the population in
Lima above 15 years old has been a
crime victim. The younger population (ages 15 to 29 years old) has the
highest victimization rate (47.9%). In 2012, citizens reported thefts
(47.9%): in homes or establishments (19.4%), robbery or attack
(14.9%), gang aggression (5.7%), among others in lesser frequency. The
districts with the highest level of victimization are Rimac, El
Agustino, Villa El Salvador,
San Juan de Lurigancho and Los Olivos.
The safest districts by level of victimization are Lurin,
Lurigancho-Chosica, San Borja, Magdalena and Surquillo. Interestingly,
these districts do not necessarily correspond to the districts with
highest or lowest perception of insecurity.
While the Police force is nationally controlled and funded, each
Lima has a community policing structure called Serenazgo.
The quantity of Serenazgos officials and resources varies by district.
For example, Villa Maria del Triunfo has 5,785 citizens per official.
Twenty-two districts in
Lima have a ratio above 1000 citizens per
Serenazgo official, while 14 districts have ratios below 200 citizens
per official, including Miraflores with 119 and San Isidro with 57.
The satisfaction with the Serenazgos also varies greatly by district.
The highest satisfaction rates can be found in San Isidro (88.3%),
Miraflores (81.6%), San Borja (77%) and Surco (75%). The lowest
satisfaction rates can be found in Villa Maria del Triunfo (11%), San
Juan de Miraflores (14.8%), Rimac (16.3%) and La Victoria (20%).
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
Twin towns — Sister cities
Lima is twinned with:
Arequipa , Peru
Cusco , Peru
Piura , Peru
* Trujillo , Peru
Los Angeles , United States
* Austin , United States, since 1981
* Cleveland ,
Miami , United States
* Stamford , United States
* Oruro , Bolivia
Dhaka , Bangladesh
Bordeaux , France. since 1957
Beijing , China, since November 1983
Caracas , Venezuela
Mexico City , Mexico
São Paulo ,
Tegucigalpa , Honduras
Akhisar , Turkey
Karaçoban , Turkey
Buenos Aires , Argentina
Bogotá , Colombia
Cairo , Egypt
Cardiff , Wales
Pescara , Italy
Kiev , Ukraine
Brasília , Brazil
Largest cities in the Americas
List of districts of Lima
* List of metropolitan areas of
List of people from Lima
* List of sites of interest in the
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Peru Altitude". Retrieved 2014-07-28.
* ^ "INEI:
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* ^ "2015 Annual Meetings". Imf.org. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
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* ^ Conlee et al. 2004 , p. 218.
* ^ Hemming 1970 , p. 28.
* ^ Klarén2000 , p. 39.
* ^ Hemming 1970 , p. 203–206.
* ^ Klarén2000 , p. 87.
* ^ Andrien 1985 , pp. 11–13.
* ^ Higgins 2005 , p. 45.
* ^ Andrien 1985 , pp. 26.
* ^ Andrien 1985 , pp. 28.
* ^ Walker 2003 , pp. 53–55.
* ^ Ramón 2002 , pp. 173–174.
* ^ Anna 1979 , pp. 4–5.
* ^ Anna 1979 , pp. 23–24.
* ^ Anna 1979 , pp. 176–177.
* ^ Anna 1979 , pp. 178–180.
* ^ Klarén2000 , p. 169.
* ^ Klarén2000 , p. 170.
* ^ Higgins 2005 , p. 107.
* ^ Klarén2000 , p. 192.
* ^ Ramón 2002 , pp. 180–182.
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in Peru". _
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* ^ (in Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática,
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* ^ Dietz 1980 , p. 35.
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* ^ "Average Weather For Callao/Lima, Peru". _WeatherSpark_.
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* ^ "World Weather Information Service – Lima". World
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desierto litoral" (PDF). _Anales de Geografía de la Universidad
Complutense_ (in Spanish). Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
19: 25–45. ISSN 0211-9803 . Archived from the original (PDF) on June
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* ^ Painter, James (2007-03-12). "
Americas Peru\'s alarming water
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Callao (Int. Flugh.) / Peru" (PDF).
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(in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
* ^ "Station Jorge Chavez" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved
June 27, 2017.
* ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, _Perfil
Sociodemográfico del Perú_ pp. 29–30, 32, 34.
* ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
_Urban Agglomerations 2014_. – note, per the source, "Urban
agglomerations included in the chart are those of 1 million
inhabitants or more in 2007. An agglomeration contains the population
within the contours of contiguous territory inhabited at urban levels
of residential density without regard to administrative boundaries."
* ^ Baily, Samuel L; Míguez, Eduardo José (2003). _
Since 1930_. Google Books. ISBN 978-0-8420-2831-8 . Retrieved
* ^ "The Institute of International Education (IIE)".
IIEPassport.org. Archived from the original on June 9, 2008. Retrieved
* ^ ":: Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission, R.O.C. ::".
Ocac.gov.tw. 2004-08-24. Archived from the original on 2004-11-25.
* ^ History of Lima.
Lima Info. Archived 2009-08-29 at the Wayback
* ^ Colonial
Lima according to Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa.
From Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, _A Voyage to South America_
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Una Mirada da Lima
* ^ NIVELES SOCIOECONÓMICOS EN LIMA METROPOLITANA Y CALLAO - APEIM
* ^ Infoplease. Lima. Retrieved on December 8, 2008.
* ^ AttractionGuide.
Lima Attractions. Retrieved on December 8,
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Study Abroad Peru". Study Abroad Domain. Archived from
the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
* ^ Bethell, Leslie (1991). _
Latin America Since 1930_. Google
Books. ISBN 978-0-521-26652-9 . Retrieved 2010-04-17.
* ^ "Port Commerce". _Port of Callao_. World Port Source. Retrieved
13 January 2013.
* ^ REPÚBLICA DEL PERÚ EVALUACIÓN DE LA GOBERNABILIDAD
DEMOCRÁTICA, pág. 24
* ^ "Bolsa de Valores de Lima" (PDF). Archived from the original
(PDF) on August 8, 2007. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
* ^ "Bolsa de Valores de Lima". Bolsa de Valores de Lima. Archived
from the original on July 14, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Republic Of Peru" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-07-08.
* ^ "Compañías de Seguros Peru". Oh Perú. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
* ^ (in Spanish) Judicial Power of
Peru . Superior Court of Lima.
Retrieved 3 December 2008. Archived 11 December 2008 at the Wayback
* ^ (in Spanish) Judicial Power of
Peru . Superior Court of North
Lima. Retrieved 3 December 2008. Archived 1 December 2008 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "Baroque Architecture". Buzzle.com. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
* ^ Archived January 31, 2010, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Story by Cristyane Marusiak / Photos by João Canziani. "Lima,
Peru - Travel - dwell.com". Web.archive.org. Archived from the
original on 2008-04-07. Retrieved 2009-10-10.
* ^ "ACAP – The American and Canadian Association of Peru".
Acap-peru.org. 2005-12-01. Archived from the original on December 29,
2008. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
* ^ Bethell, Leslie (1998). _A Cultural History of
and Spain_. Books.google.com. ISBN 978-0-521-62626-2 . Retrieved
* ^ "Haydee Sangalli Schaerer:: Bienes Raices". Mira Mar Peru.
* ^ "Periodo 1821–1872 – El Palacio y Parque de la
Exposición". Arqandina.com. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
* ^ "LaRepublica.pe Jornada de Protestas / Último adiós a
Michael Jackson / Rómulo León". Larepublica.com.pe. Archived from
the original on May 23, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
* ^ "Lima,
Peru – Google Maps". Maps.google.com. 1970-01-01.
* ^ "
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to: LIMA _ (category)
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for LIMA _.
* (in Spanish) Municipality of Lima
* 1.40 gigapixel image of Lima
* Geographic data related to
Lima travel guide from Wikivoyage