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Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City ( Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ: Ko-hiông; Hakka: Kô-hiùng; old names: Takao, Takow, Takau) is a special municipality located in southern-western Taiwan
Taiwan
and facing the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has a population of approximately 2.77 million people and has been officially ranked as Taiwan's third most populous city since July 2017.[4] It is Taiwan's largest municipality by area at 2,951.85 km2 (1,139.72 sq mi), stretching from Mount Yu to Taiping Island. Since its start in the 17th century, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has grown from a small trading village into the political, economic, transportation, manufacturing, refining, shipbuilding, and industrial center of southern Taiwan. The Kaohsiung International Airport
Kaohsiung International Airport
is the second largest airport in Taiwan. The Port of Kaohsiung
Port of Kaohsiung
is the largest harbor in Taiwan, but not officially part of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City. The southern terminal of Freeway 1 is in Kaohsiung. The city is served by the TRA Western and Pingtung railway lines. The Taiwan
Taiwan
High Speed Rail also provides fast and frequent railway connection to Taipei. The Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Mass Rapid Transit, the city's subway system, was launched in early 2008. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
was the host city of the World Games
World Games
2009, a multi-sport event primarily composed of sports not featured in the Olympic Games. The city is also home to the Republic of China Navy
Republic of China Navy
fleet headquarters and academy.

Contents

1 Etymology and names 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Dutch colonial period 2.3 Qing Dynasty 2.4 Empire of Japan 2.5 Republic of China

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Cityscape

4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnic composition

4.1.1 Han People 4.1.2 Taiwanese Aborigines 4.1.3 New residents (新住民) 4.1.4 Foreign workers
Foreign workers
in Kaohsiung

5 Economy 6 Culture

6.1 Tourism

6.1.1 Natural attractions 6.1.2 Historical sites 6.1.3 Museums 6.1.4 Parks and Zoos 6.1.5 Others

6.2 Languages 6.3 Arts

7 Religion

7.1 Buddhism 7.2 Taoism 7.3 Christianity 7.4 Islam

8 Politics

8.1 Government 8.2 Subdivisions

9 Transportation

9.1 Port
Port
of Kaohsiung 9.2 Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
International Airport 9.3 Rapid transit

9.3.1 Circular Light Rail

9.3.1.1 Central Park Light Rail Demonstrator

9.4 Railway

10 Sports 11 Education 12 Conferences and events 13 Sister cities and twin towns 14 Relative location 15 See also 16 References 17 External links

Etymology and names[edit] Hoklo immigrants to the area during the 16th and 17th centuries called it Takau (Chinese: 打狗; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tá-káu). The surface meaning of the associated Chinese characters
Chinese characters
was "beat the dog". According to one theory, the name Takau originates from the aboriginal Siraya language
Siraya language
and translates as "bamboo forest". According to another theory, the name evolved via metathesis from the name of the Makatao tribe, who inhabited the area at the time of European and Hoklo settlement. On a linguistic basis, the Makatao are considered to have been part of a greater Siraya tribe. During the Dutch colonization of southern Taiwan, the area was known as Tancoia to the western world for a period of about three decades. In 1662, the Dutch were expelled by the Kingdom of Tungning government, founded by Ming loyalists of Koxinga. His son, Zheng Jing, renamed the village Banlian-chiu (Chinese: 萬年州; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Bān-liân-chiu; literally: "ten-thousand-year region (zhou)") in 1664. The name of "Takau" was restored in the late 1670s, when the town expanded dramatically with immigrants from mainland China, and was kept through Taiwan's cession to the Japanese Empire in 1895. In his 1903 general history of Taiwan, US Consul to Formosa (1898–1904) James W. Davidson
James W. Davidson
relates that "Takow" was already a well-known name in English.[5] However, in 1920, the name was changed to Takao (Japanese: 高雄, after Takao (Kyoto) (ja)) and administered the area under Takao Prefecture. While the new name had quite a different surface meaning, its pronunciation in Japanese sounded more or less the same as the old name spoken in Hokkien. After Taiwan
Taiwan
was handed to the Republic of China, the name did not change, but the official romanization became "Kaohsiung" (pinyin: Gāoxióng) after the Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
pronunciation of 高雄. The name Takau remains the official name of the city in Austronesian languages of Taiwan
Taiwan
such as Rukai, although these are not widely spoken in the city. The name also remains popular locally in the naming of businesses, associations, and events. History[edit] Main article: History of Kaohsiung See also: History of Taiwan

Port
Port
of Ta-kau (1893)

The written history of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
can be traced back to the early 17th century, through archeological studies have found signs of human activity in the region from as long as 7000 years ago. Prior to the 17th century, the region was inhabited by the Makatau clan of the Siraya aboriginal tribe, who settled on what they named Ta-kau Isle (translated to 打狗嶼 by Ming Chinese explorers); "Takau" meaning "bamboo forest" in the aboriginal language. Dutch settlers colonizing Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1624 referred to the region as Tankoya and named the harbor Tancoia. The first Chinese records of the region were written in 1603 by Chen Di, a member of Ming admiral Shen You-rong's expedition to rid the waters around Taiwan
Taiwan
and Penghu
Penghu
of pirates. In his report on the "Eastern Barbarian Lands" (Dong Fan Ji), Chen Di referred to a Ta-kau Isle:

It is unknown when the barbarians (Taiwanese aborigines) arose on this island in the ocean beyond Penghu, but they are present at Keeong Harbor
Harbor
(nowaday's Budai, Chiayi), the bay of Galaw (Anping, Tainan), Laydwawan ( Tainan
Tainan
City), Yaw Harbor
Harbor
(Cheting, Kaohsiung), Takau Isle ( Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City), Little Tamsui (Donggang, Pingtung), Siangkeykaw (Puzi, Chiayi), Gali forest (Jiali District, Tainan), the village of Sabah (Tamsui, Taipei), and Dwabangkang (Bali, New Taipei
Taipei
City).

Early history[edit]

Sketch of the Makatau people during the Qing Dynasty

The earliest evidence of human activity in the Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
area dates back to roughly 4700–5200 years ago. Most of the discovered remnants were located in the hills surrounding Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Harbor, artifacts are found at nowadays' Shoushan, Longquan Temple, Taoziyuan, Zuoying old town, Zuoying, Houjing ruins, Fudingjin and Fengbitou. The prehistoric Dapenkeng, Niuchouzi, Dahu, and Niaosong civilizations were known to inhabit the region. Studies of the prehistoric ruins at Longquan Temple have shown that that civilization occurred at roughly the same times as the beginnings of the aboriginal Makatau civilization, suggesting a possible origin for the latter. Unlike some other archeological sites in the area, the Longquan Temple ruins are relatively well preserved. Prehistoric artifacts discovered have suggested that the ancient Kaohsiung Harbor
Kaohsiung Harbor
was originally a lagoon, with early civilizations functioning primarily as hunter-gatherer societies. Some agricultural tools have also been discovered, suggesting that some agricultural activity was also present. Dutch colonial period[edit] Taiwan
Taiwan
became a Dutch colony in 1624, after the Dutch East Indies Company was ejected from Penghu
Penghu
by Ming forces. At the time, Takau was already one of the most important fishing ports in southern Taiwan. The Dutch named the place Tankoya, and the harbor Tancoia. The Dutch missionary François Valentijn
François Valentijn
named Takau Mountain "Ape Berg", a name that would find its way onto European navigational charts well into the 18th century. Tankoia was located north of Ape's Hill and a few hours south from Tayouan (modern-day Anping, Tainan) by sail.[6] At the time, a wide shallow bay existed there, sufficient for small vessels. However, constant silting changed the coastline. During this time, Taiwan
Taiwan
was divided into five administrative districts, with Takau belonging to the southernmost district. In 1630, the first large scale immigration of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
to Taiwan
Taiwan
began due to famine in Fujian, with merchants and traders from China
China
seeking to purchase hunting licenses from the Dutch or hide out in aboriginal villages to escape authorities in China. Qing Dynasty[edit]

South Gate of Fengshan County

In 1684 the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
annexed Taiwan
Taiwan
and renamed the town Fongshan County (Chinese: 鳳山縣; pinyin: Fèngshān Xiàn), considering it a part of Taiwan
Taiwan
Prefecture. It was first opened as a port during the 1680s and subsequently prospered fairly for generations.[7] Empire of Japan[edit]

Old Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Train Station, built during the Japanese occupation of Taiwan

In 1895, Taiwan
Taiwan
was ceded to Japan
Japan
as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Japan
Japan
placed Taiwan
Taiwan
under the rule of Governor-General. Administrative control of the city was moved from New Fongshan Castle to the Fongshan Sub-District of Tainan
Tainan
Chō (臺南廳). In November 1901, twenty chō were established in total; Hōzan Chō (鳳山廳) was established nearby. In 1909, Hōzan Chō was abolished, and Takow was merged into Tainan
Tainan
Chō. In 1920, during the tenure of 8th Governor-General Den Kenjirō, districts were abolished in favor of prefectures. Thus the city was administered as Takao City (高雄市, Takao-shi) under Takao Prefecture. The Japanese developed Takao, especially the harbor that became the foundation of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
to be a port city. Takow was then systematically modernized and connected to the end of North-South Railway. The city center was relocated several times during the period due to the government's development strategy.[8] Development was initially centered on Ki-au (Chinese: 旗後; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Kî-āu) region but the government began laying railways, upgrading the harbor, constructing railway stations and passing new urban plans. New industries such as refinery, machinery, shipbuilding and cementing were also introduced. An important military base and industry center, the city was heavily bombed by Task Force 38 and FEAF during 1944–1945. Republic of China[edit]

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City before merging with Kaohsiung County
Kaohsiung County
(1945–2010)

The Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Martyrs' Shrine

After control of Taiwan
Taiwan
was handed over from Japan
Japan
to the government of the Republic of China
Republic of China
on 25 October 1945, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City and Kaohsiung County
Kaohsiung County
were established as a provincial city and a county of Taiwan
Taiwan
Province respectively on 25 December 1945. The official romanization of the name came to be "Kaohsiung", based on the Wade–Giles romanization of the Mandarin reading of the kanji name.[9] Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City then consisted of 10 districts, which were Gushan, Lianya (renamed "Lingya" in 1952), Nanzi, Qianjin, Qianzhen, Qijin, Sanmin, Xinxing, Yancheng and Zuoying. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
eventually surpassed Tainan
Tainan
to become the second largest city of Taiwan
Taiwan
in the late 1970s and Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City was upgraded from a provincial city to special municipality on 1 July 1979, by the Executive Yuan
Executive Yuan
with a total of 11 districts. The additional district is Xiaogang District, which was annexed from Xiaogang Township of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
County. The Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Incident, where the government suppressed a commemoration of International Human Rights Day, occurred on December 10, 1979. Since then Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
gradually grew into a political center of the Pan-Green (DPP) population of Taiwan, in opposition to Taipei where the majority population is Kuomintang
Kuomintang
supporters. On December 25, 2010, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City merged with Kaohsiung County
Kaohsiung County
to form a larger special municipality with Lingya District
Lingya District
and Fongshan District becoming the capital city, ending the administration of Kaohsiung County. On 31 July 2014, a series of gas explosions occurred in the Qianzhen and Lingya Districts of the city. 31 people were killed and more than 300 others were injured. Five roads were destroyed in an area of nearly 20 square kilometres (7.7 square miles) near the city center, making the incident the largest gas explosion in Taiwan's modern history.[10] Geography[edit] See also: Geography of Taiwan

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
is one of the sunniest cities in Taiwan.

The city sits on the southwestern coast of Taiwan
Taiwan
facing the Taiwan Strait, bordering Tainan City
Tainan City
to the North, Chiayi
Chiayi
and Nantou County to the North-west, Taitung County
Taitung County
to its North-east and Pingtung County to the South and South-east. The downtown areas are centered on Kaohsiung Harbor
Kaohsiung Harbor
with Qijin Island
Qijin Island
on the other side of the harbor acting as a natural breakwater. The Love River
Love River
(or Ai River) flows into the harbor through the Old City and downtown. Zuoying Military Harbor
Harbor
lies to the north of Kaohsiung Harbor
Kaohsiung Harbor
and the city center. Kaohsiung's natural landmarks include the coral mountains Ape Hill, Shoushan and Mount Banping. Climate[edit] Located over a degree to the south of the Tropic of Cancer, the climate of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
is tropical, specifically a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw), with monthly mean temperatures in the range of between 20 to 29 °C (68 to 84 °F) with relative humidity ranging between 71 and 81%. Kaohsiung's warm climate is very much dictated to its low latitude and its location with a year-round warm sea temperature, with the Kuroshio Current passing by the coasts of southern Taiwan,[11] and the Central mountain range on the northeast blocking out the cool northeastern winds during the winter. The city, therefore, has a noticeably warmer climate than nearby cities located at similar latitudes such as Hong Kong, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
as well as various cities further south of northern Vietnam, such as Hanoi. But although the climate is classified as tropical, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has a defined cooler season unlike most other cities in Asia
Asia
classified with this climate but located closer to the equator such as Singapore
Singapore
or Manila. Daily maximum temperature typically exceeds 30 °C (86 °F) during the warmer season (April to November) and 25 °C (77 °F) during the cooler season (December to March), with the exception when cold fronts strikes during the winter months, when the daily mean temperature of the city can drop between 3 to 5 °C (5.4 to 9.0 °F) depending on the strength of the cold front. Also, besides the high temperatures occurring during the usual summer months, daytime temperatures of inland districts of the city can often exceed above 33 °C (91 °F) from mid-March to late April before the onset of the monsoon season, with clear skies and southwesterly airflows. Average annual rainfall is around 1,885 millimetres (74.2 in), focused primarily from June to August. At more than 2,210 hours of bright sunshine, the city is one of the sunniest areas in Taiwan.[12] The sea temperature of Kaohsiung Harbor
Kaohsiung Harbor
remains above 22 °C (72 °F) year-round,[13] the second highest of Southern Taiwan after Liuqiu island, an island just off the coast of southern Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
with average monthly sea temperatures maintaining above 25 °C (77 °F) year-round.[14] According to recent records, the average temperature of the city has rose around 1 degree Celsius over the past 3 decades, from about 24.2 °C (75.6 °F) in 1983 to around 25.2 °C (77.4 °F) by 2012.

Climate data for Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 31.7 (89.1) 33.3 (91.9) 33.4 (92.1) 34.9 (94.8) 35.5 (95.9) 37.2 (99) 37.1 (98.8) 36.1 (97) 37.6 (99.7) 35.3 (95.5) 34.4 (93.9) 33.0 (91.4) 37.6 (99.7)

Average high °C (°F) 23.9 (75) 24.7 (76.5) 26.8 (80.2) 29.1 (84.4) 30.8 (87.4) 31.7 (89.1) 32.4 (90.3) 31.9 (89.4) 31.5 (88.7) 30.0 (86) 27.9 (82.2) 25.1 (77.2) 28.82 (83.87)

Daily mean °C (°F) 19.3 (66.7) 20.3 (68.5) 22.6 (72.7) 25.4 (77.7) 27.5 (81.5) 28.6 (83.5) 29.2 (84.6) 28.7 (83.7) 28.2 (82.8) 26.7 (80.1) 24.1 (75.4) 20.7 (69.3) 25.11 (77.21)

Average low °C (°F) 15.7 (60.3) 16.7 (62.1) 19.2 (66.6) 22.4 (72.3) 24.8 (76.6) 26.0 (78.8) 26.4 (79.5) 26.1 (79) 25.6 (78.1) 24.0 (75.2) 21.0 (69.8) 17.2 (63) 22.1 (71.8)

Record low °C (°F) 5.7 (42.3) 6.6 (43.9) 6.8 (44.2) 9.8 (49.6) 15.9 (60.6) 18.2 (64.8) 21.0 (69.8) 20.8 (69.4) 20.1 (68.2) 14.6 (58.3) 12.5 (54.5) 4.4 (39.9) 4.4 (39.9)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 16.0 (0.63) 20.5 (0.807) 38.8 (1.528) 69.8 (2.748) 197.4 (7.772) 415.3 (16.35) 390.9 (15.39) 416.7 (16.406) 241.9 (9.524) 42.7 (1.681) 18.7 (0.736) 16.2 (0.638) 1,884.9 (74.21)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.2 3.7 4.0 5.8 9.3 13.8 12.9 16.3 11.2 3.5 2.6 2.3 88.6

Average relative humidity (%) 72.7 73.5 73.2 75.1 76.9 80.1 78.7 80.5 78.9 75.5 73.3 71.9 75.9

Mean monthly sunshine hours 174.7 165.8 187.0 189.1 198.5 199.9 221.4 193.7 175.7 182.4 162.2 161.8 2,212.2

Source: Central Weather Bureau
Central Weather Bureau
(Normals 1981–2010, Extremes 1931–present)[12]

Climate data for Kaohsiung International Airport
Kaohsiung International Airport
(2010–2014 Temperatures)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 30 (86) 32 (90) 33 (91) 34 (93) 35 (95) 36 (97) 36 (97) 35 (95) 37 (99) 33 (91) 33 (91) 32 (90) 37 (99)

Average high °C (°F) 25.0 (77) 26.6 (79.9) 28.0 (82.4) 29.2 (84.6) 31.0 (87.8) 32.0 (89.6) 32.6 (90.7) 32.0 (89.6) 32.0 (89.6) 30.2 (86.4) 28.6 (83.5) 25.0 (77) 29.35 (84.84)

Daily mean °C (°F) 19.8 (67.6) 21.4 (70.5) 23.6 (74.5) 25.4 (77.7) 27.6 (81.7) 28.8 (83.8) 29.2 (84.6) 28.5 (83.3) 28.0 (82.4) 26.4 (79.5) 24.6 (76.3) 20.6 (69.1) 25.33 (77.58)

Average low °C (°F) 15.4 (59.7) 17.2 (63) 19.6 (67.3) 23.2 (73.8) 24.8 (76.6) 26.4 (79.5) 26.4 (79.5) 25.5 (77.9) 25.0 (77) 23.4 (74.1) 21.2 (70.2) 16.8 (62.2) 22.08 (71.73)

Record low °C (°F) 9 (48) 12 (54) 13 (55) 14 (57) 20 (68) 22 (72) 24 (75) 23 (73) 22 (72) 18 (64) 13 (55) 10 (50) 9 (48)

Source: Wunderground[15]

Cityscape[edit]

Kaohsiung's skyline viewed from Kaohsiung Lighthouse
Kaohsiung Lighthouse
in Qijin District, with the 85 Sky Tower
85 Sky Tower
right of center.

Demographics[edit] See also: Demographics of Taiwan

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1985 2,379,610 —    

1990 2,505,986 +5.3%

1995 2,619,947 +4.5%

2000 2,725,267 +4.0%

2005 2,760,180 +1.3%

2010 2,773,483 +0.5%

2015 2,778,918 +0.2%

Source:"Populations by city and country in Taiwan". Ministry of the Interior Population Census. 

Crowd in the Liuhe Night Market, one of the most well known night markets of Kaohsiung

As of June 2014, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
city has a population of 2,777,296 people, the second highest of Taiwan
Taiwan
after New Taipei
Taipei
city and a population density of 942.22 people per square kilometer. Within the city, Fengshan district is the most populated district with a population of 353,142 people, while Xinxin district is the most densely populated district with a population density of 26,709 people per square kilometer. Ethnic composition[edit] See also: Taiwanese people Han People[edit] As in most Taiwanese cities or counties, the majority of the population are Han Taiwanese. The Hans are then divided into 3 subgroups, Hoklo, Hakka
Hakka
and Waishengren. The Hoklo and Waishengren mostly lives in flatland townships and the city centre, while the majority of the Hakka
Hakka
population lives in the suburbs or rural townships of the northeastern hills. Taiwanese Aborigines[edit] The Taiwanese aborigines
Taiwanese aborigines
of Kaohsiung, who belong to various ethnic groups that speak different languages belonging to the Austronesian language family similar/related to those of Maritime Southeast Asia and Oceania, mostly live in the mountain townships such as Taoyuan or Namasia. The main aboriginal groups living within the city center include the Bunun, Rukai, Tsou and the Kanakanavus. New residents (新住民)[edit] As of December 2010, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
city hosts around 21,000 foreign spouses. Around 12,353 are Mainland Chinese, 4,244 are Vietnamese, around 800 Japanese and Indonesians and around 4,000 other Asians or foreigners from Europe or the Americas. Foreign workers
Foreign workers
in Kaohsiung[edit] As of April 2013, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
hosts 35,074 foreign workers who mainly work as factory workers or foreign maids (Not including foreign specialists such as teachers and other professionals). Within around half of which are Indonesians, and the other half being workers from other Southeast Asian
Southeast Asian
countries mainly from Vietnam, the Philippines or Thailand. Economy[edit] See also: North-South divide in Taiwan

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Harbor

The skyline of Kaohsiung

Zhongzheng Road of Kaohsiung's CBD

Intensive settlement began in earnest in the late 17th century, when the place was known as Ki-au (Chinese: 旗後). Opened in 1863 as a treaty port, subsidiary to the port of Anping farther north on the coast, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
became a customs station in 1864 and then gradually became an important port for the southern Taiwan
Taiwan
coastal plain. Kaohsiung's real economic and strategic importance began under Japanese rule (1895–1945). The Japanese needed a good port in southern Taiwan
Taiwan
to serve those designated areas that were to become a major source of raw materials and food for Japan, and Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
was chosen. It became the southern terminus of the main north-south railway line, and from 1904 to 1907 extensive harbor works were undertaken. In 1920 the port was given the name Takao and the area became a municipality in 1920. Before and during World War II
World War II
it handled a growing share of Taiwan's agricultural exports to Japan, and was also a major base for Japan's campaigns in Southeast Asia
Asia
and the Pacific, and extremely ambitious plans for the construction of a massive modern port were drawn up. Toward the end of the war, too, the Japanese promoted some industrial development at Kaohsiung, establishing an aluminum industry based on the abundant hydroelectric power produced by the Sun Moon Lake
Sun Moon Lake
project in the mountains. After it came under Chinese Nationalist administration in 1945, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
developed rapidly. The port, badly damaged in World War II, was restored. It also became a fishing port for boats sailing to Philippine and Indonesian waters. Largely because of its climate, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has overtaken Keelung
Keelung
as Taiwan's major port. Today as a major international port and industrial city in the southwest of the country, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
is the most rapidly developing urban center of Taiwan. With an area of 2,946 square kilometres (1,137 square miles), it has a large natural harbor, with the entrance in recent years being expanded, rock-excavated, and dredged. As an exporting center, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
serves the rich agricultural interior of southern Taiwan, as well as the mountains of the southeast. Major raw material exports include rice, sugar, bananas, pineapples, peanuts (groundnuts) and citrus fruits. The 2,200-hectare (5,400-acre) Linhai Industrial Park, on the waterfront, was completed in the mid-1970s and includes a steel mill, shipyard, petrochemical complex, and other industries. The city has an oil refinery, aluminum and cement works, fertilizer factories, sugar refineries, brick and tile works, and salt-manufacturing and papermaking plants. Designated an export-processing zone in the late 1970s, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has succeeded in attracting foreign investment to process locally purchased raw materials for export. There is also a large canning industry that processes both fruit and fish. The ongoing Nansing Project is an ambitious plan to reclaim 250 hectares (620 acres) of land along the coast by 2011.[16] The Kaohsiung Harbor
Kaohsiung Harbor
Bureau plans to buy 49 hectares of the reclaimed land to establish a solar energy industrial district that would be in the harbor's free trade zone.[16] The gross domestic product (GDP) in nominal terms of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City is estimated to be around US$45 billion, and US$90 billion for the metropolitan region. As of 2008[update], the GDP per capita in nominal terms is approximately US$24,000. Culture[edit] Tourism[edit]

Kaohsiung's skyline seen from Qijin Island
Qijin Island
at night

The Tuntex Sky Tower
Tuntex Sky Tower
seen from the Love River

Main landmarks of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
city includes the Tuntex Sky Tower, the ferris wheel of the Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Dream Mall, the Kaohsiung Arena
Kaohsiung Arena
and the Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Harbor. The newly developed city is also known for having a large number of shopping streets, organized night markets and newly developed leisure parks such as the Pier-2 Art Center, E-DA Theme Park or Taroko Park. Natural attractions of the city includes Shoushan (Monkey mountain), the Love River, Qijin, the bay of Xiziwan, the Dapingding Tropical Botanical Garden and the Yushan National Park
Yushan National Park
at the northeastern tip of the city. The city also features various historical attractions such as the Old City of Zuoying, a historical town built during the early 17th century, the Former British Consulate at Takao
Former British Consulate at Takao
built during the late 19th century or various sugar and crop factories built during the Japanese occupation of Taiwan. Natural attractions[edit] Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
city includes a wide range of different natural attractions due to its large size with geographical differences in different parts of the city, as it is bordered by the Central mountain range in the northeast and the warm South China Sea
South China Sea
to the west and southwest. The year-round warm climate allows coral reefs to grow along the coasts around Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
harbor, with Shoushan mountain being a small mountain completely made up of coral reefs and calcium carbonate, while the mountainous districts in the northeast include one of the highest peaks in East Asia, Mount Yushan. Other notable natural attractions includes the Mount Banping, Lotus Lake
Lotus Lake
and the Dongsha Atoll National Park, which is currently inaccessible by the public due to military occupation. Historical sites[edit]

Former British Consulate at Takao

A large number of historical sites and monuments were left in the city after the colonization of the Dutch in the 17th century, the Qing dynasty during the 18th and 19th century and the Japanese empire from the late 19th century to the mid 20th century, the city government has been protecting the various sites and monuments from further damage and large amounts of the historical monuments were opened to the public since the early 1980s. Notable historical sites includes Cemetery of Zhenghaijun, Former British Consulate at Takao, Former Dinglinzihbian Police Station, Former Meinong Police Station, Former Sanhe Bank, and the Cihou Lighthouse, one of the oldest lighthouses of the city. Museums[edit]

Taiwan
Taiwan
Sugar
Sugar
Museum

Confucius Temple of Kaohsiung

As a rather newly developed city, comparing to its neighbor Tainan, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
city is endowed with some of the widest roads in the country and the most organized usage of space, since the development of the city mostly occurred during the Japanese occupation of Taiwan. The large space therefore enabled the new government to build large amounts of museums of all sorts, from astronomy to history, art, and science and technology. This is a stark contrast to Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
city's northern neighbor Tainan, as Tainan
Tainan
city features some of the narrowest roads and least modern architecture in the country, although it is considered as one of the six special municipalities of Taiwan, due to Tainan
Tainan
city's long history, which therefore fixed the shape of the city centre. Museums in the city include Chung Li-he Museum, Cijin Shell Museum, Jiaxian Fossil Museum, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Astronomical Museum, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Hakka
Hakka
Cultural Museum, Kaohsiung Harbor
Kaohsiung Harbor
Museum, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Museum of Fine Arts, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Museum of History, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Museum of Labor, Kaohsiung Vision Museum, Meinong Hakka
Hakka
Culture Museum, National Science and Technology Museum, Republic of China
Republic of China
Air Force Museum, Soya-Mixed Meat Museum, Taiwan
Taiwan
Sugar
Sugar
Museum, Takao Railway Museum
Takao Railway Museum
and YM Museum of Marine Exploration Kaohsiung. Parks and Zoos[edit]

Dragon and Tiger Pagodas

The Buddha Memorial Center

As the largest municipality in Taiwan, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has a number of mostly newly built leisure areas/parks. This includes parks, zoos, pavilions and a number of wharfs and piers. Notable parks or pavilions in the city include the Central Park, Siaogangshan Skywalk Park, Fo Guang Shan, the Dragon and Tiger Pagodas, the Love Pier, Singuang Ferry Wharf and Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Fisherman's Wharf. Others[edit] See also: Night markets
Night markets
in Taiwan

Liuhe Night Market

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
is well known for having numerous large and organized night markets, such as Jin-Zuan Night Market, Liuhe Night Market
Liuhe Night Market
Ruifeng Night Market and Zhonghua Street Night Market, as well as having the biggest night market in Taiwan, the Kaisyuan Night Market, which opened in late 2013. Other attractions includes the Dome of Light of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
MRT's Formosa Boulevard Station, the Kaohsiung Mosque
Kaohsiung Mosque
and the Tower of Light
Tower of Light
of Sanmin District. Languages[edit] See also: Languages of Taiwan The majority population of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
can communicate in both Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
and Standard Chinese, some elders who grew up during the Japanese colonization of Taiwan
Taiwan
can communicate in Japanese, while most of the younger population has basic English skills. Since the spread of Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
after the Nationalist Government retreated to Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1949, Hakka Chinese
Hakka Chinese
and various Formosan languages are gradually no longer spoken within the new generation and many Formosan languages
Formosan languages
are therefore classified as moribund or endangered languages by the United Nations. Nowadays, only elder Hakka people living in Meinong, Liouguei, Shanlin and Jiasian districts can communicate in Hakka
Hakka
and elder Taiwanese aborigines
Taiwanese aborigines
living mostly in the rural districts of Namasia
Namasia
and Taoyuan can communicate with the aboriginal languages. Therefore, recently the Taiwanese government established Special
Special
affairs committee for both the Aboriginals (原住民事務委員會) and the Hakkas (客家事務委員會) to protect the language, culture and the rights of the two minorities. Arts[edit]

The Pier-2 Art Center

The Dome of Light at Formosa Boulevard Station
Formosa Boulevard Station
of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
MRT

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has rich resources of the ocean, mountains and forests, take shape a diverse combination and different communities, the formation of a very active and multi-faceted nature of art and culture in the streets of Kaohsiung, everywhere you can see the beauty and grace of its public infrastructure, public art and city architecture.The field of public transport in Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
show a city of aesthetics. Unique design from MRT station to the city's public works of art, city space into an art gallery. "Dome light" in the concourse of Formosa Boulevard Station of Kaohsiung MRT
Kaohsiung MRT
is one of the world's largest public glass works of art, and it is the public art chanticleer representative works in Kaohsiung.[17] The city also has the Urban Spotlight Arcade spanning along the street in Cianjin District. Religion[edit] See also: Religion in Taiwan, Buddhism
Buddhism
in Taiwan, and Islam in Taiwan

Religion in Taiwan
Taiwan
(Government statistics, 2005)[18]    Buddhism
Buddhism
(35.1%)    Taoism
Taoism
(33%)    Christianity
Christianity
(3.9%)    Yiguandao
Yiguandao
(3.5%)    Tiandism
Tiandism
(2.2%)   Miledadao (1.1%)    Zailiism
Zailiism
(0.8%)   Other or undeclared (2.4%)   Non-religious (18.7%)

The religious population of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
is mainly divided into five main religious groups: Buddhist, Taoist, Muslim
Muslim
and Christian
Christian
(Catholicism and Protestantism). As of 2015[update], Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City has 1,481 temples, the second highest in Taiwan
Taiwan
after Tainan. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has also 306 churches.[19] Buddhism[edit] Buddhism
Buddhism
is one of the major religions in Taiwan, with over 35% of Taiwan's population identifying as Buddhist. The same applies to Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
city. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
also hosts the largest Buddhist
Buddhist
temple in Taiwan, the Foguangshan
Foguangshan
Temple. Taoism[edit] Around 33% of the Taiwanese population are Taoist, making it the second largest religion of Taiwan. Most people who believe in Taoism also ascribe to Buddhism
Buddhism
at the same time, as the differences and boundaries between the two religions are not always clear. Many residents of the area also worship the folk sea goddess Mazu, who is variously syncretized as a Taoist
Taoist
immortal or avatar of the bodhisattva Guanyin. Her temple on Cijin Island is the oldest in the city, with its original bamboo-and-thatch structure first opened in 1673. The area surrounding it formed the center of the city's early settlement.[20] Christianity[edit] Christianity
Christianity
is a growing religion in Taiwan. It was first brought onto the island when the Dutch and Spanish colonized Taiwan
Taiwan
during the 17th century, mostly to the aboriginals. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
currently hosts around 56,000 Christians. Islam[edit] Besides the majority population of Buddhists and Taoists, Kaohsiung also includes a rather small population of Muslims. During the Chinese Civil War, some 20,000 Muslims, mostly soldiers and civil servants, fled mainland China
China
with the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
to Taiwan. During the 1980s, another few thousand Muslims
Muslims
from Myanmar
Myanmar
and Thailand, whom are mostly descendants of Nationalist soldiers who fled Yunnan
Yunnan
as a result of the communist takeover, migrated to Taiwan
Taiwan
in search of a better life, resulting in an increase of Muslim
Muslim
population within the country. More recently, with the rise of Indonesian workers working in Taiwan, an estimated number of 88,000 Indonesian Muslims
Muslims
currently live in the country, in addition to the existing 53,000 Taiwanese Muslims. Combining all demographics, Taiwan
Taiwan
hosts around 140,000 Muslims, with around 25,000 living in Kaohsiung. Kaohsiung Mosque
Kaohsiung Mosque
is the largest mosque in Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
and the main gathering site of Muslims within the city.

Foguangshan
Foguangshan
Temple

Qijing Tianhou Temple

Holy Rosary Cathedral

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Mosque

Politics[edit] Government[edit] Main articles: Kaohsiung City Government
Kaohsiung City Government
and Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City Council See also: List of mayors of Kaohsiung and List of county magistrates of Kaohsiung Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
is sometimes seen as the political mirror image of Taipei. While northern Taiwan
Taiwan
leans towards the Pan-Blue Coalition in the state-level elections, southern Taiwan
Taiwan
leaned towards the Pan-Green Coalition since the late 1990s, and Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
is no exception. Frank Hsieh of the Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
was reelected twice as Mayor of Kaohsiung, where he was widely credited for transforming the city from an industrial sprawl into an attractive modern metropolis. Hsieh resigned from the office of mayor to take up the office of Premier of the Republic of China
Republic of China
in 2005. The last municipal election, held on December 9, 2006, resulted in a victory for the Democratic Progressive Party's candidate Chen Chu, the first elected female mayor of special municipality in Taiwan, defeating her Kuomintang
Kuomintang
rival and former deputy mayor, Huang Chun-ying.

Kaohsiung City Government
Kaohsiung City Government
– Sihwei Administration Center 

Kaohsiung City Government
Kaohsiung City Government
– Fongshan Administration Center 

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City Council 

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
District Court 

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
mayor Chen Chu 

Subdivisions[edit]

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City with its districts before merger with Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
County in 2010

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
is directly divided into 35 districts and 3 mountain indigenous districts also each district is divided into villages. There are a total of 651 villages in which each village is subdivided into neighborhoods (鄰). There are 18,584 neighborhoods in Kaohsiung City. Lingya and Fengshan Districts are the administrative centers of the city while Lingya and Xinxing Districts are the two most densely populated districts of the city. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has the most numbers of districts among other special municipalities in Taiwan.

Note: For the inconsistency of the romanization systems in Taiwan. This table was made in a sortable form, contains both Hanyu Pinyin (the official standard of the central government of ROC),[21] and Tongyong Pinyin
Tongyong Pinyin
(the official standard of the Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City Government)[]. The major order of districts referred to the code of administrative area. [1]

No. Tongyong Hanyu Pe̍h-ōe-jī Chinese Area (km²) No. of villages Population (2016)

Inner Kaohsiung

022 Gushan Gushan Kó͘-san 鼓山區 14.7458 38 136,679

088 Lingya Lingya Lêng-ngá 苓雅區 8.1522 69 174,419

044 Nanzih Nanzi Lâm-chú 楠梓區 25.8276 37 180,113

077 Cianjin Qianjin Chiân-kim 前金區 1.8573 20 27,369

099 Cianjhen Qianzhen Chiân-tìn 前鎮區 19.1207 61 192,484

10 Cijin Qijin Kî-tin 旗津區 1.4639 13 28,992

055 Sanmin Sanmin Sam-bîn 三民區 19.7866 88 345,968

11 Siaogang Xiaogang Sió-káng 小港區 45.4426 38 156,220

066 Sinsing Xinxing Sin-heng 新興區 1.9764 32 51,953

011 Yancheng Yancheng Iâm-tiâⁿ 鹽埕區 1.4161 21 24,997

033 Zuoying Zuoying Chó-iâⁿ 左營區 19.3888 44 196,362

Greater Fengshan

12 Fongshan Fengshan Hōng-soaⁿ 鳳山區 26.7590 78 356,507

14 Daliao Daliao Toā-liâu 大寮區 71.0400 25 111,675

16 Dashe Dashe Toā-siā 大社區 26.5848 9 34,585

15 Dashu Dashu Toā-chhiū 大樹區 66.9811 18 43,158

13 Linyuan Linyuan Lîm-hn̂g 林園區 32.2860 24 70,423

18 Niaosong Niaosong Chiáu-chhêng 鳥松區 24.5927 7 43,937

17 Renwu Renwu Jîn-bú 仁武區 36.0808 16 82,696

Greater Gangshan

19 Gangshan Gangshan Kong-san 岡山區 47.9421 33 97,843

23 Alian Alian A-lian 阿蓮區 34.6164 12 29,297

25 Hunei Hunei Ô͘-lāi 湖內區 20.1615 14 29,604

26 Cieding Qieding Ka-tiāⁿ 茄萣區 15.7624 15 30,498

24 Lujhu Luzhu Lō͘-tek 路竹區 48.4348 20 53,081

28 Mituo Mituo Mî-tô 彌陀區 14.7772 12 19,657

20 Ciaotou Qiaotou Kiô-thâu 橋頭區 25.9379 17 37,328

22 Tianliao Tianliao Chhân-liâu 田寮區 92.6802 10 7,457

21 Yanchao Yanchao Iàn-châu 燕巢區 65.3950 11 30,074

27 Yong-an Yong'an Éng-an 永安區 22.6141 6 14,118

29 Zihguan Ziguan Chú-koaⁿ 梓官區 11.5967 15 36,417

Greater Qishan

31 Meinong Meinong Bi-long 美濃區 120.0316 19 40,776

30 Cishan Qishan Kî-san 旗山區 94.6122 21 37,749

33 Jiasian Jiaxian Kah-sian 甲仙區 124.0340 7 6,252

32 Liouguei Liugui La̍k-ku 六龜區 194.1584 12 13,435

36 Maolin Maolin* Bō͘-lîm 茂林區 194.0000 3 1,893

38 Namasia Namaxia* Namasia 那瑪夏區 252.9895 3 3,146

35 Neimen Neimen Lāi-mn̂g 內門區 95.6224 18 14,953

34 Shanlin Shanlin Sam-nâ 杉林區 104.0036 7 12,382

37 Tauyuan Taoyuan* Thô-goân 桃源區 928.9800 8 4,232

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City administrative divisions map

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City's population density 2009

Alian Daliao Dashe Dashu Fengshan Gangshan Hunei Qieding Jiaxian Linyuan Liugui Luzhu Maolin Meinong Mituo Namaxia Nanzi Neimen Niaosong Qiaotou Qishan Renwu Shanlin Taoyuan Tianliao Xiaogang Yanchao Yong'an Zuoying Ziguan Gushan Lingya Qianjin Qianzhen Qijin Sanmin Xinxing Yancheng Chiayi
Chiayi
City Tainan
Tainan
City Hualien County Chiayi
Chiayi
County Nantou County Pingtung County Taitung County

* mountain indigenous district (Chinese: 山地原住民區; pinyin: shāndì yuánzhùmín qū) Part of South China Sea
South China Sea
Islands are administered by Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City as parts of Qijin
Qijin
District:

Taiping Island
Taiping Island
(Chinese: 太平島; pinyin: Tàipíng dǎo) and Zhongzhou Reef
Zhongzhou Reef
(Chinese: 中洲礁; pinyin: Zhōngzhōu jiāo) in the Spratly Islands Dongsha Islands or Pratas Islands
Pratas Islands
(Chinese: 東沙群島; pinyin: Dōngshā Qúndǎo)

Transportation[edit] Port
Port
of Kaohsiung[edit]

Northern portion of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
harbor viewed from Cijin island lighthouse hill.

A major port, through which pass most of Taiwan's marine imports and exports, is located at the city but is not managed by the city government. Also known as the "Harbour Capital" of Taiwan, Kaohsiung has always had a strong link with the ocean and maritime transportation. Ferries
Ferries
play a key role in everyday transportation, and often play the role that buses do in other cities, especially for transportation across the harbour. With five terminals and 23 berths, the Port of Kaohsiung
Port of Kaohsiung
is Taiwan's largest container port and the 6th largest in the world.[22] In 2007 the port reached its handling capacity with a record trade volume of 10.2 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU).[23] A new container terminal is under construction, increasing future handling capacity by 2 million TEU by 2013.[23] The Port of Kaohsiung
Port of Kaohsiung
is not officially a part of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City, instead it is administrated by Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Port
Port
Authority, under Ministry of Transportation. There is a push for Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City to annex the Port of Kaohsiung
Port of Kaohsiung
in order to facilitate better regional planning. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
is one of the biggest ports in the world for importing shark fins, sold at high prices in the restaurants and shops of Taiwan
Taiwan
and China. They are brought in from overseas and are placed out to dry in the sun on residential rooftops near the port. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
International Airport[edit]

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
International Airport

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City is also home to Taiwan's second largest international airport, the Kaohsiung International Airport
Kaohsiung International Airport
AKA KHH/RCKH/Kaohsiung Siaogang Airport, located in Siaogang District
Siaogang District
near the city's center. Although Kaohsiung International Airport
Kaohsiung International Airport
is one of the two major international airports of Taiwan, serving passengers of the entire southern and southeastern part of the country, the size of the airport is relatively small with short runways compared to other major airports of Taiwan
Taiwan
due to its age and its location near the city center, making large aircraft such as the Airbus A380
Airbus A380
or a fully loaded B747-Freight impossible to land in the airport. As a result, plans for runway expansion or building a new airport in replacement have been proposed but no major progress has taken place. Rapid transit[edit]

The Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
MRT

The Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Circular Light Rail

Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit
Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit
opened for revenue service in March 2008. Notably, two of Kaohsiung's MRT stations, Formosa Boulevard Station and Central Park Station, were ranked among the top 50 most beautiful subway systems in the world by Metrobits.org in 2011.[24] In 2012, the two stations respectively are ranked as the 2nd and the 4th among the top 15 most beautiful subway stops in the world by BootsnAll.[25] The K.R.T. Girls
K.R.T. Girls
are the official mascots of the system. Circular Light Rail[edit]

Zuoying Station of THSR

The Circular Light Rail Line (a.k.a. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
LRT, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Tram) for Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City is a planned light rail line. Construction of Phase I (a.k.a. Waterside Light Rail) began in June 2013 and is in full operation since September 2017. To combat air pollution, usage of the Light Rail, was well as buses, was made free of charge for electronic ticket holders from December to February, when air pollution is at its peak.[26] Central Park Light Rail Demonstrator[edit] A temporary light rail system (with 410 metres (1,350 ft) rail line) for demonstration purposes, with just 2 stations, was built in the Central Park from December 27, 2003 to March 25, 2004,[27] using Melbourne D2 Tram cars from Siemens Mobility (based on the Combino platform). As it was simply for demonstration purposes, it was closed soon after, and is no longer operational. Railway[edit] The city is served by the Taiwan
Taiwan
Railways Administration's Western Line and Pingtung Line. Taiwan
Taiwan
High Speed Rail also serves Kaohsiung City at Zuoying Station in northern Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City. The station is an underground station, replacing the old ground level station. Additionally, these two stations are also served by Red line of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Rapid Transit System when the line opened for revenue service in early 2008. Sports[edit]

National Stadium

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has Southern Taiwan
Taiwan
region's most comprehensive sports facilities, as well as the country's largest stadium. Kaohsiung National Stadium
Stadium
(the Main Stadium
Stadium
of 2009 World Games) and Kaohsiung Arena as the representative of sports facilities in Kaohsiung. National Stadium
Stadium
is Taiwan's largest international-class stadium, maximum capacity is 55,000 seats. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
hosted the 2009 World Games. Nearly 6,000 athletes, officials, coaches, referees and others from 103 countries participated in the 2009 Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
World Games. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
in 2007, 2009 and 2011 for three consecutive years, the number of gold medals and total medals of the National Games were the first place in the country. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
is also the home to Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Truth, a basketball team currently competing in the ASEAN Basketball League. The Truth play their home games at Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Arena. They are the first team in the history of the league that is based outside Southeast Asia. Education[edit] See also: List of schools in Taiwan, List of international schools in Taiwan, and List of universities in Taiwan

The campus of National Sun Yat-sen University

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Municipal Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Senior High School

Front gate of the Republic of China
Republic of China
Military Academy

Side gate of the Republic of China
Republic of China
Naval Academy

Front gate of the Republic of China
Republic of China
Air Force Academy

Front gate of the Republic of China
Republic of China
Army Infantry school

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has a number of colleges and junior colleges offering training in commerce, education, maritime technology, medicine, modern languages, nursing, and technology, as well as various international schools and eight national military schools, including the three major military academies of the country, the Republic of China
Republic of China
Military Academy, Republic of China Naval Academy
Republic of China Naval Academy
and Republic of China
Republic of China
Air Force Academy. Universities

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Medical University National Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
University of Science and Technology National Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Normal University National Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
University of Hospitality and Tourism National University of Kaohsiung National Sun Yat-sen University

High Schools and Junior High Schools

Affiliated Senior High School of National Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Normal University Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Municipal Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Senior High School Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Municipal Ruei-Siang Senior High School Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Municipal Sanmin Senior High School Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Municipal Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Girls' Senior High School National FengHsin Senior High School National Fengshan Senior High School National FongShan Senior Commercial & Industrial Vocational School

International Schools

Dominican International School Kaohsiung I-Shou International School Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
American School Kivam Junior High School Morrison Academy Kaohsiung

Military Schools

Chung Cheng Armed Forces Preparatory School (zh) Republic of China
Republic of China
Air Force Academy Republic of China
Republic of China
Air Force Institute of Technology (zh) Republic of China
Republic of China
Army Infantry School (zh) Republic of China
Republic of China
Marine Corps School (zh) Republic of China
Republic of China
Military Academy Republic of China
Republic of China
Naval Academy

(Note: The lists above are not comprehensive.) Conferences and events[edit] The Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Exhibition Center, built by the Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City Government, was opened on 14 April 2014. It includes an exhibition space for 1,500 booths, and a convention hall for 2,000 pax. The center hosted the Taiwan
Taiwan
International Boat Show in May 2014.[28] Another conference and event-related venue is the newly renovated International Convention Center Kaohsiung
International Convention Center Kaohsiung
in 2013. Sister cities and twin towns[edit] Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
is twinned with the following locations.

Brisbane, Australia Belize
Belize
City, Belize Barranquilla, Colombia Cartago, Costa Rica Surabaya
Surabaya
of East Java, Indonesia Hachiōji, Tokyo, Japan Blantyre, Malawi George Town, Penang, Malaysia Malé, Maldives Panama
Panama
City, Panama[29] Cebu of Central Visayas, Philippines

Durban, South Africa Busan, South Korea Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States Honolulu, Hawaii, United States Knoxville, Tennessee, United States Little Rock, Arkansas, United States Macon, Georgia, United States Miami, Florida, United States

Mobile, Alabama, United States Pensacola, Florida, United States Plains, Georgia, United States Portland, Oregon, United States San Antonio, Texas, United States Seattle, Washington, United States Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States Da Nang, Vietnam

Relative location[edit]

Places adjacent to Kaohsiung

Tainan
Tainan
City Taitung County

Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait (South China
China
Sea) Fujian
Fujian
and Guangdong,  China

Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City

Pingtung City

Pingtung County

See also[edit]

Taiwan
Taiwan
portal

Administrative divisions of the Republic of China List of cities in Taiwan

References[edit]

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London
and New York: Macmillan. p. iii. OCLC 1887893. OL 6931635M.  ^ Campbell, William (1903). "Explanatory Notes". Formosa under the Dutch: described from contemporary records, with explanatory notes and a bibliography of the island. London: Kegan Paul. p. 548. OCLC 644323041.  ^ "History of Kaohsiung". HotelTravel.com. 1999.  ^ "Discover Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
> History". Welcome to Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City. 2013.  ^ What's in changing a name? Archived 2007-06-30 at Archive.is
Archive.is
Taiwan Journal Vol. XXVI No. 19 May 15, 2009 "...while name Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
is technically the Mandarin pronunciation of the Japanese written version of a Holo Taiwanese rendition of an old aboriginal name..." ^ "Many dead in Taiwan
Taiwan
city gas blasts". Taiwan's News.Net. Retrieved 2 August 2014.  ^ " Taiwan
Taiwan
sea temperatures of February 2012". Central Weather Bureau.  ^ a b "Climate". Central Weather Bureau.  ^ " Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Average Sea Temperatures". Central Weather Bureau.  ^ "Liuqiu island Average Sea Temperatures". Central Weather Bureau.  ^ "Climate". Wunderground.  ^ a b " Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City to open solar energy industrial zone". Focus Taiwan
Taiwan
News Channel. 2010-06-27. Retrieved 2010-07-09.  ^ "Art&Culture Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City Government". Kcg.gov.tw. Retrieved 2013-07-27.  ^ " Taiwan
Taiwan
Yearbook 2006". Government of Information Office. 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-07-08. Retrieved 2007-09-01.  ^ Lee Hsin-fang; Chung, Jake (15 Jul 2015). " Tainan
Tainan
has most of nation's 12,106 temples". Taipei
Taipei
Times. p. 5.  ^ "Tianhou Temple at Cihou", Official site, Kaohsiung: Bureau of Cultural Affairs of the Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City Government, 2008 . (in Chinese) & (in English) ^ "Glossary of Names for Admin Divisions" (PDF). placesearch.moi.gov.tw. Ministry of Interior of the ROC. Retrieved 18 March 2015. [dead link] ^ Review of Maritime Transport 2004. New York: United Nations. 2005. ISBN 92-1-112645-2.  ^ a b Dale, Jamie (2008-01-17). " Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
container port hits full capacity". Lloyd's List Daily Commercial News. Informa Australia. p. 16.  ^ "A guide to the fifty most beautiful subway systems in the world". Metrobits.org. 2011-12-01.  ^ "15 of the Most Beautiful Subway Stops in the World". BootsnAll. Retrieved 2012-01-29.  ^ " Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
makes public transport free - Taipei
Taipei
Times". www.taipeitimes.com. Retrieved 2017-12-01.  ^ "Director General Ho visited the Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Light Rail Test-Ride Activity,". Hsr.gov.tw. 23 October 2016. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Kaohsiung's new venue". TTGmice. Retrieved 18 January 2013.  ^ "Kaohsiung, Panama
Panama
City forge sister city relations - Politics - FOCUS TAIWAN - CNA ENGLISH NEWS". Focustaiwan.tw. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutKaohsiungat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata

Kaohsiung City Government
Kaohsiung City Government
official website (in Chinese) Kaohsiung City Government
Kaohsiung City Government
official website (in English) Geographic data related to Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
at OpenStreetMap

v t e

Cities in Taiwan

Special
Special
municipalities

Kaohsiung New Taipei Taichung Tainan Taipei Taoyuan

Provincial cities

Chiayi Hsinchu Keelung

County-controlled cities

Changhua Douliu Hualien Magong Miaoli Nantou Pingtung PuziA Taibao Taitung ToufenA Yilan YuanlinA Zhubei

County and province seats

Jincheng Nangan Zhongxing

Note: A: not the county seat.

v t e

Metropolitan areas in Taiwan

Taipei– Keelung
Keelung
(incl. New Taipei) metro area Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
metro area Taichung– Changhua
Changhua
metro area Taoyuan–Zhongli metro area Tainan
Tainan
metro area Hsinchu
Hsinchu
metro area Chiayi
Chiayi
metro area

v t e

Administrative divisions of Taiwan

Special
Special
municipalities (6)

Kaohsiung New Taipei Taichung Tainan Taipei Taoyuan

Provincial cities (3)

Chiayi Hsinchu Keelung

Counties (13)

Changhua Chiayi Hsinchu Hualien Kinmen Lienchiang Miaoli Nantou Penghu Pingtung Taitung Yilan Yunlin

Free area of the Republic of China Streamlined Provinces

Taiwan Fujian

List of administrative divisions of Taiwan

v t e

Districts of Kaohsiung

City seat: Lingya and Fongshan

Urban area

Gushan Lingya Nanzih Cianjin Cianjhen Cijin Sanmin Siaogang Sinsing Yancheng Zuoying

Fongshan region

Daliao Dashe Dashu Fongshan Linyuan Niaosong Renwu

Gangshan region

Alian Gangshan Hunei Lujhu Mituo Ciaotou Cieding Tianliao Yanchao Yongan Zihguan

Cishan region

Jiasian Liouguei Meinong Neimen Cishan Shanlin

Mountain indigenous districts

Maolin Namasia Tauyuan

Note: Although Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
is the national standard, the Kaohsiung Government names its districts based on Tongyong Pinyin.

v t e

World Games
World Games
host cities

   

1981: Santa Clara 1985: London 1989: Karlsruhe 1993: The Hague 1997: Lahti

2001: Akita 2005: Duisburg 2009: Kaohsiung 2013: Cali 2017: Wrocław

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 168502106 LCCN: n81018396 GN

.