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Hispanic and Latino Americans ( es, Estadounidenses hispanos y latinos; pt, Estadunidenses hispânicos e latinos) are of or ancestry. More broadly, these demographics include all Americans who identify as or regardless of ancestry.Mark Hugo Lopez, Jens Manuel Krogstad and Jeffrey S. Passel
Who Is Hispanic?
Pew Research Center (November 11, 2019).
As of 2020, the Census Bureau estimated that there were almost 62.1 million Hispanics and Latinos living in the United States (18.7% of the overall population). "Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States of America. People who identify as Latino may be of any race. As one of the only two specifically designated categories of (the other being "Not Latino"), Latinos form a incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Latino Americans are of , , , , , or origin. The predominant origin of regional Latino populations varies widely in different locations across the country. In 2012, Latino/Hispanic Americans were the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after . Latinos of and are the oldest ethnic groups to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the and , as well as Florida. Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona and Texas, all of which were part of the based in . Later, this vast territory became part of Mexico after its independence from Spain in 1821 and until the end of the in 1848. Latino immigrants to the / derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American countries.


Terminology

The terms "" and "" refer to an . The defines being Latino as being a member of an ethnicity, rather than being a member of a particular and thus, people who are members of this group may be members of any race.Ana Gonzales-Barrera & Mark Hugo Lopez
Is being Hispanic a matter of race, ethnicity or both?
Pew Research Center (June 15, 2015).
In a 2015 national survey of self-identified Latinos, 56% said that being Latino is part of both their racial and ethnic background, while smaller numbers considered it part of their ethnic background only (19%) or racial background only (11%). Latinos may be of any linguistic background; in a 2015 survey, 71% of American Latinos agreed that it "is not necessary for a person to speak Spanish to be considered Hispanic/Latino." Latino people may share some commonalities in their language, culture, history and heritage. According to the , the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as , as well as those of Spanish-language origin. In the United States, many Latinos are of both Iberian (primarily Spanish) and Indigenous American ancestry (). Others may have European (including Jewish), Middle Eastern, or Asian ancestry as well as of ancestry. Many Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of n descent as well. The difference between the terms ''Hispanic'' and ''Latino'' is confusing to some. The US Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. After the concluded in 1848, term ''Hispanic'' or ''Spanish American'' was primarily used to describe the within the . The controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.Cobos, Rubén (2003) "Introduction," ''A Dictionary of New Mexico & Southern Colorado Spanish'' (2nd ed.); Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press; p. ix; This definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U.S. Census Bureau and , as the two agencies use both terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably. The believes the term "Hispanic" is strictly limited to and all countries where is the official language only and includes whereas "Latino" includes all countries in (i.e. ) regardless of the official language, but does not include Spain. Latino is a condensed form of the term ''"latinoamericano"'', the Spanish word for Latin American, or someone who comes from Latin America. The term ''Latino'' has developed a number of definitions. This definition, as "male Latin-American inhabitant of the United States", is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946. Under this definition a or , for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A is also a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. Preference of use between the terms among Hispanics and Latinos in the United States often depends on where users of the respective terms reside. Those in the Eastern United States tend to prefer the term ''Hispanic,'' whereas those in the West tend to prefer ''Latino''. The US ethnic designation ''Latino'' is abstracted from the longer form ''latinoamericano''. The element ''latino-'' is actually an indeclinable, compositional form in ''-o'' (i.e. an ''elemento compositivo'') that is employed to coin compounded formations (similar as ''franco-'' in ''francocanadiense'' 'French-Canadian′, or ''ibero-'' in ''iberorrománico'', etc.). The term ' (and similar ') gained currency among some in the 2010s. The adoption of the ''X'' would be " flecting new consciousness inspired by more recent work by LGBTQI and feminist movements, some Spanish-speaking activists are increasingly using a yet more inclusive "x" to replace the "a" and "o," in a complete break with the gender binary". Among the advocates of the term ''LatinX'', one of most frequently cited complaints of gender bias in the Spanish language is that a group of mixed or unknown gender would be referred to as ''Latinos'', whereas ''Latinas'' refers to a group of women only (but this is changed immediately to ''Latinos'', if even a single man joins this female group). A 2020 Pew Research Center survey found that about 3% of Latinos use the term (mostly women), and only around 23% have even heard of the term. Of those, 65% said it should not be used to describe their ethnic group. Some have pointed out that the term “Latino” refers to a pan-ethnic identity, one that spans a range of races, national origins, and linguistic backgrounds. ”Terms like Hispanic and Latino do not fully capture how we see ourselves,” says Geraldo Cadava, an associate professor of history and Latina and Latino studies at . According to 2017 data, a small minority of (2%), (2%) and (1%) self-identify as Hispanic.


History


16th and 17th centuries

Spanish explorers were pioneers in the territory of the present-day United States. The first confirmed European landing in the continental United States was by , who landed in 1513 at a lush shore he christened '. In the next three decades, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the , the , the and the . Spanish ships sailed along the , penetrating to present-day , and up the as far as . From 1528 to 1536, and three fellows (including an African named ), from a Spanish expedition that foundered, journeyed from Florida to the . In 1540, undertook an extensive exploration of the present United States. That same year led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican natives across today's –Mexico border and traveled as far as central , close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States. Other Spanish explorers of the US territory include, among others: , , , , , , , and , and non-Spanish explorers working for the Spanish Crown, such as . In 1565, the Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at . Spanish missionaries and colonists founded settlements in , , , , , , and , to name a few.


18th and 19th centuries

As late as 1783, at the end of the (a conflict in which Spain alongside the rebels), Spain held claim to roughly half the territory of today's continental United States. From 1819 to 1848, the United States (through treaties, purchase, diplomacy, and the ) increased its area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, acquiring its three currently most populous states—, and .. Many Latino natives lived in the areas that the United States acquired, and a new wave of Mexican, Central American, Caribbean, and South American immigrants had moved to the United States for new opportunities. This was the beginning of a demographic that would rise dramatically over the years.Gutiérrez, David G. "An Historic Overview of Latino Immigration and the Demographic Transformation of the United States." National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, www.nps.gov/heritageinitiatives/latino/latinothemestudy/immigration.htm.


20th and 21st centuries

During the 20th and 21st centuries, Latino immigration to the United States increased markedly following changes to the in 1965. During the World Wars, Latino Americans and immigrants had helped stabilize the American economy from falling due to the industrial boom in the Midwest in states such as Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. While a percentage of Americans had fled their jobs for the war, Latinos had taken their jobs in the Industrial world. This can explain why there is such a high concentration of Latino Americans in Metro Areas such as the Chicago-Elgin-Naperville, Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, and Cleveland-Elyria areas. Latino contributions in the historical past and present of the United States are addressed in more detail below (See ). To recognize the current and historic contributions of Latino Americans, on September 17, 1968, President designated a week in mid-September as National Hispanic Heritage Week, with 's authorization. In 1988, President extended the observance to a month, designated . Latino Americans became the largest minority group in 2004.


Demographics

As of 2017, Latinos accounted for 18% of the US population, or almost 59 million people. The Latino growth rate over the April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007, period was 28.7%—about four times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 7.2%). The growth rate from July 1, 2005, to July 1, 2006, alone was 3.4%—about three and a half times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 1.0%). Based on the 2010 census, Latinos are now the largest minority group in 191 out of 366 metropolitan areas in the United States. The projected Latino population of the United States for July 1, 2050 is 132.8 million people, or 30.2% of the nation's total projected population on that date.


Geographic distribution

US Metropolitan Statistical Areas with over 1 million Latinos (2014) States and territories with the highest proportion of Latinos (2010) Of the nation's total Latino population, 49% (21.5 million) live in or . Over half of the Latino population is concentrated in the region, mostly composed of Mexican Americans. and have some of the largest populations of Mexicans and Central American Latinos in the United States. The region is dominated by and , having the highest concentrations of both in the country. In the Mid Atlantic region, centered on the , are the largest of Latino groups. is dominated by and Puerto Ricans. In both the and the , Mexicans and Puerto Ricans dominate. Mexicans dominate in the rest of the country, including the , and states.


National origin

As of 2018, approximately 62% of the nation's Latino population were of Mexican origin (see table). Another 9.6% were of Puerto Rican origin, with about 3.9% each of and and 3.4% origins. The remainder were of other Central American or of South American origin, or of origin directly from Spain. Two thirds of all Hispanic and Latino Americans were born in the United States. There are few immigrants directly from Spain, since Spaniards have historically emigrated to Latin America rather than to English-speaking countries. Because of this, most Latinos who identify themselves as ''Spaniard'' or ''Spanish'' also identify with Latin American national origin. In the 2017 Census estimate approximately 1.3 million Americans reported some form of "Spanish" as their ancestry, whether directly from Spain or not. In northern New Mexico and southern , there is a large portion of Latinos who trace their ancestry to Spanish settlers of the late 16th century through the 17th century. People from this background often self-identify as "", "Spanish" or "Hispanic". Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Native Americans, creating a population. Likewise, southern is home to communities of people of descent, known as s, in addition to other people of Spanish ancestry. s, s, and s are Americans of and/or descent. Chicanos live in the , Nuevomexicanos in and Tejanos in . Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos are distinct cultures with their own cuisines, dialects and musical traditions. The term "Chicano" became popular amongst Mexican Americans in the 1960s during the and , and is today seen as an ethnic and cultural identity by some. Political activist and novelist are famous Chicanos. s are Americans of descent from the area. There are close to two million Nuyoricans in the United States. Famous Nuyoricans include Congresswomen , US Supreme Court Judge and singer .


Race

Latinos come from multi-racial and multi-ethnic countries with diversity of origins; therefore, a Latino can be from any race or mix of it. The often most common ancestries are: Indigenous from the Americas (Native-Americans), African, and European. Therefore, most Latinos have mixed ancestry of different combinations and ratios, although non-mixed Latinos of each race also exist in varied amounts on each country. Latino origin is independent of race and is termed "ethnicity" by the . Depending on the regions within Latin America, a significant proportion of Latinos have high to moderate levels of colonial-era Sub-Saharan African input through the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. But also as a result from Europeans of Mixed race by way of the North African Moorish Muslim occupation of Iberia intermixing their genes into the population. Similarly to Spaniards, Portuguese, English, German and many other European nations over the centuries, many Latin Americans also possess colonial era Sephardic Jewish ancestry. To a lesser extent other Latin Americans possess at least partial ancestry of more recent post-colonial ancestry from Ashkenazi Jews, Levantine Arabs (Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian), as well as Chinese and Japanese among others. Thus, as a whole, Latin Americans are a multiracial population, with degrees of admixture levels that vary from person to person, from varying global genetic sources. On the , 20.3% of Hispanics or Latinos identified selected "white" as their race. These white Latinos make up 12,579,626 people or 3.8% of the population. The largest numbers of those who consider themselves come from within the , , , , and communities. Over 42% of Latino Americans identify as "". These "some other race" Latinos are usually assumed to be Mestizos or Mulattos. A significant percentage of the Latino population self-identifies as , particularly the Mexican and Central American community. is not a , but signifies someone who is conscious of their Native American and European ancestry. Of all Americans who checked the box "Some Other Race", 97 percent were Hispanic. Almost one-third of the multi-race respondents were Latinos. Most of the multi-racial population in the Mexican, Salvadoran, and Guatemalan communities are of mixed European and Native American ancestry (), while most of the multiracial population in the Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Cuban communities are of mixed European, African, and Native American ancestry (/Tri-racial). The largest numbers of are from the Spanish Caribbean islands, including the Cuban, , and Puerto Rican communities. The few hundred thousand Asian Latinos are of various backgrounds, among which include s with Spanish background, Asians of Latin American background (examples including and ) and those of recent mixed Asian and Hispanic background. Note that are generally ''not'' counted as Hispanic, despite the fact that the Spanish colonized the Philippines and many Filipinos have Spanish names. Latinos are often racially of Native American ancestry. For example, of Latinos deriving from northern Mexico, consider themselves white or acknowledge Native American ancestry with some European mixtures, while of those deriving from southern Mexican ancestry, the majority are Native American or of Native American and European Ancestry. In Guatemala, Mayans are majority, while in El Salvador, people of Native American descent are the majority. In the Dominican Republic, the population are largely made up of people with inter-mixed ancestries, in which there are even levels of European ancestry, with smaller numbers of white and black people as well. In Puerto Rico, people with multi-racial ancestry are the majority. There are also populations of predominantly of African descent as well as populations of Native American descent as well as those with intermixed ancestries. Cubans are mostly of white Latin American ancestry, however there are also populations of black and multi-racial people as well. The race and culture of each Hispanic/Latino country and their United States diaspora differs by history and geography. Persons of Mexican heritage represent the bulk of the US Latino population. Most Mexican Americans already with a multi-generational presence in the USA predating the 1970s are of predominantly European origin, while most recent Mexican Americans that have migrated or descend from migrants to the United States post-1980s are of predominantly Native American descent with varying levels of European admixture. Official sources report that the racial makeup of Latino subgroups from the countries Brazil, Uruguay, Cuba and Chile, have the highest proportion, for their respective countries, of Latinos in the US self-identifying as white – though in raw numbers the highest number of white Latinos in the United States are Mexican Americans. As a result of their racial diversity, Latinos form an sharing a language ( and ) and cultural heritage, rather than a . The phenomenon of biracial people who are predominantly of European descent identifying as white is not limited to Latinos or Spanish speakers but is also common among English speakers as well: researchers found that most white Americans with less than 28 percent African-American ancestry say they are white; above that threshold, people tended to describe themselves as African-American.


Age

As of 2014, one third, or 17.9 million, of the Latino population was younger than 18 and a quarter, 14.6 million, were . This makes them more than half of the Latino population within the United States.


Education


Latino K–12 education

With the increasing Latino population in the United States, Latinos have had a considerable impact on the K–12 system. In 2011–12, Latinos comprised 24% of all enrollments in the United States, including 52% and 51% of enrollment in California and Texas, respectively.Santiago, D., Galdeano, E. C., & Taylor, M. (2015). The Condition of Latinos in Education: 2015 Factbook. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)77934-8 Further research shows the Latino population will continue to grow in the United States, implicating that more Latinos will populate U.S schools. The state of Latino education shows some promise. First, Latino students attending pre-K or kindergarten were more likely to attend full-day programs. Second, Latinos in elementary education were the second largest group represented in gifted and talented programs. Third, Latinos' average math and reading scores have consistently increased over the last 10 years. Finally, Latinos were more likely than other groups, including whites, to go to college. However, their academic achievement in early childhood, elementary, and secondary education lag behind other groups. For instance, their average math and reading scores were lower than every other group, except African Americans, and have the highest dropout rate of any group, 13% despite decreasing from 24%. To explain these disparities, some scholars have suggested there is a Latino "Education Crisis" due to failed school and social policies. To this end, scholars have further offered several potential reasons including language barriers, poverty, and immigrant/nativity status resulting in Latinos not performing well academically.


English language learners

Currently, Latino students make up 80% of in the United States. In 2008–2009, 5.3 million students were classified as English Language Learners (ELLs) in pre-K to 12th grade. This is a result of many students entering the education system at different ages, although the majority of ELLs are not foreign born. In order to provide English instruction for Latino students there have been a multitude of English Language programs. However, the great majority of these programs are English Immersion, which arguably undermines the students' culture and knowledge of their primary language. As such, there continues to be great debate within schools as to which program can address these language disparities.


Immigration status

Undocumented immigrants have not always had access to compulsory education in the United States. However, since the landmark Supreme Court case ' in 1982, immigrants have received access to K-12 education. This significantly impacted all immigrant groups, including Latinos. However, their academic achievement is dependent upon several factors including, but not limited to time of arrival and schooling in country of origin. Moreover, Latinos' immigration/nativity status plays a major role regarding their academic achievement. For instance, first- and second- generation Latinos outperform their later generational counterparts. Additionally, their aspirations appear to decrease as well. This has major implications on their postsecondary futures.


Latino higher education

Those with a bachelor's degree or higher ranges from 50% of Venezuelans compared to 18% for Ecuadorians 25 years and older. Amongst the largest Latino groups, those with a bachelor's or higher was 25% for Cuban Americans, 16% of Puerto Ricans, 15% of Dominicans, and 11% for Mexican Americans. Over 21% of all second-generation Dominican Americans have college degrees, slightly below the national average (28%) but significantly higher than U.S.-born Mexican Americans (13%) and U.S.-born Puerto Rican Americans (12%). Latinos make up the second or third largest ethnic group in universities, considered to be the most prestigious in the United States. Latino enrollment at Ivy League universities has gradually increased over the years. Today, Latinos make up between 8% of students at to 15% at . For example, 18% of students in the Class of 2018 are Latino. Latinos have significant enrollment in many other top universities such as (70% of students), (63%), (27%), and , and at 15% each. At , Latinos are the third largest ethnic group behind non-Latino whites and Asians, at 18% of the student population.


Latino university enrollments

While Latinos study in colleges and universities throughout the country, some choose to attend federally-designated s, institutions that are accredited, degree-granting, public or private nonprofit institutions of higher education with 25 percent or more total undergraduate Latino full-time equivalent (FTE) student enrollment. There are over 270 institutions of higher education that have been designated as an HSI.


Health


Longevity

As of 2016, life expectancy for Latino Americans is 81.8 years, which is higher than the life expectancy for non-Latino white Americans (78.6 years). Research on the ""—the well-established apparent mortality advantage of Latino Americans compared to non-Latino white Americans, despite the latter's more advantaged socioeconomic status—has been principally explained by "(1) health-related migration to and from the US; and (2) social and cultural protection mechanisms, such as maintenance of healthy lifestyles and behaviors adopted in the countries of origin, and availability of extensive social networks in the US."Noreen Goldman
Will the Latino Mortality Advantage Endure?
''Research on Aging'' Vol. 38, Issue 3, April 2016, pp. 263-283.
The "salmon bias" hypothesis, which suggests that the Latino health advantage is attributable to higher rates of among less-healthy migrants, has received some support in the scholarly literature. A 2019 study, examining the comparatively better health of foreign-born American Latinos, challenged the hypothesis that a stronger orientation toward the family () contributed to this advantage. Some scholars have suggested that the Latino mortality advantage is likely to disappear due to the higher rates of and among Latinos relative to non-Latino white people, although lower rates of smoking (and thus ) among Latinos may counteract this to some extent.


Healthcare

As of 2017, about 19% of Latino Americans , which is the highest of all ethnic groups except for Indigenous Americans and Alaska Natives. In terms of extending health coverage, Latinos benefited the most among U.S. ethnic groups from the (ACA); among non-elderly Latinos, the uninsured rate declined from 26.7% in 2013 to 14.2% in 2017. Among the population of non-elderly uninsured Latino population in 2017, about 53% were non-citizens, about 39% were U.S.-born citizens, and about 9% were naturalized citizens. (The ACA does not help undocumented immigrants or legal immigrants with less than five years' residence in the United States gain coverage). According to a 2013 study, Mexican women have the highest uninsured rate (54.6%) as compared to other immigrants (26.2%), black (22.5%) and non-Latino white (13.9%).de Leon Siantz, M. L., Castaneda, X., Benavente, V., Peart, T., & Felt, E. (2013). The health status of Latino immigrant women in the United States and future health policy implication of the affordable care act. Global Advances in Health and Medicine, 2(5), 70-74. According to the study, Mexican women are the largest female immigrant group in the United States and are also the most at risk for developing preventable health conditions.de Leon Siantz, M. L., Castaneda, X., Benavente, V., Peart, T., & Felt, E. (2013). The health status of latino immigrant women in the United States and future health policy implication of the affordable care act. Global Advances in Health and Medicine, 2(5), 70-74. Multiple factors such as limited access to health care, legal status and income increase the risk of developing preventable health conditions because many undocumented immigrants postpone routine visits to the doctor until they become seriously ill.


Mental health


Family separation

Some families who are in the process of illegally crossing borders can suffer being caught and separated by border patrol agents. Migrants are also in danger of separation if they do not bring sufficient resources such as water for all members to continue crossing. Once illegal migrants have arrived to the new country, they may fear workplace raids where illegal immigrants are detained and deported. Family separation puts U.S born children, undocumented children and their illegal immigrant parents at risk for depression and family maladaptive syndrome. The effects are often long-term and the impact extends to the community level. Children may experience emotional traumas and long-term changes in behaviors. Additionally, when parents are forcefully removed, children often develop feelings of abandonment and they might blame themselves for what has happened to their family. Some children that are victims to illegal border crossings that result in family separation believe in the possibility of never seeing their parents again. These effects can cause negative parent-child attachment. Reunification may be difficult because of immigration laws and re-entry restrictions which further affect the mental health of children and parents. Parents who leave their home country also experience negative mental health experiences. According to a study published in 2013, 46% of Mexican migrant men who participated in the study reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms.Letiecq, B., L., Grzywacz, J., G., Gray, K., M., Eudave, Y., M.(2014). Depression among Mexican men on the migration frontier: the role of family separation and other structural and situational stressors. , 16, 1193–1200 In recent years, the length of stay for migrants has increased, from 3 years to nearly a decade. Migrants who were separated from their families, either married or single, experienced greater depression than married men accompanied by their spouses. Furthermore, the study also revealed that men who are separated from their families are more prone to harsher living conditions such as overcrowded housing and are under a greater deal of pressure to send remittance to support their families. These conditions put additional stress on the migrants and often worsen their depression. Families who migrated together experience better living conditions, receive emotional encouragement and motivation from each other, and share a sense of solidarity. They are also more likely to successfully navigate the employment and health care systems in the new country, and are not pressured to send remittances back home.


Discrimination

It is reported that 31% of Latinos have reported personal experiences with whilst 82% of Latinos believe that discrimination plays a crucial role in whether or not they will find success while they are living in the United States.Torres, S., A., Santiago, C., D., Walts, K., K., Richards, M., H. (2018). Immigration policy, practices and procedures: the impact on the mental health of Mexican and central American youth and families. American Psychologist, 1-12. The current legislation on immigration policies also plays a crucial role in creating a hostile and discriminatory environment for immigrants. In order to measure the discrimination which immigrants are being subjected to, researchers must take into account the immigrants' perception that they are being targeted for discrimination and they must also be aware that instances of discrimination can also vary based on: personal experiences, social attitudes and ethnic group barriers. The immigrant experience is associated with lower self-esteem, internalized symptoms and behavioral problems amongst Mexican youth. It is also known that more time which is spent living in the United States is associated with increased feelings of distress, and . Like many other Latin American groups that migrate to the United States, these groups are often stigmatized. An example of this stigmatization occurred after , when people who were considered threats to national security were frequently described with terms like migrant and the "Latino Other" along with other terms like refugee and asylum seeker.


Vulnerabilities

The significantly changed how the United States dealt with immigration. Under this new law, immigrants who overstayed their visas or were found to be in the United States illegally were subject to be detained and/or deported without legal representation. Immigrants who broke these laws may not be allowed back into the country. Similarly, this law made it more difficult for other immigrants who want to enter the U.S or gain legal status. These laws also expanded the types of offenses that can be considered worthy of deportation for documented immigrants.Torres, S., A., Santiago, C., D., Walts, K., K., Richards, M., H.(2018). Immigration policy, practices and procedures: the impact on the mental health of Mexican and central American youth and families. American Psychologist, 1-12. Policies enacted by future presidents further limit the number of immigrants entering the country and their expedited removal. Many illegal immigrant families cannot enjoy doing everyday activities without exercising caution because they fear encountering immigration officers which limits their involvement in community events. Undocumented families also do not trust government institutions and services. Because of their fear of encountering immigration officers, illegal immigrants often feel ostracized and isolated which can lead to the development of mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. The harmful effects of being ostracized from the rest of society are not limited to just that of undocumented immigrants but it affects the entire family even if some of the members are of legal status. Children often reported having been victims of bullying in school by classmates because their parents are undocumented. This can cause them to feel isolated and develop a sense of inferiority which can negatively impact their academic performance.


Stress

Despite the struggles Latino families encounter, they have found ways to keep motivated. Many immigrants use religion as a source of motivation. Mexican immigrants believed that the difficulties they face are a part of God's bigger plan and believe their life will get better in the end. They kept their faith strong and pray every day, hoping that God will keep their families safe.Hinojos, B.(2013). Stressors and Coping Strategies of Undocumented Latinos in Therapy. Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences. Retrieved from: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1189&context=cehsdiss Immigrants participate in church services and bond with other immigrants that share the same experiences. Undocumented Latinos also find support from friends, family and the community that serve as coping mechanisms. Some Latinos state that their children are the reason they have the strength to keep on going. They want their children to have a future and give them things they aren't able to have themselves. The community is able to provide certain resources that immigrant families need such as tutoring for their children, financial assistance and counseling services. Some identified that maintaining a positive mental attitude helped them cope with the stresses they experience. Many immigrants refuse to live their life in constant fear which leads to depression in order to enjoy life in the United States. Since many immigrants have unstable sources of income, many plan ahead in order to prevent future financial stress. They put money aside and find ways to save money instead of spend it such as learning to fix appliances themselves.


Poverty

Many Latino families migrate to find better economic opportunities in order to send remittances back home. Being undocumented limits the possibilities of jobs that immigrants undertake and many struggle to find a stable job. Many Latinos report that companies turned them down because they do not have a Social Security number. If they are able to obtain a job, immigrants risk losing it if their employer finds out they are unable to provide proof of residency or citizenship. Many look towards agencies that do not ask for identification, but those jobs are often unreliable. In order to prevent themselves from being detained and deported, many have to work under exploitation. In a study, a participant reported "If someone knows that you don't have the papers. . .that person is a danger. Many people will con them. . . if they know you don't have the papers, with everything they say 'hey I'm going to call immigration on you.'". These conditions lower the income that Latino families bring to their household and some find living each day very difficult. When an undocumented parent is deported or detained, income will be lowered significantly if the other parent also supports the family financially. The parent who is left has to look after the family and might find working difficult to manage along with other responsibilities. Even if families aren't separated, Latinos are constantly living in fear that they will lose their economic footing. Living in poverty has been linked to depression, low self-esteem, loneliness, crime activities and frequent drug use among youth. Families with low incomes are unable to afford adequate housing and some of them are evicted. The environment in which the children of undocumented immigrants grow up in is often composed of poor air quality, noise, and toxins which prevent healthy development. Furthermore, these neighborhoods are prone to violence and gang activities, forcing the families to live in constant fear which can contribute to the development of PTSD, aggression and depression.


Economic outlook


Median income

In 2017, the US Census reported the median household incomes of Latino Americans to be $50,486. This is the third consecutive annual increase in median household income for Latino-origin households.https://census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/demo/p60-263.pdf


Poverty

According to the , the Latinos was 18.3 percent in 2017, down from 19.4 percent in 2016. Latinos accounted for 10.8 million individuals in poverty. In comparison, the average poverty rates in 2017 for non-Latino white Americans was 8.7 percent with 17 million individuals in poverty, Asian Americans was 10.0 percent with 2 million individuals in poverty, and African Americans was 21.2 percent with 9 million individuals in poverty. Among the largest Latino groups during 2015 was: Honduran Americans & Dominican Americans (27%), Guatemalan Americans (26%), Puerto Ricans (24%), Mexican Americans (23%), Salvadoran Americans (20%), Cuban Americans and Venezuelan Americans (17%), Ecuadorian Americans (15%), Nicaraguan Americans (14%), Colombian Americans (13%), Argentinian Americans (11%) and Peruvian Americans (10%). Poverty affects many underrepresented students as racial/ethnic minorities tend to stay isolated within pockets of low-income communities. This results in several inequalities, such as "school offerings, teacher quality, curriculum, counseling and all manner of things that both keep students engaged in school and prepare them to graduate". In the case of Latinos, the poverty rate for Latino children in 2004 was 28.6 percent. Moreover, with this lack of resources, schools reproduce these inequalities for generations to come. In order to assuage poverty, many Latino families can turn to social and community services as resources.


Cultural matters

The geographic, political, social, economic and racial diversity of Latino Americans makes all Latinos very different depending on their family heritage and/or national origin. Many times, there are many cultural similarities between Latinos from neighboring countries than from more distant countries, ie Spanish Caribbean, Southern Cone, Central America etc. Yet several features tend to unite Latinos from these diverse backgrounds.


Language


Spanish

As one of the most important uniting factors of Latino Americans, is an important part of Latin American culture. Teaching Spanish to children is often one of the most valued skills taught amongst Latino families. Spanish is not only closely tied with the person's family, heritage, and overall culture, but valued for increased opportunities in business and one's future professional career. A 2013 Pew Research survey showed that 95% of Latinos adults said "it's important that future generations of Hispanics speak Spanish". Given the United States' proximity to other , Spanish is being passed on to future American generations. Amongst second-generation Latinos, 80% speak fluent Spanish, and amongst third-generation Latinos, 40% speak fluent Spanish. Spanish is also the most popular language taught in the United States. Latinos have revived the . First brought to by the Spanish during the Spanish colonial period in the 16th century, Spanish was the first European language spoken in the Americas. Spanish is the oldest European language in the United States, spoken uninterruptedly for four and a half centuries, since the founding of in 1565. Today, 90% of all Hispanics and Latinos speak English, and at least 78% speak fluent Spanish. Additionally, 2.8 million non-Latino Americans also speak Spanish at home for a total of 41.1 million. With 40% of Latino Americans being immigrants, and with many of the 60% who are US-born being the children or grandchildren of immigrants, is the norm in the community at large. At home, at least 69% of all Latinos over the age of five are bilingual in English and Spanish, whereas up to 22% are monolingual English-speakers, and 9% are monolingual Spanish speakers. Another 0.4% speak a language other than English and Spanish at home. [There were 39.5 million Hispanic and Latino Americans aged 5 or more in 2006. 8.5 million of them, or 22%, spoke only English at home, and another 156,000, or 0.4%, spoke neither English nor Spanish at home. The other 30.8 million, or 78%, spoke Spanish at home. Of these, 3.7 million spoke no English, while the overwhelming majority, 27.2 million, did, at these levels: 15.5 million "very well", 5.8 million "well", and 5.9 million "not well". These 27.2 million bilingual speakers represented 69% of all (39.5 million) Hispanic and Latino Americans aged five or over in 2006, while the 3.7 million monolingual Spanish-speakers represented 9%.]


American Spanish dialects

The Spanish dialects spoken in the United States differ depending on the country of origin of the person or the person's family heritage. However, generally, Spanish spoken in the is (or ). An old, colonial variety of Spanish is spoken by descendants of the early Spanish colonists in and , which is . One of the major distinctions of New Mexican Spanish is its heavy use of colonial vocabulary and verb tenses that make uniquely American amongst Spanish dialects. The Spanish spoken in the is and is heavily influenced by the Spanish of , the , and . is the historic Spanish dialect spoken by the descendants of the earliest Spanish colonists beginning in the 18th century in . Spanish spoken elsewhere throughout the country varies, although is generally . Heritage Spanish speakers tend to speak Spanish with near-native level phonology, but a more limited command of morphosyntax. Latinos who speak Spanish as a second language often speak with English accents.


Spanglish and English dialects

Latinos have influenced the way Americans speak with the introduction of many Spanish words into the English language. Amongst younger generations of Latinos, , or a mix of Spanish and English, may be a common way of speaking. Although they are fluent in both languages, speakers will switch between Spanish and English throughout the conversation. Spanglish is particularly common in Latino-majority cities and communities such as , , , and . Latinos have also influenced the way English is spoken in the United States. In Miami, for example, the has evolved as the most common form of English spoken and heard in Miami today. This is a native dialect of English, and was developed amongst second and third generations of s in Miami. Today, it is commonly heard everywhere throughout the city. and are examples of people who speak with the Miami dialect. Another major English dialect, is spoken by s and s in the , called . and are examples of speakers of Chicano English. An English dialect spoken by Puerto Ricans and other Latino groups is called .


Religion

A study in 2019, found that the majority of Latino Americans are (72%), Among American Latinos, as of 2018–19, 47% are , 24% are , 1% are , fewer than 1% are , 3% are members of non-Christian faiths, and 23% are .In U.S., Decline of Christianity Continues at Rapid Pace
Pew Research Center (October 17, 2019).
The proportion of Latinos who are Catholic has dropped from 2009 (when it was 57%), while the proportion of unaffiliated Latinos has increased since 2009 (when it was 15%). Among Latino Protestant community, most are , but some belong to .The Shifting Religious Identity of Latinos in the United States
Pew Research Center (May 7, 2014).
Compared to Catholic, unaffiliated, and mainline Protestant Latinos; Evangelical Protestant Latinos are substantially more likely to attend services weekly, pray daily, and adhere to . As of 2014, about 67% of Latino Protestants and about 52% of Latino Catholics were renewalist, meaning that they described themselves as or s (in the Catholic tradition, called ). Catholic affiliation is much higher among first-generation than it is among second- or third-generation Latino immigrants, who exhibit a fairly high rate of conversion to Protestantism or to the unaffiliated camp. According to , as many as 600,000 American Latinos leave Catholicism for Protestant churches every year, and this figure is much higher in and . Latino Catholics are developing youth and social programs to retain members. Latinos make up a substantial proportion (almost 40%) of the ,Elizabeth Dias

''New York Times'' (November 12, 2019).
although the number of American Latino is low relative to Latino membership in the church. In 2019, , and a naturalized American citizen born in Mexico, was elected as president of the .


Media

The United States is home to thousands of Spanish-language outlets, which range in size from giant commercial and some non-commercial and major magazines with circulations numbering in the millions, to low-power stations with listeners numbering in the hundreds. There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting US Latino consumers. Some of the outlets are online versions of their printed counterparts and some online exclusively. Increased use of Spanish-language media leads to increased levels of group consciousness, according to survey data. The differences in attitudes are due to the diverging goals of Spanish-language and English-language media. The effect of using Spanish-language media serves to promote a sense of group consciousness among Latinos by reinforcing roots in Latin America and the commonalities among Latinos of varying national origin. The first Latino-American owned major in the United States is based in . In 2017, Ozzie and Will Areu purchased former studio to establish Areu Bros. Studios.


Radio

Spanish language radio is the largest non-English broadcasting media. While other foreign language broadcasting declined steadily, Spanish broadcasting grew steadily from the 1920s to the 1970s. The 1930s were boom years. The early success depended on the concentrated geographical audience in Texas and the Southwest. American stations were close to Mexico which enabled a steady circular flow of entertainers, executives and technicians, and stimulated the creative initiatives of Latino radio executives, brokers, and advertisers. Ownership was increasingly concentrated in the 1960s and 1970s. The industry sponsored the now-defunct trade publication ''Sponsor'' from the late 1940s to 1968. Spanish-language radio has influenced American and Latino discourse on key current affairs issues such as citizenship and immigration.


Networks

Notable Latino-oriented media outlets include: * , a Spanish-language news network based in ; * and , two Spanish-language sports television networks. * , the second-largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major , and numerous affiliates internationally; ** an American Spanish language digital multicast television network owned by NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises. ** , a cable network that produces content for U.S.-born Latino audiences; * , the largest in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally. It is the country's fourth-largest network overall; ** , an American Spanish language free-to-air television network owned by Univision Communications. ** , an English television channel targeting Latino audiences with news and satire programming; ** , a Spanish-language television channel targeting Latino audiences with general entertainment programming; * , an American Spanish-language broadcast television network owned by the Estrella Media. * , a Spanish-language television network; ** , an English-language cable channel aimed at Latino youth.; * , a Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally; * , a former music channel that merged with the Latino-oriented in 2015. ** , a music-centric channel that replaced NuvoTV following the latter's merger with Fuse in 2015. * Latino, a Spanish-language Christian television network based in ; * , a Spanish-language Christian television network based in ;


Print

* ', a Spanish-language daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the six counties of . It is the largest Spanish-language newspaper in the United States; * ' and ''Diario Las Américas'', Spanish-language daily newspapers serving the greater market; * ' a Spanish-language free-circulation weekly newspaper published in * ', a magazine for , Latina women * ', a Spanish-language magazine counterpart of ; * '','' a Spanish-language entertainment magazine distributed throughout the .


Sports and music

Because of different cultures throughout Latin America, there are various music forms throughout Latin American countries, with different sounds and origins. Many Latinos prefer musical genres from their home countries than music from the United States. Mostly, the recent arrivals listened to Spanish music, while Latinos who been in the United States for generations tend to listen more to English music. and are genres that are most popular to Latino youth in the United States. is a common sport for Latinos from outside of the Caribbean region, particularly immigrants. is a common among Caribbean Latinos. Other popular sports include , , and .


Cuisine

Latino food, particularly Mexican food, has influenced and eating habits. has become so mainstream in American culture that many no longer see it as an ethnic food. Across the United States, s and are arguably becoming as common as hamburger buns and . s have surpassed s in annual sales, and popular in cuisines have continued to increase sales. , such as , and , have become more popular and are now common flavors in desserts, candies and food dishes in the United States. Due to the large Mexican-American population in the Southwestern United States, and its proximity to , Mexican food there is believed to be some of the best in the United States. brought to and today, , pastelitos de guayaba and s are common mid-day snacks in the city. Cuban culture has changed Miami's coffee drinking habits, and today a or a cortadito is commonly had at one of the city's numerous coffee shops. The , developed in Miami, is now a staple and icon of the city's cuisine and culture.


Familial situations


Family life and values

Latino culture places a strong value on family, and is commonly taught to Latino children as one of the most important values in life. Statistically, Latino families tend to have larger and closer knit families than the American average. Latino families tend to prefer to live near other family members. This may mean that three or sometimes four generations may be living in the same household or near each other, although four generations is uncommon in the United States. The role of s is believed to be very important in the upbringing of children. Latinos tend to be very group-oriented, and an emphasis is placed on the well-being of the family above the individual. The extended family plays an important part of many Latino families, and frequent social, family gatherings are common. Traditional rites of passages, particularly s: such as s, birthdays, s, s/Baile de debutante (for Brazilians), s, s and s are all popular moments of family gatherings and celebrations in Latino families. Education is another important priority for Latino families. Education is seen as the key towards continued in the United States among Latino families. A 2010 study by the Associated Press showed that Latinos place a higher emphasis on education than the average American. Latinos expect their children to graduate university. Latin American youth today stay at home with their parents longer than before. This is due to more years spent studying and the difficulty of finding a paid job that meets their aspirations.


Intermarriage

Latino Americans, like immigrant groups before them, are out-marrying at high rates. Out-marriages comprised 17.4% of all existing Latino marriages in 2008.Pew Social Trends: "Marrying Out"
June 15, 2010
The rate was higher for newlyweds (which excludes immigrants who are already married): Among all newlyweds in 2010, 25.7% of all Latinos married a non-Latino (this compares to out-marriage rates of 9.4% of whites, 17.1% of blacks, and 27.7% of Asians). The rate was larger for native-born Latinos, with 36.2% of native-born Latinos (both men and women) out-marrying compared to 14.2% of foreign-born Latinos.Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends: "The Rise of Intermarriage - Rates, Characteristics Vary by Race and Gender" by Wendy Wang
February 16, 2012
The difference is attributed to recent immigrants tending to marry within their immediate immigrant community due to commonality of language, proximity, familial connections, and familiarity. In 2008, 81% of Latinos who married out married non-Latino whites, 9% married non-Latino blacks, 5% non-Latino Asians, and the remainder married non-Latino, multi-racial partners. Of approximately 275,500 new interracial or interethnic marriages in 2010, 43.3% were white-Latino (compared to white-Asian at 14.4%, white-black at 11.9%, and other combinations at 30.4%; "other combinations" consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and American Indians). Unlike those for marriage to blacks and Asians, intermarriage rates of Latinos to whites do not vary by gender. The combined median earnings of white/Latino couples are lower than those of white/white couples but higher than those of Latino/Latino couples. 23% of Latino men who married white women have a college degree compared to only 10% of Latino men who married a Latina woman. 33% of Latina women who married a white husband are college-educated compared to 13% of Latina women who married a Latino man. Attitudes among non-Latinos toward intermarriage with Latinos are mostly favorable, with 81% of whites, 76% of Asians and 73% of blacks "being fine" with a member of their family marrying a Latino and an additional 13% of whites, 19% of Asians and 16% of blacks "being bothered but accepting of the marriage". Only 2% of whites, 4% of Asians, and 5% of blacks would not accept a marriage of their family member to a Latino. Latino attitudes toward intermarriage with non-Latinos are likewise favorable, with 81% "being fine" with marriages to whites and 73% "being fine" with marriages to blacks. A further 13% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a white and 22% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a black. Only 5% of Latinos objected outright marriage of a family member to a non-Latino black and 2% to a non-Latino white. Unlike intermarriage with other racial groups, intermarriage with non-Latino blacks varies by nationality of origin. Puerto Ricans have by far the highest rates of intermarriage with blacks, of all major Latino national groups, who also has the highest overall intermarriage rate among Latinos. Cubans have the highest rate of intermarriage with non-Latino whites, of all major Latino national groups, and are the most assimilated into white American culture. Mexican Americans, who are the majority of the US Latino population, are most likely to intermarry with whites and Asians when marrying out. However, similar to non-Latino blacks and whites, there are many Latinos who choose to stick to other Latinos when it comes to marriage and family creation, this sentiment is especially true among the majority of Dominicans, as well as some Mexicans, Colombians, and Latinos from various Central American countries.


Cultural adjustment

As Latin American migrants become the norm in the United States, the effects of this migration on the identity of these migrants and their kin becomes most evident in the younger generations. Crossing the borders changes the identities of both the youth and their families. Often "one must pay special attention to the role expressive culture plays as both entertainment and as a site in which identity is played out, empowered, and reformed" because it is "sometimes in opposition to dominant norms and practices and sometimes in conjunction with them."Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette. 2004. Gender and the Latino experience in Late-Twentieth-Century America. In The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States since 1960. D.G. Gutiérrez, ed. New York: Columbia University Press. The exchange of their culture of origin with American culture creates a dichotomy within the values that the youth find important, therefore changing what it means to be Latino in the global sphere.


Transnationalism

Along with feeling that they are neither from the country of their ethnic background nor the United States, a new identity within the United States is formed called '. This is especially seen in cosmopolitan social settings like New York City, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Underway is "the intermeshing of different Latino subpopulations has laid the foundations for the emergence and ongoing evolution of a strong sense of ''latinidad"'' which establishes a "sense of cultural affinity and identity deeply rooted in what many Latinos perceive to be a shared historical, spiritual, aesthetic and linguistic heritage, and a growing sense of cultural affinity and solidarity in the social context of the United States." This unites Latinos as one, creating cultural kin with other Latino ethnicities.


Gender roles

Migration to the United States can change identity for Latino youth in various way, including how they carry their gendered identities. In traditional Latino households, women and young girls are homebodies or ''muchachas de la casa'' ("girls of the house"), showing that they abide "by the cultural norms ... respectability, chastity, and family honor valued by the atinocommunity". However, when Latina women come to the United States, they tend to adapt to the perceived social norms of this new country, and their social location changes as they become more independent and able to live without the financial support of their families or partners. The unassimilated community views these adapting women as being ''de la calle'' ("of r fromthe street"), transgressive and sexually promiscuous. Some Latino families in the United States "deal with young women's failure to adhere to these culturally prescribed norms of proper gendered behavior in a variety of ways, including sending them to live in ... [the sending country] with family members, regardless of whether or not ... [the young women] are sexually active". Along with the increase in independence amongst these young women, there is a diminution in the power of ' ("shame") in many of the relations between the two sexes. To have ''vergüenza'' is to assert male dominance in all spheres, especially in a man's relationship with his female partner; the concept is enforced through shaming males into comporting themselves with a ' (literally, "male" or "masculine") archetype in order to establish respect, dominance, and manliness in their social ambits. Although many Latina women in the homeland as well as older Latina women in the United States reinforce this dynamic by not wanting a man who is a ''sinvergüenza'' ("shameless one"), some Latino youth accept the label of ''sinvergüenza'' and now wear it proudly. Feeling caught between two distinct societies causes youth to "meditate between the two cultures and [instills] ambivalence toward feeling a lack of ''vergüenza''", resulting in a group of youth who celebrate being ''sinvergüenza'' while still acknowledging the concept of ''vergüenza'' within a part of their increasingly composite culture.


Sexuality

With the remaining a large influence on the Latino culture, the subject of promiscuity and sexuality is often considered taboo. It is taught in many Latino cultures that best way to remain pure of sin and not become pregnant is to remain celibate and heterosexual. All are to be straight and women are to be virgins. A woman must carry herself like in order to receive respect and keep the family's honor.


Relations towards other minority groups

As a result of the rapid growth of the Latino population, there has been some tension with other minority populations, especially the population, as Latinos have increasingly moved into once exclusively black areas. There has also been increasing cooperation between minority groups to work together to attain political influence. * A 2007 study reported that 51% of blacks felt that Latinos were taking jobs and political power from them and 44% of Latinos said they feared African-Americans, identifying them (African-Americans) with high crime rates. That said, large majorities of Latinos credited American blacks and the civil rights movement with making life easier for them in the United States. * A poll from 2006 showed that blacks overwhelmingly felt that Latin American immigrants were hard working (78%) and had strong family values (81%); 34% believed that immigrants took jobs from Americans, 22% of blacks believed that they had directly lost a job to an immigrant, and 34% of blacks wanted immigration to be curtailed. The report also surveyed three cities: (with its well-established Latino community); (with a less-established but quickly growing Latino community); and (with a very new but rapidly growing Latino community). The results showed that a significant proportion of blacks in those cities wanted immigration to be curtailed: Chicago (46%), Raleigh-Durham (57%), and Washington, DC (48%). * Per a 2008 Law School research brief, a recurring theme to black/Latino tensions is the growth in "contingent, flexible, or contractor labor," which is increasingly replacing long term steady employment for jobs on the lower-rung of the pay scale (which had been disproportionately filled by blacks). The transition to this employment arrangement corresponds directly with the growth in the Latino immigrant population. The perception is that this new labor arrangement has driven down wages, removed benefits, and rendered temporary, jobs that once were stable (but also benefiting consumers who receive lower-cost services) while passing the costs of labor (healthcare and indirectly education) onto the community at large. * A 2008 poll indicated that 60% of Latinos and 67% of blacks believe that good relations exist between US blacks and LatinosGallup: "Whites May Exaggerate Black-Hispanic Tensions" by Lydia Saad
July 17, 2008
while only 29% of blacks, 36% of Latinos and 43% of whites, say black–Latino relations are bad. * In 2009, in , Latinos committed 30% of the hate crimes against black victims and blacks committed 70% of the hate crimes against Latinos.


Politics


Political affiliations

Latinos differ on their political views depending on their location and background. The majority (57%) either identify as or support the , and 23% identify as . This 34-point gap as of December 2007 was an increase from the gap of 21 points 16 months earlier. Cuban Americans, Colombian Americans, Chilean Americans, and Venezuelan Americans tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans. Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican Americans tend to favor progressive political ideologies and support the Democrats. However, because the latter groups are far more numerous—as, again, Mexican Americans alone are 64% of Latinos—the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position with the ethnic group overall. Some political organizations associated with Latino Americans are (LULAC), the (NCLR), the , the and the .


Political impact

The United States has a population of over 60 million of Latino Americans, of whom 27 million are citizens eligible to vote (13% of total eligible voters); therefore, Latinos have a very important effect on presidential elections since the vote difference between two main parties is usually around 4%.


Elections of 1996-2006

In the , 72% of Latinos backed President . In , the Democratic total fell to 62%, and went down again in , with Democrat winning Latinos 58–40 against Bush. Latinos in the West, especially in California, were much stronger for the Democratic Party than in Texas and Florida. California Latinos voted 63–32 for Kerry in 2004, and both Arizona and New Mexico Latinos by a smaller 56–43 margin. Texas Latinos were split nearly evenly, favoring Kerry 50–49 over their favorite son candidate and Florida Latinos (who are mostly Cuban American) backed Bush, by a 54–45 margin. In the , however, due to the unpopularity of the , the heated debate concerning and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years. Exit polls showed the group voting for Democrats by a lopsided 69–30 margin, with Florida Latinos for the first time split evenly. The runoff election in Texas' 23rd congressional district was seen as a bellwether of Latino politics. Democrat 's unexpected (and unexpectedly decisive) defeat of Republican incumbent was seen as proof of a leftward lurch among Latino voters; majority-Latino counties overwhelmingly backed Rodriguez and majority European-American counties overwhelmingly backed Bonilla.


Elections 2008-2012

In the 's , Latinos participated in larger numbers than before, with receiving most of the group's support. Pundits discussed whether Latinos would not vote for because he was African-American. Latinos voted 2 to 1 for Mrs. Clinton, even among the younger demographic. In other groups, younger voters went overwhelmingly for Obama."The Hispanic Vote in the 2008 Democratic Presidential Primaries
Report," February 21, 2008, Pew Hispanic Center
Among Latinos, 28% said race was involved in their decision, as opposed to 13% for (non-Latino) whites. Obama defeated Clinton. In the matchup between Obama and Republican candidate , Latinos supported Obama with 59% to McCain's 29% in the June 30 tracking poll. This was higher than expected, since McCain had been a leader of the comprehensive immigration reform effort (John McCain was born in to parents who were serving in the US Navy, but raised in the United States). However, McCain had retreated from reform during the Republican primary, damaging his standing among Latinos. Obama took advantage of the situation by running ads in Spanish highlighting McCain's reversal. In the general election, 67% of Latinos voted for Obama. with a relatively strong turnout in states such as Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada and , helping Obama carry those formerly Republican states. Obama won 70% of non-Cuban Latinos and 35% of the traditionally Republican Cuban Americans who have a strong presence in Florida. The relative growth of non-Cuban vs Cuban Latinos also contributed to his carrying Florida's Latinos with 57% of the vote. While employment and the economy were top concerns for Latinos, almost 90% of Latino voters rated immigration as "somewhat important" or "very important" in a poll taken after the election.
/ref> Republican opposition to the had damaged the party's appeal to Latinos, especially in s such as Florida, Nevada and New Mexico. In a of Latino voters taken in the final days of June 2008, only 18% of participants identified as Republicans. Latinos voted even more heavily for Democrats in the 2012 election with the Democratic incumbent Barack Obama receiving 71% and the Republican challenger receiving about 27% of the vote. Some Latino leaders were offended by remarks Romney made during a fundraiser, when he suggested that cultural differences and "the hand of providence" help explain why Israelis are more economically successful than Palestinians, and why similar economic disparities exist between other neighbors, such as the United States and Mexico, or Chile and Ecuador. A senior aide to Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas called the remarks racist, as did American political scientist , president of the National Institute of Latino Policy. father was born to American parents in a in , .


Elections 2014–present

"More convincing data" from the from the polling firm Latino Decisions indicates that Clinton received a higher share of the Latino vote, and Trump a lower share, than the Edison exit polls showed. Using wider, more geographically and linguistically representative sampling, Latino Decisions concluded that Clinton won 79% of Latino voters (also an improvement over Obama's share in 2008 and 2012), while Trump won only 18% (lower than previous Republicans such as Romney and McCain). Additionally, the 2016 found that Clinton's share of the Latino vote was one percentage point higher than Obama's in 2012, while Trump's was seven percentage points lower than Romney's. On June 26, 2018, , a , won the in covering parts of and in , defeating the incumbent, , in what has been described as the biggest victory in the and at the age of 29 years, became the youngest woman ever elected to Congress. She is a member of the and has been endorsed by various politically organizations and individuals. According to a report, the 2020 election will be the first one when Latinos are the largest racial or ethnic minority group in the electorate. A record 32 million Latinos were projected to be eligible to vote in the presidential election, many of them first-time voters. On September 15, 2020, President announces his intent to nominate and appoint , to be a member of the President's Advisory Commission on Hispanic Prosperity if re-elected after days of the Democratic convention. Latino communities across the United States were long held as a single voting bloc, but , and differences show stark divides in how Latino Americans have cast their ballots in 2020. Latinos helped deliver Florida to Donald Trump in part because of and (along with smaller populations such as and ); President Trump's reelection campaign ran pushing a strong anti- message as a strategy in Florida, to their success. However the perceived anti-immigrant rhetoric resonated with Arizona and the (Arizona being one of the states hardest hit by the ). The takeaway may be this may be the last election cycle that the "" as a whole is more talked about instead of particular communities within it, such as Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Mexican Americans and so on. In Texas like in Arizona the Latino community mainly being Mexican American; one in three Texan voters is now Latino. Biden did win the Latino vote in those states. But in Texas, 41 percent to 47 percent of Latino voters backed Trump in several heavily Latino border counties in the Rio Grande Valley region, a Democratic stronghold. In Florida, Trump won 45 percent of the Latino vote, an 11-point improvement from his 2016 performance reported NBC News. Recognizing Latinos as a population that can not only make a differences in swing states like Arizona and Texas or Florida, but also really across the country, even in places like , and , the number of Latino eligible voters may be the reason for the thin margins. In 1984, 37 percent of Latinos voted for and 40 percent voted for in 2004. In Florida, even though Trump won Florida and gained Latino voters, Biden kept 53% of the Latino vote and Trump 45%. According to NBC News exit polls, 55% of Cuban Americans, 30% of Puerto Ricans and 48% of other Latinos voted for Trump. Subsections of Latino voters have a range of historical influences vying to affect their votes. Cuban American voters, mostly concentrated in south Florida, tend to vote Republican in part because of their anathema for socialism, the party of 's government that many of their families fled. Mexican Americans, however, have no such historical relationship with either party. Puerto Rican voters who have left the island might be influenced by influenced the territory's move towards statehood, as a referendum for Trump's relief effort after , or regarding how it is taxed. Nationwide, Latinos cast 16.6 million votes in 2020, an increase of 30.9% over the 2016 presidential election.


Notable contributions

Latino Americans have made distinguished contributions to the United States in all major fields, such as , the , , , , , and , and .


Arts and entertainment

In 1995, the American Latino Media Arts Award, or was created. It is a distinction given to Latino performers (actors, film and television directors and musicians) by the . The number of Latin nominees at the Grammy Awards lag behind. Talking to ahead of music's biggest night in 2021, Grammy nominees and reflected on what it is mean to continue to represent Latinos at awards shows like the Grammys. Martin, who served as a pioneer for the "Latin crossover" in the '90s told "When you get nominated, it's the industry telling you, 'Hey Rick, you did a good job this year, congratulations.' Yes, I need that," the 49-year-old says. "When you walk into the studio, you say, 'This got a Grammy potential.' You hear the songs that do and the ones that don't. It's inevitable." Like tapping into her roots, the influence Latinos and reggaetón are having on the mainstream is undeniable.


Music

There are many Latino American musicians that have achieved international fame, such as better known by his stage name Big Pun, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , all of the members of , , and two members of girl group : and . Latin American music imported from Cuba (, , and ) and Mexico ( and ) had brief periods of popularity during the 1950s. Examples of artists include , who was a Cuban-American singer and the most popular Latin artist of the 20th century, gaining twenty-three s during her career. Bill Clinton awarded her the National Medal of Arts in 1994. Among the Latino American musicians who were pioneers in the early stages of were , who scored several hits, most notably "" and , who wrote the lyrics to the iconic rock and roll song "". Songs that became popular in the United States and are heard during the holiday/Christmas season include "¿Dónde Está Santa Claus?", a novelty Christmas song with 12-year-old Augie Ríos which was a hit record in 1959 and featured the Mark Jeffrey Orchestra; and "" by . wrote 116 works and has three Latin Grammy nominations. In 1986, introduced the chart which ranks the best-performing songs on Spanish-language radio stations in the United States. Seven years later, ''Billboard'' initiated the which ranks top-selling Latin albums in the United States. Similarly, the incorporated "Los Premios de Oro y Platino" (The Gold and Platinum Awards) to certify Latin recordings which contains at least 50% of its content recorded in Spanish. In 1989, Univision established the which became the first award ceremony to recognize the most talented performers of Spanish-language music and was considered to be the "Hispanic ". In 2000, the (LARAS) established the s to recognize musicians who perform in Spanish and Portuguese. Unlike , LARAS extends its membership internationally to and communities worldwide beyond the Americas, particularly the . won favorite female Latin artist, a brand new category at the s in 2020. For the , the academy announced several changes for different categories and rules: the category Latin Pop Album has been renamed , while Latin Rock, Urban or Alternative Album has been renamed .


Film, radio, television, and theatre

has often reflected and propagated towards foreign nationals and ethnic minorities. For example, Latin Americans are largely depicted as sexualized figures such as the Latino or the Latina , members, (illegal) s, or s. However representation in Hollywood has enhanced in latter times of which it gained noticeable momentum in the 1990s and does not emphasize oppression, exploitation, or resistance as central themes. According to Ramírez Berg, third wave films "do not accentuate oppression or resistance; ethnicity in these films exists as one fact of several that shape characters' lives and stamps their personalities". Filmmakers like and were able to represent the Latino American experience like none had on screen before, and actors like , , , , , and have become successful. In the last decade, minority filmmakers like , and have been given applier narratives. Portrayal in films of them include ' (1987), ' (1997), ' (1998), ' (2007), ' (2015), ' (2017), ' (2019), and 's ', originally which premiered in 1990 and was later released as a film in 2002. Hispanics and Latinos have also contributed some prominent actors and others to the . Of origin: (the first Latino actor to win an acting for his role in '), , , , , , , , , , and . Of origin: (the first Latino to win an Academy Award – for Best Production Design – in 1949), , , , , , , , , , , , , and . Of n origin: , , , , , , and . Of origin: and . Of ian origin: , , , , and . Of origin: , , and . Other outstanding figures are: (of origin), , , and (of origin), (of n origin), (of n origin), (of n origin), and (of an origin). In stand-up comedy, , , , , , , , , , John Mendoza, and others are prominent. Some of the Hispanic or Latino actors who achieved notable success in U.S. television include , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and . is an -winning producer, director and choreographer who has choreographed many major television events such as , the and 's . Latinos are underrepresented in U.S. television, radio, and film. This is combatted by organizations such as the (HOLA), founded in 1975; and (NHMC), founded in 1986. Together with numerous Latino civil rights organizations, the NHMC led a "brownout" of the national television networks in 1999, after discovering that there were no Latinos on any of their new series that year. This resulted in the signing of historic diversity agreements with , , and that have since increased the hiring of Hispanic and Latino talent and other staff in all of the networks. (LPB) funds programs of educational and cultural significance to Latino Americans. These programs are distributed to various public television stations throughout the United States. The was criticized by Latinos; there were no major nominations for Latin performers, despite the publicizing their improved diversity in 2020. While there was a record number of black nominees, there was only one individual Latin nomination. Hispanic and Latino representation groups said the greater diversity referred only to more African American nominees. When the ' reported the criticism using the term "black", it was itself criticized for erasing , a discussion that then prompted more investigation into this under-represented minority ethnic group in Hollywood. boycotted the Emmys because of its lack of Latin nominees.


Fashion

In the world of fashion, notable Hispanic and Latino designers include , , , , among others. , , , and achieved international fame as models.


Artists

Notable Hispanic and Latino artists include , , , , , , , , , , , , and .


Business and finance

The total number of Latino-owned businesses in 2002 was 1.6 million, having grown at triple the national rate for the preceding five years. Latino business leaders include Cuban immigrant , who rose to head of . Advertising Mexican-American magnate became the first Latino to own a team in the United States when he purchased the club. Also a major sports team owner is Mexican-American , president and CEO of Alvarado Construction, Inc. and co-owner of the baseball team. There are several Latinos on the list of richest Americans. and his brother Andres Santo Domingo inherited their fathers stake in , now merged with . The brothers are ranked No. 132 and are each worth $4.8bn. founded and runs The Related Group. He built his career developing and operating low-income multifamily apartments across Miami."Related's Jorge Pérez puts his stamp on the skyline".
The Real Deal. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
He is ranked No. 264 and is worth $3bn. The largest Hispanic-owned food company in the United States is , because of World War II hero , the son of the company's founders. was the founder of , Puerto Rico's first television station and now the second largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with an average viewership over one million in primetime. made history by becoming the first Latino to launch a successful investment banking firm, Ramirez & Co. is president of Entertainment since September 2004. She is the highest-profile Latina in and one of the few executives who has the power to approve the airing or renewal of series.


Government and politics

As of 2007, there were more than five thousand elected officeholders in the United States who were of Latino origin. In the , have included , , , , , and Manuel Lujan Jr., out of almost two dozen former representatives. Current representatives include , , , , , , , , , , , , and —in all, they number thirty. Former are , , , and . As of January 2011, the U.S. Senate includes Latino members , a Democrat and Republicans and , all Cuban Americans. Numerous Latinos hold elective and appointed office in and throughout the United States. Current Latino Governors include Republican Governor and Republican Governor ; upon taking office in 2011, Martinez became the first Latina governor in the history of the United States. Former Latino governors include Democrats , , and , as well as Republicans , and . Since 1988, when appointed the , the first Latino member, Latino Americans have had an increasing presence in presidential administrations. Latinos serving in subsequent cabinets include , current ; , current ; , former ; , ; , former ; , former ; , former Secretary of the Interior; and Bill Richardson, former Secretary of Energy and . is the current , including the latest three, were Latina women. In 2009, became the first of Hispanic or Latino origin. The (CHC), founded in December 1976, and the (CHC), founded on March 19, 2003, are two organizations that promote policy of importance to Americans of Latino descent. They are divided into the two major American political parties: The Congressional Hispanic Caucus is composed entirely of representatives, whereas the Congressional Hispanic Conference is composed entirely of representatives. Groups like the United States Hispanic Leadership Institute (USHLI) work to achieve the promises and principles of the United States by "promoting education, research, and leadership development, and empowering Latinos and similarly disenfranchised groups by maximizing their civic awareness, engagement, and participation".


Literature and journalism


Writers and their works

* (') * (' and ''Heart of Aztlan'') * (' and ') * (') * Cecilia Domeyko (Sacrifice on the Border) * (art historian, ''Masters of Ukiyoe'') * (''Butterfly Boy: Memories of a Chicano Mariposa'') * (') * (' and ''La frontera salvaje''). * (''"Mind Your Manners, Dick and Jane"'', ''"Emily Goldberg Learns to Salsa"'') * (''A Matter of Men'' and ''September Elegies'') * (''Capirotada'', ''Elk Heads on the Wall'' and ''The Iguana Killer'') * (''...And the Earth did Not Devour Him'') * Richard Rodríguez () * (novelist and philosopher: "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it") * (' and ''The Last Tortilla and Other Stories'') * (') * (') * (')


Journalists

* American journalist, currently serving as chief correspondent for . * has won eight s and the for excellence in journalism. In 2015, Ramos was one of five selected as ''Time'' magazine's World's Most Influential People. * is currently the anchor for , as well as anchor of on Saturdays. * , correspondent for ' and is a contributor to and . * currently works as a television news anchor for in Manhattan. * is the ' West Coast anchor and appears on other programs including ' and ''.'' * News contributor Called the "Voice of Hispanic America" by The New York Times * , reporter employed by and , was a production assistant for . * has won a and appears regularly on programs such as '. * , co-anchor of the program, and now hosts ''What Would You Do?'' * , reporter for the and news director for , which was a Spanish language station. * , journalist and broadcast television anchor who worked for , and . * , former Los Angeles news anchor for . * , reporting and guest anchoring for ', ', ', '; regular host for '. * , television journalist for . Political strategists * , American lobbyist and columnist for , including and . * , political strategist, international consultant and columnist who writes for .


Military

Hispanics and Latinos have participated in the and in every major from the onward. 11% to 13% military personnel now are Latinos and they have been deployed in the , the , and U.S. military missions and bases elsewhere. Hispanics and Latinos have not only distinguished themselves in the battlefields but also reached the high echelons of the military, serving their country in sensitive leadership positions on domestic and foreign posts. Up to now, 43 Hispanics and Latinos have been awarded the nation's highest military distinction, the (also known as the ''Congressional Medal of Honor''). The following is a list of some notable Latinos in the military:


American Revolution

* (1746–1786) – Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who aided the American Thirteen Colonies in their quest for independence and led Spanish forces against in the Revolutionary War; since 2014, a posthumous * Lieutenant (1755–1817) – participated in the American Revolution as a lieutenant in the South Carolina Navy


American Civil War

* Admiral – promoted to vice admiral on December 21, 1864, and to on July 25, 1866, after the war, thereby becoming the first person to be named full admiral in the Navy's history. *Rear Admiral – Mexican who fought for the Union. He was buried at . * Colonel – Cuban officer active during the bombardment of Fort Sumter; because of his actions, was appointed Colonel of artillery and assigned to duty as Chief of Artillery in the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. * Brigadier General (1814–1884) – member of the Mexican Army who fought against the United States in the Mexican–American War. During the American Civil War, he joined the Union Army (US Army) and became the first Latino to reach the military rank of brigadier general. He commanded The First New Mexico Volunteer Infantry in the Battle of Valverde. He was later appointed an Indian (Native Americans) Agent by Abraham Lincoln."Hispanics Firsts"; by: Nicolas Kanellos; pp. 210–211; Publisher: Visible Ink Press; * Colonel Carlos de la Mesa – grandfather of commanding general of the in North Africa and Sicily, and later the commander of the during . Colonel Carlos de la Mesa was a national who fought at for the in the Spanish Company of the "Garibaldi Guard" of the 39th New York State Volunteers. * Colonel – commanded the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteer infantry regiment when it took the field in the Peach Orchard at Gettysburg"The Civil War, 1840s-1890s"; by Roger E. Hernandez, Roger E. Hernndez; ; * Colonel Miguel E. Pino – commanded the 2nd Regiment of New Mexico Volunteers, which fought at the Battle of Valverde in February and the Battle of Glorieta Pass and helped defeat the attempted invasion of New Mexico by the Confederate Army * Colonel – commanded his own regiment, the "Benavides Regiment"; highest ranking Mexican-American in the Confederate Army * Major Salvador Vallejo – officer in one of the California units that served with the Union Army in the West * Captain – served in the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers at Gettysburg with his brother, Colonel Federico Fernandez Cavada; served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac from Fredericksburg to Gettysburg; "special aide-de-camp" to General *Captain Rafael Chacón – leader of the Union New Mexico Volunteers. * Captain Roman Anthony Baca – member of the Union forces in the New Mexico Volunteers; spy for the Union Army in Texas * Lieutenant – native; officer in the , of the ; served in the defenses of Washington, D.C., and led his men in the Battles of and "The Puerto Rican Diaspora: historical perspectives"; By Carmen Teresa Whalen, Víctor Vázquez-Hernandez; page 176; Publisher: Temple University Press; ; * – Cuban born woman who became a Confederate spy; helped the Confederates obtain a victory against the Union Forces in the "Battle of Horse Landing" * , also known as "Lieutenant Harry Buford" – woman who donned Confederate garb and served as a Confederate officer and spy during the American Civil War


World War I

* Major General , – in 1915, became the first Latino to graduate from the ("West Point"); organized the * Private – undocumented immigrant who joined the and became the most decorated soldier from Texas in ; first Latino to be awarded the


World War II

* Lieutenant General – first Latino to reach the rank of ; played an instrumental role in the seizure of and as commanding general of the during World War II * Lieutenant General (1904–1993) – commanding general of the 9th Fighter Command, where he established advanced headquarters on the beachhead on , and directed his planes in and for the Allied invasion of the European continent during World War II. He was the foremost proponent of "the inherent flexibility of air power", a principle he helped prove during the war. * Major General (1888–1969) – commanding general of the in North Africa and during World War II; commander of the * Colonel – regimental commander of the , a unit composed of "Nisei" (second generation Americans of Japanese descent), during World War II; led the 442nd in its rescue of the Lost Texas Battalion of the , in the forests of the Vosges Mountains in northeastern France * Captain (1913–1980) – served in World War II; first Latino commander * First Lieutenant – of the 464th Fighter Squadron, 507th Fighter Group; the last "Ace in a Day" for the United States in World War II * CWO2 – member of the ; first to be promoted to ; received a wartime promotion to (November 27, 1944), thus becoming the first Latino American to reach that level as well * Sergeant First Class – most decorated Latino soldier in the * PFC , – captured over a thousand prisoners during the World War II * Tech4 – first in the United States , where she served as an interpreter and in numerous administrative positions


Korean War

* Major General , United States Air Force – flew in 19 combat missions over during the in 1953. In 1957, he participated in "", a historic project that was given to the by the headquarters. Operation Power Flite was the first around the world non-stop flight by an . * First Lieutenant – the only Latino graduate of the ("Annapolis") to be awarded the Medal of Honor * Sergeant First Class – member of the , an all- regiment also known as "", during World War II and the Korean War; most decorated Puerto Rican soldier in history


Cuban Missile Crisis

* Admiral – second Latino four-star admiral; commander of the American fleet sent by President to set up a quarantine (blockade) of the ships during the


Vietnam War

* Sergeant First Class a.k.a. "The "– the most decorated Latino American soldier in the


After Vietnam

* Lieutenant General – top commander of the Coalition forces during the first year of the occupation of , 2003–2004, during the * Lieutenant General – in 1994, became the first Latino * Vice Admiral , M.D., – in 1990, became the first Latino (and first female) U.S. Surgeon General * Vice Admiral , M.D., – served as the 17th , under President * Brigadier General , USMC – made history by becoming the first Marine Corps officer to take command of a * Rear Admiral – first person of Latin American descent to be promoted to rear admiral (lower half) in the * Captain , – in 1980, became the first Latina woman graduate of the United States Air Force * Major General – deputy commanding general of the * Brigadier General , United States Air Force – in 1985 became the first Latina female to attain the rank of brigadier general in the Air Force * Brigadier General – on August 2, 2006, became the first Latina female to obtain a general rank in the Marines * Chief Master Sergeant – pararescueman; in 2007, was the only Latino among the first six airmen to be awarded the newly created * Specialist (1991–2013) – combat photographer with who captured the explosion that killed her and four Afghan soldiers.


Medal of Honor

The following 43 Latinos were awarded the Medal of Honor: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and .


National intelligence

* In the spy arena, , a native of Puerto Rico, was the deputy director of operations and subsequently (D/NCS), two senior positions in the (CIA), between 2004 and 2007. * Lieutenant Colonel (1903–1980), a.k.a. ''La Tía'' (The Aunt), was the first Cuban-born female officer in the . She served in the Women's Army Corps during and in the United States Army during the , and was recalled into service during the . In 1988, she was posthumously inducted into the .


Science and technology

Among Latino Americans who have excelled in science are , –winning physicist of Spanish descent, and his son , a geologist. They first proposed that an asteroid impact on the caused the . won the in chemistry and currently works in the chemistry department at the . Dr. is an astronomer who in 1959 discovered "Blanco 1", a . is a laser physicist and author; he received the ''Engineering Excellence Award'' from the prestigious for the invention of the . is the director of the Pituitary Surgery Program at and the director of the Brain Tumor Stem Cell Laboratory at . Physicist made important contributions to the early development of s and later . His nephew is also a noted mathematical physicist. is a biologist and philosopher, former president of the , and has been awarded the and the . Peruvian-American biophysicist has been named a and Fellow. is one of the pioneers of and the founder of the companies and . Colombian-American received a for her work in atomic physics in 2013. Dr. discovered the bacteria that cause dental cavity. Dr. is a biotechnology pioneer in the field of personalized medicine and the inventor of molecular diagnostic systems, (CAS) System, used worldwide for the management of viral diseases. was an agriculturist and scientist who developed the Tangüis Cotton in Peru and saved that nation's cotton industry. , born in Spain, was a co-winner of the 1959 . Dr. , a Mexican-American Microbiologist, is credited with the discovery of the Polyomavirus and successfully demonstrating that cancer causing viruses could be transmitted from animal to animal. Mexican-American psychiatrist Dr. , whose brain imaging studies helped characterize the mechanisms of drug addiction, is the current director of the . Dr. , an early advocate for women's reproductive rights, helped drive and draft U.S. federal sterilization guidelines in 1979. She was awarded the by President Bill Clinton, and was the first Latina president of the American Public Health Association. Some Latinos have made their names in , including several NASA astronauts: , the first Latin American NASA astronaut, is co-recordholder for the most flights in outer space, and is the leading researcher on the for rockets; , former NASA chief scientist; , aerospace engineer; , NASA mission specialist and computer scientist; Dr. , mechanical engineer and director of Mars exploration in NASA; , engineer who designs, builds and tests the electronics that will regulate the solar array power in order to charge the spacecraft battery and distribute power to the different loads or users inside various spacecraft at NASA's . won an R&D 100 Award for her role in the development of the "Long Cycle-Life Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries" which help enable the power system. , research engineer and scientist who is responsible for the design of a viable full-scale and the development and testing of a scale model solar sail at NASA . Dr. , inventor and mechanical engineer who is the director of a test laboratory at NASA and of a portable, battery-operated lift seat for people suffering from knee arthritis. Dr. , electrical engineer and astronaut applicant who developed the Advanced Payload Transfer Measurement System (ASPTMS) (Electronic 3D measuring system); , a pioneer of spacecraft technology and astronaut; , , , , , and , who are current or former astronauts.


Sports


Football

There have been far fewer and players, let alone star players, but was the first Latino head coach and the first Latino in American professional football, and won as a player, as assistant coach and as head coach for the . is enshrined in the , ranked No. 17 on 's 1999 list of the 100 greatest football players, and was the highest-ranked offensive lineman. won the and was inducted into the , and is inducted into the and . , , , , , , and can also be cited among successful Latinos in the (NFL).


Baseball

Latinos have played in the Major Leagues since the very beginning of organized baseball, with Cuban player being the first (1873). The large number of Latino American stars in (MLB) includes players like (considered by many to be the greatest hitter of all time), , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , managers (the first Latino Major League manager), , and , and General Manager . Latinos in the include , , , , , , , , Ted Williams, , , and . players , and are Latino Hall of Famers who played in the .


Basketball

, , , , , , , , , and can be cited in the (NBA). made history when he became the first person of Latino heritage to coach an NBA team. was a major star and champion of collegiate ( (NCAA)) and basketball and played professionally in the (WNBA). became just the seventh player ever to win an NCAA title, a WNBA title and as well an Olympic gold medal. became in 1995 the first Latino and the first non-black in 52 years to play for the .


Tennis

players includes legend and Olympic tennis champions and professional players and and 2016 Puerto Rican Gold Medalist Monica Puig.


Soccer

Latinos are present in all major American sports and leagues, but have particularly influenced the growth in popularity of in the United States. Soccer is the most popular sport across , and , and Latinos brought the heritage of soccer playing to the United States. teams such as , and the , for example, have a fanbase composed primarily of . players in the (MLS) includes several like , , , and .


Swimming

Swimmers (the second-most decorated swimmer in Olympic history measured by total number of medals) and (one of three women with the most Olympic women's swimming medals), both of Cuban ancestry, have won multiple medals at various Olympic Games over the years. Torres is also the first American swimmer to appear in five Olympic Games. , of Argentine ancestry, won four medals at the 2016 games, including two gold medals.


Other sports

's first Latino American world champion was . Some other champions include , , , , , , and . , , , , , , , , , , , , , and UFC Heavy Weight Champion have been competitors in the (UFC) of . In 1991, whose mother is became the first Latino player in the (NHL). He was also selected to four . In 1999, won the . Figure skater ; ers , and ; player ; and , professional skateboarder, are all Latino Americans who have distinguished themselves in their sports. In gymnastics, Laurie Hernandez, who is of Puerto Rican ancestry, was a gold medalist at the 2016 Games. In we find the , , , , and and executive .


Latinophobia

In countries where the majority of the population is descended from immigrants, such as the , sometimes takes the form of and . Throughout , has existed to varying degrees, and it was largely based on , (see ), , (see ), economic and social conditions in , and opposition to the use of the . In 2006, ' reported that the number of s in the United States increased by 33 percent since 2000, primarily due to anti-illegal immigrant and anti-Mexican sentiment. According to (FBI) statistics, the number of anti-Latino s increased by 35 percent since 2003 (albeit from a low level). In California, the state with the largest Latino population, the number of hate crimes which were committed against Latinos almost doubled. In 2009, the FBI reported that 4,622 of the 6,604 hate crimes which were recorded in the United States were anti-Latino, comprising 70.3% of all recorded hate crimes, the highest percentage of all of the hate crimes which were recorded in 2009. This percentage is contrasted by the fact that 34.6% of all of the hate crimes which were recorded in 2009 were anti-black, 17.9% of them were , 14.1% of them were , and 8.3% of them were anti-white.


See also

Places of settlement in United States: * * * * * * * * * * * * Diaspora: * * * ** ** ** * * Individuals: * ** ** ** ** ** ** *** *** Other Hispanic and Latino Americans topics: * * * * General: * **


Notes


References


Further reading


Surveys and historiography

* Bean, Frank D., and Marta Tienda. ''The Hispanic Population of the United States'' (1987), statistical analysis of demography and social structure * . ''Encyclopedia on Hispanic American Religious Culture'' (2 vol. ABC-CLIO Publishers, 2009). * De Leon, Arnoldo, and Richard Griswold Del Castillo. ''North to Aztlan: A History of Mexican Americans in the United States'' (2006) * Garcia, Maria Cristina. "Hispanics in the United States." ''Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture,'' edited by Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer, (2nd ed., vol. 3, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008), pp. 696–728
online
* Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano Historiography," ''Reviews in American History'' 34.4 (2006) 521-52
online
* Gomez-Quiñones, Juan. ''Mexican American Labor, 1790–1990.'' (1994). * Gutiérrez, David G. ed. ''The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States Since 1960'' (2004) 512p
excerpt and text search
* Gutiérrez, David G. "Migration, Emergent Ethnicity, and the 'Third Space'": The Shifting Politics of Nationalism in Greater Mexico" ''Journal of American History'' 1999 86(2): 481–517
in JSTOR
covers 1800 to the 1980s * Leonard, David J. ''Latino History and Culture: An Encyclopedia'' (Sharpe Reference 2009) * Oboler, Suzanne, and Deena J. González, eds. ''The Oxford Encyclopedia Of Latinos & Latinas In The United States'' (4 vol. 2006
excerpt and text search
* Rochín, Refugio I., and Denis N. Valdés, eds. ''Voices of a New Chicana/o History.'' (2000). 307 pp. * Ruiz, Vicki L. "Nuestra América: Latino History as United States History," ''Journal of American History,'' 93 (2006), 655–72
in JSTOR
* Ruiz, Vicki L. ''From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America'' (1998)


Pre 1965

* Bogardus, Emory S. ''The Mexican in the United States'' (1934), sociological * Gamio, Manuel. ''The Life Story of the Mexican Immigrant'' (1931) * Gamio, Manuel. ''Mexican Immigration to the United States'' (1939) * García, Mario T. ''Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology and Identity, 1930–1960'' (1989) * García, Mario T. ''Desert Immigrants. The Mexicans of El Paso, 1880–1920'' (1982) 348 pp
excerpt and text search
* Gomez-Quinones, Juan. ''Roots of Chicano Politics, 1600–1940'' (1994) * Grebler, Leo, Joan Moore, and Ralph Guzmán. ''The Mexican American People: The Nation's Second Largest Minority'' (1970), emphasis on census data and statistics * Rivas-Rodríguez, Maggie ed. ''Mexican Americans and World War II'' (2005) * Sanchez, George J. ''Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945'' (1995
excerpt and text search


Culture and politics, post 1965

* Abrajano, Marisa A., and R. Michael Alvarez, eds. ''New Faces, New Voices: The Hispanic Electorate in America'' (Princeton University Press; 2010) 219 pages. Documents the generational and other diversity of the Hispanic electorate and challenges myths about voter behavior. * Aranda, José, Jr. ''When We Arrive: A New Literary History of Mexican America.'' U. of Arizona Press, 2003. 256 pp. * Arreola, Daniel D., ed. ''Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America.'' 2004. 334 pp. * Badillo, David A. ''Latinos and the New Immigrant Church.'' 2006. 275 pp
excerpt and text search
* Berg, Charles Ramírez. ''Latino Images in Film: Stereotypes, Subversion, and Resistance.'' 2002. 314 pp. * Branton, Regina. "Latino Attitudes toward Various Areas of Public Policy: The Importance of Acculturation," ''Political Research Quarterly'', Vol. 60, No. 2, 293–303 (2007
Abstract
* Cepeda, Raquel. ''Bird of Paradise: How I Became Latina'' Atria Books. 2013. . A personal exploration of identity via family interviews, travel and genetic genealogy
Synopsis and Excerpt
* DeGenova, Nicholas and Ramos-Zayas, Ana Y. ''Latino Crossings: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and the Politics of Race and Citizenship.'' 2003. 257 pp. * Dolan, Jay P. and Gilberto M. Hinojosa; ''Mexican Americans and the Catholic Church, 1900–1965'' (1994) * Fregoso, Rosa Linda. ''The Bronze Screen: Chicana and Chicano Film Culture.'' (1993
excerpt and text search
* García, Mario T. ''Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology and Identity, 1930–1960'' (1989) * García, María Cristina. ''Seeking Refuge: Central American Migration to Mexico, The United States, and Canada.'' (2006) 290pp * Gomez-Quinones, Juan. ''Chicano Politics: Reality and Promise, 1940–1990'' (1990) * Gutiérrez, David G. ''Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics of Ethnicity in the Southwest, 1910–1986'' 1995
excerpt and text search
* Hammerback, John C., Richard J. Jensen, and Jose Angel Gutierrez. ''A War of Words: Chicano Protest in the 1960s and 1970s'' 1985. * Herrera-Sobek, Maria. ''Celebrating Latino Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Cultural Traditions'' (3 vol., 2012
excerpt and text search
* Kanellos, Nicolás, ed. ''The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Latino Literature'' (3 vol. 2008
excerpt and text search
* Kenski, Kate and Tisinger, Russell. "Hispanic Voters in the 2000 and 2004 Presidential General Elections." ''Presidential Studies Quarterly'' 2006 36(2): 189–202. * López-Calvo, Ignacio. ''Latino Los Angeles in Film and Fiction: The Cultural Production of Social Anxiety''. University of Arizona Press, 2011. * Martinez, Juan Francisco. ''Sea La Luz: The Making of Mexican Protestantism in the American Southwest, 1829–1900'' (2006) * Matovina, Timothy. ''Guadalupe and Her Faithful: Latino Catholics in San Antonio, from Colonial Origins to the Present.'' 2005. 232 pp
excerpt and text search
* Meier, Matt S., and Margo Gutierrez, ed. ''Encyclopedia of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement'' (2000
excerpt and text search
* Nuno, S. A. "Latino Mobilization and Vote Choice in the 2000 Presidential Election" ''American Politics Research,'' (2007); 35(2): 273–293
Abstract
* Saldívar-Hull, Sonia. ''Feminism on the Border: Chicana Gender Politics and Literature'' 2000
excerpt and text search
* Wegner, Kyle David, "Children of Aztlán: Mexican American Popular Culture and the Post-Chicano Aesthetic" (PhD dissertation State University of New York, Buffalo, 2006). Order No. DA3213898.


Women

* . ''500 Years of Chicana Women's History/500 anos de la mujer Chicana,'' Rutgers University Press (Bilingual Edition) 2008.


Regional and local

* Overmyer-Velazquez, Mark. ''Latino America: A State-by-State Encyclopedia'' (2 vol. 2008
excerpt and text search


California



*

* Bedolla, Lisa García. ''Fluid Borders: Latino Power, Identity, and Politics in Los Angeles.'' 2005. 279 pp. * Burt, Kenneth C. ''The Search for a Civic Voice: California Latino Politics'' (2007
excerpt and text search
* Camarillo, Albert. ''Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848–1930'' (1979) * Camarillo, Albert M., "Cities of Color: The New Racial Frontier in California's Minority-Majority Cities," ''Pacific Historical Review,'' 76 (Feb. 2007), 1–28; looks at cities of Compton, East Palo Alto, and Seaside * Daniel, Cletus E. ''Bitter Harvest: A History of California Farmworkers, 1870–1941'' 1981. * García, Matt. ''A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900–1970'' (2001), * Hayes-Bautista, David E. ''La Nueva California: Latinos in the Golden State.'' U. of California Press, 2004. 263 pp
excerpt and text search
* Hughes, Charles. "The Decline of the Californios: The Case of San Diego, 1846–1856" ''The Journal of San Diego History'' Summer 1975, Volume 21, Number 3 online a

* McWilliams, Carey. ''North from Mexico''. (1949), farm workers in California * Pitt, Leonard. ''The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish speaking Californians, 1846–1890'' () * Sánchez; George J. ''Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945'' (1993
excerpt and text search
* Valle, Victor M. and Torres, Rodolfo D. ''Latino Metropolis.'' 2000. 249 pp. on Los Angeles


Texas and Southwest

* Alonzo, Armando C. ''Tejano Legacy: Rancheros and Settlers in South Texas, 1734–1900'' (1998)

*

** [https://web.archive.org/web/20140415073401/http://www.1st-hand-history.org/Hhb/16/album1.html v 16 ''History of the North Mexican States and Texas, Volume 2: 1801 - 1889''] *
Vol. 17 ''History of Arizona and New Mexico (1530-1888)'' (1889)
* Blackwelder, Julia Kirk. ''Women of the Depression: Caste and Culture in San Antonio'' 1984
excerpt and text search
* Buitron Jr., Richard A. ''The Quest for Tejano Identity in San Antonio, Texas, 1913–2000'' (2004
excerpt and text search
* Chávez, John R. ''The Lost Land: The Chicano Image of the Southwest'' (Albuquerque, 1984) * Chávez-García, Miroslava. ''Negotiating Conquest: Gender and Power in California, 1770s to 1880s'' (2004). * De León, Arnoldo. ''They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821–1900'' (Austin, 1983) * De León, Arnoldo. ''Mexican Americans in Texas: A Brief History'', 2nd ed. (1999) * Deutsch, Sarah ''No Separate Refuge: Culture, Class, and Gender on the Anglo-Hispanic Frontier in the American Southwest, 1880–1940'' 1987 * Dysart, Jane. "Mexican Women in San Antonio, 1830–1860: The Assimilation Process" ''Western Historical Quarterly'' 7 (October 1976): 365–375
in JSTOR
* Echeverría, Darius V., "Aztlán Arizona: Abuses, Awareness, Animosity, and Activism amid Mexican-Americans, 1968–1978" PhD dissertation (Temple University, 2006). Order No. DA3211867. * Fregoso; Rosa Linda. ''Mexicana Encounters: The Making of Social Identities on the Borderlands'' (2003) * Garcia, Ignacio M. ''Viva Kennedy: Mexican Americans in Search of Camelot,'' Texas A&M University Press, 2000. 227p
and online search from Amazon.com
* García, Richard A. ''Rise of the Mexican American Middle Class: San Antonio, 1929–1941'' 1991 * Getz; Lynne Marie. ''Schools of Their Own: The Education of Hispanos in New Mexico, 1850–1940'' (1997) * Gómez-Quiñones, Juan. ''Roots of Chicano Politics, 1600–1940'' (1994) * Gonzales-Berry, Erlinda, David R. Maciel, editors, ''The Contested Homeland: A Chicano History of New Mexico'', 314 pages (2000), * González; Nancie L. ''The Spanish-Americans of New Mexico: A Heritage of Pride'' (1969) * Guglielmo, Thomas A. "Fighting for Caucasian Rights: Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and the Transnational Struggle for Civil Rights in World War II Texas," ''Journal of American History,'' 92 (March 2006
in History Cooperative
* Gutiérrez; Ramón A. ''When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846'' (1991) * Márquez, Benjamin. ''LULAC: The Evolution of a Mexican American Political Organization'' (1993) * Matovina, Timothy M. ''Tejano Religion and Ethnicity, San Antonio, 1821–1860'' (1995) * Montejano, David. ''Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836–1986'' (1987) * Muñoz, Laura K., "Desert Dreams: Mexican American Education in Arizona, 1870–1930" (PhD dissertation Arizona State University, 2006). Order No. DA3210182. * Quintanilla, Linda J., "Chicana Activists of Austin and Houston, Texas: A Historical Analysis" (University of Houston, 2005). Order No. DA3195964. * Sánchez; George I. ''Forgotten People: A Study of New Mexicans'' (1940; reprint 1996) on New Mexico * Taylor, Paul S. ''Mexican Labor in the United States''. 2 vols. 1930–1932, on Texas * Stewart, Kenneth L., and Arnoldo De León. ''Not Room Enough: Mexicans, Anglos, and Socioeconomic Change in Texas, 1850–1900'' (1993) * de la Teja, Jesús F. ''San Antonio de Béxar: A Community on New Spain's Northern Frontier'' (1995). * Tijerina, Andrés. ''Tejanos and Texas under the Mexican Flag, 1821–1836'' (1994), * Tijerina, Andrés. ''Tejano Empire: Life on the South Texas Ranchos'' (1998). * Timmons, W. H. ''El Paso: A Borderlands History'' (1990). * Trevino, Roberto R. ''The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston.'' (2006). 308pp. * Weber, David J. ''The Mexican Frontier, 1821–1846: The American Southwest under Mexico'' (1982) ** Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano Historiography," ''Reviews in American History'' 34.4 (2006) 521–528 in


Other regions

* Bullock, Charles S., and M. V. Hood, "A Mile‐Wide Gap: The Evolution of Hispanic Political Emergence in the Deep South." ''Social Science Quarterly'' 87.5 (2006): 1117–1135
Online
* García, María Cristina. ''Havana, USA: Cuban Exiles and Cuban Americans in South Florida, 1959–1994'' (1996)
excerpt and text search
* Korrol, Virginia Sánchez. ''From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City, 1917–1948'' (1994) * Fernandez, Lilia. ''Brown in the Windy City: Mexicans and Puerto Ricans in Postwar Chicago'' (University of Chicago Press, 2012) * Millard, Ann V. and Chapa, Jorge. ''Apple Pie and Enchiladas: Latino Newcomers in the Rural Midwest.'' 2004. 276 pp
excerpt and text search
* Murphy, Arthur D., Colleen Blanchard, and Jennifer A. Hill, eds. ''Latino Workers in the Contemporary South.'' 2001. 224 pp. * Padilla, Felix M. ''Puerto Rican Chicago.'' (1987). 277 pp. * Sãnchez Korrol, Virginia E. ''From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City.'' (1994
complete text online free in Californiaexcerpt and text search
* Vargas, Zaragosa. ''Proletarians of the North: A History of Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917–1933'' (1993
complete text online free in Californiaexcerpt and text search
* Whalen, Carmen Teresa, and Victor Vásquez-Hernández, eds. '' The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives'' (2005),


Primary sources

* Richard Ellis, ed. ''New Mexico Past and Present: A Historical Reader.'' 1971. * David J. Weber; ''Foreigners in Their Native Land: Historical Roots of the Mexican Americans'' (1973), primary sources to 1912


External links


2000 Census

Hispanic Americans in Congress

Hispanic Americans in the U.S. Army


by Josh Miller, PBS, April 27, 2007
Latino in America
– {{Authority control Multiracial ethnic groups in the United States