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JAKARTA (/dʒəˈkɑːrtə/ ), officially the SPECIAL CAPITAL REGION OF JAKARTA, is the capital and most populous city of Indonesia
Indonesia
. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island of Java
Java
, the city is the center of economics, culture and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014 . Greater Jakarta
Jakarta
metropolitan area, which is known as Jabodetabek (a name formed by combining the initial syllables of Jakarta, Bogor , Depok , Tangerang and Bekasi ), is the second largest urban agglomeration in the world, with population of 30,214,303 inhabitants as of 2010 census. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over Indonesian archipelago, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures.

Established in the fourth century as Sunda Kelapa , the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda
Kingdom of Sunda
. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies , which was known as Batavia at that time. The city is currently the seat of the ASEAN
ASEAN
Secretariat as well as important financial institutions such as the Bank of Indonesia , the Indonesia
Indonesia
Stock Exchange , and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations. As of 2017, six of Forbes Global 2000 companies have headquarter in the city. The city is also home for two of Fortune 500 companies in 2016.

Jakarta
Jakarta
is listed as an Alpha Global City
City
in the 2016 report of Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC). Based on the global metro monitor by the Brookings Institution , in 2014, GDP
GDP
of Jakarta
Jakarta
was estimated US$321.3 billion and economic growth was ranked 34th among the world's 200 largest cities. Jakarta
Jakarta
has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, Beijing
Beijing
, and Bangkok
Bangkok
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Names and etymology * 1.2 Pre-colonial era * 1.3 Colonial era * 1.4 Independence era

* 2 Administration

* 2.1 Government * 2.2 Municipal finances

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Topography * 3.2 Climate * 3.3 Administrative divisions of Jakarta
Jakarta
* 3.4 Parks

* 4 Demography

* 4.1 Population * 4.2 Ethnicity and language * 4.3 Religion

* 5 Culture

* 5.1 Arts and festivals * 5.2 Cuisine * 5.3 Museums * 5.4 Media

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Shopping * 6.2 Tourism

* 7 Infrastructure

* 7.1 Road * 7.2 Water supply * 7.3 Healthcare

* 8 Transportation

* 8.1 Road transport

* 8.1.1 Electronic road pricing * 8.1.2 Bus service * 8.1.3 Traditional transports * 8.1.4 Taxi Cabs * 8.1.5 Motorcycle taxi/ojek * 8.1.6 City
City
tour

* 8.2 Rail

* 8.2.1 High speed rail

* 8.3 Rapid transit

* 8.3.1 Bus rapid transit * 8.3.2 Commuter rail * 8.3.3 Jakarta MRT * 8.3.4 Jakarta LRT

* 8.4 Air

* 8.5 Waterway

* 8.5.1 Sea * 8.5.2 River

* 9 Cityscape

* 9.1 Architecture * 9.2 Landmarks

* 10 Sports * 11 Education

* 12 International relations

* 12.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

* 13 See also * 14 Notes * 15 References * 16 External links

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Jakarta
History of Jakarta
and Timeline of Jakarta
Timeline of Jakarta

NAMES AND ETYMOLOGY

Jakarta
Jakarta
has been home to multiple settlements along with their respective names:

* Sunda Kelapa (397–1527), * Jayakarta
Jayakarta
(1527–1619), * Batavia (1619–1942), * Djakarta (1942–1972), and * Jakarta
Jakarta
(1972–present).

Its current name derives from the word Jayakarta. The origins of this word can be traced to the Old Javanese and ultimately to the Sanskrit language; जय jaya (victorious) and कृत krta (accomplished, acquired), thus "Jayakarta" translates as "victorious deed", "complete act", or "complete victory".

Jakarta
Jakarta
is nicknamed the Big Durian
Durian
, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of the US city of New York (the Big Apple). In the colonial era, the city was also known as Koningin van het Oosten (Queen of the Orient), initially in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia\'s canals , mansions and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs (e.g. Menteng and the area around Merdeka Square ), with their wide lanes, many green spaces and villas.

PRE-COLONIAL ERA

Further information: Sunda Kelapa The 5th century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta
North Jakarta

The area in and around modern Jakarta
Jakarta
was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
, one of the oldest Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms in Indonesia. Following the decline of Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
, its territories, including the Jakarta
Jakarta
area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda
Kingdom of Sunda
. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda was within the sphere of influence of the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi , written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java
Java
(Sunda ). The source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles. The harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa (Sundanese : ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮊᮜᮕ) and by the fourteenth century, it was a major trading port for Sunda kingdom. Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar commemorating a treaty between the kingdoms of Portuguese and Sunda , at Jakarta History Museum .

The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca
Malacca
, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices. The Hindu
Hindu
Kingdom of Sunda
Kingdom of Sunda
made an alliance treaty with Portugal
Portugal
by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of the Islamic Sultanate of Demak from central Java
Java
. In 1527, Fatahillah , a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten
Banten
which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre.

Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten
Banten
, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta
Jayakarta
in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company
English East India Company
's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster , arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten
Banten
where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia
Indonesia
until 1682.

Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with the English merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.

COLONIAL ERA

See also: Batavia, Dutch East Indies and List of colonial buildings and structures in Jakarta
Jakarta
Dutch Batavia built in what is now Jakarta, by Andries Beeckman
Andries Beeckman
c. 1656

When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, Jayawikarta's soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. Prince Jayawikarta's army and the English were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
(J.P. Coen). The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced the English to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power and in 1619 they renamed the city Batavia.

Commercial opportunities in the capital of the Dutch colony attracted Indonesian and especially Chinese and Arab immigrants. This sudden population increase created burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. Following a revolt, 5,000 Chinese were massacred by the Dutch and natives on 9 October 1740 and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok
Glodok
outside the city walls. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, around 400 Arabs and Moors lived in Batavia, a number which changed little during the following decades. Among the commodities traded, fabrics, especially imported cotton, batik and clothing occupied by Arab communities. The City
City
Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of Governor General of VOC in late 18th century by Johannes Rach
Johannes Rach
c. 1770. The building now is the houses of Jakarta History Museum , Jakarta
Jakarta
Old Town .

The city began to expand further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 caused more people to move away from the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913, and Kebayoran Baru
Kebayoran Baru
was the last Dutch-built residential area. By 1930 Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants, including 37,067 Europeans.

After World War II, the city of Batavia was renamed "Jakarta" (short form of Jayakarta) by the Indonesian nationalists after achieving independence from the Dutch in 1946.

INDEPENDENCE ERA

Monas
Monas
stands in the centre of Merdeka square , commemorates Indonesian struggle for independence .

Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from Allied -occupied Jakarta
Jakarta
during their fight for Indonesian independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta . In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta
Jakarta
was once again made the national capital. Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno , envisaged Jakarta
Jakarta
as a great international city, and instigated large government-funded projects with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture . Projects included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin -Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument , Hotel Indonesia , a shopping centre, and a new parliament building. In October 1965, Jakarta
Jakarta
was the site of an abortive coup attempt in which 6 top generals were killed, precipitating a violent anti-communist purge in which half-a million people were killed, including many ethnic Chinese, and the beginning of Suharto\'s New Order . A monument stands where the generals\' bodies were dumped . Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jakarta's main avenue and business district

In 1966, Jakarta
Jakarta
was declared a "special capital region" (daerah khusus ibukota), thus gaining a status approximately equivalent to that of a province. Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as Governor from the mid-1960s commencement of the "New Order " through to 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. He also cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family —and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city to stem overcrowding and poverty. Foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom which changed the face of the city.

The boom ended with the 1997/98 East Asian Economic crisis putting Jakarta
Jakarta
at the centre of violence, protest, and political manoeuvring. After 32 years in power, support for President Suharto began to wane. Tensions reached a peak in when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University
Trisakti University
by security forces; four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1,200, and destroyed or damaged 6,000 buildings. Much of the rioting targeted Chinese Indonesians . Suharto resigned as president, and Jakarta
Jakarta
has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia. Jemaah Islamiah -connected bombings occurred almost annually in the city between 2000 and 2005, with another bombing in 2009 .

ADMINISTRATION

See also: Governor of Jakarta

GOVERNMENT

Governor's office at Jakarta
Jakarta
City
City
Hall Complex

Name and status as well as governing system of Jakarta
Jakarta
has changed throughout its history. On March 5, 1942, Japanese occupied Batavia from the Dutch control and the city was named Jakarta
Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Special City
City
(ジャカルタ特別市, Jakaruta tokubetsu-shi), in accordance with the special status that was assigned to the city). After the collapse of Japan, Indonesian nationalists who declared independence on August 17, 1945, the government of Jakarta
Jakarta
City
City
was changed from the Japanese into the Jakarta
Jakarta
National Administration in September,1945. After the war, the Dutch name Batavia was internationally recognized until full Indonesian independence was achieved on December 27, 1949 and Jakarta
Jakarta
was officially proclaimed the national capital of Indonesia.

This first government was held by a Mayor
Mayor
until the end of 1960, when the office was changed to that of a Governor
Governor
. The last mayor of Jakarta
Jakarta
was Sudiro, until he was replaced by Dr Sumarno as governor of the province. Based on the Act No. 5 of 1974 relating to the Fundamentals of Regional Government, Jakarta
Jakarta
was confirmed as the capital of Indonesia
Indonesia
and one of Indonesia's 26 provinces in 1974 at that time. In August 2007, Jakarta
Jakarta
held its first ever election to choose a governor, whereas previously the city's governors were elected by members of DPRD. The poll is part of a country-wide decentralisation drive, allowing for direct local elections in several areas.

At present, Jakarta
Jakarta
is administratively equal to a province with special status as the capital of Indonesia
Indonesia
. Executive head of Jakarta is a Governor
Governor
(instead of a mayor) with a Deputy Governor. As a province, the official name of Jakarta
Jakarta
is Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta
Jakarta
(" Special
Special
Capital City
City
District of Jakarta"), which in Indonesian is abbreviated to DKI Jakarta . Legislative branch of Jakarta
Jakarta
is People\'s regional representative council (DPRD) . Governor, Deputy Governor
Governor
and 106 members of DPRD, all are elected by direct election procedures.

Executive governance of Jakarta
Jakarta
consists of five Administrative City /Kota Administratif, each headed by a Mayor
Mayor
– and one Administrative Regency /Kabupaten Administratif headed by a Regent
Regent
/Bupati. Unlike other cities and regencies in Indonesia
Indonesia
where the mayor or regent are elected by the people, Jakarta's mayors and regent are chosen by the Governor
Governor
of Jakarta. Each city and regency again divided into administrative districts.

Polda Metro Jaya maintains law, security and order of Jakarta. It is led by a Regional Chief of police Kapolda, who held the rank of Inspector General of Police .

MUNICI PAL
PAL
FINANCES

The Jakarta
Jakarta
provincial government, like all other provincial governments in Indonesia, relies on transfers from the central government for the bulk of budget income. Local (non-central government) sources of revenue are incomes from various taxes such as vehicle ownership and vehicle transfer fees and so on. The ability of the regional government to respond to the many problems of Jakarta
Jakarta
is constrained by extremely limited finances. In 2013 the total budget available to the Jakarta
Jakarta
regional government was approved at around Rp 50 trillion (about $US 5.2 billion), equivalent to around $US 380 per citizen. Priority areas of spending were listed as education, transport, flood control measures, environment programs, and various types of social spending (such as health and housing).

In recent years, the Jakarta
Jakarta
provincial government has consistently run a surplus of between 15–20% of total planned spending, largely because of delays in procurement procedures and other inefficiencies in the spending process. Regular underspending is a matter of frequent public comment but the legal and administrative blockages that cause the underspending problem seem very difficult to overcome.

Jakarta
Jakarta
city finances: 2007–2012 (Rp trillion) YEAR REVENUE EXPENDITURE

2007 Actual 18.7 18.7

2008 Actual 32.9 16.4

2009 Actual 23.7 19.6

2010 Actual 26.8 21.6

2011 Actual 31.8 31.7

2012 Actual 41.4 41.4

Indonesian Statistics Bureau: Jakarta
Jakarta
in Figures

GEOGRAPHY

DKI Jakarta covers an area of 661.5 square kilometers, which is ranked 33rd among provinces of Indonesia. Greater Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, which extends into two of the bordering provinces of West Java
Java
and Banten
Banten
. Greater Jakarta area includes 3 bordering regencies ( Bekasi Regency , Tangerang Regency and Bogor Regency ) and five adjacent cities ( Bogor , Depok , Bekasi , Tangerang and South Tangerang ).

TOPOGRAPHY

See also: Jakarta Flood Canal and Giant Sea Wall Jakarta Ancol beach Ciliwung
Ciliwung
river passes through Jakarta
Jakarta

Jakarta
Jakarta
is situated on the northwest coast of Java
Java
, at the mouth of the Ciliwung
Ciliwung
River on Jakarta Bay , which is an inlet of the Java
Java
Sea . Northern part of Jakarta
Jakarta
is a plain land, some areas of which are below sea level and subject to frequent flooding. Southern parts of the city are hilly. It is one of the only two Asian capital cities located in the southern hemisphere (the other one is Dili
Dili
, capital of Timor Leste ). Officially, the area of the Jakarta
Jakarta
Special
Special
District is 662 km2 (256 sq mi) of land area and 6,977 km2 (2,694 sq mi) of sea area. The Thousand Islands , which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta
Jakarta
Bay, north of the city.

Jakarta
Jakarta
lies in a low and flat Alluvial plain , ranged from −2 to 50 metres (−7 to 164 ft) with average elevation 8 metres (26 ft) above sea level with historically extensive swampy areas. 40% of Jakarta, particularly the northern areas, is below sea level, while the southern parts are comparatively hilly. Thirteen rivers flow through Jakarta. They are: Ciliwung
Ciliwung
River , Kalibaru, Pasanggrahan, Cipinang, Angke River
Angke River
, Maja, Mookervart, Krukut, Buaran, West Tarum, Cakung, Petukangan, Sunter River and Grogol River . These rivers flow from the Puncak highlands to the south of the city, across the city northwards towards the Java
Java
Sea; the most important. Ciliwung
Ciliwung
River divides the city into the western and eastern principalities.

All these rivers, combined with the wet season rains and insufficient drainage due to clogging, make Jakarta
Jakarta
prone to flooding . Moreover, Jakarta
Jakarta
is sinking about 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 inches) each year, even up to 20 centimetres (7.9 inches) in the northern coastal areas. To help cope with the threat from the sea, the Netherlands
Netherlands
will give $4 million for a feasibility study to build a dike around Jakarta Bay. The ring dike will be equipped with a pumping system and retention areas to defend against seawater. Additionally, the dike will function as a toll road. The project will be built by 2025. In January 2014, Central Government agreed to build 2 dams in Ciawi, Bogor and a 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile) tunnel from Ciliwung
Ciliwung
River to Cisadane River to ease Jakarta
Jakarta
floods. Construction costs will be paid by Central Government, but land acquisitions is responsibility of Jakarta
Jakarta
Authority. Nowadays, an 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile), with capacity 60 cubic metres (2,100 cubic feet) per second, underground water tunnel between Ciliwung
Ciliwung
River and East Flood Canal is being worked to ease Ciliwung
Ciliwung
River overflows.

CLIMATE

Jakarta
Jakarta
has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification system. The wet season in Jakarta
Jakarta
covers the majority of the year, running from October through May. The remaining four months (June through September) constitute the city's drier season (each of these 4 months has an average monthly rainfall of less than 100 millimetres (3.9 in)). Located in the western part of Java, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peak is January and February with average monthly rainfall of 299.7 millimetres (11.80 in), and its dry season low point is August with a monthly average of 43.2 mm (1.70 in).

CLIMATE DATA FOR HALIM PERDANAKUSUMA AIRPORT , JAKARTA, INDONESIA (TEMPERATURE: 1924–1994, PRECIPITATION: 1931–1994)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 33.3 (91.9) 32.8 (91) 33.3 (91.9) 33.3 (91.9) 33.3 (91.9) 33.3 (91.9) 34.4 (93.9) 35.6 (96.1) 35.6 (96.1) 35.6 (96.1) 35.6 (96.1) 33.9 (93) 35.6 (96.1)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 28.9 (84) 28.9 (84) 29.4 (84.9) 30.0 (86) 30.6 (87.1) 30.0 (86) 30.0 (86) 30.6 (87.1) 31.1 (88) 31.1 (88) 30.6 (87.1) 29.4 (84.9) 30.1 (86.2)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 26.1 (79) 26.1 (79) 26.4 (79.5) 27.0 (80.6) 27.2 (81) 26.7 (80.1) 26.4 (79.5) 26.7 (80.1) 27.0 (80.6) 27.2 (81) 27.0 (80.6) 26.4 (79.5) 26.7 (80.1)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.3 (73.9) 22.8 (73) 22.8 (73) 22.8 (73) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 20.6 (69.1) 20.6 (69.1) 20.6 (69.1) 20.6 (69.1) 21.1 (70) 19.4 (66.9) 19.4 (66.9) 19.4 (66.9) 18.9 (66) 20.6 (69.1) 20.0 (68) 19.4 (66.9) 18.9 (66)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 299.7 (11.799) 299.7 (11.799) 210.8 (8.299) 147.3 (5.799) 132.1 (5.201) 96.5 (3.799) 63.5 (2.5) 43.2 (1.701) 66.0 (2.598) 111.8 (4.402) 142.2 (5.598) 203.2 (8) 1,816 (71.495)

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 85 85 83 82 82 81 78 76 75 77 81 82 80.6

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 189 182 239 255 260 255 282 295 288 279 231 220 2,975

Source #1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial

Source #2: Danish Meteorological Institute (humidity and sun only)

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF JAKARTA

Map of the municipalities (Kota administrasi) in Jakarta province. Each city is divided into districts ( Kecamatan ).

Jakarta
Jakarta
consists of five Kota Administratif (Administrative city/municipality), each headed by a mayor – and a Kabupaten Administratif (Administrative regency ). Each city and regency again divided into districts/Kecamatan. The administrative cities/municipalities of Jakarta
Jakarta
are:

* Central Jakarta ( Jakarta
Jakarta
Pusat) is Jakarta's smallest city and home to most of Jakarta's administrative and political centre. It is divided into 8 administrative district. It is characterised by large parks and Dutch colonial buildings. Landmarks include the National Monument ( Monas
Monas
), the Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta
Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta
, the Jakarta Cathedral , and museums. * West Jakarta
West Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Barat) has the highest concentration of small-scale industries in Jakarta. This city has 8 districts. The area includes Jakarta's Chinatown
Chinatown
and Dutch colonial landmarks such as the Chinese Langgam building and Toko Merah . West Jakarta
West Jakarta
contains part of Jakarta Old Town . * South Jakarta
South Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Selatan), originally planned as a satellite city, is now the location of large upscale shopping centres and affluent residential areas. South Jakarta
South Jakarta
again divided into 10 territorial districts. Jakarta
Jakarta
Selatan functions as Jakarta's ground water buffer, but recently the green belt areas are threatened by new developments. Much of the CBD area of Jakarta
Jakarta
is concentrated in Setia Budi, South Jakarta, bordering the Tanah Abang/ Sudirman
Sudirman
area of Central Jakarta. * East Jakarta ( Jakarta
Jakarta
Timur) territory is characterised by several industrial sectors erected in this city. Also located in East Jakarta are Taman Mini Indonesia Indah and Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport . This city has 10 districts/kecamatan. * North Jakarta
North Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Utara) is the only city in Jakarta
Jakarta
that is bounded by the sea ( Java
Java
Sea ). It is the location of the Tanjung Priok . Large-scale and medium-scale industries are concentrated in North Jakarta. North Jakarta
North Jakarta
contains part of Jakarta Old Town , formerly known as Batavia since the 17th century, and was a centre of VOC trade activity in Dutch East Indies . Also located in North Jakarta
Jakarta
is Ancol
Ancol
Dreamland (Taman Impian Jaya Ancol
Ancol
), currently the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia. North Jakarta
North Jakarta
is divided into 6 districts.

The only administrative regency (kabupaten) of Jakarta
Jakarta
is:

* Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu), formerly a district within the city of North Jakarta, is a collection of 105 small islands located on the Java
Java
Sea. It has a high conservation value because of its unique and special ecosystems. Marine tourism, such as diving, water bicycle, and wind surfing, is the most important touristic activity in this territory. The main mode of transportation between the islands are speed boats or small ferries.

Jakarta's Cities/Municipalities (Kota Administrasi/Kotamadya) CITY/REGENCY AREA (KM2) TOTAL POPULATION (2010 CENSUS) TOTAL POPULATION (2014) Population Density (per km2) in 2010 Population Density (per km2) in 2014 HDI 2015 Estimates

SOUTH JAKARTA (JAKARTA SELATAN) 141.27 2,057,080 2,164,070 14,561 15,319 0.833(Very High)

EAST JAKARTA (JAKARTA TIMUR) 188.03 2,687,027 2,817,994 14,290 14,987 0.807 (Very High)

CENTRAL JAKARTA (JAKARTA PUSAT) 48.13 898,883 910,381 18,676 18,915 0.796 (High)

WEST JAKARTA (JAKARTA BARAT) 129.54 2,278,825 2,430,410 17,592 18,762 0.797 (High)

NORTH JAKARTA (JAKARTA UTARA) 146.66 1,645,312 1,729,444 11,219 11,792 0.796 (High)

THOUSAND ISLANDS (KEPULAUAN SERIBU) 8.7 21,071 23,011 2,422 2,645 0.688 (Medium)

PARKS

Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah

In June 2011, Jakarta
Jakarta
had only 10.5% green open space (Ruang Terbuka Hijau) and will be added to 13.94% public green open space. Public parks are included in public green open space. By 2030, the administration also hope there are 16% private green open space.

* Merdeka Square ( Medan
Medan
Merdeka) is an almost 1 km2 field housing the symbol of Jakarta, Monas
Monas
or Monumen Nasional (National Monument). The square was created by Dutch Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels
Daendels
(1810) and was originally named Koningsplein (King's Square). On 10 January 1993, President Soeharto started the beautification of the square. Several features include a deer park and 33 trees that represent the 33 provinces of Indonesia. * Lapangan Banteng
Lapangan Banteng
(Buffalo Field) is located in Central Jakarta near the Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta
Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta
, Jakarta Cathedral
Jakarta Cathedral
, and the Jakarta
Jakarta
Central Post Office. It is about 4.5 hectares. Initially it was called Waterlooplein and functioned as the ceremonial square during the Netherlands
Netherlands
East Indies colonial period. A number of colonial monuments and memorials erected on the square during the colonial period were demolished during the Sukarno era. The most notable monument in the square is the Monumen Pembebasan Irian Barat (Monument of the Liberation of West Irian). During the 1970s and 1980s the park was used as a bus terminal. In 1993 the park was turned into a public space again. It has become a recreation place for people and is occasionally also used as an exhibition place or for other events. The Jakarta
Jakarta
Flona (Flora dan Fauna), the flower and decoration plants and pet exhibition, is held in this park around August annually.

Ancol
Ancol
Gondola

* Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Miniature Park of Indonesia), in East Jakarta
Jakarta
, has 10 mini parks. * Suropati Park is located in Menteng , Central Jakarta . The park is surrounded by several Dutch colonial buildings. Taman Suropati was known as Burgemeester Bisschopplein during the Dutch colonial time. The park is circular shaped with a surface area of 16,322 square metres (175,690 square feet). There are several modern statues in the park made by artists of the ASEAN
ASEAN
countries, which contributes to the nickname of the park "Taman persahabatan seniman ASEAN" ("Park of the ASEAN
ASEAN
artists friendship"). * Menteng Park and the Situ Lembang pond - Menteng Park was built on the site of the former Persija football stadium . * Kalijodo Park is the newest park in the city at Penjaringan subdistrict, with 3.4 hectares (8.4 acres) of land area besides Krendang River which formally opened on 22 February 2017. The park is opened for 24 hours for green open space (RTH) and child-friendly integrated public space (RPTRA) and has international skate board lane. Expected, the park can be a new iconic tourist location. * Muara Angke Wildlife Sanctuary and Angke Kapuk Nature Tourism Park at Penjaringan in North Jakarta
North Jakarta
. * Ragunan Zoo is located at Pasar Minggu , South Jakarta
South Jakarta
. It is the third oldest zoo in the world and set as second largest zoo in the world with the most diverse animals and plants population. * Setu Babakan is a 32 hectares lake surrounded by Betawi cultural village, located at Jagakarsa , South Jakarta
South Jakarta
. * Ancol
Ancol
Dreamland is the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia at present. It is located located along the bay, at Ancol
Ancol
in North Jakarta
North Jakarta
. * Taman Waduk Pluit/ Pluit Lake park at Pluit , North Jakarta
North Jakarta
, * Honda Park at Tebet, South Jakarta
South Jakarta
* Taman Langsat and Taman Ayodya in South Jakarta
South Jakarta

DEMOGRAPHY

POPULATION

YEAR POPULATION

1870 65,000

1875 99,100

1880 102,900

1883 97,000

1886 100,500

1890 105,100

1895 114,600

1901 115,900

1905 138,600

1918 234,700

YEAR POPULATION

1920 253,800

1925 290,400

1928 311,000

1930 435,184

1940 533,000

1945 600,000

1950 1,733,600

1959 2,814,000

1961 2,906,533

1971 4,546,492

YEAR/DATE POPULATION

31 October 1980 6,503,449

31 October 1990 8,259,639

30 June 2000 8,384,853

1 January 2005 8,540,306

1 January 2006 7,512,323

June 2007 7,552,444

2010 9,588,198

2014 10,075,310

* 2010 Population census

Since 1950, Jakarta
Jakarta
has attracted people from all parts of Java
Java
and other Indonesian islands. The flood of migrants came to Jakarta
Jakarta
for economic reasons as Jakarta
Jakarta
offered the hope of employment. The 1961 census showed only 51% of the city's population was actually born in Jakarta. Between 1961 and 1980, the population of Jakarta
Jakarta
doubled and during the period 1980–1990, the city's population grew annually by 3.7%.

The 2010 census counted some 9.58 million people, well above all government estimates. According to the Government's Jakarta
Jakarta
in Figures document, the population stood at 10,187,595 in 2011 and 9,761,407 in 2012. As per 2014, the population stood at 10,075,310 people. The area of DKI Jakarta is 664 km2, suggesting a population density of 15,174 people/km2 as the ninth largest urban population density in the world. Inwards immigration tended to negate the effect of family planning programs. The population has risen from 4.5 million in 1970 doubled to 9.5 million in 2010, counting only its legal residents. While the population of Greater Jakarta (Jabodetabek Region) has risen from 8.2 million in 1970 jump to 28.5 million in 2010. As per 2014, the population of Greater Jakarta was 30,326,103, accounts for 11% of Indonesia's population. The sex ratio was 102.8 (males per 100 females) in 2010 and 101.3 in 2014.

ETHNICITY AND LANGUAGE

ETHNICITIES OF JAKARTA – 2000 CENSUS

ethnic group

percent

Javanese   35.16%

Betawi   27.65%

Sundanese   15.27%

Chinese   5.53%

Batak
Batak
  3.61%

Minangkabau   3.18%

Malays   1.62%

Jakarta
Jakarta
is pluralistic and religiously diverse city. As of 2000, 35.16% of the city's population are Javanese , 27.65% Betawi , 15.27% Sundanese , 5.53% Chinese , 3.61% Batak
Batak
, 3.18% Minangkabau and 1.62% Malays .

The "Betawi " (Orang Betawi, or "people of Batavia") are the descendants of the people living in and around Batavia , and recognised as an ethnic group from around the 18th–19th century. The Betawi people
Betawi people
are mostly descended from various Southeast-Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs, and include people from different parts of Indonesia
Indonesia
. Betawi people
Betawi people
are a creole ethnic group that came from various parts of Indonesia
Indonesia
and intermarriage with Chinese, Arabs, and Europeans. Nowadays, most Betawi live in the fringe area of Jakarta
Jakarta
and there is hardly any Betawi dominated area in central Jakarta.

There has been a significant Chinese community in Jakarta
Jakarta
for many centuries. Jakarta
Jakarta
is home to the largest population of Chinese on Java
Java
island. The Chinese in Jakarta
Jakarta
traditionally reside around old urban areas, such as Pinangsia
Pinangsia
, Pluit and Glodok
Glodok
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Chinatown) areas. They also can be found in old chinatowns of Senen and Jatinegara . Officially, they make up 5.53% of the Jakarta
Jakarta
population, although this number may be under-reported.

The Sumatran people of the city is very diverse. According to 2010 Census, there were roughly 346,000 Batak
Batak
, 305,000 Minangkabau and 155,000 Malays . The Batak
Batak
and Minangkabau living spread throughout the city. The Batak
Batak
ethnic group has increased in ranking, from eighth in 1930 to fifth in 2000. Toba Batak
Batak
is the largest sub-ethnic Batak in Jakarta. Beside Chinese, Minangkabau people also as merchants, peddlers, and artisans, in addition to as white collar, doctor, teacher, and journalist.

Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
is the official as well as spoken language of Jakarta. English is used widely as second language, a number of elderly people can speak Dutch . Each of the ethnic groups use their mother language at home, such as Betawi language , Javanese , Sundanese , Madurese , Batak
Batak
, Minangkabau , and Chinese . Betawi language is distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese , forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. The language is mostly based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Dutch , Portuguese , Sundanese , Javanese , Minangkabau , Chinese , and Arabic
Arabic
. Nowadays, the Jakarta
Jakarta
dialect (Bahasa Jakarta), used as a street language by people in Jakarta, is loosely based on the Betawi language .

RELIGION

The Jakarta Cathedral
Jakarta Cathedral
, metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Jakarta
Jakarta
.

RELIGION IN JAKARTA (2010 CENSUS)

religion

percent

Islam   85.36%

Christianity   10.7%

Buddhism   3.30%

other, not stated or not asked   0.38%

Hinduism   0.21%

Confucianism   0.06%

As of 2010 Census the population of Jakarta
Jakarta
was 85.36% Muslim , 7.53% Protestant
Protestant
, 3.30% Buddhist
Buddhist
, 3.15% Roman Catholic , 0.21% Hindu , and 0.06% Confucianist . The majority of Jakartan are Sunni Muslims .

Most of pesantren in Jakarta
Jakarta
are affiliated with the traditionalist Nahdlatul Ulama organisations. The modernist organisations mostly catered to a socioeconomic class of educated urban elites and merchant traders. They gave priority to education, social welfare programs and religious propagation activities. Many of Islamic organisations headquarter in Jakarta, such as Nahdlatul Ulama, Indonesian Ulema Council , Muhammadiyah , Jaringan Islam
Islam
Liberal , and Front Pembela Islam
Islam
. Roman Catholics have a Metropolitan see there, for the Archdiocese of Jakarta
Jakarta
, whose province including two suffragans covers Western Java
Java
.

CULTURE

As the economic and political capital of Indonesia
Indonesia
with so many different languages and ethnic groups, it is difficult to describe or define a common culture for Jakarta, as the city attracts many native immigrants, from the vast and diverse Indonesian archipelago, who also bring their various languages, dialects, foods and customs.This diversity of origins and languages leads to differences in regard to religion, traditions and linguistic and all in all culture. However ethnic Betawi are considered as the indigenous people of Jakarta.

ARTS AND FESTIVALS

Betawi culture are distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese , forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. Betawi arts have a low profile in Jakarta, and most Betawi have moved to the suburbs of Jakarta, displaced by new migrants. It is easier to find Java
Java
or Minang based wedding ceremonies rather than Betawi weddings in Jakarta. It is easier to find Javanese Gamelan
Gamelan
instead of Tanjidor (a mixture between Betawi and Portuguese music), Marawis (a mixture between Betawi and Yemeni music) or Gambang Kromong (a mixture between Betawi and Chinese music). Chinese also had influenced Betawi culture, such as the popularity of Chinese cakes and sweets, firecrackers , to Betawi wedding attire that demonstrates Chinese and Arab influences.

However, some festivals such as the Jalan Jaksa Festival or Kemang Festival include efforts to preserve Betawi arts by inviting artists to give performances. Jakarta
Jakarta
has several performing art centres, such as the classical concert hall Aula Simfonia Jakarta
Jakarta
in Kemayoran, Taman Ismail Marzuki
Taman Ismail Marzuki
(TIM) art centre in Cikini, Gedung Kesenian Jakarta
Jakarta
near Pasar Baru, Balai Sarbini in Plaza Semanggi area, Bentara Budaya Jakarta
Jakarta
in Palmerah area, Pasar Seni (Art Market) in Ancol
Ancol
, and traditional Indonesian art performances at the pavilions of some provinces in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah . Traditional music is often found at high-class hotels, including Wayang and Gamelan
Gamelan
performances. Javanese Wayang Orang performances can be found at Wayang Orang Bharata theatre near Senen bus terminal. As the country's largest city and capital, Jakarta
Jakarta
has lured much national and regional talent who hope to find a greater audience and more opportunities for success.

Jakarta
Jakarta
hosts several prestigious art and culture festivals, and exhibitions, such as the annual Jakarta
Jakarta
International Film Festival (JiFFest), Jakarta
Jakarta
International Java
Java
Jazz Festival , Jakarta
Jakarta
Fashion Week , Jakarta
Jakarta
Fashion ">

Ondel-Ondel
Ondel-Ondel
*

The Golden Snail IMAX theatre at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah *

Taman Ismail Marzuki
Taman Ismail Marzuki
, Central Jakarta *

Jakarta Fair
Jakarta Fair
*

Chinese paifang in Mangga Dua, Central Jakarta

CUISINE

Main article: Betawi cuisine
Betawi cuisine
Gado-gado is a popular dish in Jakarta
Jakarta

As the capital, all varieties of Indonesian cuisine
Indonesian cuisine
have more or less presence in Jakarta. The local cuisine of Jakarta
Jakarta
is the Betawi cuisine , which reflects various foreign culinary traditions that have influenced the inhabitants of Jakarta
Jakarta
for centuries. Betawi cuisine
Betawi cuisine
is heavily influenced by Malay-Chinese Peranakan cuisine , Sundanese and Javanese cuisine
Javanese cuisine
, which also influenced by but Indian, Arabic
Arabic
and European colonial influences. One of the most popular local dishes of Betwai cuisine is Soto Betawi which is prepared from chunks of beef meat and offals in rich and spicy cow's milk or coconut milk broth. Other popular Betawi dishes includes soto kaki , nasi uduk , kerak telor (spicy omelette), nasi ulam , asinan , ketoprak , rujak and gado-gado Betawi (salad in peanut sauce).

Jakarta
Jakarta
has a vast range of food available at hundreds of eating venues and foodcourts located all over the city, from modest street-side warung foodstalls and Kaki Lima
Lima
(5 legs) travelling vendors to high-end fine dining restaurants. Since Jakarta
Jakarta
is regarded as the 'melting-pot' and a miniature version of Indonesia, many traditional foods from far-flung regions in Indonesia
Indonesia
can be found in Jakarta. For example, traditional Padang restaurants and low-budget Warteg ( Warung Tegal) foodstalls are ubiquitous in the capital. Other popular street foods include nasi goreng (fried rice), sate (skewered meats), pecel lele (fried catfish), bakso (meatballs), bakpau (Chinese bun) and siomay (fish dumplings).

Jalan Sabang , Jalan Sidarjo, Jalan Kendal at Menteng , Blok S , Blok M , Jalan Tebet are popular destination for street food lovers. Chinese street foods are plentifully available at Jalan Pangren, Manga Besar and Petak Sembilan in old Jakarta
Jakarta
area. While Menteng , Kemang , Jalan Senopati , Kuningan , Senayan and Pantai Indah Kapuk , Kelapa Gading area has trendy restaurants, cafe and bars. Next to a myriad of Indonesian food and regional specialties from all over Indonesia, foreign food is also represented: Chinese , Japanese , Korean , Thai , Indian , American , French , Italian, Vietnamese, Middle Eastern, and modern fusion food can all be found in Jakarta.

MUSEUMS

See also: List of museums and cultural institutions in Indonesia
Indonesia
National Museum of Indonesia
Indonesia
in Central Jakarta

The museums in Jakarta
Jakarta
cluster around the Central Jakarta Merdeka Square area, Jakarta Old Town , and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah .

The Jakarta Old Town contains museums that are former institutional buildings of Colonial Batavia. Some of these museums are: Jakarta History Museum (former City
City
Hall of Batavia), Wayang Museum (Puppet Museum) (former Church of Batavia), the Fine Art and Ceramic Museum (former Court House of Justice of Batavia), the Maritime Museum (former Sunda Kelapa warehouse), Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
Museum (former Javasche Bank), and Bank Mandiri Museum (former Nederlandsche Handels Maatschappij). Indonesia
Indonesia
Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah

Several museums clustered in central Jakarta
Jakarta
around the Merdeka Square area include: National Museum of Indonesia
Indonesia
which also known as Gedung Gajah (the Elephant Building), Monumen Nasional (National Monument), Istiqlal Islamic Museum in Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta, and Jakarta Cathedral
Jakarta Cathedral
Museum on the second floor of Jakarta
Jakarta
Cathedral. Also in the central Jakarta
Jakarta
area is the Taman Prasasti Museum
Taman Prasasti Museum
(former cemetery of Batavia), and Textile Museum in Tanah Abang
Tanah Abang
area.

The recreational area of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah in East Jakarta contains fourteen museums, such as Indonesia
Indonesia
Museum , Purna Bhakti Pertiwi Museum , Asmat Museum, Bayt al-Qur'an Islamic Museum, Pusaka (heirloom) Museum, and other science-based museum such as Research Bisnis Indonesia
Indonesia
, Investor Daily, Kontan, Harian Neraca (business news) as well as Top Skor and Soccer (sport news).

Jakarta
Jakarta
are the headquarters for Indonesia's state media public government stations, TVRI as well as private national television include Metro TV , tvOne , Kompas
Kompas
TV , Trans TV , Trans 7
Trans 7
, RCTI , MNC , SCTV , Global TV , Indosiar , ANTV , RTV and NET. . Jakarta
Jakarta
has also the local television channels such as Jak TV , O Channel , Elshinta TV, and DAAI TV Indonesia. The city is home to the country's main pay television service. The wide range of cable channels available includes First Media and TelkomVision
TelkomVision
. Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance in Jakarta. Prominent DTH entertainment services are Indovision , Okevision
Okevision
, Yes TV
Yes TV
, Transvision , and Aora TV . Many TV stations are analogue PAL
PAL
, but some are now converting to digital signals using DVB-T2 following a government plan to digital television migration. A Metro TV news van parked in Merdeka Square, Jakarta
Jakarta
The TVRI Tower in Senayan, South Jakarta
South Jakarta

CHANNEL NAME TYPE LANGUAGE COUNTRY OF REGION

22 UHF INTV Local Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia

23 UHF RTV National

25 UHF Kompas
Kompas
TV

26 UHF CTV Banten Local

27 UHF NET. National

28 UHF KTV Local

29 UHF Trans TV National

30 UHF iNews TV

31 UHF TVRI Jakarta
Jakarta
"> Indonesia
Indonesia
Stock Exchange building at SCBD
SCBD

Indonesia
Indonesia
is the largest economy of ASEAN
ASEAN
and Jakarta
Jakarta
is the economic nerve center of Indonesian archipelago. The city generated about one-sixth of Indonesian GDP
GDP
in 2008. Nominal GDP
GDP
of DKI Jakarta was US$483.8 billion in 2016, which is about 17.5% of the nominal GDP
GDP
of Indonesia. Jakarta
Jakarta
ranked 67th in 'Global Financial Centres Index 2017' published by Z/Yen .

Jakarta's economy depends highly on service sectors, banking, trading, financial, and manufacturing. Most of industries in Jakarta include electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing. Head office of Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
and Indonesia
Indonesia
Stock Exchange located in the city. Most of the SOE like Pertamina , PLN , PGN , Angkasa Pura
Angkasa Pura
, BULOG , Telkomsel , Waskita operate from their head offices in the city. Also major Indonesian conglomerates maintains head office in Jakarta. Important conglomerates which have corporate office in the city are, Salim Group , Sinar Mas Group , Astra International , Lippo Group , Bakrie Group
Bakrie Group
, Ciputra Group , Agung Podomoro Group, Unilever Indonesia
Indonesia
, Djarum , Gudang Garam , Kompas
Kompas
Gramedia , Lion Air , Sriwijaya Air
Sriwijaya Air
, MedcoEnergi , MNC , Trans Corp
Trans Corp
and many more.

The economic growth of Jakarta
Jakarta
in 2007 was 6.44% up from 5.95% the previous year, with the growth in the transportation and communication (15.25%), construction (7.81%) and trade, hotel and restaurant sectors (6.88%). In 2007, GRDP (Gross Regional Domestic Product) was Rp. 566 trillion (around $US 56 billion). The largest contributions to GRDP were by finance, ownership and business services (29%); trade, hotel and restaurant sector (20%), and manufacturing industry sector (16%). In 2007, the increase in per capita GRDP of DKI Jakarta inhabitants was 11.6% compared to the previous year Both GRDP by at current market price and GRDP by at 2000 constant price in 2007 for the Municipality of Central Jakarta, which was Rp 146 million and Rp 81 million, was higher than other municipalities in Jakarta. Last data update was on 2014 by end of year Jakarta
Jakarta
have a GRDP (Gross Regional Domestic Product) was Rp. 1,761.407 trillion (around USD 148.53 billion) with economic growth above 6% per year since 2009. In 2014, per capita GRDP of DKI Jakarta inhabitants was Rp 174.87 million or USD 14,727. In 2015, GDP
GDP
per capita in the city was estimated Rp 194.87 million or US$14,570. Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
head office in Central Jakarta

The Wealth Report 2015 by Knight Frank reported that there were 24 individuals in Indonesia
Indonesia
in 2014 with wealth at least one billion US Dollar and 18 of them live in the capital Jakarta. The cost of living in the city continues to rise. Both land price and rents has become expensive. Mercer ’s 2017 Cost of Living Survey ranked Jakarta
Jakarta
as 88th costliest city in the world for expatriate employees living. Industrial development and the construction of new housing are usually undertaken on the outskirts, while commerce and banking remain concentrated in the city center. Jakarta
Jakarta
has a bustling luxury property market. The investment in the property sector, including offices, commercial buildings, new town development, and high rise apartments and hotels grew substantially. Knight Frank , a global real estate consultancy based in London, reported in 2014 that Jakarta offered the highest return on high-end property investment in the world in 2013, citing supply shortage and a sharply depreciated currency as reasons.

SHOPPING

Plaza Indonesia
Indonesia
, the high end shopping centre in Central Jakarta
Jakarta

Jakarta
Jakarta
has numerous shopping malls and markets. With a total of 550 hectares, Jakarta
Jakarta
has the world's largest shopping mall floor area within a single city. The annual " Jakarta
Jakarta
Great Sale" is held every year in June and July to celebrate Jakarta's anniversary, with about 73 participating shopping centres in 2012.

Malls such as Plaza Indonesia
Indonesia
, Grand Indonesia
Indonesia
Shopping Town , Plaza Senayan , Senayan City
City
and Pacific Place provide luxury brands, while Mall Taman Anggrek , Pondok Indah Mall
Pondok Indah Mall
, Mal Kelapa Gading , Central Park Jakarta
Jakarta
, Bay Walk Mall and Ciputra World Jakarta
Jakarta
have high-street brands such as Topshop , Uniqlo and Zara . Mall Taman Anggrek , West Jakarta
West Jakarta

Department stores in Senayan City, Supermall Karawaci and Lippo Mall Kemang Village use the Debenhams brand under licence, while the Japanese Sogo department store has about seven stores in various shopping malls in the city. Seibu flagship store is located in Grand Indonesia
Indonesia
Shopping Town, and French luxury department store, Galeries Lafayette opened its doors for the first time in South East Asia in Pacific Place. Grand Indonesia
Indonesia
Shopping Town in Central Jakarta

Internationally known luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton , Bulgari , Chanel
Chanel
, Gucci , Christian Louboutin , Balenciaga , and Giorgio Armani can be found in Jakarta's luxury shopping malls.

The Satrio- Casablanca
Casablanca
corridor, 3.5-kilometre street is a new shopping belt in Jakarta. Many multistorey shopping centres are located here, such as Kuningan City
City
, Mal Ambassador, Kota Kasablanka, and Lotte Shopping Avenue.

Traditional markets include Blok M , Tanah Abang
Tanah Abang
, Senen , Pasar Baru , Glodok
Glodok
, Mangga Dua , Cempaka Mas, and Jatinegara . In Jakarta
Jakarta
there are also markets that sell specific collectable items, such as antique goods in Surabaya
Surabaya
Street and gemstones in Rawabening Market.

TOURISM

See also: Tourism in Indonesia
Indonesia

Unlike other neighboring Southeast Asian cities Singapore
Singapore
, Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok
Bangkok
, Jakarta
Jakarta
is not a top international tourist destination. Most of the visitors attracted to Jakarta
Jakarta
are domestic tourists from all over Indonesia. Slowly but steadily and gradually tourism contributes a growing amount of income to the city. In 2012, the tourism sector contributed 2.6 trillion rupiah (US$268.5 million) to the city's total direct income of 17.83 trillion rupiah (US$ 1.45 billion), 17.9% increase from the previous year 2011. Tourism stakeholders are expecting greater marketing of the Jakarta
Jakarta
as a tourism destination. On an average monthly about 200,000 foreign tourist visit Jakarta. 210,595 foreign tourists visited the city during the month of May, 2017. As the gateway of Indonesia
Indonesia
, Jakarta often serves as the stop-over for foreign visitors on their way to Indonesian popular tourist destinations such as Bali
Bali
, Lombok and Yogyakarta . Jakarta
Jakarta
is trying to attract more international tourist by MICE tourism, by arranging increasing numbers of conventions .

The popular heritage tourism attractions are in Kota and around Merdeka square . Kota is the centre of old Jakarta, with its Maritime Museum , Kota Intan drawbridge, Gereja Sion , Wayang Museum , Stadhuis Batavia , Fine Art and Ceramic Museum , Toko Merah , Bank Indonesia Museum, Bank Mandiri Museum, Jakarta Kota Station
Jakarta Kota Station
, and Glodok ( Jakarta
Jakarta
Chinatown). In the old ports of Sunda Kelapa , the tall masted pinisi ship still sails. The Jakarta Cathedral
Jakarta Cathedral
with neo-gothic architecture in Central Jakarta also attracted architecture enthusiast. Other than monuments, landmarks, and museums around Merdeka square and Jakarta Old Town , tourist attractions of the city include Thousand Islands , Taman Mini Indonesia Indah , Setu Babakan , Ragunan Zoo , Sunda Kelapa old port and the Ancol
Ancol
Dreamland complex on Jakarta
Jakarta
Bay, including Dunia Fantasi (Fantasy World) theme park, Sea World, Atlantis Water Adventure, and Gelanggang Samudra.Thousand Islands , which is north to the coast of the city and in Java
Java
Sea is also a popular tourist destination.

Most of the renowned international hotel chains have presence in the city. Jalan Jaksa and surrounding area is popular among backpackers for cheaper accommodation, travel agencies, second-hand bookstores, money changers, laundries, pubs, etc, while Kemang is a favorite suburb for expats living.

INFRASTRUCTURE

ROAD

See also: List of toll roads in Indonesia
Indonesia
Jakarta
Jakarta
Inner Ring Road /Jalan Tol Lingkar Dalam Jakarta
Jakarta
runs parallel with Jalan Jenderal Gatot Subroto at South Jakarta
South Jakarta

A structured road network had been developed in the early 19th century as a part of the Java
Java
Great Post Road by former Governor-General Daendels
Daendels
, which connects most major cities throughout Java
Java
. During the following decades, the road network was expanded to a great extent, although it could not keep up with the rapidly increasing numbers of motorised vehicles, resulting in highly congested traffic.

A notable feature of Jakarta's present road system is the toll road network. Composed of an inner and outer ring road and five toll roads radiating outwards, the network provides inner as well as outer city connections. Jakarta Outer Ring Road 2 is a planned toll road circling the area of Jakarta
Jakarta
greater area, parallel with Jakarta
Jakarta
Outer Ring Road (JORR 1). Six elevated toll roads are in tender progress. The five radiating toll roads are:

* Prof. Dr. Sedyatmo Toll Road linking to Soekarno–Hatta International Airport * Jakarta– Tangerang Toll Road linking to Tangerang and further to Merak in the west * Jakarta–Serpong Toll Road linking to Serpong * Jagorawi Toll Road linking to Bogor and Ciawi in the south * Jakarta–Cikampek Toll Road
Jakarta–Cikampek Toll Road
linking to Bekasi and Cikampek in the east

Throughout the years, several attempts have been made to reduce traffic congestion on Jakarta's main arteries. Implemented solutions include a 'three-in-one' rush-hour law, during which cars with fewer than three passengers are prohibited from driving on the main avenues. Another example is the ban on trucks passing main avenues during the day. In 2016, 'odd-even' policy was introduced which designated cars with either odd or even-numbered registration plates on a particular day. This aims to function as a transitional measure to alleviate traffic congestion until the future introduction of Electronic Road Pricing which would be more effective .

WATER SUPPLY

For more details on this topic, see Water privatisation in Jakarta .

Two private companies, PALYJA and Aetra, provide piped water supply in the western and eastern half of Jakarta
Jakarta
respectively under 25-year concession contracts signed in 1998. A public asset holding company called PAM Jaya owns the infrastructure. 80% of the water distributed in Jakarta
Jakarta
comes through the West Tarum Canal system from Jatiluhur reservoir on the Citarum River
Citarum River
70 km (43 mi) southeast of the city. Water supply had been privatised by government of then President Suharto in 1998 to the French company Suez Environnement
Suez Environnement
and the British company Thames Water International. Both foreign companies subsequently sold their concessions to Indonesian companies. Customer growth in the 7 first years of the concessions had been lower than before, despite substantial inflation-adjusted tariff increases during this period. In 2005 tariffs were frozen, leading the private water companies to cut down on investments.

According to PALYJA in its western half of the concession the service coverage ratio increased substantially from 34% in 1998 to 59% in 2007 and 65% in 2010. According to data by the Jakarta
Jakarta
Water Supply Regulatory Body, access in the eastern half of the city served by PTJ increased from about 57% in 1998 to about 67% in 2004, but stagnated after that. However, other sources cite much lower access figures for piped water supply to houses, excluding access provided through public hydrants: One study estimated access as low as 25% in 2005, while another source estimates it to be as low as 18.5% in 2011. Those without access to piped water supply get water mostly from wells that are often salty and polluted with bacteria. As of 2017, according to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources , Jakarta
Jakarta
has a crisis of clean water.

HEALTHCARE

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TRANSPORTATION

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With 30 million people in the metropolitan area, nearly 10 million vehicles in daily use, and limited rapid transit system Jakarta
Jakarta
is strained by transportation problems. The city suffers a lack of urban public transport services due to prioritised development of road networks, which were mostly designed to accommodate private vehicles. In 2004, a study was undertaken to prepare a master-plan for an integrated public transport system within Greater Jakarta , which revealed the mode as follows, Jakarta
Jakarta
pedestrians, joggers and bicyclists take over the main avenue during Car-Free Day Argo Bromo, a non-stop train connecting Jakarta
Jakarta
and Surabaya
Surabaya

TRANSPORT MODE NO. TRIPS (\'000) % SHARE

Walking 14,073 37.7

Angkot
Angkot
(small bus) 7,818 20.9

Motorcycle 4,890 13.1

Sedan/MPV/SUV 2,783 7.5

Medium Bus 2,012 5.4

Large Bus 1,224 3.3

Ojek (Motorcycle Taxi) 1,073 2.9

Bicycle 787 2.1

School/Company bus 466 1.2

Economy Train 434 1.2

Patas AC (Bus) 422 1.1

Colt/Mini Cab 298 0.8

Omprengan 295 0.8

Bajaj 217 0.6

Becak 202 0.5

Pick Up 131 0.4

Taxi 126 0.3

Express Train 39 0.1

Truck 33 0.1

Other 8 0.0

Total 37,330 100

ROAD TRANSPORT

Electronic Road Pricing

Due to the city's acute gridlock, the Jakarta
Jakarta
administration has decided to implement electronic toll collection in 10 districts: Tanah Abang , Menteng , Setiabudi, Tebet, Matraman, Senen, Gambir, Tambora, Sawah Besar and Taman Sari . The ERP was planned to be implemented in the three-in-one zone and along Jl. Rasuna Said in Kuningan by the first quarter of 2014, although by September 2016 the plan has not started. Vehicles passing through the ERP areas will be charged Rp 21,072.

Bus Service

There are many bus terminals in the city, from where buses operate on numerous routes to connect neighborhoods within the city limit, to other areas of Greater Jakarta area and to cities across the island of Java
Java
. The biggest of the bus terminal is Pulo Gebang Bus Terminal , which is arguably the largest of its kind in Southeast Asia. Besides TransJakarta
TransJakarta
, other private owned bus systems like Kopaja , MetroMini , Mayasari Bakti and APTB also provide important services for Jakarta commuters with numerous routes throughout the city. Since January 2013, Jakarta
Jakarta
Government has integrated Kopaja AC buses with TransJakarta
TransJakarta
feeder bus routes. For the future, Metromini AC bus it is also possible to enter TransJakarta
TransJakarta
bus lanes to enhance integrated bus rapid transit system.

Traditional Transports

In 1966, an estimated 160 thousand pedicabs (becak) operated in the city; as much as 15% of Jakarta's total workforce was engaged in becak driving. In 1971, becak were banned from major roads, and shortly thereafter the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers but did not eliminate them. A campaign to eliminate them succeeded in 1990 and 1991, but during the economic crisis of 1998, some returned amid less effective government attempts to control them. Bajaj auto rikshaw provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. From the early 1940s to 1991 they were a common form of local transportation in the city. Angkot
Angkot
microbuses also play a major role in road transport of Jakarta. They operates in numerous routes to connect neighbourhoods of the city.

Taxi Cabs

A taxicab waiting at a mall in Jakarta
Jakarta

Plenty of taxi cabs are available in the city. Many companies operate "> Jakarta
Jakarta
double-decker city tour bus passing through Jakarta landmarks and points of interest

Since February 2014, the Jakarta
Jakarta
Government provides free double-decker bus tours that offers sightseeing in Central Jakarta. The tourists can catch the double-decker bus — free of charge, in several designated bus stops in front of city's points of interest. The buses' route covers tourist attractions, such as Monas
Monas
, Istiqlal Mosque , the Cathedral , National Museum , Sarinah
Sarinah
, and Plaza Indonesia
Indonesia
, as well as Grand Indonesia
Indonesia
shopping centres. As 2016, there are 18 double-decker buses in Jakarta, and the service is expanded to include Kota Tua in the north and Gelora Bung Karno Stadium in Senayan area in the south, via Sudirman
Sudirman
avenue.

RAIL

Long-distance railways and local tram services were first introduced during the Dutch colonial era. While the trams were replaced with buses in the post-colonial era, long-distance railways continued to connect the city to its neighbouring regions as well as cities throughout the island of Java
Java
. Main terminus for long distance train services are Gambir and Pasar Senen . A commuter rail system KRL Jabodetabek connects areas within Greater Jakarta . Major rail stations of commter line are Jakarta
Jakarta
Kota , Jatinegara , Tanah Abang
Tanah Abang
, Duri , Pasar Senen , Manggarai and Sudirman
Sudirman
. High-speed railways are planned connecting Jakarta- Bandung and Jakarta-Surabaya.

High Speed Rail

Further information: High-speed rail in Indonesia
Indonesia

The first high-speed rail to connect Jakarta
Jakarta
with Bandung is currently under construction which is expected to start operation in 2019. The contract was awarded to China
China
. Both Japan
Japan
and China contested as a potential contractor, but it was awarded to China mainly because of their proposal did not require Indonesian fiscal spending or government debt guarantees . The project cost was estimated to be US$5.5 billion. China
China
Development Bank will fund 75 percent of the project. A joint venture company PT Kereta Cepat Indonesia- China
China
has formed by China
China
Railway Group Limited (CREC) with a consortium of Indonesia's state-owned enterprises (SOEs) led by PT Wijaya Karya Tbk to develop the project.

Another project to upgrade of existing Jakarta- Surabaya
Surabaya
route to high speed rail is undertaken in 2016. Priority was given to Japan
Japan
this time who had been one of the biggest investors to Indonesia. The route is supposed to finish construction in 2019.

RAPID TRANSIT

At present rapid transit in Greater Jakarta consists of a BRT TransJakarta
TransJakarta
and a commuter rail KRL Jabodetabek . Other transit systems, those are now being under construction are Jakarta MRT , Jakarta LRT and Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link , which are expected to be operational by 2018.

Bus Rapid Transit

Further information: TransJakarta
TransJakarta
TransJakarta
TransJakarta
has the world's longest bus rapid transit routes.

The TransJakarta
TransJakarta
bus rapid transit service (known as Busway) was developed in the context of development reforms (or reformasi) and used Bogota's TransMilenio
TransMilenio
system as a model. Jakarta's first busway line, from Blok M to Jakarta
Jakarta
Kota opened in January 2004 and as of 14 February 2013, twelve out of fifteen corridors are in use. TransJakarta
TransJakarta
has the world's longest bus rapid transit routes (210 kilometres (130 miles) in length). So far TransJakarta
TransJakarta
serves total 80 routes (corridor, cross route "> A KRL Jabotabek
KRL Jabotabek
commuter train

KRL Jabodetabek or commonly known as Commuterline is a commuter rail system which serves commuters in Jakarta, Bogor , Depok , Tangerang , South Tangerang , and Bekasi . The commuter system was started in 2000. The number of passengers in 2014 reached 208 million, rising from 158 million in the previous year. About 280 million commuters used KRL Jabodetabek in the year of 2016. KRL Jabotabek
KRL Jabotabek
serves all municipalities in Jakarta
Jakarta
excluding the Thousand Islands , as well as Greater Jakarta region. Though during rush hours, the number of passengers greatly exceeds the system's capacity, and crowding is common. Currently KRL Jabotabek
KRL Jabotabek
is the only rail-based transit system in Jakarta, as the mass rapid transit and light rail transit are still under construction.

Jakarta
Jakarta
MRT

Further information: Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit Jakarta
Jakarta
MRT construction in Jalan M.H. Thamrin , in 2016.

After a long planning process by the government regarding the development of a mass rapid transit system in Indonesia's capital, the Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit infrastructure is currently under construction, with a north–south line between Kota and Lebak Bulus; and an east–west line, which will connect to the north–south line at Sawah Besar station . The Jakarta MRT will be a combination of subways and elevated rails. Preparation work started in April 2012, and groundbreaking was done in October 2013, with the first, 15.2 km-long line between Hotel Indonesia and Lebak Bulus scheduled to be operational by 2018, and the north–south line MRT network is scheduled to be operational by 2020. The total length of the network when complete will be approximately 110.8 kilometres (68.8 miles). The Jakarta
Jakarta
city government decided on a rail-based system because of its ability to carry large numbers of people quickly and cheaply. As of 2016 , the mass rapid transit system has an investment of nearly US $1.7 billion to ease the capital's traffic issue in the coming years, including the construction of a subway.

Jakarta
Jakarta
LRT

Further information: Jakarta Light Rail Transit

Previously there had been plans to build a monorail system and part of it was already under construction, but the project stalled in 2004 due to lack of funding. The monorail project was relaunched in 2013 and the groundbreaking was done in October 2013. However the project cancelled in January 2015, due to disagreements between the Jakarta administration and PT Jakarta
Jakarta
Monorail over the monorail's route. By mid 2015, this project is finally abandoned by Jakarta
Jakarta
Government and being replaced by light rail transit system.

The light rail transit (LRT) project was launched to replace the previously abandoned monorail project. Jakarta
Jakarta
Light Rail Transit groundbreaking ceremony was held on 9 September 2015, with the first phase of the construction will connect Cibubur in East Jakarta with Dukuh Atas in downtown Central Jakarta , passing through Cawang intersection. This phase will be 42.1 kilometres (26.2 miles) long, which include 18 stations, and expected to be operated by the first half of 2018, prior to the 2018 Asian Games .

AIR

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Terminal 3

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
(CGK) is the main airport serving the Greater Jakarta area. The airport is named after the first President of Indonesia, Soekarno
Soekarno
, and the first vice-president, Mohammad Hatta . The airport is often called Cengkareng airport or Soetta by Indonesians. The airport's IATA code, CGK, originates from the name of the Cengkareng locality, Tangerang , Banten
Banten
, although the location of this airport is located outside of the city, it is used as a gate out by the Jakartans and citizen of the surrounding areas, therefore at the main gate of the airport, there is an inscription " Jakarta
Jakarta
Airports". Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
is the 18th busiest airport in the world , serving 54,053,905 passengers, according to Airports Council International . Today the airport is running over capacity. After T3 Soekarno-Hatta Airport expansion has finished in May 2016, the total capacity of three terminals become 43 million passengers a year. T1 and T2 also will be revitalised, so all the three terminals finally will accommodate 67 million passengers a year.

A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma Airport (HLP) serves domestic flight of low cost airline, private and VIP/presidential flights. Other airports in the Jakarta
Jakarta
metropolitan area include Pondok Cabe Airport and an airfield on Pulau Panjang, part of the Thousand Island archipelago (Kepulauan Seribu).

WATERWAY

Sea

See also: Port of Tanjung Priok
Port of Tanjung Priok

Jakarta's main seaport Tanjung Priok serves many ferry connections to different parts of Indonesia. Port of Tanjung Priok
Port of Tanjung Priok
is Indonesia's busiest port, and the 21st busiest port in the world in 2013 , handling over 6.59 million TEUs. To boost the port capacity, two-phase "New Tanjung Priok" extension project is currently ongoing. When fully operational in 2023, it will triple existing annual capacity.

The port is also an important employer in the area, with more than 18,000 employees who provide services to more than 18,000 ships every year. The Port of Tanjung Priok
Port of Tanjung Priok
has 20 terminals: general cargo , multipurpose terminal , scraps terminal , passenger terminal , dry bulk terminal , liquid bulk terminal , oil terminal , chemicals terminal and three container terminals , 76 berths , a quay length of 16,853 metres (55,292 feet), a total storage area of 661,822 square metres (7,123,790 square feet) and a storage capacity of 401,468 tonnes.

In December 2011, Muara Angke Port was renovated for Rp 130 billion ($14.4 million) in a 3 hectare area. Muara Angke Port would then be used as a public port to Thousand Islands (Indonesia)
Thousand Islands (Indonesia)
, while Marina Ancol
Ancol
Port would be used as a tourist port.

River

On 6 June 2007, the city administration introduced the Waterway (officially Angkutan Sungai), a new river boat service along the Ciliwung
Ciliwung
River. However, because of the large amount of floating garbage which kept jamming the propeller, it is no longer in service. The varying water levels during the dry and wet seasons were also a contributing factor to the close-down. Panoramic view of Central Jakarta skyline

CITYSCAPE

See also: List of tallest buildings in Jakarta

ARCHITECTURE

Facade of the Museum Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
in Kota Tua

Jakarta
Jakarta
has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. Architectural styles reflect Malay, Javanese, Arabic, Chinese and Dutch influences. The external influence gives a role in forming the architecture of the Betawi house. The houses were built of nangka wood (Artocarpus integrifolia) and comprised three rooms. The shape of the roof is reminiscent of the traditional Javanese joglo .

Colonial buildings and structures in Jakarta
Jakarta
include those that were constructed during the Dutch colonial period of Indonesia. The dominant styles of the Dutch colonial period can be divided into three periods: the Dutch Golden Age (17th to late 18th century), the transitional style period (late 18th century – 19th century), and Dutch modernism (20th century). Dutch colonial architecture in Jakarta is apparent in buildings such as houses or villas, churches, civic buildings, and offices, mostly concentrated in the Jakarta
Jakarta
Old Town and Central Jakarta . Architects such as J.C. Schultze and Eduard Cuypers designed some significant buildings in Jakarta. Works of Schultze includes Jakarta
Jakarta
Art Building , the Indonesia
Indonesia
Supreme Court Building and Ministry of Finance Building, while Cuypers designed Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
Museum and Bank Mandiri Museum. Wisma 46 in post-modernist architecture, currently fourth tallest building in Jakarta.

At the early 20th century, most of the buildings in the Jakarta
Jakarta
were built in Neo Renaissance style of Europe. By the 1920s, the architectural taste have begun to shift in favour of rationalism and modernist movement, particularly there was increasing art deco architecture. The elite suburbs Menteng , developed during the 1910s, was the city's first attempt at creating an ideal and healthy housing area for the middle class. The original houses had a longitudinal organisation of space, as well as overhanging eaves, large windows and open ventilation, all practical features for a tropical climate with a hint of modern art deco. It was developed by the private real estate company N.V. de Bouwploeg, established by P.A.J. Moojen .

After independence, the process of nation building in Indonesia
Indonesia
and demolishing the memory of Dutch colonialism was as important as the symbolic building of arterials, monuments, government buildings during the Sukarno era. The National Monument in Jakarta, designed by Sukarno, is Indonesia's beacon nationalism. In the early 1960s, Jakarta
Jakarta
with Soviet Union
Soviet Union
funding providing infrastructure development for highways and super-scale cultural monuments as well as Senayan Sports Stadium . The parliament building features a hyperbolic shaped roof reminiscent of German rationalist and Corbusian design concepts. In 1996, Wisma 46 soars to height of 262 metres (860 feet) with forty eight stories and its nib shaped top celebrates technology and symbolises stereoscopy.

The urban construction booms have continued in the 21st century and are shaping skylines in Jakarta. Golden Triangle of Jakarta is one of the fastest evolving CBD in Asia-Pacific region. According to CTBUH and Emporis , there are 88 skyscrapers that reaches or exceeds the height of 150 metres (490 feet) in Jakarta, which puts the city at the top 10 of world rankings . It has more buildings taller than 500 feet (150 m) than any other Southeast Asia's cities as well as southern hemisphere .

LANDMARKS

Night view of Monas
Monas
, the Jakarta
Jakarta
landmark

Most of Jakarta's landmarks, monuments and statues were built during the Sukarno era beginning in the 1960s, then completed in the Suharto era, while some originated in the colonial Dutch East Indies period.

The most famous Jakarta's landmark that become the symbol of the city is the 132-metre (433-foot) obelisk of National Monument (Monumen Nasional or Monas) right in the centre of Merdeka Square . On its southwest corner stands a Mahabharata themed Arjuna
Arjuna
Wijaya chariot statue and fountain. Further south through Jalan M.H. Thamrin , one of the main avenue of Jakarta, the Selamat Datang monument stands on the fountain in the centre of Hotel Indonesia roundabout . Other landmarks include the Istiqlal Mosque , the Jakarta Cathedral
Jakarta Cathedral
and Immanuel Church . The former Batavia Stadhuis , Sunda Kelapa port in Jakarta Old Town is also the city's landmark. Gama Tower building at Jalan H.R. Rasuna Said , South Jakarta
South Jakarta
is currently the tallest building in Indonesia
Indonesia
.

Some of statues and monuments in Jakarta
Jakarta
are nationalist, such as the West Irian Liberation monument, Youth statue and Dirgantara statue. Several Indonesian national heroes are commemorated in statues, such as Diponegoro
Diponegoro
and Kartini statues in Merdeka Square, Sudirman
Sudirman
and Thamrin statues located in each respectable avenues, also Sukarno and Hatta statues in Proclamation Monument also on the entrance of Soekarno–Hatta International Airport.

SPORTS

Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium.

Jakarta
Jakarta
was host of the 1962 Asian Games and will host the upcoming 2018 Asian Games , co-hosted by Palembang . Jakarta
Jakarta
also hosted the regional-scale Southeast Asian Games
Southeast Asian Games
in 1979, 1987, 1997, and 2011 where it serves as supporting city for Palembang . Gelora Bung Karno Stadium , located in Central Jakarta , hosted the group stage, quarterfinal and final of 2007 AFC Asian Cup along with Malaysia, Thailand
Thailand
and Vietnam.

Jakarta's most popular home football club is Persija , which plays its matches in their home stadium at Bung Karno Stadium. The home match of Persija often draws its large fanbase – The Jak, usually clad in Persija's typical orange kit – to watch the match in the main stadium. The large number of spectators flocking to the main stadium usually worsen the traffic congestion in Jakarta. Another football team in Jakarta
Jakarta
is Persitara who compete in Liga Indonesia Premier Division and play its games in Kamal Muara Stadium. Kamal, North Jakarta
North Jakarta
.

The biggest stadium in Jakarta
Jakarta
is Gelora Bung Karno Stadium , with a capacity of 88,083 seats. The Senayan sports complex has several sport venues, including the Bung Karno football stadium, Madya Stadium , Istora Senayan, aquatic arena, baseball field, basketball court, badminton court, a shooting range, several indoor and outdoor tennis court and a golf driving range. The Senayan complex was built in 1959 to accommodate the Asian Games in 1962. For basketball, the Kelapa Gading Sport Mall in Kelapa Gading , North Jakarta, with a capacity of 7,000 seats, is the home arena of the Indonesian national basketball team. The BritAma Arena serves as playground for Satria Muda Pertamina Jakarta
Jakarta
, 2017 Runner-up of the Indonesian Basketball League .

The Jakarta
Jakarta
Car-free Days are held weekly on Sunday on the main avenues of the city, Jalan Sudirman
Sudirman
and Jalan Thamrin, from 6 am to 11 am. The briefer Car-Free Day which lasts from only 6 am to 9 am is held on every other Sunday. The event invites local pedestrians to do sports and exercise and have their activities on the streets that are normally full of cars and traffic. Along the road from the Senayan traffic circle on Jalan Sudirman, South Jakarta, to the "Selamat Datang" Monument at the Hotel Indonesia traffic circle on Jalan Thamrin, all the way north to the National Monument in Central Jakarta, cars are cleared out for pedestrians. Morning gymnastics, calisthenics and aerobic exercises , futsal games , jogging , bicycling , skateboarding , badminton , karate , on-street library, and musical performances take over the roads and the main parks in Jakarta.

Jakarta Marathon is said to be the "biggest running event of Indonesia". It is recognised by AIMS and IAAF . First established in 2013 to promote Jakarta
Jakarta
as sports tourism city. In 2015 edition of marathon, more than 15,000 runners from 53 countries were participated.

EDUCATION

See also: List of universities in Indonesia
Indonesia
and List of schools in Indonesia
Indonesia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia
Indonesia

Jakarta
Jakarta
is home to a number of universities, of which the University of Indonesia
Indonesia
(UI) is the largest and oldest tertiary-level educational institution in Indonesia. It is a public institution with campuses in Salemba (central Jakarta) and in Depok to the south of Jakarta. Aside from the University of Indonesia, the three other public universities in Jakarta
Jakarta
are: Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta , the State University of Jakarta
Jakarta
(UNJ) and the University of Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jakarta
Jakarta
(UPN "Veteran" Jakarta). Some major private universities in Jakarta
Jakarta
are: Trisakti University
Trisakti University
, The Christian University of Indonesia
Indonesia
, Mercu Buana University , Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
University , Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia
Indonesia
, Pelita Harapan University , Bina Nusantara University , and Pancasila University .

STOVIA
STOVIA
(School tot Opleiding van Indische Artsen) was the first high school in Jakarta, established in 1851. As the largest city and the capital, Jakarta
Jakarta
houses many students from around Indonesia, many of whom reside in dormitories or home-stay residences. For basic education, there are a variety of primary and secondary schools, tagged with public (national), private (national and bi-lingual national plus) and international schools. Four of the major international schools located in Jakarta
Jakarta
are the Gandhi Memorial International School , IPEKA International Christian School, Jakarta Intercultural School and the British School Jakarta . Other international schools include the Jakarta
Jakarta
International Korean School , Bina Bangsa School , Jakarta
Jakarta
International Multicultural School, Australian International School , New Zealand International School, Singapore
Singapore
International School , and Sekolah Pelita Harapan .

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of embassies in Jakarta The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jalan Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia
Indonesia

As the capital city of Indonesia, Jakarta
Jakarta
host numbers of embassies of foreign countries that has established diplomatic relations with Indonesia. Jakarta
Jakarta
also serves as the seat of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat; numbers of foreign countries has appointed their embassies also serving as the representative and mission for ASEAN, thus making Jakarta
Jakarta
as the diplomatic capital of ASEAN.

Jakarta
Jakarta
is also a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group .

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

See also: Sister cities of Jakarta

Jakarta
Jakarta
signed sister city agreements with other cities, one of them is Casablanca
Casablanca
, Morocco's largest city, that have signed sister city agreement on 21 September 1990. To promote friendship between two cities, Jalan Casablanca, a main avenue famous for its shopping and business centres in South Jakarta
South Jakarta
, was named after Jakarta's Moroccan sister city. Currently there is no street in Casablanca
Casablanca
named after Jakarta, however on the other hand in Rabat
Rabat
, Morocco's capital city, an avenue was named after Sukarno , Indonesia's first president, to commemorate his visit in 1960 also as a token of friendship.

Also within sister cities co-operation, Jakarta
Jakarta
has established partnership with Rotterdam
Rotterdam
of the Netherlands
Netherlands
, especially on integrated urban water management, including capacity building and knowledge exchange. This co-operation is mainly because Jakarta
Jakarta
and Rotterdam
Rotterdam
are dealing with similar problems; both cities lies in low-lying flat plain prone of flooding. Plus some of their areas lies below sea level, making an urban drainage system involving canals, dams and pumps is vital for both city. Jakarta
Jakarta
seeks to learn from Rotterdam's expertise and experiences on water management.

Asia

* Tokyo
Tokyo
, Japan
Japan
* Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
* Shanghai
Shanghai
, China
China
* Seoul
Seoul
, South Korea
South Korea
* Pyongyang
Pyongyang
* Manila
Manila
, Philippines
Philippines
* Bangkok
Bangkok
, Thailand
Thailand
* Hanoi
Hanoi
, Vietnam
Vietnam
* Islamabad
Islamabad
, Pakistan
Pakistan
* Jeddah
Jeddah
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia

Europe

* Netherlands
Netherlands
Rotterdam
Rotterdam
* Germany
Germany
Berlin
Berlin
* Russia
Russia
Moscow
Moscow
* Hungary
Hungary
Budapest
Budapest
* Turkey
Turkey
Istanbul
Istanbul

Africa

* Egypt
Egypt
Cairo
Cairo
* Morocco
Morocco
Casablanca
Casablanca

America and Oceania

* United States Los Angeles
Los Angeles
* Australia
Australia
Sydney
Sydney

SEE ALSO

* Jabodetabek * Provinces In Indonesia
Indonesia
* Monas
Monas
* Port of Jakarta
Port of Jakarta
* World\'s largest cities

NOTES

* ^ Pronounced in Indonesian language : .

REFERENCES

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Indonesia
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Sanskrit
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Indonesia
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Jakarta
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Jakarta
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Jakarta
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Jakarta
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