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LAUSANNE (/loʊˈzæn/ , French: , Italian : _Losanna_, Romansh : _Losanna_) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland , and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud . The city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French : _Lac Léman_, or simply _Le Léman_). It faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains , with the Jura Mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located 62 kilometres (38.5 miles) northeast of Geneva .

Lausanne has a population (as of November 2015) of 146,372, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having 420,000 inhabitants (as of March 2015). The metropolitan area of Lausanne- Geneva (including Vevey-Montreux, Yverdon-les-Bains, and foreign parts) was over 1.2 million inhabitants in 2000.

Lausanne is a focus of international sport , hosting the International Olympic Committee (which recognizes the city as the "Olympic Capital" since 1994), the Court of Arbitration for Sport and some 55 international sport associations. It lies in a noted wine-growing region. The city has a 28-station metro system , making it the smallest city in the world to have a rapid transit system . Lausanne will host the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Modern history and heritage

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Topography * 2.2 Climate

* 3 Politics

* 3.1 Coat of arms * 3.2 Administrative divisions * 3.3 Government * 3.4 Parliament

* 3.5 Elections

* 3.5.1 National Council

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Population * 4.2 Historic population * 4.3 Religion * 4.4 Crime

* 5 Transport * 6 Economy

* 7 Education

* 7.1 Libraries * 7.2 Tertiary education * 7.3 Primary and secondary schools

* 8 Sights

* 8.1 Heritage sites of national significance * 8.2 Culture * 8.3 Monuments * 8.4 Museums * 8.5 Art galleries * 8.6 Music

* 9 Sports * 10 Notable people * 11 See also * 12 Notes and references * 13 Bibliography * 14 External links

HISTORY

The Romans built a military camp, which they called _ Lousanna _, at the site of a Celtic settlement, near the lake where currently Vidy and Ouchy are situated; on the hill above was a fort called 'Lausodunon' or 'Lousodunon' (The 'y' suffix is common to many place names of Roman origin in the region (e.g.) Prilly , Pully , Lutry , etc.). By the 2nd century AD it was known as _vikanor Lousonnensium_ and in 280 as _lacu Lausonio_. By 400 it was _civitas Lausanna_ and in 990 it was mentioned as _Losanna_. Saint-François square, c. 1840

After the fall of the Roman Empire , insecurity forced the Lausanne to move to its current centre, a hilly site that was easier to defend. The city which emerged from the camp was ruled by the Dukes of Savoy and the Bishop of Lausanne . Then it came under Bern from 1536 to 1798 and a number of its cultural treasures, including the hanging tapestries in the Cathedral, were permanently removed. Lausanne has made a number of requests to recover them.

After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Lausanne became (along with Geneva) a place of refuge for French Huguenots . In 1729 a seminary was opened by Antoine Court and Benjamin Duplan . By 1750, ninety pastors had been sent back to France to work clandestinely; this number would rise to four hundred. Official persecution ended in 1787; a faculty of Protestant theology was established at Montauban in 1808, and the Lausanne seminary was finally closed on 18 April 1812. During the Napoleonic Wars , the city's status changed. In 1803, it became the capital of a newly formed Swiss canton, Vaud under which it joined the Swiss Federation .

MODERN HISTORY AND HERITAGE

In 1964 the city hosted the 'Swiss National Exhibition', displaying its newly found confidence to host major international events. From the 1950s to 1970s a large number of Italians , Spaniards and Portuguese immigrated , settling mostly in the industrial district of Renens and transforming the local diet.

The city has served as a refuge for European artists. While under the care of a psychiatrist at Lausanne, T. S. Eliot composed most of his 1922 poem The Wasteland ("by the waters of Leman I sat down and wept"). Hemingway also visited from Paris with his wife during the 1920s, to holiday. In fact, many creative people - such as Edward Gibbon, an historian, and Romantic era poets Shelley and Byron - have "sojourned, lived, and worked in Lausanne or nearby".

The city has been traditionally quiet, but in the late 1960s and early 1970s a series of demonstrations took place that exposed tensions between young people and the police. Later demonstrations took place to protest against the high cinema prices, followed by protest against the G8 meetings in 2003.

GEOGRAPHY

TOPOGRAPHY

The agglomeration of Lausanne, Lake Geneva and the Alps . The Charles-Bessières bridge with Lausanne Metro car. In the background the cathedral of Notre-Dame and the old town .

The most important geographical feature of the area surrounding Lausanne is Lake Geneva (_Lac Léman_ in French). Lausanne is built on the southern slope of the Swiss plateau , with a difference in elevation of about 500 metres (1,640 ft) between the lakeshore at Ouchy and its northern edge bordering Le Mont-sur-Lausanne and Épalinges . Lausanne boasts a dramatic panorama over the lake and the Alps .

In addition to its generally southward-sloping layout, the centre of the city is the site of an ancient river, the Flon , which has been covered since the 19th century. The former river forms a gorge running through the middle of the city south of the old city centre, generally following the course of the present _Rue Centrale_, with several bridges crossing the depression to connect the adjacent neighbourhoods. Due to the considerable differences in elevation, visitors should make a note as to which plane of elevation they are on and where they want to go, otherwise they will find themselves tens of metres below or above the street which they are trying to negotiate. The name _Flon _ is also used for the metro station located in the gorge.

The municipality includes the villages of Vidy , Cour, Ouchy , Mornex, Chailly, La Sallaz, Vennes, Montblesson, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, Montheron and Chalet-à-Gobet (871 m (2,858 ft)) as well as the exclave of Vernand.

Lausanne is located at the limit between the extensive wine -growing regions of Lavaux (to the east) and la Côte (to the west).

Lausanne has an area, as of 2009 , of 41.38–41.33 square kilometers (15.98–15.96 sq mi) (depending on calculation method). Of this area, 6.64 km2 (2.56 sq mi) or 16.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 16.18 km2 (6.25 sq mi) or 39.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 18.45 km2 (7.12 sq mi) or 44.6% is settled (buildings or roads), 0.05 km2 (12 acres) or 0.1% is either rivers or lakes and 0.01 km2 (2.5 acres) or 0.0% is unproductive land.

Of the built-up area, industrial buildings made up 1.6% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 21.6% and transportation infrastructure made up 12.5%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 1.4% of the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 7.5%. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land, 11.1% is used for growing crops and 4.2% is pastures. All the water in the municipality is in lakes.

The municipality was part of the old Lausanne District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, and it became the capital of the new district of Lausanne.

CLIMATE

Lausanne has an average of 119.7 days of rain or snow per year and on average receives 1,153 mm (45.4 in) of precipitation . The wettest month is May during which time Lausanne receives an average of 117 mm (4.6 in) of rain. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 12.1 days. The driest month of the year is February with an average of 67 mm (2.6 in) of precipitation over 8.8 days.

CLIMATE DATA FOR PULLY (LAUSANNE) (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 4.4 (39.9) 5.6 (42.1) 10.1 (50.2) 14.0 (57.2) 18.7 (65.7) 22.4 (72.3) 25.0 (77) 24.4 (75.9) 19.8 (67.6) 14.6 (58.3) 8.6 (47.5) 5.3 (41.5) 14.4 (57.9)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 3.0 (37.4) 6.6 (43.9) 10.0 (50) 14.4 (57.9) 17.8 (64) 20.3 (68.5) 19.7 (67.5) 15.8 (60.4) 11.6 (52.9) 6.1 (43) 3.2 (37.8) 10.9 (51.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 0.3 (32.5) 0.7 (33.3) 3.5 (38.3) 6.4 (43.5) 10.7 (51.3) 13.8 (56.8) 16.1 (61) 15.9 (60.6) 12.6 (54.7) 9.1 (48.4) 4.2 (39.6) 1.4 (34.5) 7.9 (46.2)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 77 (3.03) 67 (2.64) 78 (3.07) 87 (3.43) 117 (4.61) 112 (4.41) 92 (3.62) 110 (4.33) 114 (4.49) 113 (4.45) 93 (3.66) 92 (3.62) 1,153 (45.39)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES) 10.9 (4.29) 14.3 (5.63) 1.6 (0.63) 0.2 (0.08) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 1.1 (0.43) 7.0 (2.76) 35.1 (13.82)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 10.1 8.8 10.2 9.8 12.1 10.4 9.0 9.5 8.8 10.1 10.2 10.7 119.7

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 1.0 CM) 2.9 2.8 1.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 1.9 9.8

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 78 73 68 66 67 66 65 68 73 78 78 78 72

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 72 97 159 179 201 229 252 234 183 128 79 58 1,872

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 29 37 46 47 48 54 59 58 52 42 32 26 46

Source: MeteoSwiss

POLITICS

COAT OF ARMS

The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is _Gules, chief argent_.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

The city is divided into 18 _quartiers_, or districts, sometimes composed of several neighborhoods. They are: Centre (1), Maupas/Valency (2), Sébeillon/Malley (3), Montoie/Bourdonnette (4), Montriond/Cour (5), Sous-Gare/ Ouchy (6), Montchoisi (7), Florimont/Chissiez (8), Mousquines/Bellevue (9), Vallon/Béthusy (10), Chailly/Rovéréaz (11), Sallaz/Vennes/Séchaud (12), Sauvabelin (13), Borde/Bellevaux (14), Vinet/Pontaise (15), Bossons/Blécherette (16), Beaulieu/Grey/Boisy (17), and Les Zones foraines (90)

GOVERNMENT

The Municipality (LA MUNICIPALITé) constitutes the executive government of the City of Lausanne and operates as a collegiate authority . It is composed of seven councilors (French : _conseiller municipal/conseillère municipale_), each presiding over a directorte. One of the members act as mayor (_syndic_). In the mandate period 2016–2021 (_la législature_) the Municipality is presided by _Monsieur le Syndic_ Grégoire Junod . Directoral tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the Communal Council are carried by the Municipality. The regular election of the Municipality by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every five years. Any resident of Lausanne allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Municipality. Since 14 April 2003, due to the constitution by canton of Vaud not only Swiss citizen have the right to vote and elect and being elected on communal level, but also foreigners with a residence permit of at least 10 years in Switzerland and 3 years in the canton of Vaud. The current mandate period is from 1 July 2016 to 30 June 2021. The delegates are elected by means of a system of Majorz . The mayor is later on elected as such by a public election as well by a system of Majorz, while the heads of the other departments are assigned by the collegiate. The executive body holds its meetings in the Town Hall (_L'Hôtel de Ville_), in the old city on _Place de la Palud_.

As of 2016 , Lausanne's Municipality is made up of three representatives of the PS (Social Democratic Party , of whom one is also the mayor), and two members of PES (Green Party ), and one each of le Parti Ouvrier et Populaire Vaudois (POP) color:; border:1px solid darkgray; text-align:center;"> PS Culture and Urban Development (_Culture et dévelopment urbain_, 2016) 2011

Pierre-Antoine Hildbrand PLR Security and Economy (_Sécurité et économie_, 2016) 2016

Oscar Tosato PS Sports and Social Cohesion (_Sports et cohésion sociale_, 2002) 2001

Natacha Litzistorf PES Housing, Environmental Development, and Building/Architecture (_Logement, environnement et architecture_, 2016) 2016

David Payot POP color:; border:1px solid darkgray; text-align:center;"> PS Finances and Mobility (_Finances et mobilité_, 2011) 2011

Jean-Yves Pidoux PES Industrial Services (_Services industriels_, 2006) 2006

* ^ Mayor (_Syndic_) * ^ Vice- Mayor (_Vice-syndique_) 2016

Simon Affolter is Town Chancellor (chancelier municipal) since for the Municipality.

PARLIAMENT

_Le Conseil communal_ of Lausanne for the mandate period of 2016-2021 Ensemble à Gauche (POP, Sol, indépedant.e.s) (11%) PS (33%) Les Verts (PES) (17%) Le Centre (PDC width:1.5em; height:1.5em; margin:1px 0; border:1px solid black; background-color:#0E52A0; color:black; font-size:100%; text-align:center;"> PLR (21%) UDC (12%)

The Communal Council (CONSEIL COMMUNAL) holds legislative power . It is made up of 100 members, with elections held every five years. The Communal Council decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed by the Municipality and the administration. The sessions of the Communal Council are public. Unlike members of the Municipality, members of the Communal Council are not politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Lausanne allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Communal Council. Since 14 April 2003, due to the constitution by canton of Vaud not only Swiss citizen have the right to vote and elect and being elected on communal level, but also foreigners with a residence permit of at least 10 years in Switzerland and 3 years in the canton of Vaud. The Parliament holds its meetings in the Town Hall (_Hôtel de Ville_), in the old city on _Place de la Palud_.

The last election of the Communal Council was held on 28 February 2016 for the mandate period (_la législature_) from 1 June 2016 to 31 May 2021. Currently the Communal Council consist of 33 members of the Social Democratic Party (PS) , 21 Les Libéraux-Radicaux (PLR) , 17 Green Party (PES) , 12 Swiss People\'s Party (UDC) , 11 _Ensemble à Gauche_ (an alliance of the left parties POP (_Parti Suisse du Travail - Parti Ouvrier et Populaire_) and solidaritéS and _indépendant.e.s_), and 6 _Le Centre_ (an alliance of Christian Democratic People\'s Party (PDC) and Green Liberal Party (pvl) ).

ELECTIONS

National Council

In the 2015 federal election for the Swiss National Council the most popular party was the PS which received 30.8% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the PLR (18.6%), the Green Party (15.9%), and the UDC (15.4%). In the federal election, a total of 26,116 voters were cast, and the voter turnout was 41.0%.

DEMOGRAPHICS

POPULATION

LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS 2013

NATIONALITY AMOUNT % total (foreigners)

Portugal 10,081 7.2 (17.2)

France 9,968 7.2 (17.0)

Italy 6,326 4.5 (10.8)

Spain 4,558 3.3 (7.8)

Kosovo 2,318 1.7 (4.0)

Germany 1,377 1.0 (2.4)

Turkey 934 0.7 (1.6)

United Kingdom 859 0.6 (1.5)

Brazil 840 0.6 (1.4)

Ecuador 828 0.6 (1.4)

Serbia 810 0.6 (1.4)

Congo-Kinshasa 806 0.6 (1.4)

Sri Lanka 784 0.6 (1.3)

Morocco 749 0.5 (1.3)

United States 724 0.5 (1.2)

Belgium 668 0.5 (1.1)

Tunisia 607 0.4 (1.0)

China 604 0.4 (1.0)

Canada 560 0.4 (1.0)

Lausanne has a population (as of December 2015 ) of 135,629. As of 2013 , 42% of the population were resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years (1999–2009) the population has changed at a rate of 9.9%. It has changed at a rate of 8.3% due to migration and at a rate of 2.6% due to births and deaths. The population of the greater Lausanne area (_grand Lausanne_) is 402,900 (as of December 2014).

Of the population in the municipality, 58% or 80,828 have a Swiss citizenship, while 16,908 or 12.1% are from Lausanne and still lived there in December 2013. There were 27,653 or 19.8% who are from somewhere else in the same canton, while 36,276 or 26.0% have a Swiss citizenship in another canton. 58,9562 or 42.0% have a foreign citizenship.

In 2000, most of the population spoke French (98,424 or 78.8%), with German being second most common (5,365 or 4.3%) and Italian being third (4,976 or 4.0%). There were 62 people who speak Romansh .

In 2008 there were 840 live births to Swiss citizens and 623 births to non-Swiss citizens, and in same time span there were 862 deaths of Swiss citizens and 127 non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 22 while the foreign population increased by 496. There were 9 Swiss men and 57 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland. At the same time, there were 2230 non-Swiss men and 1802 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in 2008 (from all sources, including moves across municipal borders) was an increase of 883 and the non-Swiss population increased by 2221 people. This represents a population growth rate of 2.6%.

The age distribution, as of 2009 , in Lausanne is; 11,818 children or 9.4% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 12,128 teenagers or 9.7% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population, 21,101 people or 16.8% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 22,158 people or 17.6% are between 30 and 39, 18,016 people or 14.4% are between 40 and 49, and 13,940 people or 11.1% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 11,041 people or 8.8% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 8,277 people or 6.6% are between 70 and 79, there are 5,896 people or 4.7% who are between 80 and 89, and there are 1,171 people or 0.9% who are 90 and older. View from Rue du Grand-Pont

As of 2000 , there were 58,100 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 48,990 married individuals, 7,797 widows or widowers and 10,027 individuals who are divorced.

As of 2000 the average number of residents per living room was 0.64 which is about equal to the cantonal average of 0.61 per room. In this case, a room is defined as space of a housing unit of at least 4 m2 (43.1 sq ft) as normal bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms, kitchens and habitable cellars and attics. About 6.5% of the total households were owner occupied, or in other words did not pay rent (though they may have a mortgage or a rent-to-own agreement). _ Stairs (escaliers du marché_) in the old city.

As of 2000 , there were 62,258 private households in the municipality, and an average of 1.9 persons per household. There were 31,205 households that consist of only one person and 2,184 households with five or more people.Out of a total of 63,833 households that answered this question, 48.9% were households made up of just one person and there were 306 adults who lived with their parents. Of the res of the households, there are 13,131 married couples without children, 11,603 married couples with children. There were 3,883 single parents with a child or children. There were 2,130 households that were made up of unrelated people and 1,575 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing.

In 2000 there were 1,833 single family homes (or 23.1% of the total) out of a total of 7,925 inhabited buildings. There were 3,634 multi-family buildings (45.9%), along with 1,955 multi-purpose buildings that were mostly used for housing (24.7%) and 503 other use buildings (commercial or industrial) that also had some housing (6.3%). Of the single family homes 324 were built before 1919, while 153 were built between 1990 and 2000. The greatest number of single family homes (498) were built between 1919 and 1945. The most multi-family homes (933) were built before 1919 and the next most (906) were built between 1919 and 1945. There were 180 multi-family houses built between 1996 and 2000.

In 2000 there were 69,383 apartments in the municipality. The most common apartment size was 3 rooms of which there were 22,408. There were 9,579 single room apartments and 7,388 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 61,056 apartments (88.0% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 6,840 apartments (9.9%) were seasonally occupied and 1,487 apartments (2.1%) were empty. As of 2009 , the construction rate of new housing units was 2.1 new units per 1000 residents.

As of 2003 the average price to rent an average apartment in Lausanne was 1064.08 Swiss francs (CHF) per month (US$850, £480, €680 approx. exchange rate from 2003). The average rate for a one-room apartment was 597.46 CHF (US$480, £270, €380), a two-room apartment was about 792.33 CHF (US$630, £360, €510), a three-room apartment was about 1044.64 CHF (US$840, £470, €670) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 2024.55 CHF (US$1620, £910, €1300). The average apartment price in Lausanne was 95.3% of the national average of 1116 CHF. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010 , was 0.17%.

HISTORIC POPULATION

The historical population is given in the following chart:

HISTORIC POPULATION DATA

YEAR TOTAL POPULATION FRENCH-SPEAKING GERMAN-SPEAKING CATHOLIC PROTESTANT OTHER JEWISH ISLAMIC NO RELIGION GIVEN SWISS NON-SWISS

13TH CENTURY 8,000-9,000

1650–1680 c. 5,100

1698 6,204

1764 7,191

1798 over 9,000

1813 c. 13,000

1850 17,108

970 16,101

16,023 1,085

1870 25,845

3,527 22,596

22,353 4,167

1888 33,340 25,750 5,704 4,575 28,431 1,034 184

28,205 5,135

1900 46,732 35,509 6,627 9,364 36,659 1,450 473

37,231 9,501

1910 64,446 46,293 9,669 15,597 46,166 3,167 989

48,647 15,799

1930 75,915 58,691 11,080 16,868 56,300 2,901 818

65,231 10,684

1950 106,807 88,226 12,403 27,218 75,559 2,349 1,009

97,119 9,688

1970 137,383 101,555 11,964 54,993 75,093 11,670 1,394 669 2,056 106,229 31,154

1990 128,112 95,455 6,799 56,464 48,496 19,103 919 2,775 14,548 88,905 39,207

2000 124,914 98,424 5,365 47,225 36,084 16,149 849 7,501 21,080 80,213 44,701

RELIGION

From the Reformation in the 16th century, the city was mostly Protestant until the late 20th century, when it received substantial immigration, particularly from largely Catholic countries. Catholics now form a plurality of the city's population.

From the 2000 census , 47,225 people (37.8% of the population) were Roman Catholic , while 33,993 (27.2%) belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church . Of the rest of the population, there were 2,698 members of an Orthodox church (2.16%), there were 65 individuals (0.05%) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church , and there were 4,437 individuals (3.55%) who belonged to another Christian church. There were 849 individuals (0.68%) who were Jewish , and 7,501 (6.00%) who were Muslim . There were 452 individuals who were Buddhist , 772 individuals who were Hindu and 343 individuals who belonged to another church. 21,080 (16.88%) belonged to no church, were agnostic or atheist , and 7,590 individuals (6.08%) did not answer the question. The Protestant Cathedral of Notre Dame dominates the Lausanne skyline (left: Old Academy, right: Palais de Rumine ).

CRIME

See also: Crime in Switzerland

In 2014 the crime rate, of crimes listed in the Swiss Criminal Code , in Lausanne was 167.3 per thousand residents. During the same period, the rate of drug crimes was 49.5 per thousand residents, and the rate of violations of immigration, visa and work permit laws was 21 per thousand residents.

TRANSPORT

See also: Lausanne railway station , Léman RER , Lausanne Metro , and Transports publics de la région lausannoise Public transport network Lausanne-Flon is the hub of the metro system .

Lausanne is served by an extensive network of local, national and international public transport . National and international passenger trains of the Swiss Federal Railways depart from Lausanne railway station , which is also the hub of the Réseau Express Vaudois commuter rail system, and a stop on the city's metro . The metro and local buses are operated by Transports publics de la région lausannoise (TL), with many routes run using trolleybuses . Additional commuter trains are run by the Lausanne–Echallens–Bercher railway (LEB) from Lausanne-Flon station . Ships across Lake Geneva are provided by the Compagnie Générale de Navigation sur le lac Léman (CGN).

Lausanne became the first city in Switzerland to have a rubber-tyred metro system, with the m2 Line which opened in October 2008. The rolling stock is a shorter version of the one used on Paris Métro Line 14 . Further expansion of the system is planned, as is the re-introduction of trams .

Lausanne is connected to the A1 motorway on its west side ( Geneva - Zürich axis) and to the A9 on its north and east side (for transit with Italy and France); the interchange between these two motorways is on the north-west side of the city.

Lausanne Airport is located at Blécherette, and also houses a Boeing 737 Simulator. The city is also directly linked by train to the Geneva International Airport , four times an hour, in 42min.

ECONOMY

Aerial view of Lausanne (railway station in the centre and Parc de Milan at the bottom).

As of 2010 , Lausanne had an unemployment rate of 8%. As of 2008 , there were 114 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 25 businesses involved in this sector. 6,348 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 698 businesses in this sector. 83,157 people were employed in the tertiary sector , with 6,501 businesses in this sector.

There were 59,599 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 47.4% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 75,041. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 93, of which 56 were in agriculture, 34 were in forestry or lumber production and 3 were in fishing or fisheries. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 6,057 of which 1,515 or (25.0%) were in manufacturing, 24 or (0.4%) were in mining and 3,721 (61.4%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 68,891. In the tertiary sector; 8,520 or 12.4% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 2,955 or 4.3% were in the movement and storage of goods, 4,345 or 6.3% were in a hotel or restaurant, 4,671 or 6.8% were in the information industry, 6,729 or 9.8% were the insurance or financial industry, 8,213 or 11.9% were technical professionals or scientists, 5,756 or 8.4% were in education and 14,312 or 20.8% were in health care.

In 2000 , there were 55,789 workers who commuted into the municipality and 19,082 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 2.9 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving. About 1.9% of the workforce coming into Lausanne are coming from outside Switzerland, while 0.1% of the locals commute out of Switzerland for work. Of the working population, 40.9% used public transportation to get to work, and 35.1% used a private car.

* Philip Morris International , a tobacco company, has its international headquarters in Lausanne. * Tetra Laval , a multinational packaging corporation, has its international headquarters in Lausanne. * Nespresso , an operating unit of the Nestlé Group, based in Lausanne, Switzerland. * Logitech , the huge computer peripherals company has its headquarters in Lausanne.

EDUCATION

The École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (photo) and the University of Lausanne form a large campus near the lake Geneva .

In Lausanne about 40,118 or (32.1%) of the population have completed non-mandatory upper secondary education , and 22,934 or (18.4%) have completed additional higher education (either university or a _ Fachhochschule _). Of the 22,934 who completed tertiary schooling, 38.7% were Swiss men, 31.3% were Swiss women, 17.1% were non-Swiss men and 12.9% were non-Swiss women.

In the 2009/2010 school year there were a total of 12,244 students in the Lausanne school district. In the Vaud cantonal school system, two years of non-obligatory pre-school are provided by the political districts. During the school year, the political district provided pre-school care for a total of 2,648 children of which 1,947 children (73.5%) received subsidized pre-school care. The canton's primary school program requires students to attend for four years. There were 6,601 students in the municipal primary school program. The obligatory lower secondary school program lasts for six years and there were 5,244 students in those schools. There were also 399 students who were home schooled or attended another non-traditional school.

Lausanne is home to a number of museums including; the _Collection de l\'art brut _, the _Espace Arlaud_, the _Fondation de l'Hermitage_, the _Musée cantonal d'archéologie et d'histoire_, the _Musée cantonal de géologie_, the _Musée cantonal de zoologie_, the Cantonal Museum of Fine Arts , the Museum of Contemporary Design and Applied Arts , the _Musée de l\'Élysée _ and the _Musée historique de Lausanne_. In 2009 the _Collection de l\'art brut _ was visited by 27,028 visitors (the average in previous years was 33,356). The _Espace Arlaud_ was visited by 9,222 visitors (the average in previous years was 14,206). The _Fondation de l'Hermitage_ was visited by 89,175 visitors (the average in previous years was 74,839). The _Musée cantonal d'archéologie et d'histoire_ was visited by 14,841 visitors (the average in previous years was 15,775). The _Musée cantonal de zoologie_ was visited by 30,794 visitors (the average in previous years was 30,392). The _Musée cantonal de géologie_ was visited by 28,299 visitors (the average in previous years was 24,248). The Cantonal Museum of Fine Arts was visited by 26,456 visitors (the average in previous years was 26,384). The Museum of Contemporary Design and Applied Arts was visited by 28,554 visitors (the average in previous years was 22,879). The _Musée de l\'Élysée _ was visited by 36,775 visitors (the average in previous years was 37,757). The _Musée historique de Lausanne_ was visited by 23,116 visitors (the average in previous years was 22,851).

As of 2000 , there were 12,147 students in Lausanne who came from another municipality, while 2,258 residents attended schools outside the municipality.

LIBRARIES

Lausanne is home to eight large libraries or collections of libraries. These libraries include: Cantonal and University Library of Lausanne , the library of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) , the libraries of the _Réseau EPFL _, the _Bibliothèque municipale de Lausanne_, the _Haute école de travail social et de la santé (EESP)_, the _HECV Santé_, the _Haute école de la santé La Source_ and the _École cantonale d\'art de Lausanne _ (ECAL). There was a combined total (as of 2008 ) of 3,496,260 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year a total of 1,650,534 items were loaned out.

TERTIARY EDUCATION

Lausanne enjoys some world class education and research establishments (see also Lausanne campus ), including private schools, attended by students from around the world.

* Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)

* University of Lausanne (UNIL)

* HEC Lausanne , Faculty of Business and Economics of the University of Lausanne

* University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) , a hospital centre with associated research * _École hôtelière de Lausanne_ (EHL) * _École cantonale d\'art de Lausanne_ (ECAL) * International Institute for Management Development (IMD) * Swiss Graduate School of Public Administration (IDHEAP) * AISTS ("International Academy of Sports Science and Technology") * Business School Lausanne (BSL) * The Lausanne campus of the University of the Nations * Pepperdine University maintains an international study campus in Lausanne

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (February 2016)_

International schools:

* École française de Lausanne-Valmont * Lycée Pareto (Italian school) * Brillantmont International School * International School of Lausanne

SIGHTS

HERITAGE SITES OF NATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE

There are 46 buildings or sites that are listed as Swiss heritage site of national significance . Additionally, the entire old city of Lausanne and the Vernand-Dessus region are listed in the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites .

* Religious Buildings: Notre-Dame Cathedral , Swiss Reformed Church of Saint-François, Swiss Reformed Church of Saint-Laurent and the Synagogue at Avenue de Florimont. * Civic Structures: Former Hôpital at Rue Mercerie 24, Former Federal Tribunal, the Former Académie at Rue Cité-Devant 7, Casino de Montbenon , St-Maire Castle , Bois-de-Vaux Cemetery, Fondation de l’Hermitage and House de maître, Railway station , Beau-Rivage Palace , City Hall , Hôtel des Postes, Administration Building of André ">

The Casino de Montbenon *

Lausanne Cathedral *

University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) *

Château Saint-Maire *

Swiss Reformed Church of Saint-François *

Swiss Reformed Church of Saint-Laurent *

Fondation de l'Hermitage *

Lausanne railway station *

Hôtel Beau-Rivage Palace *

Administrative building of the Vaudoise Assurances *

Musée de l\'Élysée *

Olympic Museum and Archives of the International Olympic Committee *

Ouchy waterfront *

Synagogue *

The Sauvabelin Tower *

Compagnie générale de navigation sur le lac Léman

CULTURE

In addition to the Cantonal and University Library of Lausanne , the Palais de Rumine hosts several museums.

The _Orchestre de chambre de Lausanne_, the Lausanne Opera and the _Ensemble vocal de Lausanne_ provide a diverse and rich musical life. The latter has been under the direction of Michel Corboz for many years.

In January, the Prix de Lausanne , a famous dance competition, takes place at the Palais de Beaulieu (the biggest theatre in Switzerland ) over a one-week period. The event attracts dancers and some of the big names in dance from all over the world.

The Swiss Film Archive is based in Lausanne and the city hosts film festivals such as the _Festival cinémas d'Afrique_ and the Lausanne Underground Film and Music Festival . In addition to modern cinemas, the "Capitole" (in activity since 1929) is the biggest cinema in Switzerland (currently 867 seats).

The town hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 1989 . Each July, the _Festival de la cité_ is held in the old part of town . Other music festivals include the Bach Festival, the _Festival et concours Bach de Lausanne_, which follows the _Nuit de musées_ (museums' night) in the fall season.

Lausanne is also the home of the Béjart Ballet .

MONUMENTS

* Cathedral (restored by Viollet-le-Duc ) * Saint-Maire Castle (_Château Saint-Maire_) * Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland * Town Hall

MUSEUMS

Lausanne is also the site of many museums :

* Archizoom * Musée Bolo * Olympic Museum (_Musée olympique_) * Musée de l\'Élysée * _Fondation de l\'Hermitage_ ("Hermitage Foundation") * Collection of Outsider Art (_Collection de l\'art brut_) * Museum of Contemporary Design and Applied Arts (_Musée de design et d\'arts appliqués contemporains_) * Lausanne Museum of History (_Musée historique de Lausanne_) * _Espace Arlaud_ (in French) * _Espace des inventions_ (in French) ("Science Center for Kids") * _Fondation Claude Verdan_ (in French) - _Musée de la main_ (" Museum of the Hand") * _Vivarium de Lausanne_ (in French) * Cantonal Botanical Museum and Gardens (_Musée et jardins botaniques cantonaux_) * Cantonal Museum of Money (_Musée monétaire cantonal_) (in French) (formerly _Cabinet cantonal des médailles_ - short presentation in English) * Cantonal Museum of Archeology and History (_Musée cantonal d\'archéologie et d\'histoire_) (in French) short presentation in English * Cantonal Museum of Fine Arts (_Musée cantonal des beaux-arts_) * Cantonal Museum of Zoology (_Musée cantonal de zoologie_) * Cantonal Museum of Geology (_Musée cantonal de Géologie_) (in French) * Musée romain de Lausanne- Vidy ("Lausanne- Vidy Roman Museum")

ART GALLERIES

Main contemporary art galleries:

* Galerie Lucy Mackintosh * Dubner Moderne * Synopsism (in French) * Espace Saint-François (in French)

Art centers or artist-run galleries:

* Circuit (in French) * Galerie Galerie 1m3 * Doll espace d\'art contemporain (in French)

MUSIC

* Contemporary composer Leonardo Balada 's Symphony No. 4 is subtitled 'Lausanne'. * Igor Stravinsky's _L\'Histoire du Soldat _ was premiered in Lausanne in September 1918.

SPORTS

The seat of the International Olympic Committee in Lausanne Lausanne is the host city of the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics .

Sporting activities are very popular in Lausanne and is home to the IOC , with water sports available on the nearby lake and mountaineering in the nearby mountains. Cycling is also a popular pastime, with the vineyards in the surrounding hills providing spectacular views and challenging routes. There is an annual track and field meeting (_ Athletissima _), road running through the city (the 20 km (12 mi) of Lausanne ), the Tour de Romandie road cycling race, Marathon of Lausanne and triathlon competition, among other sports events. The two most important sports are ice hockey and football . Lausanne will host the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics . Local

* Lausanne Hockey Club * Lausanne- Sport Football Club * Lausanne-Sports Aviron Rowing Club * Lausanne Sharks American Football Club * NSFL Non Professional Swiss Romand American Football Federation * Federation of Swiss Bandy * Stade Lausanne Rugby Club * Lausanne University Club Rugby * Lausanne Frisbee * Swiss Power Wrestling, Professional Wrestling school

International

* International Olympic Committee Headquarters * Court of Arbitration for Sport Headquarters * International Hockey Federation Headquarters * International Table Tennis Federation Headquarters * Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) The World Air Sports Federation * Fédération Équestre Internationale (FEI) The international governing body for equestrian * Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d\'Aviron (FISA) The international governing body for rowing * Fédération Internationale d\'Escrime (FIE) The international governing body for fencing * Fédération Internationale de Tir à l\'Arc (FITA) The international governing body for archery * Fédération Internationale du Sport Universitaire (FISU) The international governing body for university sports * International Baseball Federation * International Swimming Federation * International Skating Union * Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) * International Triathlon Union (ITU) * International Wushu Federation (IWUF)

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Jean-Pascal Delamuraz was Mayor of Lausanne before becoming member of the Federal Council Auguste Piccard (on the right), physicist, inventor and explorer, was a resident of Lausanne.

_ Lausanne is the birthplace of:_

* Timea Bacsinszky , tennis player * David Bennent , actor * Metropolitan Anthony (Bloom) of Sourozh , Russian Orthodox ecclesiastic located in Britain * François-Louis David Bocion , artist and teacher * Ernest Boiceau (1881-1950), artist and designer * Marius Borgeaud , artist * Hélène Boschi , pianist, * Johann Ludwig Burckhardt , traveler and orientalist * Alejo Carpentier , Cuban-French writer * Stéphane Chapuisat , footballer * Albert Chavannes , philosopher * Benjamin Constant , thinker, writer and politician * Aloise Corbaz , outsider artist * Charles Dutoit , conductor * Egon von Furstenberg , fashion designer * Eugène Grasset , decorative artist * Dominique Lévy , art dealer * Ludovic Magnin , footballer * Vincent Perez , film actor and director * Bertrand Piccard , psychiatrist and balloonist * Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz , writer * Ubolratana Rajakanya , Thai princess * Théophile Steinlen , Art Nouveau painter and printmaker * James Thiérrée , actor * Elizabeth Thompson (Lady Butler), British painter * Bernard Tschumi , contemporary architect, writer, and educator * Nanos Valaoritis Greek poet * Félix Vallotton , post-impressionist painter * Jacques Viret (born 1943), French musicologist * Stanislas Wawrinka , tennis player * Jocelyn Wildenstein, Manhattan socialite and ex-wife of the late Alec N. Wildenstein

Notable residents:

* Bhumibol Adulyadej , late king of Thailand was educated at the École nouvelle de la Suisse romande * Pierre Amoyal , Paris-born violinist; professor at Lausanne Conservatory * Jean Anouilh , French dramatist * Ingvar Kamprad , founder of IKEA * Alice Bailly , Swiss painter and multimedia artist * Maurice Béjart , choreographer * Lorik Cana , professional footballer for Albania and Marseille * Capucine , French actress and model * Coco Chanel , fashion designer * Pierre de Coubertin , French baron and founder of the International Olympic Committee * Jean-Pascal Delamuraz , Swiss politician * Helen of Greece and Denmark , Queen Mother of Romania * Victoria Eugenia of Battenberg , Queen of Spain * Peter Carl Fabergé , Russian jeweller * Edward Gibbon , British historian * Gloria Guinness , socialite and writer * Oswald Heer , Swiss geologist and naturalist * Stéphane Lambiel , men's figure skater, Olympic silver medalist and 2-time world champion * Sébastien Loeb , French rally driver * Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim , Finnish president and field marshal * James Mason , English actor * Fernand Melgar , Swiss actor * Jô Soares , Brazilian humorist * Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine , Ukrainian bacteriologist * Paloma Picasso , fashion designer * Auguste Piccard , Swiss physicist, inventor and explorer * George Sanders , English actor * Albin Schram , renowned manuscript collector * Georges Simenon , Belgian writer * Jon Steele , American-born author * Han Suyin , China-born writer * Karol Szymanowski , Polish composer * Eugène Viollet-le-Duc , French architect * Pierre Viret , Swiss reformed theologian * Serge Voronoff , surgeon buried in Lausanne

SEE ALSO

* Switzerland portal

* Franco-Provençal language * Eurovision Song Contest 1989 * International Academy of Sport Science and Technology (AISTS) * Lac de Sauvabelin , Tour de Sauvabelin * Beau-Rivage Palace * Scots Kirk, Lausanne (Church of Scotland) * List of mayors of Lausanne * Lausanne Conference, 1949 * Treaty of Lausanne

NOTES AND REFERENCES

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Retrieved 1 September 2015. * ^ "Office fédéral du développement territorial ARE – B3: Les aires métropolitaines" (PDF). _www.are.admin.ch_ (in French, German, and Italian). Federal Office for Spatial Development ARE. 7 June 2006. p. 4. Retrieved 17 April 2014. * ^ "Welcome to International Sports Federations". International Sports Federations. Retrieved 27 September 2009. * ^ Kucera, Andrea (28 April 2015). " Lausanne – Hauptstadt des Sports". _ NZZ _. Retrieved 28 April 2015. * ^ " Lausanne named Winter Youth Olympic Games host for 2020". _International Olympic Committee_. 2016-10-27. Retrieved 2017-05-30. * ^ _Lousonna_ in German, French and Italian in the online _Historical Dictionary of Switzerland _. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _Lausanne_ in German, French and Italian in the online _Historical Dictionary of Switzerland _. * ^ Lasserre, Claude (1997). _Le séminaire de Lausanne, 1726-1812 : instrument de la restauration du protestantisme français : étude historique fondée principalement sur les documents inédits_. Bibliothèque historique vaudoise, no 112 (in French). Lausanne: Bibliothèque historique vaudoise. ISBN 978-2-88454-112-1 . OCLC 39222660 . Also OCLC 39228676 * ^ _ Lausanne District 1313-2006_ in German, French and Italian in the online _Historical Dictionary of Switzerland _. * ^ " Lausanne 1964: Two ideas, one Expo". _Swiss National Exhibitions - Expo-Archive_. swissinfo /Swiss Radio International (SRI) . Retrieved 27 September 2009. * ^ "The Waste Land - Modernism Lab Essays". _Modernism.research.yale.edu_. 24 March 2009. 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Retrieved 1 November 2015. * ^ "Municipalité" (official site) (in French). Lausanne, Switzerland: Hôtel de Ville de Lausanne. Retrieved 2016-11-17. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Composition de la Municipalité: Composition des directions pour la législature 2016-2021" (official site) (in French). Lausanne, Switzerland: Hôtel de Ville de Lausanne. Retrieved 2016-11-17. * ^ "Conseil communal" (official site) (in French). Geneva, Switzerland: Conseil communal, Ville de Lausanne. Retrieved 1 November 2015. * ^ "Conseil communal: résultats:Répartition des sièges, bilan final" (official site) (in French). Lausanne, Switzerland: Conseil communal, Ville de Lausanne. Retrieved 30 March 2016. * ^ "Nationalratswahlen 2015: Stärke der Parteien und Wahlbeteiligung nach Gemeinden" (official statistics) (in German and French). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 4 March 2016. Archived from the original (XLS) on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-03. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Population totale par région du monde et selon la nationalité, 1979-2013" (XLS). _Scris-lausanne.vd.ch/LS_pop_residante_ (Statistics) (in French). Contrôle des Habitants de la Ville de Lausanne / StatVD, canto de Vaud. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014. data from December 2013 * ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit _(in German) accessed 30 August 2016_ * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Swiss Federal Statistical Office Archived 5 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine .. Retrieved 21 June 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ STAT-TAB Datenwürfel für Thema 40.3 - 2000 Archived 9 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine .. (in German) Retrieved 2 February 2011. * ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Superweb database - Gemeinde Statistics 1981-2008 Archived 28 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine .. (in German) Retrieved 19 June 2010. * ^ Canton of Vaud Statistical Office. (in French) Retrieved 29 April 2011. * ^ Eurostat. "Housing (SA1)". _Urban Audit Glossary_ (PDF). 2007. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2010. * ^ Urban Audit Glossary p. 17. * ^ _A_ _B_ Swiss Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB - Datenwürfel für Thema 09.2 - Gebäude und Wohnungen Archived 7 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine .. (in German) Retrieved 28 January 2011. * ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Rental prices 2003 data. (in German) Retrieved 26 May 2010. * ^ Statistical Atlas of Switzerland. Retrieved 5 April 2016. * ^ Lambert, Anthony (2013). _ Switzerland without a Car_ (5 ed.). Bradt Travel Guides . p. 258. ISBN 978-1841624471 . * ^ "Les Axes forts - Site officiel de la Ville de Lausanne". City of Lausanne. Retrieved 18 August 2014. * ^ "JMS Boeing 737 Simulator". Thebigboss.ch. 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Federal Office of Civil Protection. 2009. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2011. * ^ (in French) Mathieu Signorell, "Beaulieu lâche les congrès pour les infirmiers après l'échec de Taoua", _24 heures _, Saturday 14 February 2015. * ^ "Le Capitole". _Lecapitole.ch_. Retrieved 18 January 2016. * ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20120211130547/http://www.lausanne.ch/view.asp?docId=27749&domId=64350&language=E. Archived from the original on 11 February 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2016. Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ Goddard, Emily (12 July 2013). "Swiss President Maurer "very excited" about Youth Olympic bid as Lausanne launches official application". _Insidethegames.biz_. Retrieved 18 January 2016. * ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20150705010723/http://www.stadelausannerugby.com/. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2016. Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20121028162130/http://www.flyhigh.ultimate.ch/fr/Accueil.html. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2016. Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071116043149/http://www.lausanne.ch/view.asp?DocId=27899. Archived from the original on 16 November 2007. Retrieve