The Info List - Jay Z

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SHAWN COREY CARTER (born December 4, 1969), known professionally as JAY-Z (formerly stylized as JAY-Z, JAY Z, JAY:Z and JAÿ-Z), is an American rapper and businessman. He is one of the best-selling musicians of all time , having sold more than 100 million records, while receiving 21 Grammy Awards for his music. MTV ranked him the "Greatest MC of all time" in 2006. _ Rolling Stone _ ranked three of his albums—_Reasonable Doubt_ (1996), _ The Blueprint _ (2001), and _The Black Album _ (2003)—among The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time . In 2017, _ Forbes _ estimated his net worth at $810 million, making him the second-richest hip hop artist in the U.S.

As an artist, Jay-Z holds the record for most number one albums by a solo artist on the US _Billboard_ 200 with 14. He has also had four number ones on the _Billboard_ Hot 100 , one (" Empire State of Mind ") as lead artist. In 2009, he was ranked the tenth-most successful artist of the 2000s by _Billboard_ as well as the fifth top solo male artist and fourth top rapper behind Eminem , Nelly , and 50 Cent . He was also ranked the 88th-greatest artist of all time by _Rolling Stone _.

Jay-Z owns the New York 40/40 Club sports bar, and is the co-creator of the clothing line Rocawear . He is the former president of Def Jam Recordings , co-founder of Roc-A-Fella Records , and the founder of the entertainment company Roc Nation . He also founded the sports agency Roc Nation Sports and is a certified NBA and MLB sports agent .

Jay-Z married singer Beyoncé in 2008. As a couple, they have an estimated combined net worth of $1.16 billion.


* 1 Early life

* 2 Music career

* 2.1 1995–1997: _Reasonable Doubt_ and _In My Lifetime, Vol. 1_ * 2.2 1998–2000: _Vol. 2..._, _Vol. 3..._ and _The Dynasty_ * 2.3 2001–2002: Feud with Nas, _The Blueprint_ and _The Blueprint2_ * 2.4 2003–2005: _The Black Album_, initial retirement and collaborative albums * 2.5 2005–2007: "I Declare War", _Kingdom Come_ and _American Gangster_ * 2.6 2008–2011: _ The Blueprint 3_ and _Watch the Throne_ * 2.7 2012–2016: _Magna Carta Holy Grail_ and other ventures * 2.8 2017: _4:44_

* 3 Musical style

* 3.1 Influences * 3.2 Rapping technique

* 4 Business career

* 5 Personal life

* 5.1 Relationship with Beyoncé * 5.2 Criminal charges * 5.3 Philanthropy * 5.4 Politics

* 6 Discography * 7 Filmography

* 8 Tours

* 8.1 Headlining * 8.2 Co-headlining * 8.3 Supporting

* 9 Books * 10 Awards and nominations * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links


Jay-Z (top) with a friend (bottom) in Trenton, New Jersey , circa 1988

Shawn Carter was born in Brooklyn, New York and was raised in Marcy Houses , a housing project in Brooklyn's Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood. After their father, Adnis Reeves, abandoned the family, Shawn and his three siblings were raised by their mother, Gloria Carter. Reeves would later meet and reconcile with Jay-Z before dying in 2003. Jay-Z claims in his lyrics that in 1982 at age 12, he shot his older brother in the shoulder for stealing his jewelry. Along with future rapper AZ , Carter attended Eli Whitney High School in Brooklyn until it was closed down. He then attended the nearby George Westinghouse Career and Technical Education High School with future rappers The Notorious B.I.G. and Busta Rhymes , followed by a stint at Trenton Central High School in Trenton, New Jersey , though he did not graduate. According to his interviews and lyrics, during this period he sold crack cocaine and was shot at three times.

According to his mother, Carter used to wake up his siblings at night banging out drum patterns on the kitchen table. She bought him a boom box for his birthday, sparking his interest in music. He began freestyling and writing lyrics. Known as "Jazzy" around the neighborhood, Carter later adopted the showbiz/stage name "Jay-Z" in homage to his mentor Jaz-O . (He would drop the hyphen in 2013, and add it back in 2017.)

Jay-Z can be briefly heard on several of Jaz-O's early recordings in the late 1980s and early 1990s, including "The Originators" and "Hawaiian Sophie." Jay-Z became embroiled in several battles with rapper LL Cool J in the early 1990s. He first became known to a wide audience on the posse cut "Show and Prove" on the 1994 Big Daddy Kane album _Daddy\'s Home ._ Jay-Z has been referred to as Big Daddy Kane's hype man during this period, although Kane explains that he didn't fill the traditional hype man role, and was instead "basically ma cameo appearances on stage. When I would leave the stage to go change outfits, I would bring out Jay-Z and Positive K and let them freestyle until I came back to the stage." The young Jay-Z appeared on a popular song by Big L , "Da Graveyard", and on Mic Geronimo 's "Time to Build", which also featured early appearances by DMX and Ja Rule in 1995. His first official rap single was called "In My Lifetime ", for which he released a music video. An unreleased music video was also produced for the B-side "I Can't Get with That."



With no major label to give him a record deal, Jay-Z sold CDs out of his car and, with Damon Dash and Kareem Biggs, created Roc-A-Fella Records as an independent label in 1995. After striking a distribution deal with Priority , Jay-Z released his 1996 debut album _Reasonable Doubt _ with beats from acclaimed producers such as DJ Premier and Super DJ Clark Kent and an appearance by The Notorious B.I.G. . The album reached number 23 on the _Billboard_ 200 , and was generally favored by critics. This album would later be included in _Rolling Stone'_s " 500 Greatest Albums of All Time " as No. 248 and eventually reach platinum status.

After reaching a new distribution deal with Def Jam in 1997, Jay-Z released his follow-up _ In My Lifetime, Vol. 1 ._ Produced by Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs , it sold better than his previous effort. Jay-Z later explained that the album was made during one of the worst periods of his life when he was reeling from the death of his close friend, The Notorious B.I.G. The album was a personal revelation for Jay-Z as he told the stories of his difficult upbringing. The album's glossy production stood as a contrast to his first release, and some dedicated fans felt he had "sold out." However, the album did feature some beats from producers who had worked with him on _Reasonable Doubt_, namely DJ Premier and Ski . Like its predecessor, _In My Lifetime, Vol. 1 _ earned platinum status in the United States.

1998–2000: _VOL. 2..._, _VOL. 3..._ AND _THE DYNASTY_

In 1998, Jay-Z released _ Vol. 2... Hard Knock Life _ which spawned the biggest hit of his career at the time, "Hard Knock Life (Ghetto Anthem) ". He relied more on flow and wordplay, and he continued with his penchant for mining beats from the popular producers of the day such as Swizz Beatz , an upstart in-house producer for Ruff Ryders , and Timbaland . Other producers included DJ Premier , Erick Sermon , The 45 King , and Kid Capri . Charting hits from this album included "Can I Get A...", featuring Ja Rule and Amil , and "Nigga What, Nigga Who ", also featuring Amil. _Vol. 2_ would eventually become Jay-Z's most commercially successful album; it was certified 5× Platinum in the United States and has to date sold over five million copies. The album went on to win a Grammy Award, although Jay-Z boycotted the ceremony protesting DMX's failure to garner a Grammy nomination.

In 1999, Jay-Z dueted with Mariah Carey on "Heartbreaker ", a song from her seventh album, _Rainbow _. In that same year, Jay-Z released _ Vol. 3... Life and Times of S. Carter _. The album proved successful and sold over 3 million copies. _Vol. 3'_s most successful single was "Big Pimpin\' ", featuring UGK .

In 2000, Jay-Z released _The Dynasty: Roc La Familia _, which was originally intended to become a compilation album for Roc-A-Fella artists but somehow turned into a Jay-Z album. The album helped to introduce newcomer producers The Neptunes , Just Blaze , Kanye West , and Bink , which have all gone on to achieve notable success. This is also the first album where Jay-Z utilizes a more soulful sound than his previous albums. _The Dynasty_ sold over two million units in the U.S. alone.


In 2001, Jay-Z spoke out against Prodigy after he took an issue with a Jay-Z line from " Money, Cash, Hoes " that he felt alluded disparagingly to Mobb Deep and his dispute with Tupac Shakur , Snoop Dogg , and Death Row Records . He later performed the song "Takeover ", at Summer Jam 2001, which initially attacked Prodigy and revealed photos of Prodigy dressed like Michael Jackson . A line at the end of "Takeover" referred to Nas , who criticized him on "We Will Survive". Nas responded with a diss track called "Ether " and Jay-Z straightaway added a verse to "Takeover" which dissed Nas and would start a feud between the two rappers. Jay-Z reported on MTV that Mark Pitts had settled the feud between him and Nas.

Jay-Z later released his sixth studio album, _ The Blueprint _, which received a coveted 5 mic review from hip-hop magazine _The Source ._ Written in just two days and released in the wake of September 11 attacks , the album sold more than 427,000 copies, debuted at number one on the _Billboard_ 200 and reached 2x platinum status in the U.S. It was lauded for its production and its balance of "mainstream" and "hardcore" rap. Eminem was the only guest rapper on the album, producing and rapping on the song "Renegade". Four tracks were produced by Kanye West and the album represents one of West's first major breaks in the industry. _The Blueprint_ includes the popular songs " Izzo (H.O.V.A.) ", "Girls, Girls, Girls ", " Jigga That Nigga ", and " Song Cry ".

In October 2001, Jay-Z pleaded guilty to stabbing record producer Lance Rivera at the Kit Kat Klub in New York City in 1999. For this second degree felony, Jay-Z was sentenced to three years probation.

Jay-Z's next solo album was 2002's _The Blueprint2: The Gift & the Curse _, a double-album. The album debuted on the _Billboard_ 200 at number one, selling over 3 million units in the U.S. alone and surpassing _The Blueprint_. It was later reissued in a single-disc version, _ The Blueprint 2.1 _, which retained half of the tracks from the original. The album spawned two massive hit singles, "Excuse Me Miss " and "\ '03 Bonnie & Clyde ", which featured Jay-Z's future wife Beyoncé . "Guns and "The Bounce", featuring Kanye West . _The Blueprint 2.1_ featured tracks that do not appear on _The Blueprint2: The Gift "> Jay-Z in 2003

After visiting the south of France, Jay-Z announced work on his eighth studio album _The Black Album _ at the opening of the 40/40 Club. He worked with several producers including Just Blaze , The Neptunes , Kanye West , Timbaland , Eminem , DJ Quik , 9th Wonder , The Buchanans , and Rick Rubin . Notable songs on the album included " What More Can I Say ", " Dirt Off Your Shoulder ", " Change Clothes ", and " 99 Problems ". _The Black Album_ has sold more than 3 million copies in the US. Jay-Z collaborated with R. Kelly and released a collaborative studio album, _The Best of Both Worlds _.

On November 25, 2003, Jay-Z held a concert—billed as a "retirement party" at Madison Square Garden in New York City , which would later be the focus of his film _Fade to Black _. All proceeds went to charity. Other performers included collaborators like The Roots (in the form of his backing band), Missy Elliott , Memphis Bleek , Beanie Siegel , Freeway, Mary J. Blige , Beyoncé , Twista , Ghostface Killah , Foxy Brown , Pharrell Williams and R. Kelly with special appearances by Voletta Wallace and Afeni Shakur , the mothers of The Notorious B.I.G. and Tupac Shakur respectively. While Jay-Z had attested to a retirement from making new studio albums, various side projects and appearances soon followed. Included in these were a greatest hits record, as well as the release and tour of _Unfinished Business _, the second collaborative album between Jay-Z and R. Kelly.

In 2004, Jay-Z collaborated with rock group Linkin Park , in which they released their collaborative remix EP _Collision Course _, which featured mashups of both artists' songs, as well as a concert DVD. The album's only single, " Numb/Encore ", went on to win a Grammy for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration, and was performed with Linkin Park live at the Grammys, with a special appearance by Paul McCartney , who added verses from the song "Yesterday ". The EP sold over 1 million copies in the US. Jay-Z was the executive producer of _ The Rising Tied _, the debut album of Fort Minor , the hip hop side project of Linkin Park rapper Mike Shinoda . Jay-Z also planned to retire in 2004.

Later in 2004, Jay-Z was named president of Def Jam Records, which led to Jay-Z, Dash and Biggs selling their remaining interests in Roc-A-Fella Records and Jay-Z taking control of both of the companies. Reportedly this major industry move was prompted by disagreements between Jay-Z and Dash as to what direction Roc-A-Fella could undertake. The publicized split between Jay-Z, Dash, and Biggs led to the former partners sending jabs at each other in interviews.


Jay-Z at a concert in 2006.

On October 27, 2005, Jay-Z headlined New York's Power 105.1 annual concert, Powerhouse. The concert was entitled the "I Declare War" concert leading to intense speculation in the weeks preceding the event on whom exactly Jay-Z would declare war. As he had previously "declared war" on other artists taking lyrical shots at him at other events, many believed that the Powerhouse show would represent an all-out assault by Jay-Z upon his rivals. The theme of the concert was Jay-Z's position as President and CEO of Def Jam , complete with an on-stage mock-up of the Oval Office . Many artists made appearances such as the old roster of Roc-A-Fella records artists, as well as Ne-Yo , Teairra Marí , T.I. , Young Jeezy , Akon , Kanye West , Paul Wall , The LOX , and Diddy .

At the conclusion of the concert, Jay-Z put many arguments to rest to the surprise of hip hop fans. The most significant development in this show was closure to the infamous hip hop rivalry between Jay-Z and Nas . The two former rivals shook hands and shared the stage together to perform Jay-Z's "Dead presidents" blended with Nas's song "The World is Yours".

Jay-Z returned with his comeback album on November 21, 2006, titled _Kingdom Come _. Jay-Z's comeback single, " Show Me What You Got ", was leaked on the Internet in early October 2006, scheduled to be released later on that month, received heavy air-play after its leak, causing the FBI to step in and investigate. Jay-Z worked with video director Hype Williams , and the single's video was directed by F. Gary Gray . The album features production from Just Blaze , Pharrell , Kanye West , Dr. Dre and Coldplay 's Chris Martin (single entitled "Beach Chair "). The first week saw 680,000 sales of the CD, which _ Entertainment Weekly _ said was "the highest single-week total in Jay's decade long career". This album has sold 2 million copies in the US.

Jay-Z released his tenth album entitled _American Gangster _ on November 6, 2007. After viewing the Ridley Scott film of the same name , Jay-Z was heavily inspired to create a new "concept" album that depicts his experiences as a street-hustler. The album is not the film's official soundtrack, although it was distributed by Def Jam . Jay-Z's _American Gangster_ depicts his life in correlation to the movie _American Gangster_. At the start of the album's first single, "Blue Magic ", Jay-Z offers a dealer's manifesto while making references to political figures of the late 1980s with the lyric: "Blame Reagan for making me to into a monster, blame Oliver North and Iran-Contra , I ran contraband that they sponsored, before this rhymin' stuff we was in concert." Also notable about the "Blue Magic" music video was Jay-Z flashing €500 euro notes; Harvard Business School professor Rawi Abdelal called this a "turning point in American pop culture's response to globalization." The album has sold 1 million copies in the US. On January 1, 2008, Jay-Z resigned as president of Def Jam.


In the winter of 2008 it was announced that Jay-Z become the first major hip hop artist to headline Britain's 2008 Glastonbury Festival . Tickets sold out quickly. Former headliner Noel Gallagher of Oasis condemned the festival organizers for choosing Jay-Z to headline a traditionally guitar-driven festival. "I'm sorry, but Jay-Z?" Gallagher asked, swearing. "No chance. Glastonbury has a tradition of, kind of, guitar music, do you know what I mean? And even when they throw the odd curve balls in on a Sunday night—you go, 'Kylie Minogue? I don't know about that', do you know what I mean?—but I'm not having hip hop at Glastonbury, no way, no, no. It's wrong." As controversy mounted, Jay-Z replied, "We don't play guitars, Noel, but hip hop has put in its work like any other form of music. This headline show is just a natural progression. Rap music is still evolving. We have to respect each other's genre of music and move forward." Jay-Z opened his Glastonbury set with a tongue-in-cheek cover of Oasis's iconic song "Wonderwall ", and went on to deliver a performance heralded as a successful response to pre-festival criticism. Jay-Z during his Glastonbury performance

He also headlined many other summer festivals in 2008, including Roskilde Festival in Denmark, Hove Festival in Norway and O2 Wireless Festival in London. During Kanye West's concert of August 6, 2008 at Madison Square Garden, Jay-Z came out to perform a new song and he and Kanye proclaimed that it was to be on _ The Blueprint 3_. On May 21, 2009, Jay-Z announced he would be parting ways with Def Jam, and had struck a multimillion-dollar deal to sign with Live Nation , with whom he would start his Roc Nation imprint which would serve as a record label, talent/management agency, and music publishing company and also partnered up with production team Stargate to start a record label called StarRoc . Jay-Z's 11th studio album _ The Blueprint 3 _ was originally to be released on September 11, 2009, but was instead released in North America on September 8, 2009, due to increasing anticipation. Its international release followed on September 14. It is his 11th album to reach No.1 on the Billboard 200 and has surpassed Elvis Presley's previous record, making him the current solo artist record holder.

On October 9, 2009, Jay-Z kicked off his tour for _ The Blueprint 3 _, during which he supported his new album in North America. In a _Shave Magazine_ review of his performance at Rexall Place in Edmonton , Jake Tomlinson expressed that "It was the type of smooth performance you would expect from the hip-hop superstar." The review gave this performance 4 stars. His North American tour continued until November 22, 2009. At his concert on November 8, 2009, at UCLA 's Pauley Pavilion , Rihanna joined him on stage and performed "Hard" for the very first time, then performed "Run This Town" with Jay-Z. Among his success, Jay-Z has ventured into producing Broadway shows. Along with Jada Pinkett Smith and Will Smith, Jay-Z helped produced the play _Fela!_, a musical celebrating the work of the late Nigerian star Fela Kuti . Jay-Z said he was inspired by the power of Kuti's work and his life story, which resulted in his interest to help produce the musical. _Fela!_ is a story about an African pioneer and political activist who made his first moves on the scene during the 1970s. Jay-Z performing at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in April 2010.

RSVPOn January 23, 2010, Jay-Z released a track, "Stranded (Haiti Mon Amour) ", with Rihanna , and U2 's Bono and The Edge , as well as performing it at the Hope For Haiti Now telethon. In June 2010, Eminem and Jay-Z announced they would perform together in a pair of concerts in Detroit and New York. The event was dubbed The Home "> Jay-Z embraces wife Beyoncé after his performance of "Tom Ford " on The Mrs. Carter Show World Tour , 2013

Jay-Z collaborated with M.I.A on her single " XXXO ", which achieved a fair level of success and went on to become remixed by several producers worldwide. In May 2012, Jay-Z and Philadelphia Mayor Michael A. Nutter announced Jay-Z as the curator and the headliner for the first annual "Budweiser Made in America" festival at Fairmount Park in Philadelphia on September 1 and 2, 2012. The performance was produced by Live Nation and assembled an eclectic lineup of "rock , hip hop , R&B , Latin music and dance" musicians. Jay-Z and Rihanna were the two main headlining acts for BBC Radio 1 's 2012 Hackney Weekend music festival on June 23 to 24. Jay-Z opened his set with an appearance from Rihanna, they performed "Run this Town". On September 6, "Clique " was released, a single from the album "Cruel Summer ", by GOOD Music . Kanye West and Big Sean starred alongside Jay-Z on the track. Jay-Z took the subway to his sold out show at The Barclays Center on October 6, 2012. On November 12, 2012, Coldplay announced that they will be playing with Jay-Z at the Barclays Center in Brooklyn on December 31.

On September 23, 2010, Q-Tip confirmed working on Jay-Z's follow up album to _ The Blueprint 3_, saying the album was to hit stores by spring 2011. In May 2012 it was reported that Jay-Z would work on new music with Roc Nation producer Jahlil Beats . Beats told _XXL _: "Me and Jay-Z been going back and forth. He picked a couple of my joints that he's working on. I don't even wanna say too much about Jay, but we definitely working on some stuff. I haven't even sent him a bunch of beats. I sent him my favorite stuff. He hit me right back like, 'Yo, I'ma go in on this,' or, 'I like this.'" The album has been named one of the most anticipated albums of 2013 by _Complex Magazine _, MTV , and _ XXL Magazine _. Production will come from Jahlil Beats , Kanye West , Rick Rubin , Swizz Beatz , Timbaland , and Pharrell Williams . Jay-Z also made an appearance on Justin Timberlake 's comeback single " Suit & Tie " from his third studio album _The 20/20 Experience _, the song itself was produced by both Jay-Z and Timberlake's mutual friend, Timbaland. During the fifth game of the 2013 NBA Finals , Carter announced his twelfth studio album, _Magna Carta Holy Grail _. It was released July 4, 2013. Magna Carta Holy Grail debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and sold 528,000 copies in its first week, which bypassed its predicted debut in the range of 350,000 to 400,000. In December 2013, it was announced that Jay-Z had received nine nominations at the 2014 Grammy Awards , more than any other artist. Jay-Z appeared on his wife Beyoncé 's self-titled fifth studio album, _ Beyoncé _, with a feature on the song " Drunk in Love ". They performed this song together at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards opening. The song and its accompanying album would later win three Grammy Awards including Best R&B Performance at the 2015 ceremony .

In 2016, he won a lawsuit for the song "Made in America" with Kanye West featuring Frank Ocean against Joel McDonald.

2017: _4:44_

In early June 2017, posters were displayed in New York City and Los Angeles, as well as banner ads on the Internet promoting a TIDAL -related project titled _4:44 _. A teaser ad was aired during the NBA Finals on June 7 featuring actors Mahershala Ali , Lupita Nyong\'o and Danny Glover in a one-minute video, ending in "4:44 – 6.30.17, Exclusively on Tidal". On June 18, the project was confirmed to be a new Jay-Z album, and a clip featuring a song titled "Adnis" was posted on Sprint's YouTube page.



Jay-Z says his earliest exposure to music was through his parents' record collection, which was mostly of soul artists such as Marvin Gaye and Donny Hathaway . He says "I grew up around music, listening to all types of people... I'm into music that has soul in it, whether it be rap, R&B, pop music, whatever. As long as I can feel their soul through the wax, that's what I really listen to." He often uses excerpts from these artists as samples in his work, particularly in the Kanye West-productions included on _The Blueprint._


Royce da 5\'9" and Fredro Starr of Onyx both describe Jay-Z's emphasis on flow in the book _ How to Rap _ – Starr says that Jay-Z is "a master of the flow—he can flow fast, he can flow slow". The book describes how Jay-Z uses 'rests' to provide structure to a verse and how he uses 'partial linking' to add more rhymes to a verse. Jay-Z's early style is described by _Vibe_ as "a distinctly Das EFX -type, stiggety style" on his 12" single "Can't Get With That", referring to the fast rhythms and vocal delivery of the group Das EFX. He is also known to write lyrics in his head, as described by Pusha T of Clipse in _How to Rap_, a style popular with many MCs such as The Notorious B.I.G., Everlast , Bobby Creekwater and Guerilla Black . Shock G of Digital Underground describes Jay-Z's performance style, saying he "rarely breaks a sweat, and instead uses smoothness and clever wordplay to keep the audience interested and entertained".


Jay-Z appeared in a 2003 Reebok collection advertising his S. Carter Collection.

Jay-Z has also established himself as a successful entrepreneur with a business empire spanning across a variety of industries ranging from clothing lines, beverages, real estate, sport teams, and record labels. In an interview, he stated that "my brands are an extension of me. They're close to me. It's not like running GM , where there's no emotional attachment." Jay-Z and Damon Dash are the founders of the urban clothing brand Rocawear . Rocawear has clothing lines and accessories for men, women and children. The line was taken over by Jay-Z in early 2006 following a falling out with Dash. In March 2007, Jay-Z sold the rights to the Rocawear brand to Iconix Brand Group , for $204 million. He retains his stake in the company and continues to oversee the marketing, licensing and product development. He also co-owns the 40/40 Club , an upscale sports bar that started in New York City and has since expanded to Atlantic City and Chicago. In 2008, the 40/40 club in Las Vegas was closed down and bought back by the hotel after attendance steadily declined. Future plans will see 40/40 Clubs in Tokyo and Singapore. In 2005, Jay-Z became an investor in Carol\'s Daughter , a line of beauty products, including products for hair, skin, and hands. In September 2013, his stake in Barclays Center was sold for $1.5 million.

Jay-Z serves as co-brand director for Budweiser Select and collaborates with the company on strategic marketing programs and creative ad development. He provides direction on brand programs and ads that appear on TV, radio, print, and high-profile events. He is also yet to expand his 40/40 Club sports bar in as many as 20 airports, as he makes deals with his business partners, Juan and Desiree Perez. He is a part-owner of the Brooklyn Nets NBA team, having paid a reported $4.5 million for his share, which declined in value to $350,000 in April 2013. He encouraged the team's relocation to Brooklyn 's Barclays Center (from New Jersey ) in the 2012–2013 season, at which point the team took on the Brooklyn Nets moniker. In October 2005, he was reported in English media as considering buying a stake of Arsenal F.C. , an English soccer team. He has also invested in a real estate development venture called J Hotels which recently acquired a $66 million mid-block parcel in Chelsea, New York. Jay-Z and his partners are contemplating constructing a high-end hotel or an art gallery building on the newly acquired site which has the potential to go up about twelve stories. Through his conglomerate company Gain Global Investments Network LLC, he had an interest estimated between 2 and 7% in the Aqueduct Entertainment Group (AEG) consortium, which in January 2010 was awarded a contract to operate a 4,500 slot machine racino at the Aqueduct Race Track . Jay-Z became interested in the project after New York Governor David Paterson who awarded the contract said there had to be an affirmative action component to the ownership. Jay-Z initially approached by casino mogul Steve Wynn who was also bidding on the contract. On March 9, 2010, Jay-Z and Flake withdrew from the project and Paterson recused himself from further involvement.

On November 16, 2010, Jay-Z published a memoir entitled _Decoded._

In April 2011, it was widely reported that Jay-Z had outbid executives at Universal Records and Jive Records to acquire independent record label Block Starz Music .

Jay-Z is also credited as the executive producer of the basketball video game _ NBA 2K13 _, where he worked on the look and feel of the game along with its soundtrack.

On April 2, 2013, ESPN Jay-Z launched his own sports agency, Roc Nation Sports, with a focus on the representations of various professional athletes. The sport management group will work as partners with Creative Artists Agency . In conjunction with the agency's launch, New York Yankees 's second baseman Robinson Cano left agent Scott Boras to sign with the company. Sources have mentioned that Jay-Z himself is planning to be a certified sports agent, first in baseball and eventually in basketball and football. In order to represent clients in basketball, he would have to give up his small share of the Brooklyn Nets . On April 18, 2013 Jay-Z officially announced through his Life + Times website in a press release that he will be relinquishing his ownership in the Brooklyn Nets. The shares were eventually sold to singer, rapper, actor and entrepreneur Wilber Pan , making Wilber the first American of Taiwanese descent to own a US professional sports franchise. Jay-Z's cited Wilber's athletic background (he was a team captain of his high school basketball team and played in college), his multitude of musical styles, his influence in the Taiwanese American community, and his business acumen and portfolio (including being the founder and chief executive of software company Camigo Media and a co-founder of streetwear boutique N.P.C ), as reasons why his bid was successful.

In 2014, Jay-Z invested $200 million in Armand de Brignac champagne owned Sovereign Brands, a New York-based wine and spirits company for a 100 percent stake, making it the second alcoholic product acquisition in his financial investment portfolio. The brand is known for its popularity with high-profile artists as being the gold bottles often referred to in media. His ties to the company date back to 2006, and he received millions of dollars per year for his association with Armand de Brignac before he bought the entire company.

In March 2015, Jay-Z completed the $56 million acquisition of Aspiro , a Norwegian media technology company that operates the subscription-based music streaming service Tidal , which has been in operation since October 2014. The music service was acquired through his company Project Panther Bidco Ltd. (an entity indirectly owned by Jay-Z's S. Carter Enterprises a company holding interests in leading international music, media and entertainment companies). The acquisition was completed with the help of Mooreland Partners, a leading global technology-focused M">_ Jay-Z and Beyoncé performing " Crazy in Love " on November 15, 2009. Bombardier Challenger 850 jet – same model as gift from Beyoncé to Jay-Z


See also: Beyoncé – Marriage and children

Jay-Z is married to American R&B singer Beyoncé . In 2002, Jay-Z and Beyoncé collaborated for the song "\ '03 Bonnie & Clyde ". Jay-Z also appeared on Beyoncé's hit single " Crazy in Love " as well as "That's How You Like It" from her debut album _ Dangerously in Love _. On her second album, _B\'Day _, he made appearances on the 2006 hits, "Déjà Vu " and " Upgrade U ". In the video for the latter song, she comically imitates his appearance. The couple generally avoids discussing their relationship. Beyoncé has stated that she believes that not publicly discussing their relationship has helped them. Jay Z said in a _People _ article, "We don't play with our relationship." They kept a low profile while dating, and married in April 2008. It became a matter of public record on April 22, 2008, but Beyoncé did not publicly debut her $5 million Lorraine Schwartz -designed wedding ring until the Fashion Rocks concert on September 5, 2008 in New York City.

Beyoncé and Jay-Z were listed as the most powerful couple for _TIME_ magazine's 100 most influential people of 2006. In January 2009, _Forbes_ ranked them as Hollywood's top-earning couple, with a combined total of $162 million. They made it to the top of the list the following year, with a combined total of $122 million between June 2008 and June 2009.

At the 2011 MTV Video Music Awards , Beyoncé revealed that she was pregnant with their first child and on January 7, 2012 she gave birth to their daughter, Blue Ivy Carter, at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York. On January 9, 2012, Jay-Z released "Glory", a song dedicated to their child, on his social website LifeandTimes.com. The song detailed the couple's pregnancy struggles, including a miscarriage Beyoncé suffered before becoming pregnant with their daughter. Because Blue's cries were included at the end of the song and she was officially credited on the song as "B.I.C", at two days old she became the youngest person ever to appear on a _Billboard _ chart when "Glory" debuted on Hot R he and his lawyers contended that they had witnesses and videotapes proving he had been nowhere near Rivera during the incident. Nevertheless, he later pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor and accepted a three-year probation sentence.

Jay-Z later addressed the case in his 2010 book _Decoded_:

One night I went to Q-Tip's solo album release party and at some point in the night, I ran into the guy everyone's been telling me is behind the bootleg. So I approached him. When I told him what I suspected, to my surprise, he got real loud with me right there in the middle of the club. It was strange. We separated and I went over to the bar. I was sitting there like, "No the fuck this nigga did not....." I was talking to people, but I was really talking to myself out loud, just in a state of shock. Before I even realized what I was doing, I headed back over to him, but this time I was blacking out with anger. The next thing I knew, all hell had broken loose in the club. That night the guy went straight to the police and I was indicted...

There was no reason to put my life on the line, and the lives of everyone who depends on me, because of a momentary loss of control..... I vowed to never allow myself to be in a situation like that again.


During his retirement, Jay-Z also became involved in philanthropic activity. In 2003, Jay-Z, together with his mother, founded The Shawn Carter Foundation, which has assisted eligible students facing socio-economic hardships through college. On August 9, 2006, he met with United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan at the organization's headquarters in New York City. The rapper pledged to use his upcoming world tour to raise awareness of and combat global water shortage . Already on the look-out for a way to, in his own words, "become helpful", he had been made aware of this issue during a visit to Africa by Bono from the rock group U2 . The effort took place in partnership with the UN, as well as MTV, which produced a documentary entitled _Diary of Jay Z: Water for Life_, first airing in November 2006. Along with Sean "Diddy" Combs , Jay-Z pledged $1 million to the American Red Cross ' relief effort after Hurricane Katrina . Jay-Z stated his support for Kanye West after the latter's outburst against President Bush during a live Katrina charity telethon . He also addressed the issue of the Katrina disaster , and the government's response, in his one verse song "Minority Report ".

Jay-Z has previously stated in a song that "the greatest form of giving is anonymous to anonymous" and, in 2013, it was revealed by author dream hampton , who co-wrote Jay-Z's book _Decoded _, that he quietly established a trust fund for Sean Bell 's children.


In 2006, Jay-Z appeared with Russell Simmons in a PSA combatting racism and anti-Semitism organized by the Foundation for Ethnic Understanding . By 2008, Jay-Z was actively involved in the 2008 presidential campaign, where he supported increased voter participation and helped send voters to polling stations. He was an early supporter for the candidacy of Illinois senator and subsequent U.S. president Barack Obama , performing for free in voter-drive concerts financed by the Democrats' campaign. He also became acquainted with Obama himself, who stated "Every time I talk to Jay-Z, who is a brilliant talent and a good guy, I enjoy how he thinks. That's somebody who is going to start branching out and can help shape attitudes in a real positive way." During the 2010 mid-term elections ' campaign, Jay-Z appeared, along with other artists, in an ad prepared by the HeadCount organization, urging voters, and especially younger ones, to register and vote. In May 2012, Jay-Z announced his endorsement of President Obama's support of same-sex marriage and participated in his re-election campaign.

Musician and civil rights activist Harry Belafonte has been openly critical of Jay-Z and Beyoncé in their relatively safe political stances, saying that they "have turned their back on social responsibility" in an interview with the _Hollywood Reporter._ A Syracuse University finance professor also gave similar opinions, pointing to Jay-Z's only giving $6,000 to charity after making $63 million in 2012. He also voiced that the hip-hop mogul likely would never have come out in support of gay marriage had President Obama not first taken the initiative.

In the 2016 U.S. presidential election , Jay-Z and Beyoncé supported presidential candidate Hillary Clinton at her rally in Cleveland. Clinton praised Jay-Z for addressing racism, oppression, and the criminal justice system.


Main articles: Jay-Z albums discography , Jay-Z singles discography , and Jay-Z videography


* _Reasonable Doubt _ (1996) * _ In My Lifetime, Vol. 1 _ (1997) * _ Vol. 2... Hard Knock Life _ (1998) * _ Vol. 3... Life and Times of S. Carter _ (1999) * _The Dynasty: Roc La Familia _ (2000) * _ The Blueprint _ (2001) * _The Blueprint2: The Gift & The Curse _ (2002) * _The Black Album _ (2003) * _Kingdom Come _ (2006) * _American Gangster _ (2007) * _ The Blueprint 3 _ (2009) * _ Magna Carta Holy Grail _ (2013) * _4:44 _ (2017)


* _The Best of Both Worlds _ (with R. Kelly ) (2002) * _Unfinished Business _ (with R. Kelly) (2004) * _Collision Course _ (with Linkin Park ) (2004) * _ Watch the Throne _ (with Kanye West ) (2011)


* _Streets Is Watching _ (1998) * _Backstage _ (2000) * _State Property _ (2002) * _ Paper Soldiers _ (2002) * _Fade to Black _ (2004) * _Made in America _ (2013, documentary) * _Annie _ (2014, producer)



* Hard Knock Life Tour (1999) * Blueprint Lounge Tour (2001) * American Gangster Live (2007) * Jay-Z Fall Tour (2009) * Magna Carter World Tour (2013–14) * 4:44 Tour (2017)


* Rock the Mic (with 50 Cent ) (2003) * Best of Both Worlds Tour (with R. Kelly ) (2004) * Heart of the City Tour (with Mary J. Blige ) (2008) * Jay-Z & Ciara Live (with Ciara ) (2009) * The Home & Home Tour (with Eminem ) (2010) * Watch the Throne Tour (with Kanye West ) (2011–12) * Legends of the Summer (with Justin Timberlake ) (2013) * On the Run Tour (with Beyoncé ) (2014)


* No Way Out Tour (with Puff Daddy & Bad Boy Records ) (1997) * Projekt Revolution 2008 Europe (with Linkin Park ) (2008) * Viva la Vida Tour (with Coldplay ) (2008) * U2 360 Tour (with U2 ) (2009–11)


* _Decoded _ by Jay-Z (2010: Spiegel -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

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