Lima (/ˈliːmə/, Spanish pronunciation: [ˈlima], Quechua:
[ˈlɪma], Aymara: [ˈlima]) is the capital and the largest city of
Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín
rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the
Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a
contiguous urban area known as the
Lima Metropolitan Area. With a
population of more than 10 million,
Lima is the most populous
metropolitan area of
Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas
(as defined by "city proper"), behind São Paulo, and
Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador
Francisco Pizarro on January
18, 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes. It became the capital and most
important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the
Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of
Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the
Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in
the New World. The National University of San Marcos, founded on May
12, 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest
continuously functioning university in the Americas.
In October 2013,
Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games.
It also hosted the December 2014 United Nations Climate Change
Conference and the
Miss Universe 1982
Miss Universe 1982 pageant.
In October 2015,
Lima hosted the 2015 Annual Meetings of the World
Bank Group and the International Monetary Fund.
7.3 Political system
7.4 International organizations
9 Society and culture
12.5.2 Metropolitan Transport System
12.6 Other transportation issues
13.1.3 Solid waste
13.2 Access to basic services
14 Notable people from Lima
15 International relations
16 See also
17.2 Further reading
18 External links
According to early Spanish articles the
Lima area was once called
Itchyma, after its original inhabitants. However, even before the Inca
occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the
Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq (Limaq,
pronounced [ˈli.mɑq], which means "talker" or "speaker" in the
coastal Quechua that was the area's primary language before the
Spanish arrival). This oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish
and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles
show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the
Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence
seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish consistently rejects
stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers
may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation
of "lime", the citrus fruit.
Lima Foundation by
Francisco Pizarro (1535)
The city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings
(Spanish: Ciudad de los Reyes) because its foundation was decided on
January 6, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name quickly fell
into disuse and
Lima became the city's name of choice; on the oldest
Spanish maps of Peru, both
Lima and Ciudad de los Reyes can be seen
The river that feeds
Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously
assume that this is because its original
Inca name is "Talking River"
(the Incas spoke a highland variety of Quechua in which the word for
"talker" was pronounced [ˈrimɑq]). However, the original
inhabitants of the valley were not Incas. This name is an innovation
arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to
standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of
Lima Cathedral in 1846
Later, as the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua
became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed. Nowadays,
Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of
their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They often
assume that the valley is named after the river; however, Spanish
documents from the colonial period show the opposite to be true.
Flag of Lima
Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's
Kings' City". It is made from a golden-colored silk canvas and
embroidered in the center is its coat of arms.
Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on January 18, 2008, in a
formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian
President Alan García, and other authorities. The anthem was created
by Luis Enrique Tord (lyrics), Euding Maeshiro (music) and record
producer Ricardo Núñez (arranger).
History of Lima
History of Lima and Timeline of Lima
Pachacamac was an important religious centre before the arrival of
Balconies were a major architectural feature during the colonial
In the pre-Columbian era, what is now
Lima was inhabited by indigenous
groups under the Ychsma policy, which was incorporated into the Inca
Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish
conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the
Atahualpa and took over his empire.
Francisco Pizarro, Spanish Founder of Lima
As the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he
conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on
January 18, 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes (City of the Kings). In
August 1536, rebel
Inca troops led by Manco
Inca Yupanqui besieged the
city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies.
Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty
Peru and site of a
Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next
century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that
integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas, Europe and
the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the
presence of pirates and privateers in the Pacific Ocean lead to the
building of the
Walls of Lima
Walls of Lima between 1684 and 1687. The 1687 Peru
earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings; the earthquake
marked a turning point in the city's history as it coincided with a
trade recession and growing economic competition with cities such as
In 1746, another powerful earthquake severely damaged
destroyed Callao, forcing a massive rebuilding effort under Viceroy
José Antonio Manso de Velasco. In the later half of the 18th
century, Enlightenment ideas on public health and social control
shaped development. During this period,
Lima was adversely
affected by the
Bourbon Reforms as it lost its monopoly on overseas
trade and its control over the mining region of Upper Peru. The
city's economic decline left its elite dependent on royal and
ecclesiastical appointment and thus, reluctant to advocate
A combined expedition of Argentine and Chilean patriots under General
José de San Martín
José de San Martín landed south of
Lima in 1820 but did not attack
the city. Faced with a naval blockade and the action of guerrillas on
José de la Serna e Hinojosa
José de la Serna e Hinojosa evacuated its capital in
July 1821 to save the Royalist army. Fearing a popular uprising
and lacking any means to impose order, the city council invited San
Martín to enter
Lima and signed a Declaration of Independence at his
request. However, the war was not over; in the next two years the
city changed hands several times.
Walls of Lima
Walls of Lima were built between 1684 and 1687 by viceroy Melchor
Lima became the capital of the Republic of Peru
but economic stagnation and political turmoil brought urban
development to a halt. This hiatus ended in the 1850s, when increased
public and private revenues from guano exports led to a rapid
development of the city. The export-led expansion also widened the
gap between rich and poor, fostering social unrest. During the
1879–1883 War of the Pacific, Chilean troops occupied Lima, looting
public museums, libraries and educational institutions. At the
same time, angry mobs attacked wealthy citizens and the Asian
population; sacking their properties and businesses. The city
underwent renewal and expansion from the 1890s to the 1920s. During
this period the urban layout was modified by the construction of broad
avenues that crisscrossed the city and connected it with neighboring
On May 24, 1940 an earthquake destroyed most of the city,
which at that time was mostly built of adobe and quincha. In the 1940s
Lima started a period of rapid growth spurred by migration from the
Andean region, as rural people sought opportunities for work and
education. The population, estimated at 600,000 in 1940, reached 1.9
million by 1960 and 4.8 million by 1980. At the start of this
period, the urban area was confined to a triangular area bounded by
the city's historic centre,
Callao and Chorrillos; in the following
decades settlements spread to the north, beyond the Rímac River, to
the east, along the Central Highway and to the south. The new
migrants, at first confined to slums in downtown Lima, led this
expansion through large-scale land invasions, which evolved into
shanty towns, known as pueblos jóvenes.
Lima as seen from the International Space Station
Lima at night from space
The urban area covers about 800 km2 (310 sq mi). It is
located on mostly flat terrain in the Peruvian coastal plain, within
the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers. The city slopes
gently from the shores of the Pacific Ocean into valleys and mountain
slopes located as high as 1,550 meters (5,090 ft) above sea
level. Within the city are isolated hills that are not connected to
the surrounding hill chains, such as El Agustino, San Cosme, El Pino,
La Milla, Muleria and Pro hills. The San Cristobal hill in the Rímac
District, which lies directly north of the downtown area, is the local
extreme of an Andean hill outgrowth.
Lima covers 2,672.28 km2 (1,031.77 sq mi), of
which 825.88 km2 (318.87 sq mi) (31%) comprise the
actual city and 1,846.40 km2 (712.90 sq mi) (69%) the
city outskirts. The urban area extends around
60 km (37 mi) from north to south and around 30 km
(19 mi) from west to east. The city center is located 15 km
(9.3 mi) inland at the shore of the Rímac River, a vital
resource for the city, since it carries what will become drinking
water for its inhabitants and fuels the hydroelectric dams that
provide electricity to the area. While no official administrative
definition for the city exists, it is usually considered to be
composed of the central 30 of 43 districts of
corresponding to an urban area centered around the historic Cercado de
Lima district. The city is the core of the
Area, one of the ten largest metro areas in the Americas.
Lima is the
world's third largest desert city, after Karachi,
Pakistan and Cairo,
Weather averages for the Jorge Chávez International Airport
Despite its location in the tropics and in a desert, Lima's proximity
to the cool waters of the Pacific Ocean leads to temperatures much
lower than those expected for a tropical desert and thus
Lima can be
classified as a mild desert climate (Köppen: BWn) with subtropical
temperature ranges. Temperatures rarely fall below 14 °C
(57 °F) or rise above 29 °C (84 °F). Two
distinct seasons can be identified: summer, from December through
April; and winter from June through October. May and November are
generally transition months, with a more dramatic warm-to-cool weather
Daily temperatures oscillate between lows of 18 °C (64 °F)
to 22 °C (72 °F) and highs of 24 °C (75 °F) to
29 °C (84 °F). Occasional coastal fogs on some mornings
and high clouds in some afternoons and evenings can be present. Summer
sunsets are colorful, labeled by locals as "cielo de brujas" (Spanish
for "sky of witches"), since the sky commonly turns shades of orange,
pink and red around 7 pm. Winter weather is dramatically different.
Grey skies, breezy conditions, higher humidity and cooler temperatures
prevail. Long (1-week or more) stretches of dark overcast skies are
not uncommon. Persistent morning drizzle occurs occasionally from June
through September, coating the streets with a thin layer of water that
generally dries up by early afternoon. Winter temperatures vary little
between day and night. They range from lows of 14 °C
(57 °F) to 16 °C (61 °F) and highs of 16 °C
(61 °F) to 19 °C (66 °F), rarely exceeding
20 °C (68 °F) except in the easternmost districts.
Relative humidity is always very high, particularly in the
mornings. High humidity produces brief morning fog in the early
summer and a usually persistent low cloud deck during the winter
(generally developing in May and persisting into late November or even
early December). The predominantly onshore flow makes the
one of the cloudiest among the entire Peruvian coast.
Lima has only
1284 hours of sunshine a year, 28.6 hours in July and 184 hours in
April, which is exceptionally little for the latitude. Winter
cloudiness prompts locals to seek for sunshine in Andean valleys
located at elevations generally above 500 meters above sea level.
While relative humidity is high, rainfall is very low due to strong
atmospheric stability. The severely low rainfall impacts on water
supply in the city, which originates from wells and from rivers that
flow from the Andes. Inland districts receive anywhere between 1
and 6 cm (2.4 in) of rainfall per year, which accumulates
mainly during the winter months. Coastal districts receive only 1 to
3 cm (1.2 in). As previously mentioned, winter precipitation
occurs in the form of persistent morning drizzle events. These are
locally called 'garúa', 'llovizna' or 'camanchacas'. Summer rain, on
the other hand, is infrequent and occurs in the form of isolated light
and brief showers. These generally occur during afternoons and
evenings when leftovers from Andean storms arrive from the east. The
lack of heavy rainfall arises from high atmospheric stability caused,
in turn, by the combination of cool waters from semi-permanent coastal
upwelling and the presence of the cold
Humboldt Current and warm air
aloft associated with the South Pacific anticyclone.
Lima's climate (like that of most of coastal Peru) gets severely
disrupted in El Niño events. Coastal waters usually average around
17–19 °C (63–66 °F), but get much warmer (as in 1998
when the water reached 26 °C (79 °F)). Air temperatures
Climate data for
Lima (Jorge Chávez International Airport)
1961–1990, extremes 1960–present
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst, Meteo Climat (record highs and
Source #2: Universidad Complutense de
Madrid (sunshine and
Main article: Demographics of Lima
People of Lima.
With a municipal population of 8,852,000 and 9,752,000 for the
metropolitan area and a population density of 3,008.8 inhabitants per
square kilometre (7,793/sq mi) as of 2007[update].
as the 30th most populous 'agglomeration' in the world, as of
2014[update], and the second biggest city in
South America in terms of
population within city limits, after São Paulo. Its population
features a complex mix of racial and ethnic groups. Mestizos of mixed
Amerindian and European (mostly Spanish and Italians) ancestry are the
largest ethnic group. European Peruvians (White people) are the second
largest group. Many are of Spanish, Italian or German descent; many
others are of French, British, or Croatian descent. The
Lima include Amerindians (mostly Aymara and Quechua) and
Afro-Peruvians, whose African ancestors were initially brought to the
region as slaves. Jews of European descent and Middle Easterners are
there. Asians, especially of Chinese (Cantonese) and Japanese descent,
came mostly in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Lima has, by far,
the largest ethnic Chinese community in Latin America.
Children at an elementary school in
Santiago de Surco.
Pueblos jóvenes on the outskirts.
The first settlement in what would become
Lima was made up of 117
housing blocks. In 1562, another district was built across the Rímac
River and in 1610, the first stone bridge was built.
Lima then had a
population of around 26,000; blacks made up around 40% and whites made
up around 38%. By 1748, the white population totaled
16,000–18,000. In 1861, the number of inhabitants surpassed
100,000 and by 1927, had doubled.
During the early 20th century, thousands of immigrants came to the
city, including people of German, French, Italian and British descent.
They organized social clubs and built their own schools. Examples are
The American-Peruvian school, the Alianza Francesa de Lima, the Lycée
Franco-Péruvien and the hospital Maison de Sante; Markham College,
the British-Peruvian school in Monterrico, Antonio Raymondi District
Italian School, the Pestalozzi Swiss School and also, several
Immigrants influenced Peruvian cuisine, with Italians in particular
exerting a strong influence in the Miraflores and San Isidro areas
with their trattorias.
Chinese and a lesser number of Japanese came to
Lima and established
themselves in the
Barrios Altos neighborhood near downtown Lima. Lima
residents refer to their Chinatown as Calle Capon and the city's
Chifa restaurants – small, sit-down, usually
Chinese-run restaurants serving the Peruvian spin on Chinese
cuisine – can be found by the dozens in this enclave.
In 2014, the National Institute for Statistics and Information
(Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica) reported that the
population in Lima's 49 districts was 9,752,000 people, including the
Constitutional Province of Callao. The city and (metropolitan area)
represents around 29% of the national population. Of the city's
population 48.7% are men and 51.3% are women. The 49 districts in
Lima are divided into 5 areas:
Cono Norte (North Lima),
Lima Este (East Lima), Constitutional Province of Callao,
(Central Lima) and
Lima Sur (South Lima). The largest areas are Lima
Norte with 2,475,432 people and
Lima Este with 2,619,814 people,
including the largest single district San Juan de Lurigancho, which
hosts 1 million people.
Lima is considered a "young" city. According to INEI, by mid 2014 the
age distribution in
Lima was: 24.3% between 0 and 14, 27.2% between 15
and 29, 22.5% between 30 and 44, 15.4% between 45 and 59 and 10.6%
Lima from the rest of
Peru is substantial. In 2013,
3,480,000 people reported arriving from other regions. This represents
almost 36% of the entire population of Metropolitan Lima. The three
regions that supply most of the migrants are Junin, Ancash and
Ayacucho. By contrast only 390,000 emigrated from
Lima to other
The annual population growth rate is 1.57%. Some of the 43
metropolitan districts are considerably more populous than others. For
example, San Juan de Lurigancho, San Martin de Porres, Ate, Comas,
Villa El Salvador
Villa El Salvador and Villa Maria del Triunfo host more than 400,000,
while San Luis, San Isidro, Magdalena del Mar, Lince and Barranco have
have less than 60,000 residents.
A 2005 household survey study shows a socio-economic distribution for
households in Lima. It used a monthly family income of 6,000 soles
(around US$ 1,840) or more for socioeconomic level A; between 2,000
soles (US$ 612) and 6,000 soles (US$ 1,840) for level B; from 840
soles (US$ 257) to 2,000 soles (US$ 612) for level C; from 420 soles
(US$ 128) to 1200 soles (US$ 368) for level D; and up to 840 soles
(US$ 257) for level E. In Lima, 18% were in level E; 32.3% in level D;
31.7% in level C; 14.6% in level B; and 3.4% in level A. In this
sense, 82% of the population lives in households that earn less than
2000 soles (or US$ 612) monthly. Other salient differences between
socioeconomic levels include levels of higher education, car ownership
and home size.
Lima in 2013, the percentage of the population living
in households in poverty was 12.8%. The level of poverty is measured
by households that are unable to access a basic food and other
household goods and services, such as clothing, housing, education,
transportation and health. The level of poverty has decreased from
2011 (15.6%) and 2012 (14.5%).
Lima Sur is the area in
Lima with the
highest proportion of poverty (17.7%), followed by
Lima Este (14.5%),
Lima Norte (14.1%) and
Lima Centro (6.2%). In addition 0.2% of the
population lives in extreme poverty, meaning that they are unable to
access a basic food basket.
Hotel Westin, Lima.
Lima is the country's industrial and financial centre and one of Latin
America's most important financial centers, home to many national
companies and hotels. It accounts for more than two thirds of Peru's
industrial production and most of its tertiary sector.
The Metropolitan area, with around 7,000 factories, leads
industrial development, thanks to the quantity and quality of the
available workforce, transport and other infrastructure. Products
include textiles, clothing and food. Chemicals, fish, leather and oil
derivatives are manufactured and/or processed. The financial
district is in San Isidro, while much of the industrial activity takes
place west of downtown, extending to the airport in Callao.
the largest export industry in
South America and is a regional hub for
the cargo industry.
Industrialization began in the 1930s and by 1950, through import
substitution policies, manufacturing made up 14% of GNP. In the late
1950s, up to 70% of consumer goods were manufactured in factories
located in Lima.
Callao seaport is one of the main fishing and commerce ports in
South America, covering over 47 hectares (120 acres) and shipping 20.7
million metric tons of cargo in 2007. The main export goods are
commodities: oil, steel, silver, zinc, cotton, sugar and coffee.
As of 2003[update],
Lima generated 53% of GDP. Most foreign
Peru settled in Lima.
Financial center of Lima.
In 2007, the Peruvian economy grew 9%, the largest growth rate in
South America. The
Lima Stock Exchange
Lima Stock Exchange rose 185.24% in 2006
and in 2007 by another 168.3%, making it then one of the fastest
growing stock exchanges in the world. In 2006, the
Lima Stock Exchange
was the world's most profitable.
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit 2008 and the Latin
America, the Caribbean and the European Union Summit were held there.
Lima is headquarters to banks such as Banco de Crédito del Perú,
Scotiabank Perú, Interbank, Bank of the Nation, Banco Continental,
MiBanco, Banco Interamericano de Finanzas, Banco Finaciero, Banco de
Comercio and CrediScotia. It is a regional headquarters to Standard
Chartered. Insurance corporations based in
Lima include Rimac Seguros,
Mapfre Peru, Interseguro, Pacifico, Protecta and La Positiva.
Government Palace of Perú
Lima is the capital city of the Republic of
Lima province. As
such, it is home to the three branches of the Government of Peru.
The executive branch is headquartered in the Government Palace,
located in the Plaza Mayor. All ministries are located in the city.
The legislative branch is headquartered in the Legislative Palace and
is home to the Congress of the Republic of Peru.
The Judicial branch is headquartered in the Palace of Justice and is
home to the Supreme Court of Peru. The Palace of Justice in
seat of the Supreme Court of Justice the highest judicial court in
Peru with jurisdiction over the entire territory of Peru.
Lima is seat
of two of the 28 second highest or Superior Courts of Justice. The
first and oldest Superior Court in
Lima is the Superior Court of
Justice, belonging to the Judicial District and. Due to the judicial
organization of Peru, the highest concentration of courts is located
Lima despite the fact that its judicial district has jurisdiction
over only 35 of the 43 districts. The Superior Court of the Cono
Norte is the second Superior Court located in
Lima and is part of the
Judicial District of North Lima. This judicial district has
jurisdiction over the remaining eight districts, all located in
Lima City Hall building at night
Main article: Metropolitan Municipality of Lima
The city is roughly equivalent to the Province of Lima, which is
subdivided into 43 districts. The Metropolitan Municipality has
authority over the entire city, while each district has its own local
government. Unlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan
Municipality, although a provincial municipality, acts as and has
functions similar to a regional government, as it does not belong to
any of the 25 regions of Peru. Each of the 43 districts has their own
distrital municipality that is in charge of its own district and
coordinate with the metropolitan municipality.
Unlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan Municipality has
functions of regional government and is not part of any administrative
region, according to Article 65. 27867 of the Law of Regional
Governments enacted on 16 November 2002, 87 The previous political
organization remains in the sense that a Governor is the political
authority for the department and the city. The functions of this
authority are mostly police and military. The same city administration
covers the local municipal authority.
Lima is home to the headquarters of the Andean Community of Nations,
along with other regional and international organizations.
Lima's main square, c. 1843
Lima's architecture offers a mix of styles. Examples of early colonial
architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco, the Cathedral and
the Torre Tagle Palace. These constructions are generally influenced
by Spanish Baroque, Spanish Neoclassical and Spanish Colonial
styles. After independence, preferences gradually shifted toward
Art Nouveau styles. Many of these works were
influenced by French architectural styles. Many government
buildings and major cultural institutions were constructed in this
period. During the 1960s, the brutalist style began appearing in Lima
due to the military government of Juan Velasco Alvarado. Examples
of this architecture include the
Museum of the Nation
Museum of the Nation and the Ministry
of Defense. The early 21st century added glass skyscrapers,
particularly around the financial district.
The largest parks are near the downtown area, including the Park of
the Reserve, Park of the Exposition, Campo de Marte and University
Park of the Reserve
Park of the Reserve is home to the largest fountain complex
in the world known as the Magical Circuit of Water. Many large
parks lie outside the city center, including Reducto Park, Pantanos de
Villa Wildlife Refuge, El
Golf (San Isidro), Parque de las Leyendas
Lima Zoo), El Malecon de Miraflores and the
Golf Los Incas.
The street grid is laid out with a system of plazas that are similar
to roundabouts or junctions. In addition to this practical purpose,
plazas serve as principal green spaces and contain monuments, statues
and water fountains.
Overview of the Historic Centre of Lima
Society and culture
Woman in White Poncho on Horseback.
Cantonese watercolor, sold in Lima
mid-19th century. These paintings were copies of works of Francisco
Fierro, a popular
Afro-Peruvian artist of the time. Collections of the
Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe.
Strongly influenced by European, Andean, African and Asian culture,
Lima is a melting pot, due to colonization, immigration and indigenous
influences. The Historic Centre was declared a
Heritage Site in 1988.
The city is known as the Gastronomical Capital of the Americas, mixing
Spanish, Andean and Asian culinary traditions.
Lima's beaches, located along the northern and southern ends of the
city, are heavily visited during the summer. Restaurants, clubs and
hotels serve the beachgoers.
Lima has a vibrant and active theater
scene, including classic theater, cultural presentations, modern
theater, experimental theater, dramas, dance performances and theater
Lima is home to the Municipal Theater, Segura Theater,
Japanese-Peruvian Theater, Marsano Theater, British theater, Theater
of the PUCP Cultural Center and the Yuyachkani Theater.
Known as Peruvian Coast Spanish, Lima's Spanish is characterized by
the lack of strong intonations as found in many other Spanish-speaking
regions. It is heavily influenced by Castilian Spanish. Throughout the
colonial era, most of the Spanish nobility based in
originally from Castile. Limean Castillian is also characterized
by the lack of voseo, unlike many other Latin American countries. This
is because voseo was primarily used by Spain's lower socioeconomic
classes, a social group that did not begin to appear in
Lima until the
late colonial era.
Limean Spanish is distinguished by its clarity in comparison to other
Latin American accents and has been influenced by immigrant groups
including Italians, Andalusians, West Africans, Chinese and Japanese.
It also has been influenced by anglicisms as a result of
globalization, as well as by Andean Spanish and Quechua, due to
migration from the Andean highlands.
Main article: Museums in Lima
Lima is home to the country's highest concentration of museums, most
notably the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia
del Perú, Museum of Art, the Museo Pedro de Osma, the Museum of
Natural History, the Museum of the Nation, The Sala Museo Oro del
Perú Larcomar, the
Museum of Italian Art
Museum of Italian Art the Museum of Gold and the
Larco Museum. These museums focus on art, pre-Columbian cultures,
natural history, science and religion. The Museum of Italian Art
shows European art.
Main article: Tourism in Lima
Historic Centre of Lima
UNESCO World Heritage Site
1988 (12th Session)
The Historic Centre, made up of the districts of
Lima and Rímac, was
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by
UNESCO in 1988. Some examples of
colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco, the
Plaza Mayor, the Cathedral, Convent of
Santo Domingo and the Palace of
A tour of the city's churches is a popular circuit. A trip through the
central district visits churches dating from the 16th and 17th
centuries, the most noteworthy of which are the Cathedral and the
Monastery of San Francisco, said to be connected by subterranean
catacombs. Both contain paintings, Sevilian tile and sculpted wood
Also notable is the Sanctuary of Las Nazarenas, the point of origin
for the Lord of Miracles, whose festivities in the month of October
constitute the city's most important religious event. Some sections of
the Walls remain and are frequented by tourists. These examples of
medieval Spanish fortifications were built to defend the city from
attacks by pirates and privateers.
Beaches are visited during the summer months, located along the
Pan-American Highway, to the south of the city in districts such as
Lurín, Punta Hermosa, Santa María del Mar (Peru), San Bartolo,
Miraflores beach and Asia.
The suburban districts of Cieneguilla,
Pachacamac and the city of
Chosica, are tourist attractions among locals. Because they are
located at a higher elevation than Lima, they receive more sunshine in
winter months, something that the city frequently lacks under seasonal
Main article: Peruvian cuisine
Lima is known as the Gastronomical Capital of the Americas. A center
of immigration and the center of the Spanish Viceroyalty, chefs
incorporated dishes brought by the conquistadors and waves of
immigrants: African, European, Chinese and Japanese. Since the
second half of the 20th century, international immigrants were joined
by internal migrants from rural areas.
Lima cuisines include
Creole food, Chifas, Cebicherias and Pollerias.
In the 21st century, its restaurants became recognized
In 2007, the Peruvian Society for Gastronomy was born with the
objective of uniting Peruvian gastronomy to put together activities
that would promote Peruvian food and reinforce the Peruvian national
identity. The society, called APEGA, gathered chefs, nutritionists,
institutes for gastronomical training, restaurant owners, chefs and
cooks, researchers and journalists. They worked with universities,
food producers, artisanal fishermen and sellers in food markets.
One of their first projects (2008) was to create the largest food
festival in Latin America, called Mistura ("mixture" in Portuguese).
The fair takes place in September every year. The number of attendees
has grown from 30,000 to 600,000 in 2014. The fair congregates
restaurants, food producers, bakers, chefs, street vendors and cooking
institutes from for ten days to celebrate excellent food.
Since 2011, several
Lima restaurants have been recognized as among The
World's 50 Best Restaurants.
Astrid y Gaston
In 2016, Central was awarded #4 (chefs Virgilio Martinez and Pia
Leon), Maido was awarded #13 (chef Mitsuharu Tsumura) and Astrid &
Gaston was awarded #30 (chef Diego Muñoz and owned by chef Gaston
Acurio). In addition, Central was named #1 restaurant in the list
of Latin America's 50 Best Restaurants 2015. Out of the 50 best
restaurants in Latin America, we find: Central #1, Astrid & Gaston
#3, Maido #5, La Mar #12, Malabar #20, Fiesta #31, Osso Carnicería y
Salumería #34, La Picanteria #36 and Rafael #50. These
restaurants fuse ideas from across the country and the world.
Peruvian coffee and chocolate have also won international awards.
Main article: Sport in Lima
The city and has sports venues for football, golf, volleyball and
basketball, many within private clubs. A popular sport among Limenos
is fronton, a racquet sport similar to squash invented in Lima. The
city is home to seven international-class golf links.
Lima with private clubs as well as the Hipódromo de
Monterrico horse racing track. The most popular sport in
football with professional club teams operating in the city.
Estadio Nacional of Peru
Estadio Monumental "U"
Golf Club (San Isidro District)
The historic Plaza de toros de Acho, located in the Rímac District, a
few minutes from the Plaza de Armas, holds bullfights yearly. The
season runs from late October to December.
Lima will host the 2019 Pan American Games.
131st IOC Session
131st IOC Session was held in Lima. The meeting saw
to host the
2024 Summer Olympics
2024 Summer Olympics and
Los Angeles elected to host the
2028 Summer Olympics.
Peruvian Institute of Sport
Estadio Nacional (Lima)
Club Universitario de Deportes
Peruvian Primera División
Estadio Monumental "U"
Peruvian Primera División
Estadio Alejandro Villanueva
Peruvian Primera División
Estadio Alberto Gallardo
Peruvian Primera División
Estadio Iván Elías Moreno
CD Universidad San Martín
Peruvian Primera División
Estadio Alberto Gallardo
Regatas Headquarters Chorrillos
Real Club Lima
Main article: List of districts of Lima
Lima is made up of thirty densely populated districts, each headed by
a local mayor and the Mayor of Lima, whose authority extends to these
and the thirteen outer districts of the
The city's historic centre is located in the Cercado de
locally known as simply Lima, or as "El Centro" ("Downtown") and it is
home to most of the vestiges the colonial past, the Presidential
Palace (Spanish: Palacio de Gobierno), the Metropolitan Municipality
and (Spanish: Consejo municipal metropolitano de Lima), Chinatown and
dozens of hotels, some operating and some defunct, that cater to the
national and international elite.
The upscale San Isidro District is the city's financial center. It is
home to politicians and celebrities. San Isidro has parks, including
Parque El Olivar, which is home to olive trees imported from Spain
during the seventeenth century. The
Golf Club, a prominent golf
club, is located within the district.
Another upscale district is Miraflores, which has luxury hotels, shops
and restaurants. Miraflores has parks and green areas, more than most
other districts. Larcomar, a popular shopping mall and entertainment
center built on cliffs overlooking the Pacific Ocean, featuring bars,
dance clubs, movie theaters, cafes, shops, boutiques and galleries, is
also located in this district. Nightlife, shopping and entertainment
center around Parque Kennedy, a park in the heart of Miraflores.
La Molina, San Borja, Pueblo Libre District,
Santiago de Surco
Santiago de Surco -home
to the American Embassy and the exclusive Club Polo Lima-, and Jesús
María - home to one of the largest parks in Lima, El Campo De Marte -
are the other five wealthy districts.
The most densely populated districts lie in the northern and southern
ends of the city (Spanish:
Cono Norte and Cono Sur, respectively) and
they are mostly composed of Andean immigrants who arrived during the
mid- and late- 20th century looking for a better life and economic
opportunity, or as refugees of the country's internal conflict with
Shining Path during the late 1980s and early 1990s. In the case of
Cono Norte (now called
Lima Norte), shopping malls such as Megaplaza
and Royal Plaza were built in the Independencia district, on the
border with the Los Olivos district (the most residential neighborhood
in the northern part). Most inhabitants are middle or lower middle
Barranco, which borders Miraflores by the Pacific Ocean, is the city's
bohemian district, home or once home of writers and intellectuals
including Mario Vargas Llosa,
Chabuca Granda and Alfredo Bryce
Echenique. This district has acclaimed restaurants, music venues
called "peñas" featuring the traditional folk music of coastal Peru
(in Spanish, "música criolla") and beautiful Victorian-style chalets.
Along with Miraflores it serves as the home to the foreign nightlife
View of the Cultural Center of the National University of San Marcos,
to left side is located the University Park, the Clock University and
illustrious monuments of San Marcos; the right side of the historical
Casona de San Marcos.
Home to universities, institutions and schools,
Lima has the highest
concentration of institutions of higher learning on the continent.
Lima is home to the oldest continuously operating higher learning
institution in the New World, National University of San Marcos,
founded in 1551.
Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería
Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería (UNI) was founded in 1876 by
Edward Habich and is the country's most important
engineering school. Other public universities offer teaching and
research, such as the
Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (the
second largest), the
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (where
Alberto Fujimori once taught) and the National University
The Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, established in 1917, is
the oldest private university. Other private institutions include
Universidad del Pacifico, Universidad ESAN, Universidad de Lima,
Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Universidad Peruana Cayetano
Heredia, Universidad Cientifica del Sur, Universidad San Ignacio de
Loyola, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Privada
San Juan Bautista and Universidad Ricardo Palma.
The city and has a total of 8,047 elementary and high schools, both
public and private, which educate more than one and a half million
students. The number of private schools is much greater than public
schools (6,242 vs 1,805) while the average size of private schools is
100 for elementary and 130 for high school. Public schools average 400
students in elementary and 500 in high school.
Lima has one of the country's highest levels of enrollment in high
school and preschool. 86.1% of high school-age students are in school,
vs the national average of 80.7%. In early childhood, the enrollment
Lima is 84.7%, while the national average is 74.5%. Early
childhood enrollment has improved by 12.1% since 2005. In elementary
school, the enrollment in
Lima is 90.7%, while the national average
for this level is 92.9%.
The dropout rate for
Lima is lower than the national average, except
for elementary school, which is higher. In Lima, the dropout rate in
elementary is 1.3% and 5.7% in high school, while the national average
is 1.2% in elementary and 8.3% in high school.
In Peru, students grade second and fourth students take a test called
"Evaluacion Censal de Estudiantes" (ECE). The test assesses skills in
reading comprehension and math. Scores are grouped in three levels:
Below level 1 means that students were not able to respond to even the
most simple questions; level 1 means the students did not achieve the
expected level in skills but could respond to simple questions; and
level 2 means they achieved/exceeded the expected skills for their
grade level. In 2012, 48.7% of students in
Lima achieved level 2 in
reading comprehension compared to 45.3% in 2011. In math, only 19.3%
students achieved level 2, with 46.4% at level 1 and 34.2% less than
level 1. Even though the results for Math are lower than for reading,
in both subject areas performance increased in 2012 over 2011. The
city performs much better than the national average in both
The educational system in
Lima is organized under the authority of the
"Direccion Regional de Educacion (DRE) de
Lima Metropolitana", which
is in turn divided into 7 sub-directions or "UGEL" (Unidad de Gestion
Educativa Local): UGEL 01 (San Juan de Miraflores, Villa Maria del
Triunfo, Villa El Salvador, Lurin, Pachacamac, San Bartolo, Punta
Negra, Punta Hermosa, Pucusana, Santa Maria and Chilca), UGEL 02
(Rimac, Los Olivos, Independencia, Rimac and San Martin de Porres),
UGEL 03 (Cercado, Lince, Breña, Pueblo Libre, San Miguel, Magdalena,
Jesus Maria, La Victoria and San Isidro), UGEL 04 (Comas, Carabayllo,
Puente Piedra, Santa Rosa and Ancon), UGEL 05 (San Juan de Lurigancho
and El Agustino), UGEL 06 (Santa Anita, Lurigancho-Chosica, Vitarte,
Cieneguilla and Chaclacayo) and UGEL 07 (San Borja, San
Luis, Surco, Surquillo, Miraflores, Barranco and Chorrillos).
The UGELes with highest results on the ECE 2012 are UGEL 07 and 03 in
both reading comprehension and math. UGEL 07 had 60.8% students
achieving level 2 in reading comprehension and 28.6% students
achieving level 2 in Math. UGEL 03 had 58.5% students achieve level 2
in reading comprehension and 24.9% students achieving level 2 in math.
The lowest achieving UGELs are UGEL 01, 04 and 05.
23% of men have completed university education in Lima, compared to
20% of women. Additionally, 16.2% of men have completed non-university
higher education along with 17% of women. The average years of
schooling in the city is 11.1 years (11.4 for men and 10.9 for
Main article: Transport in Lima
Jorge Chávez International Airport
Lima is served by Jorge Chávez International Airport, located in
Callao (LIM). It is the country's largest airport hosting the largest
number of domestic and international passengers. It serves as the
fourth largest hub in the Latin American air network.
five other airports: the Las Palmas Air Force Base, Collique Airport
and runways in Santa María del Mar, San Bartolo and Chilca.
Further information: Highways in Peru
Lima is a major stop on the Pan-American Highway. Because of its
location on the country's central coast,
Lima is an important junction
in Peru's highway system. Three major highways originate in Lima.
The Northern Panamerican Highway extends more than 1,330 kilometers
(830 mi) to the border with
Ecuador connecting the northern
districts and with many major cities along the northern Peruvian
The Central Highway (Spanish: Carretera Central) connects the eastern
districts and with cities in central Peru. The highway extends 860
kilometers (530 mi) with its terminus at the city of Pucallpa
The Southern Panamerican Highway connects the southern districts and
to cities on the southern coast. The highway extends 1,450 kilometers
(900 mi) to the border with Chile.
The city has one big bus terminal next to the mall Plaza Norte. This
bus station is the point of departure and arrival point for national
and international destinations. Other bus stations serve private bus
companies around the city. In addition, informal bus stations are
located in the south, center and north of the city.
The Port of Callao.
Lima's proximity to the port of
Callao to act as the
metropolitan area's major port and one of Latin America's largest.
Callao hosts nearly all maritime transport for the metropolitan area.
A small port in Lurín serves oil tankers due to a nearby refinery.
Maritime transport inside
Lima city limits is relatively insignificant
compared to that of Callao.
Lima is connected to the Central Andean region by the Ferrocarril
Central Andino which runs from
Lima through the departments of Junín,
Huancavelica, Pasco and Huánuco. Major cities along this line
include Huancayo, La Oroya,
Huancavelica and Cerro de Pasco. Another
inactive line runs from
Lima northwards to the city of Huacho.
Buses in Avenida Arequipa.
Lima's road network is based mostly on large divided avenues rather
Lima operates a network of nine freeways - the Via
Expresa Paseo de la Republica, Via Expresa Javier Prado, Via Expresa
Grau, Panamericana Norte, Panamericana Sur, Carretera Central, Via
Expresa Callao, Autopista Chillon Trapiche and the Autopista Ramiro
According to a 2012 survey, the majority of the population uses public
or collective transportation (75.6%), while 12.3% uses a car, taxi or
The urban transport system is composed of over 652 transit routes
that are served by buses, microbuses and combis. The system is
unorganized and is characterized by its informality. The service is
run by 464 private companies that are poorly regulated by local
government. Fares average one sol or US$0.40.
Taxis are mostly informal and unmetered; they are cheap but feature
poor driving habits. Fares are agreed upon before the passenger enters
the taxi. Taxis vary in size from small four-door compacts to large
vans. They account for a large part of the car stock. In many cases
they are just a private car with a taxi sticker on the windshield.
Additionally, several companies provide on-call taxi service.
Colectivos render express service on some major roads. The colectivos
signal their specific destination with a sign on their windshield.
Their routes are not generally publicitized but are understood by
frequent users. The cost is generally higher than public transport;
however, they cover greater distances at greater speeds due to the
lack of stops. This service is informal and is illegal. Some
people in the periphery use so-called "mototaxis" for short distances.
Metropolitan Transport System
The Metropolitan Transport System or
El Metropolitano is a new,
integrated system, consisting of a network of buses that run in
exclusive corridors under the Bus Rapid Transit system (BST). The goal
is to reduce passengers' commute times, protect the environment,
provide improved security and overall quality of service.
Metropolitano was executed with funds from the City of
financing from the
Inter-American Development Bank
Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank.
Metropolitana is the first BRT system to operate with natural gas,
seeking to reduce air pollution. This system links the principal
points of the
Lima Metropolitan Area. The first phase of this project
has 33 kilometres (21 mi) of line (north) to Chorrillos (south).
It began commercial operations on July 28, 2010. Since 2014, Lima
Council operates the "Sistema Integrado de Transporte Urbano" (Urban
integrated transport system), which comprises buses over Avenida
Arequipa. By the end of 2012, the Metropolitano system counted
244 buses in its central routes and 179 buses in its feeding routes.
Weekday use averages 437,148 passengers. Usage increased since 2011 by
28.2% for weekdays, 29.1% for Saturdays and 33.3% for Sundays.
Lima Metro has twenty six passenger stations, located at an
average distance of 1.2 km (0.7 miles). It begins in the
Industrial Park of Villa El Salvador, south of the city, continuing on
to Av. Pachacútec in
Villa María del Triunfo and then to Av. Los
Héroes in San Juan de Miraflores. Afterwards, it continues through
Av. Tomás Marsano in Surco to reach Ov. Los Cabitos, to Av. Aviación
and then cross the river Rimac to finish, after almost 35 km
(22 mi), in the east of the capital in
San Juan de Lurigancho
San Juan de Lurigancho The
system operates 24 trains, each with six wagons. Each wagon has the
capacity to transport 233 people. The metro system began operating in
December 2012 and transported 78,224 people on average on a daily
Other transportation issues
Lima has high traffic congestion, especially at peak hours. 1 million
397 thousand vehicles were in use by the end of 2012. The region
operates 65.3% of the cars in the country.
The Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) offered economic incentives
for municipalities to implement bicycle routes in their districts.
Recreational bike lanes can be found in 39 districts. The Proyecto
Especial Metropolitano de Transporte No Motorizado (PEMTNM) estimates
that more than a million and a half people used the bike lanes in
2012. The bike lanes ran for 71 km (44 mi). They estimate
that the use of the bike lanes prevented the emission of 526 tons of
carbon dioxide in 2012.
San Borja district was the first to implement a bike-share program
called San Borja en Bici. It supplied 200 bicycles and six stations
across the district (two of them connecting with the Metro). By
December 2012, the program had 2,776 subscribers.
Lima suffers most from air pollution. The sedimentary dust has solid
particles that settle as dust on different surfaces or float through
the air. The fine particles are the most dangerous given that they are
able to damage human respiratory systems. The recommended limit of
these particles by the
World Health Organization
World Health Organization is 5 tons/km2/month.
In February 2014,
Lima recorded an average of 15.2 tons/km2. The two
districts with the highest concentration of sedimentary dust are El
Agustino (46.1 tons/km2) and Independencia (25.5 tons/km2) in February
The permissible limit of lead in the water supply is 0.05 milligrams
per liter, according to the Norm ITINTEC. In January 2014, the
concentration of minerals in water treatment facilities of SEDAPAL was
0.051 iron, 0.005 lead, 0.0012 cadmium and 0.0810 aluminum. These
values increased 15.9% and 33.3% in iron and cadmium with respect to
January 2013 and a decrease of 16.7% and 12.4% in lead and aluminum.
The values are within the recommended limits.
The amount of solid waste produced per capita in
Lima is about
0.7 kg (2 lb) per day. In 2012, each resident produced
273.36 kg (603 lb) of solid waste. The district
municipalities only collect about 67% of the solid waste they
generate. The rest ends up in informal landfills, rivers, or the
ocean. Three municipalities recycle 20% or more of their waste.
Access to basic services
In Lima, 93% of households have access to water supply in their homes.
In addition, 92% of homes connect with sewage systems. 99.6% of homes
have grid electric service. Although most households have water and
sewage systems, some are available for only a few hours a day.
The perception of security varies by district. For example, San Isidro
has the lowest perception of insecurity (21.4%), while Rimac has the
highest perception of insecurity (85%), according to a 2012 survey.
The five districts with the lowest perception of insecurity are San
Isidro, San Borja, Miraflores, La Molina and Jesus Maria. The
districts with the highest perception of insecurity are Rimac, San
Juan de Miraflores, La Victoria, Comas and Ate.
Overall, 40% of the population in
Lima above 15 years old has been a
crime victim. The younger population (ages 15 to 29 years old) has the
highest victimization rate (47.9%). In 2012, citizens reported
thefts (47.9%): in homes or establishments (19.4%), robbery or attack
(14.9%), gang aggression (5.7%), among others in lesser frequency. The
districts with the highest level of victimization are Rimac, El
Agustino, Villa El Salvador,
San Juan de Lurigancho
San Juan de Lurigancho and Los Olivos.
The safest districts by level of victimization are Lurin,
Lurigancho-Chosica, San Borja, Magdalena and Surquillo. Interestingly,
these districts do not necessarily correspond to the districts with
highest or lowest perception of insecurity.
While the Police force is nationally controlled and funded, each
Lima has a community policing structure called Serenazgo.
The quantity of Serenazgos officials and resources varies by district.
For example, Villa Maria del Triunfo has 5,785 citizens per official.
Twenty-two districts in
Lima have a ratio above 1000 citizens per
Serenazgo official, while 14 districts have ratios below 200 citizens
per official, including Miraflores with 119 and San Isidro with
The satisfaction with the Serenazgos also varies greatly by district.
The highest satisfaction rates can be found in San Isidro (88.3%),
Miraflores (81.6%), San Borja (77%) and Surco (75%). The lowest
satisfaction rates can be found in Villa Maria del Triunfo (11%), San
Juan de Miraflores (14.8%), Rimac (16.3%) and La Victoria (20%).
Notable people from Lima
See also: List of people from Lima
Rose of Lima
Rose of Lima 1586-1617
St. Martin de Porres, 1579-1639
Ricardo Palma,writer, 1833-1919
Mario Testino,celebrity photographer
Gaston Acurio,Chef of Peruvian Cuisine
Claudia Llosa, film director, writer and producer.
Carlos Noriega, US-Peruvian Astronaut
Maria Rostworowski, historian
Jaime Bayly, journalist
Christian Meier, Peruvian actor
Gian Marco Zignago
Gian Marco Zignago songwriter
Gisela Valcarcel Television Hostess
Juan Diego Florez, Opera Singer
Rose of Lima
Rose of Lima (the first Catholic in the
Americas to be declared a
Martin de Porres
Martin de Porres (Patron saint of mixed-race people)
José Baquíjano y Carrillo, Count of Vistaflorida
José Baquíjano y Carrillo, Count of Vistaflorida Economist, jurist,
writer and politician of the Viceroyalty of Peru
Francisco Antonio de Zela(Revolucionary against Spanish domination)
Ricardo Palma (Writer)
Jose de la Riva Aguero(First Head State of Peru)
Mario Testino (Celebrity Photographer)
Gaston Acurio (Chef Ambassador of Peruvian Cuisine)
Juan Diego Florez
Juan Diego Florez (Opera Singer - Tenor)
Carlos Noriega (NASA Astronaut)
Javier Pérez de Cuéllar
Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (Diplomat, Politician)
Paolo Guerrero (Soccer player)
Saby Kamalich (Actress)
Christian Meier(Actor, singer, model, businessman)
Jaime Cuadra (Music producer, composer, singer and voiceover artist)
María Rostworowski (Historian)
Fernando de Szyszlo
Fernando de Szyszlo (Painter, Sculptor)
Jaime Bayly (Writer, Journalist)
Gian Marco Zignago
Gian Marco Zignago (Singer-Songwriter)
Iván Thays (Author, professor and television host)
Luis Llosa (Film Director)
Jefferson Farfan (Soccer player)
Madeleine Truel (French-Peruvian who helped people from Nazis)
Gisela Valcarcel (Television hostess)
Alex Valle (Peruvian American professional fighting game player)
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in South America
Twin towns — Sister cities
Lima is twinned with:
Los Angeles, United States
Austin, United States, since 1981
Cleveland, United States
Miami, United States
Stamford, United States
Bordeaux, France. since 1957
Beijing, China, since November 1983
Mexico City, Mexico
São Paulo, Brazil
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Largest cities in the Americas
List of districts of Lima
List of metropolitan areas of Peru
List of people from Lima
List of sites of interest in the
Lima Metropolitan area
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National Library of Peru
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Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú
Museo Nacional de la Cultura Peruana
Museum of Italian Art
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Casa de Osambela
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Raúl Porras Barrenechea Institute
Coliseo Eduardo Dibos
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Escuela Nacional Superior Autónoma de Bellas Artes
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El Campo de Marte
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Lima Metropolitan Area
South Central Lima
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San Martín de Porres
San Juan de Miraflores
Santa María del Mar
Villa el Salvador
Villa María del Triunfo
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Lat. and Long. 12°2′36″S 77°01′42″W / 12.04333°S
77.02833°W / -12.04333; -77.02833
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