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Indo- Scythians
Scythians
is a term used to refer to Scythians
Scythians
(Sakas), who migrated into parts of central, northern and western South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat
Gujarat
and Maharashtra) from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD. The first Saka
Saka
king in South Asia
South Asia
was Maues/Moga (1st century BC) who established Saka
Saka
power in Gandhara, parts of modern-day Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan, and gradually extended supremacy over north-western India. The power of the Saka
Saka
rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Indo- Scythians
Scythians
were defeated by the Satavahana emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni.[1][2] Indo- Scythian
Scythian
rule in northwestern Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
ended with the last Western Satrap Rudrasimha III
Rudrasimha III
in 395 CE who was defeated by the Gupta emperor Chandragupta II.[3][4] The invasion of northern regions of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
by Scythian
Scythian
tribes from Central Asia, often referred to as the Indo- Scythian
Scythian
invasion, played a significant part in the history of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
as well as nearby countries. In fact, the Indo- Scythian
Scythian
war is just one chapter in the events triggered by the nomadic flight of Central Asians from conflict with tribes such as the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
in the 2nd century AD, which had lasting effects on Bactria, Kabul, and the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
as well as far-off Rome in the west, and more nearby to the west in Parthia. Ancient Roman historians including Arrian[5] and Claudius Ptolemy
Ptolemy
have mentioned that the ancient Sakas
Sakas
('Sakai') were basically nomads.[6] However, Italo Ronca, in his detailed study of Ptolemy's chapter vi, states: "The land of the Sakai belongs to nomads, they have no towns but dwell in forests and caves" as spurious.[7]

Contents

1 Origins

1.1 Yuezhi
Yuezhi
expansion

2 Settlement in Sakastan 3 Indo- Scythian
Scythian
kingdoms

3.1 Abhira to Surastrene 3.2 Gandhara
Gandhara
and Punjab

3.2.1 Sculpture 3.2.2 Bimaran casket

3.3 Mathura
Mathura
area ("Northern Satraps") 3.4 Pataliputra 3.5 Kushan
Kushan
and Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
conquests 3.6 Western Kshatrapas
Western Kshatrapas
legacy

4 Indo- Scythian
Scythian
coinage 5 Depiction of Indo-Scythians

5.1 Buner reliefs 5.2 Stone palettes

6 The Indo- Scythians
Scythians
and Buddhism

6.1 Royal dedications 6.2 Butkara Stupa 6.3 Gandharan sculptures 6.4 Mathura
Mathura
lion capital

7 Indo- Scythians
Scythians
in Western sources 8 Indo- Scythians
Scythians
in Indian literature 9 Sai-Wang Scythian
Scythian
hordes of Chipin or Kipin 10 Establishment of Mlechcha Kingdoms in Northern India 11 Evidence about joint invasions 12 Main Indo- Scythian
Scythian
rulers

12.1 Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
and Eastern Pakistan 12.2 Kshaharatas (Punjab, Pakistan
Pakistan
and beyond) 12.3 Aprācas (Bajaur, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan) 12.4 Pāratas[54] (Balochistan, Pakistan) 12.5 "Northern Satraps" ( Mathura
Mathura
area) 12.6 Minor local rulers 12.7 Western Satraps 12.8 Military actions

13 Descendants of the Indo-Scythians 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 External links

Origins[edit] Main article: Saka

A Scythian
Scythian
horseman from the general area of the Ili River, Pazyryk, c 300 BC

The treasure of the royal burial Tillya Tepe
Tillya Tepe
is attributed to 1st century BC Sakas
Sakas
in Bactria.

Bearded man with cap, probably Scythian, Bamiyan, 3rd–4th centuries.

The ancestors of the Indo- Scythians
Scythians
are thought to be Sakas
Sakas
(Scythian) tribes.

"One group of Indo-European speakers that makes an early appearance on the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
stage is the Saka
Saka
(Ch. Sai). Saka
Saka
is more a generic term than a name for a specific state or ethnic group; Saka
Saka
tribes were part of a cultural continuum of early nomads across Siberia and the Central Eurasian steppe lands from Xinjiang
Xinjiang
to the Black Sea. Like the Scythians
Scythians
whom Herodotus
Herodotus
describes in book four of his History (Saka is an Iranian word equivalent to the Greek Scythes, and many scholars refer to them together as Saka-Scythian), Sakas
Sakas
were Iranian-speaking horse nomads who deployed chariots in battle, sacrificed horses, and buried their dead in barrows or mound tombs called kurgans."[8]

According to their own origin myths, they claimed descent from Kushtana Maurya, the exiled son of the Indian Emperor Ashokavardhana Maurya
Maurya
who established the Kingdom of Khotan
Kingdom of Khotan
at Tarim Basin.[9] Yuezhi
Yuezhi
expansion[edit] In the 2nd century BC, a fresh nomadic movement started among the Central Asian tribes, producing lasting effects on the history of Rome in Europe, Parthia
Parthia
in Western Asia, and Bactria, Kabul, and India
India
in the east in Southern Asia.[citation needed] Recorded in the annals of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
and other Chinese records, this great tribal movement began after the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
tribe was defeated by the Xiongnu, fleeing westwards after their defeat and creating a domino effect as they displaced other central Asian tribes in their path.[10]

Detail of one of the Orlat plaques
Orlat plaques
seemingly representing Scythian soldiers.

According to these ancient sources Modu Shanyu
Modu Shanyu
of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
tribe of Mongolia
Mongolia
attacked the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
(possibly related to the Tocharians
Tocharians
who lived in eastern Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
area) and evicted them from their homeland between the Qilian Shan
Qilian Shan
and Dunhuang
Dunhuang
around 175 BC.[11] Leaving behind a remnant of their number, most of the population moved westwards into the Ili River
Ili River
area. There, they displaced the Sakas, who migrated south into Ferghana
Ferghana
and Sogdiana. According to the Chinese historical chronicles (who call the Sakas, "Sai" 塞): "[The Yuezhi] attacked the king of the Sai who moved a considerable distance to the south and the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
then occupied his lands."[12][13] Sometime after 155 BC, the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
were again defeated by an alliance of the Wusun
Wusun
and the Xiongnu, and were forced to move south, again displacing the Scythians, who migrated south towards Bactria
Bactria
and present Afghanistan, and south-west closer towards Parthia. The Sakas
Sakas
seem to have entered the territory of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom around 145 BC, where they burnt to the ground the Greek city of Alexandria on the Oxus.[citation needed] The Yuezhi
Yuezhi
remained in Sogdiana
Sogdiana
on the northern bank of the Oxus, but they became suzerains of the Sakas
Sakas
in Bactrian territory, as described by the Chinese ambassador Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
who visited the region around 126 BC.[citation needed] In Parthia, between 138–124 BC, the Sakas
Sakas
tribes of the Massagetae and Sacaraucae
Sacaraucae
came into conflict with the Parthian Empire, winning several battles, and killing successively King
King
Phraates II
Phraates II
and King Artabanus I. The Parthian king Mithridates II finally retook control of parts of Central Asia, first by defeating the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
in Sogdiana
Sogdiana
in 115 BC, and then defeating the Scythians
Scythians
in Parthia
Parthia
and Seistan
Seistan
around 100 BC.[citation needed] After their defeat, the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
tribes migrated relatively far to the east into Bactria, which they were to control for several centuries,[citation needed] and from which they later conquered northern India
India
to found the Kushan
Kushan
Empire.[14] Settlement in Sakastan[edit]

Map of Sakastan
Sakastan
around 100 BC

The Sakas
Sakas
settled in Drangiana, an area of Southern Afghanistan, western Pakistan
Pakistan
and south Iran, which was then called after them as Sakastan
Sakastan
or Sistan.[15] From there, they progressively expanded into present day Iran
Iran
as well as northern India, where they established various kingdoms, and where they are known as "Saka".[citation needed] The Arsacid emperor Mithridates II (c. 123–88/87 BCE) had scored many successes against the Scythians
Scythians
and added many provinces to the Parthian Empire,[16] and apparently the Scythian
Scythian
hordes that came from Bactria
Bactria
were also conquered by him. A section of these people moved from Bactria
Bactria
to Lake Helmond in the wake of Yue-chi pressure and settled about Drangiana
Drangiana
(Sigal), a region which later came to be called "Sakistana of the Skythian (Scythian) Sakai",[17] towards the end of 1st century BC.[18] The region is still known as Seistan. The presence of the Sakas
Sakas
in Sakastan
Sakastan
in the 1st century BC is mentioned by Isidore of Charax in his "Parthian stations". He explained that they were bordered at that time by Greek cities to the east ( Alexandria of the Caucasus
Alexandria of the Caucasus
and Alexandria of the Arachosians), and the Parthian-controlled territory of Arachosia
Arachosia
to the south:

"Beyond is Sacastana of the Scythian
Scythian
Sacae, which is also Paraetacena, 63 schoeni. There are the city of Barda and the city of Min and the city of Palacenti and the city of Sigal; in that place is the royal residence of the Sacae; and nearby is the city of Alexandria (Alexandria Arachosia), and six villages." Parthian stations, 18.[19]

Indo- Scythian
Scythian
kingdoms[edit] Abhira to Surastrene[edit]

Asia in 1 CE, showing the Indo- Scythians
Scythians
and their neighbors

Scythian
Scythian
devotee, Butkara Stupa

The first Indo- Scythian
Scythian
kingdom in south western Asia was located in Pakistan
Pakistan
in the areas from Abiria (Sindh) to Surastrene (Saurashtra, Gujarat), from around 110 to 80 BC. They moved progressively further north into Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
territory until the conquests of Maues, c. 80 BC. The 1st century AD Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
describes the Scythian
Scythian
territories there:

"Beyond this region (Gedrosia), the continent making a wide curve from the east across the depths of the bays, there follows the coast district of Scythia, which lies above toward the north; the whole marshy; from which flows down the river Sinthus, the greatest of all the rivers that flow into the Erythraean Sea, bringing down an enormous volume of water (...) This river has seven mouths, very shallow and marshy, so that they are not navigable, except the one in the middle; at which by the shore, is the market-town, Barbaricum. Before it there lies a small island, and inland behind it is the metropolis of Scythia, Minnagara."[20]

The Indo- Scythians
Scythians
ultimately established a kingdom in the northwest, based near Taxila, with two great Satraps, one in Mathura
Mathura
in the east, and one in Surastrene (Gujarat) in the southwest. In the southeast, the Indo- Scythians
Scythians
invaded the area of Ujjain, but were subsequently repelled in 57 BC by the Malwa
Malwa
king Vikramaditya. To commemorate the event Vikramaditya
Vikramaditya
established the Vikrama
Vikrama
era, a specific Indian calendar starting in 57 BC. More than a century later, in AD 78, the Sakas
Sakas
would again invade Ujjain
Ujjain
and establish the Saka era, marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka
Saka
Western Satraps kingdom.[21] Gandhara
Gandhara
and Punjab[edit]

A coin of the Indo- Scythian
Scythian
king Azes

The presence of the Scythians
Scythians
in north-western India
India
during the 1st century BCE was contemporary with that of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdoms there, and it seems they initially recognized the power of the local Greek rulers. Maues
Maues
first conquered Gandhara
Gandhara
and Taxila
Taxila
around 80 BCE, but his kingdom disintegrated after his death. In the east, the Indian king Vikrama
Vikrama
retook Ujjain
Ujjain
from the Indo-Scythians, celebrating his victory by the creation of the Vikrama era
Vikrama era
(starting 58 BCE). Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings again ruled after Maues, and prospered, as indicated by the profusion of coins from Kings Apollodotus II
Apollodotus II
and Hippostratos. Not until Azes
Azes
I, in 55 BC, did the Indo- Scythians
Scythians
take final control of northwestern India, with his victory over Hippostratos. Sculpture[edit]

A toilet tray of the type found in the Early Saka
Saka
layer at Sirkap

Several stone sculptures have been found in the Early Saka
Saka
layer (Layer No4, corresponding to the period of Azes
Azes
I, in which numerous coins of the latter were found) in the ruins of Sirkap, during the excavations organized by John Marshall.

A bronze coin of the Indo- Scythian
Scythian
King
King
Azes. Obverse: BASILEWS BASILEWN MEGALOU AZOU, Humped Brahman bull (zebu) walking right, Whitehead symbol 15 (Z in square) above; Reverse: Kharosthi "jha" to right / Kharosthi legend, Lion or leopard standing right, Whitehead symbol 26 above; Reference: Whitehead 259; BMC p. 86, 141.

The Bimaran casket, representing the Buddha surrounded by Brahma (left) and Śakra (right) was found inside a stupa with coins of Azes inside. British Museum.

Several of them are toilet trays (also called Stone palettes) roughly imitative of earlier, and finer, Hellenistic ones found in the earlier layers. Marshall comments that "we have a praiseworthy effort to copy a Hellenistic original but obviously without the appreciation of form and skill which were necessary for the task". From the same layer, several statuettes in the round are also known, in very rigid and frontal style. Bimaran casket[edit] Main article: Bimaran casket Azes
Azes
is connected to the Bimaran casket, one of the earliest representations of the Buddha. The casket was used for the dedication of a stupa in Bamiran, near Jalalabad
Jalalabad
in Afghanistan, and placed inside the stupa with several coins of Azes. This event may have happened during the reign of Azes
Azes
(60–20 BCE), or slightly later. The Indo- Scythians
Scythians
are otherwise connected with Buddhism
Buddhism
(see Mathura lion capital), and it is indeed possible they would have commended the work. Mathura
Mathura
area ("Northern Satraps")[edit] Main article: Northern Satraps

Coin of Rajuvula
Rajuvula
(c. 10 CE), AE, Mathura Obv: Bust of King
King
Rajuvula, with Greek legend. Rev: Pallas standing right (crude). Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
legend.

The Mathura lion capital
Mathura lion capital
is an important Indo- Scythian
Scythian
monument dedicated to the Buddhist
Buddhist
religion (British Museum).

In northern India, the Indo- Scythians
Scythians
conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60 BCE. Some of their satraps were Hagamasha and Hagana, who were in turn followed by the Saca Great Satrap Rajuvula. The Mathura
Mathura
lion capital, an Indo- Scythian
Scythian
sandstone capital in crude style, from Mathura
Mathura
in northern India, and dated to the 1st century CE, describes in kharoshthi the gift of a stupa with a relic of the Buddha, by Queen Nadasi Kasa, the wife of the Indo- Scythian
Scythian
ruler of Mathura, Rajuvula. The capital also mentions the genealogy of several Indo- Scythian
Scythian
satraps of Mathura. Rajuvula
Rajuvula
apparently eliminated the last of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings Strato II around 10 CE, and took his capital city, Sagala. The coinage of the period, such as that of Rajuvula, tends to become very crude and barbarized in style. It is also very much debased, the silver content becoming lower and lower, in exchange for a higher proportion of bronze, an alloying technique (billon) suggesting less than wealthy finances. The Mathura lion capital
Mathura lion capital
inscriptions attest that Mathura
Mathura
fell under the control of the Sakas. The inscriptions contain references to Kharahostes
Kharahostes
and Queen Ayasia, the "chief queen of the Indo-Scythian ruler of Mathura, satrap Rajuvula." Kharahostes
Kharahostes
was the son of Arta as is attested by his own coins.[22] Arta is stated to be brother of King Moga or Maues.[23] The Indo- Scythian
Scythian
satraps of Mathura
Mathura
are sometimes called the "Northern Satraps", in opposition to the "Western Satraps" ruling in Gujarat
Gujarat
and Malwa. After Rajuvula, several successors are known to have ruled as vassals to the Kushans, such as the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana
Kharapallana
and the "Satrap" Vanaspara, who are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath, and dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka
Kanishka
(c. AD 130), in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushans.[24] Pataliputra[edit]

Silver coin of Vijayamitra
Vijayamitra
in the name of Azes. Buddhist
Buddhist
triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse.

Profile of the Indo- Scythian
Scythian
King
King
Azes
Azes
on one of his coins.

The text of the Yuga Purana
Yuga Purana
describes an invasion of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
by the Scythians
Scythians
sometimes during the 1st century BC, after seven great kings had ruled in succession in Saketa
Saketa
following the retreat of the Yavanas. The Yuga Purana
Yuga Purana
explains that the king of the Sakas
Sakas
killed one fourth of the population, before he was himself slain by the Kalinga king Shata and a group of Sabalas (Sabaras or Bhillas).[25] Kushan
Kushan
and Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
conquests[edit] After the death of Azes, the rule of the Indo- Scythians
Scythians
in northwestern India
India
was shattered with the rise of the Indo-Parthian ruler Gondophares
Gondophares
in the last years of the 1st century BC. For the following decades, a number of minor Scythian
Scythian
leaders maintained themselves in local strongholds on the fringes of the loosely assembled Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
empire, some of them paying formal allegiance to Gondophares
Gondophares
I and his successors. During the latter part of the 1st century AD, the Indo-Parthian overlordship was gradually replaced with that of the Kushans, one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
who had lived in Bactria
Bactria
for more than a century, and were now expanding into India
India
to create a Kushan
Kushan
Empire. The Kushans
Kushans
ultimately regained northwestern India
India
from around AD 75, and the area of Mathura
Mathura
from around AD 100, where they were to prosper for several centuries.[14][citation needed] Western Kshatrapas
Western Kshatrapas
legacy[edit]

Coin of the Western Kshatrapa
Western Kshatrapa
ruler Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(c. AD 175 to 197), a descendant of the Indo-Scythians

Main article: Western Kshatrapas Indo- Scythians
Scythians
continued to hold the area of Seistan
Seistan
until the reign of Bahram II
Bahram II
(AD 276–293), and held several areas of India
India
well into the 1st millennium: Kathiawar
Kathiawar
and Gujarat
Gujarat
were under their rule until the 5th century under the designation of Western Kshatrapas, until they were eventually conquered by the Gupta emperor Chandragupta II (also called Vikramaditya). Indo- Scythian
Scythian
coinage[edit]

Silver tetradrachm of the Indo- Scythian
Scythian
king Maues
Maues
(85–60 BC).

Indo- Scythian
Scythian
coinage is generally of a high artistic quality, although it clearly deteriorates towards the disintegration of Indo- Scythian
Scythian
rule around AD 20 (coins of Rajuvula). A fairly high-quality but rather stereotypical coinage would continue in the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
until the 4th century. Indo- Scythian
Scythian
coinage is generally quite realistic, artistically somewhere between Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
and Kushan
Kushan
coinage. It is often suggested Indo- Scythian
Scythian
coinage benefited from the help of Greek celators (Boppearachchi). Indo- Scythian
Scythian
coins essentially continue the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
tradition, by using the Greek language on the obverse and the Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
language on the reverse. The portrait of the king is never shown however, and is replaced by depictions of the king on horse (and sometimes on camel), or sometimes sitting cross-legged on a cushion. The reverse of their coins typically show Greek divinities. Buddhist
Buddhist
symbolism is present throughout Indo- Scythian
Scythian
coinage. In particular, they adopted the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
practice since Menander I
Menander I
of showing divinities forming the vitarka mudra with their right hand (as for the mudra-forming Zeus
Zeus
on the coins of Maues
Maues
or Azes
Azes
II), or the presence of the Buddhist
Buddhist
lion on the coins of the same two kings, or the triratana symbol on the coins of Zeionises. Depiction of Indo-Scythians[edit]

Azilises
Azilises
on horse, wearing a tunic

Besides coinage, few works of art are known to indisputably represent Indo-Scythians. Indo- Scythian
Scythian
rulers are usually depicted on horseback in armour, but the coins of Azilises
Azilises
show the king in a simple, undecorated, tunic.[citation needed] Several Gandharan sculptures also show foreigners in soft tunics, sometimes wearing the typical Scythian
Scythian
cap. They stand in contrast to representations of Kushan
Kushan
men, who seem to wear thick, rigid, tunics, and who are generally represented in a much more simplistic manner.[26] Buner reliefs[edit] Indo- Scythian
Scythian
soldiers in military attire are sometimes represented in Buddhist
Buddhist
friezes in the art of Gandhara
Gandhara
(particularly in Buner reliefs). They are depicted in ample tunics with trousers, and have heavy straight swords as weapons. They wear pointed hoods (the Scythian
Scythian
cap or bashlyk), which distinguishes them from the Indo-Parthians who only wore a simple fillet over their bushy hair,[27] and which is also systematically worn by Indo-Scythian rulers on their coins. With the right hand, some of them are forming the Karana mudra against evil spirits. In Gandhara, such friezes were used as decorations on the pedestals of Buddhist
Buddhist
stupas. They are contemporary with other friezes representing people in purely Greek attire, hinting at an intermixing of Indo- Scythians
Scythians
(holding military power) and Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
(confined, under Indo- Scythian
Scythian
rule, to civilian life). Another relief is known where the same type of soldiers are playing musical instruments and dancing, activities which are widely represented elsewhere in Gandharan art: Indo- Scythians
Scythians
are typically shown as reveling devotees.

Indo- Scythians
Scythians
pushing along the Greek god Dionysos
Dionysos
with Ariadne.[28]

Hunting scene.

Hunting scene.

Hunting scene.

Stone palettes[edit] Main article: Stone palette Numerous stone palettes found in Gandhara
Gandhara
are considered good representatives of Indo- Scythian
Scythian
art. These palettes combine Greek and Iranian influences, and are often realized in a simple, archaic style. Stone palettes have only been found in archaeological layers corresponding to Indo-Greek, Indo- Scythian
Scythian
and Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
rule, and are essentially unknown in the preceding Mauryan layers or the succeeding Kushan
Kushan
layers.[29] Very often these palettes represent people in Greek dress in mythological scenes, a few in Parthian dress (head-bands over bushy hair, crossed-over jacket on a bare chest, jewelry, belt, baggy trousers), and even fewer in Indo- Scythian
Scythian
dress (Phrygian hat, tunic and comparatively straight trousers). A palette found in Sirkap
Sirkap
and now in the New Delhi Museum
New Delhi Museum
shows a winged Indo- Scythian
Scythian
horseman riding winged deer, and being attacked by a lion. The Indo- Scythians
Scythians
and Buddhism[edit] The Indo- Scythians
Scythians
seem to have been followers of Buddhism, and many of their practices apparently continued those of the Indo-Greeks. Royal dedications[edit]

The Bajaur casket
Bajaur casket
was dedicated by Indravarman, Metropolitan Museum of Art.[30]

Several Indo- Scythian
Scythian
kings after Azes
Azes
are known for making Buddhist dedications in their name, on plaques or reliquaries:

Patika Kusulaka
Patika Kusulaka
(25 BCE – 10 CE) related his donation of a relic of the Buddha Shakyamuni
Buddha Shakyamuni
to a Buddhist
Buddhist
monastery, in the Taxila
Taxila
copper plate. Kharahostes
Kharahostes
(10 BCE – 10 CE) is mentioned on the Buddhist
Buddhist
Mathura lion capital and on a reliquary.[31][32] His coins were also found in the Bimaran casket, a beautiful Buddhist
Buddhist
gold reliquary with an early image of the Buddha, now in the British Museum. Some of his coins bear the Buddhist
Buddhist
triratna symbol. Vijayamitra
Vijayamitra
(ruled 12 BCE - 15 CE) personally dedicated in his name a Buddhist
Buddhist
reliquary.[33][34] Some of his coins bear the Buddhist triratna symbol. Indravarman, while still a Prince, personally dedicated in 5-6 CE a Buddhist
Buddhist
reliquary, the Bajaur
Bajaur
casket, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Zeionises
Zeionises
and Aspavarma
Aspavarma
also used the Buddhist
Buddhist
triratna symbol on their coins. Rajula
Rajula
erected the Mathura
Mathura
lion capital, which incorporates Buddhist symbols and relates the donations by his wife of relics to a stupa.

Butkara Stupa[edit]

Buddhist
Buddhist
stupas during the late Indo-Greek/Indo- Scythian
Scythian
period were highly decorated structures with columns, flights of stairs, and decorative Acanthus leaf friezes. Butkara stupa, Swat, 1st century BC.[35]

Possible Scythian
Scythian
devotee couple (extreme left and right, often described as "Scytho-Parthian"),[36] around the Buddha, Brahma
Brahma
and Indra.

Excavations at the Butkara Stupa
Butkara Stupa
in Swat by an Italian archaeological team have yielded various Buddhist
Buddhist
sculptures thought to belong to the Indo- Scythian
Scythian
period. In particular, an Indo-Corinthian capital representing a Buddhist
Buddhist
devotee within foliage has been found which had a reliquary and coins of Azes
Azes
buried at its base, securely dating the sculpture to around 20 BC.[37] A contemporary pilaster with the image of a Buddhist
Buddhist
devotee in Greek dress has also been found at the same spot, again suggesting a mingling of the two populations.[38] Various reliefs at the same location show Indo- Scythians
Scythians
with their characteristic tunics and pointed hoods within a Buddhist
Buddhist
context, and side-by-side with reliefs of standing Buddhas.[39] Gandharan sculptures[edit] Other reliefs have been found, which show Indo- Scythian
Scythian
men with their characteristic pointed cap pushing a cart on which is reclining the Greek god Dionysos
Dionysos
with his consort Ariadne.[citation needed] Mathura
Mathura
lion capital[edit] The Mathura
Mathura
lion capital, which associates many of the Indo-Scythian rulers from Maues
Maues
to Rajuvula, mentions a dedication of a relic of the Buddha in a stupa. It also bears centrally the Buddhist
Buddhist
symbol of the triratana, and is also filled with mentions of the bhagavat Buddha Sakyamuni, and characteristically Buddhist
Buddhist
phrases such as:

"sarvabudhana puya dhamasa puya saghasa puya" "Revere all the Buddhas, revere the dharma, revere the sangha" ( Mathura
Mathura
lion capital, inscription O1/O2)

Indo-Corinthian capital from Butkara Stupa, dated to 20 BC, during the reign of Azes
Azes
II. Turin City Museum of Ancient Art.

Dancing Indo- Scythians
Scythians
(top) and hunting scene (bottom). Buddhist relief from Swat, Gandhara.

Butkara doorjamb, with Indo- Scythians
Scythians
dancing and reveling. On the back side is a relief of a standing Buddha[40]

Indo- Scythians
Scythians
in Western sources[edit]

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"Scythia" appears around the mouth of the river Indus
Indus
in the Roman period Tabula Peutingeriana.

The country of Scythia
Scythia
in the area of Pakistan, and especially around the mouth of the Indus
Indus
with its capital at Minnagara
Minnagara
(modern day Karachi) is mentioned extensively in Western maps and travel descriptions of the period. The Ptolemy
Ptolemy
world map, as well as the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
mention prominently, the country of Scythia
Scythia
on the Indus
Indus
Valley, as well as Roman Tabula Peutingeriana. The Periplus states that Minnagara
Minnagara
was the capital of Scythia, and that Parthian Princes from within it were fighting for its control during the 1st century AD. It also distinguishes Scythia
Scythia
with Ariaca further east (centred in Gujarat
Gujarat
and Malwa), over which ruled the Western Satrap
Western Satrap
king Nahapana. Indo- Scythians
Scythians
in Indian literature[edit] Main article: Indo- Scythians
Scythians
in Indian literature The Indo- Scythians
Scythians
were named "Shaka" in India, an extension on the name Saka
Saka
used by the Persians to designate Scythians. From the time of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
wars (400–150 BC roughly[citation needed]) Shakas receive numerous mentions in texts like the Puranas, the Manusmriti, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Mahabhasiya of Patanjali, the Brhat Samhita of Vraha Mihira, the Kavyamimamsa, the Brihat-Katha-Manjari, the Katha-Saritsagara and several other old texts. They are described as part of an amalgam of other war-like tribes from the northwest. Sai-Wang Scythian
Scythian
hordes of Chipin or Kipin[edit]

Coin of Azes, with king seated, holding a drawn sword and a whip.

A section of the Central Asian Scythians
Scythians
(under Sai-Wang) is said to have taken southerly direction and after passing through the Pamirs it entered the Chipin or Kipin after crossing the Hasuna-tu (Hanging Pass) located above the valley of Kanda in Swat country.[41] Chipin has been identified by Pelliot, Bagchi, Raychaudhury and some others with Kashmir[42] while other scholars identify it with Kapisha (Kafirstan).[43][44] The Sai-Wang had established his kingdom in Kipin. S. Konow interprets the Sai-Wang as Saka
Saka
Murunda of Indian literature, Murunda being equal to Wang i.e. king, master or lord,[45] but Bagchi who takes the word Wang in the sense of the king of the Scythians
Scythians
but he distinguishes the Sai Sakas
Sakas
from the Murunda Sakas.[46] There are reasons to believe that Sai Scythians
Scythians
were Kamboja Scythians
Scythians
and therefore Sai-Wang belonged to the Scythianised Kambojas
Kambojas
(i.e. Parama-Kambojas) of the Transoxiana
Transoxiana
region and came back to settle among his own stock after being evicted from his ancestral land located in Scythia
Scythia
or Shakadvipa. King
King
Moga or Maues could have belonged to this group of Scythians
Scythians
who had migrated from the Sai country (Central Asia) to Chipin.[47] Establishment of Mlechcha Kingdoms in Northern India[edit]

Coin of Maues
Maues
depicting Balarama, 1st century BC. British Museum.

The mixed Scythian
Scythian
hordes that migrated to Drangiana
Drangiana
and surrounding regions later spread further into north and south-west India
India
via the lower Indus
Indus
valley. Their migration spread into Sovira, Gujarat, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and northern India, including kingdoms in the Indian mainland. There are important references to the warring Mleccha hordes of the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas
Kambojas
and Pahlavas in the Bala Kanda of the Valmiki Ramayana. H. C. Raychadhury glimpses in these verses the struggles between the Hindus and the invading hordes of Mlechcha barbarians from the northwest. The time frame for these struggles is the 2nd century BC onwards. Raychadhury fixes the date of the present version of the Valmiki
Valmiki
Ramayana
Ramayana
around or after the 2nd century AD.[48] Mahabharata
Mahabharata
too furnishes a veiled hint about the invasion of the mixed hordes from the northwest. Vanaparava by Mahabharata
Mahabharata
contains verses in the form of prophecy deploring that "......the Mlechha (barbaric) kings of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Bahlikas, etc. shall rule the earth (i.e. India) un-righteously in Kaliyuga..."[49] According to H. C. Ray Chaudhury, this is too clear a statement to be ignored or explained away.[citation needed] Evidence about joint invasions[edit] The Scythian
Scythian
groups that invaded India
India
and set up various kingdoms included, besides the Sakas, other allied tribes, such as the Medii, Xanthii, and Massagetae. These peoples were all absorbed into the community of Kshatriyas of mainstream Indian society.[50] The Shakas were formerly a people of the trans-Hemodos region—the Shakadvipa of the Puranas
Puranas
or the Scythia
Scythia
of the classical writings. Isidor of Charax (beginning of 1st century AD) attests them in Sakastana (modern Seistan). The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
(c. AD 70–80) also attests a Scythian
Scythian
district in lower Indus
Indus
with Minnagra as its capital. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(c. AD 140) also attests to an Indo- Scythia
Scythia
in south-western India
India
which comprised the Patalene and Surastrene (Saurashtra) territories. The 2nd century BC Scythian
Scythian
invasion of India, was in all probability carried out jointly by the Sakas, Pahlavas, Kambojas, Paradas, Rishikas and other allied tribes from the northwest.[51] Main Indo- Scythian
Scythian
rulers[edit] Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
and Eastern Pakistan[edit]

Maues, c. 85–60 BC Vonones, c. 75–65 BC Spalahores, c. 75–65 BC, satrap and brother of King
King
Vonones, and probably the later King
King
Spalirises. Spalirises, c. 60–57 BC, king and brother of King
King
Vonones. Spalagadames
Spalagadames
c. 50 BC, satrap, and son of Spalahores. Azilises, before 60 BC Azes
Azes
I, c. 60–20 BC Zeionises, c. 10 BC – AD 10 Kharahostes, c. 10 BC – AD 10 Hajatria

Kshaharatas (Punjab, Pakistan
Pakistan
and beyond)[edit]

Liaka Kusuluka, satrap of Chuksa Kusulaka Patika, satrap of Chuksa
Chuksa
and son of Liaka Kusulaka Bhumaka Nahapana
Nahapana
(founder of the Western Satraps)

Aprācas (Bajaur, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan)[edit] Main article: Apraca

Vijayamitra
Vijayamitra
(12 BC - AD 15), wife Rukhana Indravasu (c. AD 20), wife Vasumitra Vispavarman, wife Śiśirena Indravarman, wife Uttara Aspa (AD 15–45) [52] or Aspavarma
Aspavarma
(AD 15 - 45) Sasan [53]

Pāratas[54] (Balochistan, Pakistan)[edit] Main article: Paratarajas

Drachm
Drachm
of Parataraja
Parataraja
Bhimarjuna. Obv: Robed bust of Bhimarjuna left, wearing tiara-shaped diadem. Rev: Swastika
Swastika
with legend surrounding. 1.70g. Senior (Indo-Scythian) 286.1 (Bhimajhuna)

Yolamira, son of Bagareva (c. 125–150) Bagamira, son of Yolamira (c. 150) Arjuna, a second son of Yolamira (c. 150–160) Hvaramira, a third son of Yolamira (c. 160–175) Mirahvara, son of Hvaramira (c. 175–185) Miratakhma, another son of Hvaramira (c. 185–200) Kozana, son of Bagavharna (and perhaps grandson of Bagamira?) (c. 200–220) Bhimarjuna, son of Yolatakhma (and perhaps grandson of Arjuna?) (c. 220–235) Koziya, son of Kozana
Kozana
(c. 235–265) Datarvharna, son of Datayola I (possible grandson of Bhimarjuna) (c. 265–280) Datayola II, son of Datarvharna (c. 280–300)

"Northern Satraps" ( Mathura
Mathura
area)[edit] Main article: Northern Satraps

Hagamasha
Hagamasha
(satrap, 1st century BC) Hagana (satrap, 1st century BC) Rajuvula, c. AD 10 (Great Satrap) Sodasa, son of Rajuvula "Great Satrap" Kharapallana
Kharapallana
(c. AD 130) "Satrap" Vanaspara
Vanaspara
(c. AD 130)

Minor local rulers[edit]

Bhadayasa Mamvadi Arsakes

Western Satraps[edit] Main article: Western Satraps

Nahapana
Nahapana
(119–124) Chastana
Chastana
(c. 120), son of Ghsamotika Jayadaman, son of Chastana Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
(c. 130–150), son of Jayadaman
Jayadaman
Damajadasri I
Damajadasri I
(170–175) Jivadaman
Jivadaman
(175 died 199) Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(175–188 died 197) Isvaradatta (188–191) Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(restored) (191–197) Jivadaman
Jivadaman
(restored) (197–199) Rudrasena I (200–222) Samghadaman (222–223) Damasena
Damasena
(223–232) Damajadasri II (232–239) with Viradaman (234–238) Yasodaman I (239) Vijayasena
Vijayasena
(239–250) Damajadasri III (251–255) Rudrasena II
Rudrasena II
(255–277) Visvasimha (277–282) Bhratadarman
Bhratadarman
(282–295) with Visvasena (293–304) Rudrasimha II, son of Lord (Svami) Jivadaman
Jivadaman
(304–348) with Yasodaman II
Yasodaman II
(317–332) Rudradaman II (332–348) Rudrasena III (348–380) Simhasena
Simhasena
(380– ?) Rudrasena IV (382–388) Rudrasimha III
Rudrasimha III
(388–395)

Military actions[edit] Descendants of the Indo-Scythians[edit] Tadeusz Sulimirski notes that the Sacae
Sacae
also invaded parts of Northern India.[55] Weer Rajendra Rishi, an Indian linguist[56] has identified linguistic affinities between Indian and Central Asian languages, which further lends credence to the possibility of historical Sacae influence in Northern India.[55][57] See also[edit]

Ancient India
India
and Central Asia Tillya Tepe

Notes[edit]

^ World history from early times to A D 2000 by B .V. Rao: p.97 ^ A Brief History of India, by Alain Daniélou p.136 ^ India
India
in a Globalised World, by Sagarika Dutt p.24 ^ Ancient India, by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar p. 234 ^ http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/arrian-bookVIII-India.asp, Section V. ^ Ptolemy
Ptolemy
vi, xiii (1932), p. 143. ^ Ronca (1971), pp. 39, 102, 108. ^ Millward (2007), p. 13. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Mair, Victor H. (2000), The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, London: Thames & Hudson, pp. 77–81 ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.  ^ Shiji, chap. 123 translated in: Burton Watson (1993), p. 234. ^ Han Shu 61 4B Original tex: 西擊塞王。塞王南走遠徙,月氏居其地。 ^ Craig Benjamin (October 2003). "The Yuezhi
Yuezhi
Migration and Sogdia". Transoxiana
Transoxiana
Webfestschrift Series I: Eran ud Aneran.  ^ a b Lena Jonson (3 October 2006). Tajikistan in the New Central Asia: Geopolitics, Great Power Rivalry and Radical Islam. I.B.Tauris. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-84511-293-6.  ^ Bailey, H.W. (1996) [14 April 1983]. "Chapter 34: Khotanese Saka Literature". In Ehsan Yarshater. The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol III: The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods, Part 2 (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 1230–1231. ISBN 978-0521246934.  ^ Justin XL.II.2 ^ Isodor of Charax, Sathmoi Parthikoi, 18. ^ Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 693. ^ "Parthian stations". Parthia.com. Retrieved 2012-03-14.  ^ "Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, 38". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-14.  ^ The dynastic art of the Kushans, John Rosenfield, p 130 ^ Kshatrapasa pra Kharaostasa Artasa putrasa. See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 398, H. C. Raychaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee; Ancient India, 1956, pp 220–221, R. K. Mukerjee ^ Ancient India, pp 220–221, R. k. Mukerjee; Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part 1, p 36, D S Konow ^ Source: "A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc..." Rapson, p ciii ^ "A gap in Puranic history". Boloji.com. 2004-03-14. Retrieved 2012-03-14.  ^ Francine Tissot "Gandhara", p74 ^ Wilcox and McBride (1986), p. 12. ^ Photographic reference here Archived 10 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ "Let us remind that in Sirkap, stone palettes were found at all excavated levels. On the contrary, neither Bhir-Mound, the Maurya
Maurya
city preceding Sirkap
Sirkap
on the Taxila
Taxila
site, nor Sirsukh, the Kushan
Kushan
city succeeding her, did deliver any stone palettes during their excavations", in "Les palettes du Gandhara", p89. "The terminal point after which such palettes are not manufactured anymore is probably located during the Kushan
Kushan
period. In effect, neither Mathura
Mathura
nor Taxila
Taxila
(although the Sirsukh had only been little excavated), nor Begram, nor Surkh Kotal, neither the great Kushan
Kushan
archaeological sites of Soviet Central Asia
Central Asia
or Afghanistan
Afghanistan
have yielded such objects. Only four palettes have been found in Kushan-period archaeological sites. They come from secondary sites, such as Garav Kala and Ajvadz in Soviet Tajikistan and Jhukar, in the Indus
Indus
Valley, and Dalverzin Tepe. They are rather roughly made." In "Les Palettes du Gandhara", Henri-Paul Francfort, p 91. (in French in the original) ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
notice [1] ^ Ahmad Hasan Dani et al., History of Civilizations of Central Asia, 1999, p 201, Unesco ^ Richard Salomon, "An Inscribed Silver Buddhist
Buddhist
Reliquary of the Time of King
King
Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (July - September 1996), pp. 418-452 ^ "Afghanistan, carrefour en l'Est et l'Ouest" p.373. Also Senior 2003 ^ Des Indo-Grecs aux Sassanides, Rika Gyselen, Peeters Publishers, 2007, p.103 [2] ^ Source:"Butkara I", Faccena ^ "Gandhara" Francine Tissot ^ The Turin City Museum of Ancient Art
Turin City Museum of Ancient Art
Text and photographic reference: Terre Lontane O2 Archived 12 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ For the pilaster showing a man in Greek dress File:ButkaraPilaster.jpg. ^ Facenna, "Sculptures from the sacred area of Butkara I", plate CCCLXXI. The relief is this one, showing Indo- Scythians
Scythians
dancing and reveling, with on the back side a relief of a standing Buddha (not shown). ^ Faccenna, "Sculptures from the sacred area of Butkara I", plate CCCLXXII ^ Serindia, Vol I, 1980 Edition, p 8, M. A. Stein ^ H. C. Raychaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee; Early History of North India, p 3, S. Chattopadhyava; India
India
and Central Asia, p 126, P. C. Bagchi ^ Epigraphia Indiaca XIV, p 291 S Konow; Greeks in Bactria
Bactria
and India, p 473, fn, W. W. Tarn; Yuan Chwang I, pp 259–60, Watters; Comprehensive History of India, Vol I, p 189, N. K. Sastri; History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Unity, 122; History and Culture of Indian People, Classical Age, p 617, R. C. Majumdar, A. D. Pusalkar. ^ Scholars like E. J. Rapson, L. Petech etc. also connect Kipin with Kapisha. Levi holds that prior to AD 600, Kipin denoted Kashmir, but after this it implied Kapisha See Discussion in The Classical Age, p 671. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, II. 1. XX f; cf: Early History of North India, pp 54, S Chattopadhyaya. ^ India
India
and Central Asia, 1955, p 124, P. C. Bagchi; Geographical Data in Early Puranas, 1972, p 47, M. R. Singh. ^ See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p fn 13, B. N. Mukerjee; Chilas, Islamabad, 1983, no 72, 78, 85, pp 98, 102, A. H. Dani ^ Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 3–4. ^

viparite tada loke purvarupa.n kshayasya tat 34 bahavo mechchha rajanah prithivyam manujadhipa mithyanushasinah papa mrishavadaparayanah 35 Andhrah Shakah Pulindashcha Yavanashcha naradhipah Kamboja Bahlikah Shudrastath abhira narottama 36 — (MBH 3.188.34–36).

^ History and Culture of Indian People, The Vedic Age, pp 286–87, 313–14. ^ Intercourse Between India
India
and the Western World, pp 75–93, H. G. Rawlinson ^ e.g.: Aspa.bhrata.putrasa. See: An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King
King
Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Jounranal of the American Oriental Society, Vol 116, No 3, 1996, p 448, Richard Saloman. ^ An Inscribed Silver Buddhist
Buddhist
Reliquary of the Time of King
King
Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Jounranal of the American Oriental Society, Vol 116, No 3, 1996, p 448, Richard Saloman. ^ [3] Further Light on the Paratarajas ^ a b Sulimirski, Tadeusz (1970). The Sarmatians. Volume 73 of Ancient peoples and places. New York: Praeger. pp. 113–114. The evidence of both the ancient authors and the archaeological remains point to a massive migration of Sacian (Sakas)/Massagetan tribes from the Syr Daria Delta (Central Asia) by the middle of the second century B.C. Some of the Syr Darian tribes; they also invaded North India.  ^ Indian Institute of Romani Studies Archived 8 January 2013 at Archive.is ^ Rishi, Weer Rajendra (1982). India
India
& Russia: linguistic & cultural affinity. Roma. p. 95. 

References[edit]

Bailey, H. W. 1958. "Languages of the Saka." Handbuch der Orientalistik, I. Abt., 4. Bd., I. Absch., Leiden-Köln. 1958. Faccenna D., "Sculptures from the sacred area of Butkara I", Istituto Poligrafico Dello Stato, Libreria Dello Stato, Rome, 1964. Harmatta, János, ed., 1994. History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between AD 239 and 265. Draft annotated English translation. [6] Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries AD. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty. E. J. Brill, Leiden. Huet, Gerard (2010) "Heritage du Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionnaire, Sanskrit-Francais," p. 128. [7] Litvinsky, B. A., ed., 1996. History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. Liu, Xinru 2001 "Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan: Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies." Journal of World History, Volume 12, No. 2, Fall 2001. University of Hawaii Press, pp 261–292. [8]. Bulletin of the Asia Institute: The Archaeology and Art of Central Asia. Studies From the Former Soviet Union. New Series. Edited by B. A. Litvinskii and Carol Altman Bromberg. Translation directed by Mary Fleming Zirin. Vol. 8, (1994), pp 37–46. Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press, New York. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3. Pulleyblank, Edwin G. 1970. "The Wu-sun and Sakas
Sakas
and the Yüeh-chih Migration." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 33 (1970), pp 154–160. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
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Sakas
and Indo-Parthians." In: History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. Harmatta, János, ed., 1994. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, pp 191–207. Ronca, Italo (1971). Ptolemaios Geographie 6,9–21. Ostrian und Zentralasien, Teil I. IsMEO — ROM. Watson, Burton. Trans. 1993. Records of the Grand Historian of China: Han Dynasty II (Revised Edition). Translated from the Shih chi of Ssu-ma Ch'ien. Chapter 123: The Account of Ta-yüan. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08167-7 Wilcox, Peter and Angus McBride (1986). Rome's Enemies (3): Parthians and Sassanid Persians (Men-at-Arms). Osprey Publishing; illustrated edition. ISBN 978-0-85045-688-2. Yu, Taishan. 1998. A Study of Saka
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script, C. C. Dasgupta Ancient India, 1956, R. K. Mukerjee Ancient India, Vol III, T. L. Shah Hellenism in Ancient India, G. N. Banerjee Manu and Yajnavalkya, K. P. Jayswal Anabaseeos Alexanddrou, Arrian Mathura lion capital
Mathura lion capital
inscriptions Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, S. Konow

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indo-Scythians.

"Indo- Scythian
Scythian
dynasties", R. C. Senior Coins of the Indo-Scythians Burner relief History of Greco-India

v t e

Indo- Scythian
Scythian
kings, territories and chronology

Territories/ dates Western India Western Pakistan Balochistan Paropamisadae Arachosia Bajaur Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab Mathura

INDO-GREEK KINGDOM

90–85 BCE

Nicias Menander II Artemidoros

90–70 BCE

Hermaeus Archebius

85-60 BCE

INDO-SCYTHIAN KINGDOM Maues

75–70 BCE

Vonones Spalahores Telephos Apollodotus II

65–55 BCE

Spalirises Spalagadames Hippostratos Dionysios

55–35 BCE

Azes
Azes
I Zoilos II

55–35 BCE

Azilises Azes
Azes
II Apollophanes Indo- Scythian
Scythian
dynasty of the NORTHERN SATRAPS Hagamasha

25 BCE – 10 CE

Indo- Scythian
Scythian
dynasty of the APRACHARAJAS Vijayamitra (ruled 12 BCE - 15 CE)[n 1] Liaka Kusulaka Patika Kusulaka Zeionises Kharahostes (ruled 10 BCE– 10 CE)[n 2] Mujatria Strato II
Strato II
and Strato III Hagana

10-20CE

INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM Gondophares Indravasu INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM Gondophares Rajuvula

20-30 CE

Ubouzanes Pakores Vispavarma (ruled c.0-20 CE)[n 3] Sarpedones Bhadayasa Sodasa

30-40 CE

KUSHAN EMPIRE Kujula Kadphises Indravarma Abdagases ... ...

40-45 CE

Aspavarma Gadana ... ...

45-50 CE

Sasan Sases ... ...

50-75 CE

... ...

75-100 CE Indo- Scythian
Scythian
dynasty of the WESTERN SATRAPS Chastana

Vima Takto ... ...

100-120 CE Abhiraka

Vima Kadphises ... ...

120 CE Bhumaka Nahapana PARATARAJAS Yolamira Kanishka
Kanishka
I Great Satrap
Satrap
Kharapallana and Satrap
Satrap
Vanaspara for Kanishka
Kanishka
I

130-230 CE

Jayadaman Rudradaman I Damajadasri I Jivadaman Rudrasimha I Satyadaman Jivadaman Rudrasena I

Bagamira Arjuna Hvaramira Mirahvara

Vāsishka
Vāsishka
(c. 140 – c. 160) Huvishka
Huvishka
(c. 160 – c. 190) Vasudeva I
Vasudeva I
(c. 190 – to at least 230)

230-280 CE

Samghadaman Damasena Damajadasri II Viradaman Isvaradatta Yasodaman I Vijayasena Damajadasri III Rudrasena II Visvasimha

Miratakhma Kozana Bhimarjuna Koziya Datarvharna Datarvharna

INDO-SASANIANS Ardashir I, Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 230 – 250) Peroz I, "Kushanshah" (c. 250 – 265) Hormizd I, "Kushanshah" (c. 265 – 295)

Kanishka
Kanishka
II (c. 230 – 240) Vashishka (c. 240 – 250) Kanishka
Kanishka
III (c. 250 – 275)

280-300 Bhratadarman Datayola II

Hormizd II, "Kushanshah" (c. 295 – 300)

Vasudeva II
Vasudeva II
(c. 275 – 310)

300-320 CE

Visvasena Rudrasimha II Jivadaman

Peroz II, "Kushanshah" (c. 300 – 325)

Vasudeva III Vasudeva IV Vasudeva V Chhu
Chhu
(c. 310? – 325)

320-388 CE

Yasodaman II Rudradaman II Rudrasena III Simhasena Rudrasena IV

Shapur II
Shapur II
Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 325) Varhran I, Varhran II, Varhran III
Varhran III
"Kushanshahs" (c. 325 – 350) Peroz III "Kushanshah" (c. 350 –360) HEPHTHALITE/ HUNAS invasions

Shaka
Shaka
I (c. 325 – 345) Kipunada (c. 345 – 375)

GUPTA EMPIRE Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
Samudragupta

388-396 CE Rudrasimha III

Chandragupta II

^ From the dated inscription on the Rukhana reliquary ^ An Inscribed Silver Buddhist
Buddhist
Reliquary of the Time of King
King
Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Richard Salomon, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), pp. 442 [4] ^ A Kharosthī Reliquary Inscription
Inscription
of the Time of the Apraca
Apraca
Prince Visnuvarma, by Richard Salomon, South Asian Studies 11 1995, Pages 27-32, Published online: 09 Aug 2010 [5]

v t e

Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and cultural period

Northwestern India (Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India

Upper Gangetic Plain (Kuru-Panchala)

Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain

IRON AGE

Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period (Brahmin ideology)[a] Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period (Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b] Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history

 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation" Rise of Shramana
Shramana
movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga

Pre-history

 5th century BC (Persian rule)

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

 4th century BC (Greek conquests) Nanda empire

HISTORICAL AGE

Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period (300 BC – 200 AD)

 3rd century BC Maurya
Maurya
Empire Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[e][f] Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism Sangam period (continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom Shunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty

Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC

 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom

 2nd century Kushan
Kushan
Empire

 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan
Kushan
Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g] Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism

 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire Varman dynasty

Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Vishnukundina

 6th century Nezak Huns Kabul
Kabul
Shahi

Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami Chalukyas Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism
Hinduism
(ca. AD 650-1100)[h] Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
- Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

 7th century Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Pandyan Kingdom(Revival) Pallava

 8th century Kabul
Kabul
Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom Kalachuri

 9th century

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta dynasty Pandyan Kingdom Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Kalyani Chalukyas Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press 

v t e

Ancient South Asia
South Asia
and Central Asia

Archaeology and prehistory

Proto-Indo-Iranians Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex
Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex
(BMAC) Indo-Aryan migration theory Swat culture Genetics and archaeogenetics History of the horse

Historical peoples and clans

Saka Indo-Scythians Yuezhi Kambojas Sakaldwipiya Parsi Kidarites Alchon Huns Hephthalites Nezak Huns

States

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
Kingdom Kushan
Kushan
Empire Kamboja Kingdom

Mythology and literature

Shakdvipa Āryāvarta Indo- Scythians
Scythians
in Indian literature Uttaramadra Uttarakuru

Authority control

LCCN: sh85065714 BNF:

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