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^† Joint Capital with Punjab †† Common for Punjab, Haryana
Haryana
and Chandigarh.

Symbols of Haryana

Animal

Black buck

Bird

Black francolin

Flower

Lotus

Tree

Peepal

Haryana
Haryana
(IPA: [ɦərɪˈjaːɳaː]), carved out of the former state of East Punjab
East Punjab
on 1 November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India. Situated in North India
India
with less than 1.4% (44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi)) of India's land area, it is ranked 21st in terms of area.[4][1] Chandigarh
Chandigarh
is the capital, Faridabad
Faridabad
in National Capital Region is the most populous city of the state and the Gurugram
Gurugram
is the financial hub of NCR with major Fortune 500 companies located in it.[5] Haryana
Haryana
has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,841 villages and 6212 villages panchayats.[6][4] As the largest recipient of investment per capita since 2000 in India,[7] and among one of the wealthiest and most economically developed regions in South Asia,[8] Haryana
Haryana
has the sixth highest per capita income among Indian states and union territories at ₹180,174 (US$2,800) against the national average of ₹112,432 (US$1,700) for year 2016–17.[9] Haryana's 2017-18 estimated state GSDP of US$95 billion (52% services, 30% industries and 18% agriculture) is growing at 12.96% 2012-17 CAGR and placed on the 14th position behind only much bigger states, is also boosted by 30 SEZs (mainly along DMIC, ADKIC and DWPE in NCR), 7% national agricultural exports, 60% of national Basmati
Basmati
rice export, 67% cars, 60% motorbikes, 50% tractors and 50% refrigerators produced in India.[4][4][10] Faridabad
Faridabad
has been described as eighth fastest growing city in the world and third most in India
India
by City Mayors Foundation survey.[11] In services, Gurugram ranks number 1 in India
India
in IT growth rate and existing technology infrastructure, and number 2 in startup ecosystem, innovation and livability (Nov 2016).[12] Among the world's oldest and largest ancient civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi
Rakhigarhi
village in Hisar district
Hisar district
and Bhirrana
Bhirrana
in Fatehabad district
Fatehabad district
are 9,000 years old.[13] Rich in history, monuments, heritage, flora and fauna, human resources and tourism with well developed economy, national highways and state roads, it is bordered by Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
to the north-east, by river Yamuna
Yamuna
along its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh, by Rajasthan
Rajasthan
to the west and south, and Ghaggar-Hakra River
Ghaggar-Hakra River
flows along its northern border with Punjab. Since Haryana
Haryana
surrounds the country's capital Delhi
Delhi
on three sides (north, west and south), consequently a large area of Haryana
Haryana
is included in the economically-important National Capital Region for the purposes of planning and development.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-history 2.2 Medieval 2.3 Formation

3 People

3.1 Demographics and religion 3.2 Languages 3.3 Culture

3.3.1 Folk theater and dances 3.3.2 Folk music and songs

3.3.2.1 Classical Haryanvi folk music 3.3.2.2 Desi Haryanvi folk music 3.3.2.3 Socially normative-cohesive impact

3.3.3 Cuisine

4 Geography

4.1 Plains and mountains 4.2 Hydrography 4.3 Climate 4.4 Flora and fauna

4.4.1 Forests 4.4.2 Wildlife

4.5 Environmental and ecological issues

5 Administration

5.1 Divisions 5.2 Districts 5.3 Law and order 5.4 Governance and e-governance

6 Economy

6.1 Agriculture

6.1.1 Crops 6.1.2 Fruits, vegetables and spices 6.1.3 Flowers and medicinal plants 6.1.4 Livestock 6.1.5 Research

6.2 Industrial sector

6.2.1 Manufacturing 6.2.2 Utilities

6.3 Services sector

6.3.1 Transport

6.3.1.1 Roads and Highways 6.3.1.2 Railway 6.3.1.3 Metro 6.3.1.4 Sky Way

6.3.2 Communication and media 6.3.3 Healthcare 6.3.4 Education

6.3.4.1 Literacy 6.3.4.2 Schools 6.3.4.3 Universities and higher education

6.3.5 Sports

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Haryana
Haryana
is found in the works of the 12th-century AD Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189–1230).[14] The name Haryana
Haryana
has been derived from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words Hari (the Hindu
Hindu
god Vishnu) and ayana (home), meaning "the Abode of God".[15] However, scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name comes from a compound of the words Hari ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Harit, "green") and Aranya (forest).[16] History[edit] Main articles: History, National monuments, and State monuments Pre-history[edit] Main articles: Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
and Vedic Civilization

Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra

The Vedic state of Brahmavarta is claimed to be located in south Haryana, where the initial Vedic scriptures
Vedic scriptures
were composed after the great floods some 10,000 years ago.[17] Rakhigarhi
Rakhigarhi
village in Hisar district
Hisar district
and Bhirrana
Bhirrana
in Fatehabad district are home to the largest and one of the world's oldest ancient Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
sites, dated at over 9,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, a drainage system, a large-scale rainwater collection storage system, terracotta brick and statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) have been uncovered. According to archaeologists, Rakhigarhi
Rakhigarhi
may be the origin of Harappan civilisation, which arose in the Ghaggar
Ghaggar
basin in Haryana and gradually and slowly moved to the Indus
Indus
valley.[13][18] Medieval[edit] Ancient bronze and stone idols of Jain Tirthankara
Tirthankara
were found in archaeological expeditions in Badli, Bhiwani
Bhiwani
(Ranila, Charkhi Dadri, Badhara village), Dadri, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
( Ferozpur
Ferozpur
Jhirka), Hansi, Hisar (Agroha), Kasan, Nahad, Narnaul, Pehowa, Rewari, Rohad, Rohtak (Asthal-Abohar) and Sonepat
Sonepat
in Haryana.[19] After the sack of Bhatner fort
Bhatner fort
during the Timurid conquests of India in 1398, Timur
Timur
attacked and sacked the cities of Sirsa, Fatehabad, Sunam, Kaithal
Kaithal
and Panipat. When he reached the town of Sarsuti, the residents, who were mostly non-Muslims, fled and were chased by a detachment of Timur's troops, with thousands of them being killed and looted by the troops. From there he travelled to Fatehabad, whose residents fled and a large number of those remaining in the town were massacred. The Ahirs
Ahirs
resisted him at Ahruni but were defeated, with thousands being killed and many being taken prisoners while the town was burnt to ashes. From there he travelled to Tohana, whose Jat inhabitants were stated to be robbers according to Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi. They tried to resist but were defeated and fled. Timur's army pursued and killed 200 Jats, while taking many more as prisoners. He then sent a detachment to chase the fleeing Jats and killed 2,000 of them while their wives and children were enslaved and their property plundered. From there he proceeded to Kaithal
Kaithal
whose residents were massacred and plundered, destroying all villages along the way. On the next day, he came to Assandh
Assandh
whose residents were "fire-worshippers" according to Yazdi, and had fled to Delhi. Next he travelled to and subdued Tughlaqpur fort and Salwan before reaching Panipat
Panipat
whose residents had already fled. He then marched on to Loni fort.[20][21]

Portrait of Hem Chandra Vikramaditya

The area that is now Haryana
Haryana
has been ruled by some of the major empires of India. Panipat
Panipat
is known for three seminal battles in the history of India. In the First Battle of Panipat
Panipat
(1526), Babur defeated the Lodis. In the Second Battle of Panipat
Panipat
(1556), Akbar defeated the local Haryanvi Hindu
Hindu
Emperor of Delhi, who belonged to Rewari. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya
Hem Chandra Vikramaditya
had earlier won 22 battles across India
India
from Punjab to Bengal, defeating Mughals and Afghans. Hemu
Hemu
had defeated Akbar's forces twice at Agra and the Battle of Delhi
Delhi
in 1556 to become the last Hindu
Hindu
Emperor of India
India
with a formal coronation at Purana Quila
Purana Quila
in Delhi
Delhi
on 7 October 1556. In the Third Battle of Panipat
Panipat
(1761), the Afghan king Ahmad Shah Abdali
Ahmad Shah Abdali
defeated the Marathas.[22] Formation[edit] Haryana
Haryana
as a state came into existence on 1 November 1966 the Punjab Reorganisation Act (1966). The Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice JC Shah on 23 April 1966 to divide the existing state of Punjab and determine the boundaries of the new state of Haryana
Haryana
after consideration of the languages spoken by the people. The commission delivered its report on 31 May 1966 whereby the then-districts of Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak
Rohtak
and Karnal
Karnal
were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils of Jind
Jind
and Narwana
Narwana
in the Sangrur district — along with Naraingarh, Ambala
Ambala
and Jagadhri
Jagadhri
— were to be included.[23] The commission recommended that the tehsil of Kharad, which includes Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab, should be a part of Haryana. However, only a small portion of Kharad was given to Haryana.[24] The city of Chandigarh
Chandigarh
was made a union territory, serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana.[25] Bhagwat Dayal Sharma
Bhagwat Dayal Sharma
became the first Chief Minister of Haryana.[26] People[edit] Demographics and religion[edit]

Religion in Haryana
Haryana
(2011)[27]    Hinduism
Hinduism
(87.46%)    Islam
Islam
(7.03%)    Sikhism
Sikhism
(4.91%)    Jainism
Jainism
(0.21%)    Christianity
Christianity
(0.20%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(0.03%)   Others (0.18%)

See also: List of people from Haryana According to the 2011 census, of total 25,350,000 population of Haryana, Hindus (87.46%) constitute the majority of the state's population with Sikhs (4.91%), Muslims (7.03%) (mainly Meos) being the largest minorities.[27] The Jats are the dominant caste in Haryana, and form nearly 25% of the state's electorate. The rest of the electorate includes OBC (24%, including Ahirs/Yadavs); upper-caste (30%, including Brahmins, Baniyas and Punjabis); and Dalits (21%).[28][additional citation(s) needed] Muslims are mainly found in the Mewat and Nuh districts. Haryana
Haryana
has the second largest Sikh
Sikh
population in India
India
after Punjab, and they mostly live in the districts adjoining Punjab, such as Hisar, Sirsa, Jind, Fatehabad, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Ambala, Narnaul
Narnaul
and Panchkula karnal.[29][30] Languages[edit]

Languages of Haryana
Haryana
(2001)[31]    Hindi
Hindi
(87.31%)   Punjabi (10.57%)   Urdu (1.23%)   Bengali (0.19%)   Nepali (0.10%)   Others (0.60%)

Hindi
Hindi
was the sole official language of Haryana
Haryana
till 2010 and it is spoken by the majority of the population (87.31%).[31] Haryana
Haryana
has 70% rural population who primarily speak Haryanvi dialect of Hindi,[32] as well as other related dialects, such as Bagri[33][34] and Mewati.[35][36] Culture[edit] Haryana
Haryana
has its own unique traditional folk music, folk dances, saang (folk theater),[37] cinema,[38] belief system such as Jathera (ancestral worship),[39][40] and arts such as Phulkari and Shisha embroidery.[40] Folk theater and dances[edit] Folk music and dances of Haryana
Haryana
are based on satisfying cultural needs of primarily agrarian and martial natures of Haryanavi tribes.[41] Haryanvi musical folk theater main types are Saang, Rasa lila
Rasa lila
and Ragini. The Saang
Saang
and Ragini form of theater was popularised by Lakhmi Chand.[41] Haryanvi folk dances and music have fast energetic movements. Three popular categories of dance are: festive-seasonal, devotional, and ceremonial-recreational. The festive-seasonal dances and songs are Gogaji/Gugga, Holi, Phaag, Sawan, Teej. The devotional dances and songs are Chaupaiya, Holi, Manjira, Ras Leela, Raginis). The ceremonial-recreational dances and songs are of following types: legendary bravery (Kissa and Ragini of male warriors and female Satis), love and romance (Been and its variant Nāginī
Nāginī
dance, and Ragini), ceremonial (Dhamal Dance, Ghoomar, Jhoomar (male), Khoria, Loor, and Ragini).[39] Folk music and songs[edit] Haryanvi folk music are based on day to day themes and injecting earthy humor enlivens the feel of the songs.[39] Haryanvi music takes two main forms: "Classical folk music" and " Desi Folk music" (Country Music of Haryana),[42] and sung in the form of ballads and love, valor and bravery, harvest, happiness and pangs of parting of lovers.[41][42][43] Classical Haryanvi folk music[edit] Classical Haryanvi folk music is based on Indian classical music.[42] Hindustani classical ragas, learnt in gharana parampara of guru–shishya tradition, are used to sing songs of heroic bravery (such as Alha-Khand
Alha-Khand
(1663-1202 CE) about bravery of Alha
Alha
and Udal, Jaimal Fatta of Maharana Udai Singh II), Brahmas worship and festive seasonal songs (such as Teej, Holi
Holi
and Phaag songs of Phalgun
Phalgun
month near Holi).[42][43] Kissa legendary folklores of bravery and love such as Nihalde Sultan, Sati Manorama, Jai Singh ki Mrityu, Saran de, etc. are some of the most popular folklores.[39] Bravery songs are sung in high pitch.[41] Desi Haryanvi folk music[edit] Desi Haryanvi folk music (Haryanvi country folk music) The country-side or desi (native) form of Haryanvi music is based on Raag Bhairvi, Raag Bhairav, Raag Kafi, Raag Jaijaivanti, Raag Jhinjhoti and Raag Pahadi and used for celebrating community bonhomie to sing seasonal songs, ballads, ceremonial songs (wedding, etc.) and related religious legendary tales such as Puran Bhagat.[42][43] Relationship and songs celebrating love and life are sung in medium pitch. Ceremonial and religious songs are sung in low pitch.[41] Young girls and women usually sing entertaining and fast seasonal, love, relationship and friendship related songs such as Phagan (song for eponymous season/month), Katak (songs for the eponymous season/month), Samman (songs for the eponymous season/month), bande-bandi (male-female duet songs), sathne (songs of sharing heartfelt feelings among female friends).[41] Older women usually sing devotional Mangal Geet (auspicious songs) and ceremonial songs such as Bhajan, Bhat (wedding gift to the mother of bride or groom by her brother), Sagai, Ban ( Hindu
Hindu
wedding ritual where pre-wedding festivities starts), Kuan-Poojan (a custom that is performed to welcome the birth of male child by worshiping the well or source of drinking water), Sanjhi
Sanjhi
and Holi
Holi
festival.[41] Socially normative-cohesive impact[edit] Music and dance for Haryanvi people is a great way of demolishing societal differences as folk singers are highly esteemed and they are sought after and invited for the events, ceremonies and special occasions regardless of their caste or status. These inter-caste songs are fluid in nature, and never personalized for any specific caste, and they are sung collectively by women from different strata, castes, dialects. These songs do transform fluidly in dialect, style, words, etc. This adoptive style can be seen from the adoption of tunes of Bollywood movie songs into Haryanvi songs. Despite this continuous fluid transforming nature, Haryanvi songs have a distinct style of their own as explained above.[41] Cuisine[edit] See also: North Indian cuisine 81% people of Haryana
Haryana
are vegetarian,[44] and cuisine of Haryana
Haryana
is based on fresh, earthy and wholesome ethos of its agrarian culture, where staples are roti, saag, vegetarian sabzi and abundance of milk products such as homemade nooni or tindi ghee, ghee (clarified butter), milk, lassi, kheer.[45] Geography[edit] Haryana
Haryana
is a landlocked state in northern India. It is between 27°39' to 30°35' N latitude and between 74°28' and 77°36' E longitude.[46] The total geographical area of the state is 4.42 m ha, which is 1.4% of the geographical area of the country.[47] The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 and 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level.[48] Haryana
Haryana
has only 4% (compared to national 21.85%) area under forests.[4] Plains and mountains[edit] Haryana
Haryana
has four main geographical features.[49]

The Yamuna- Ghaggar
Ghaggar
plain forming the largest part of the state is also called Delhi
Delhi
doab consisting of Sutlej- Ghaggar
Ghaggar
doab (between Sutlej
Sutlej
in north in Punjab and Ghaggar
Ghaggar
river flowing through northern Haryana), Ghaggar-Hakra
Ghaggar-Hakra
doab (between Ghaggar
Ghaggar
river and Hakra or Drishadvati river which is the paleo channel of the holy Sarasvati River) and Hakra- Yamuna
Yamuna
doab (between Hakra river and Yamuna). See also: Doab. The Lower Shivalik Hills
Shivalik Hills
to the northeast in foothills of Himalaya The Bagar tract
Bagar tract
semi-desert dry sandy plain to the south-west. See also: Bangar and Khadir. The Aravali Range's northern most low rise isolated non-continuous outcrops in the south

Hydrography[edit]

Yamuna
Yamuna
River near the Haryana
Haryana
Border

The Yamuna, tributary of Ganges, flows along the state's eastern boundary.[50] Northern Haryana
Haryana
has several north-east to south-west flowing rivers originating from the Sivalik Hills
Sivalik Hills
of Himalayas, such as Ghaggar-Hakra (palaeochannel of vedic Sarasvati river),[51] Chautang
Chautang
(paleochannel of vedic Drishadvati river, tributary of Ghagghar),[52][53] Tangri river (tributary of Ghagghar),[52][53] Kaushalya river
Kaushalya river
(tributary of Ghagghar),[54][55] Markanda River (tributary of Ghagghar),[52][53] Sarsuti,[52][53] Dangri,[52][53] Somb river.[56] Haryana's main seasonal river, the Ghaggar-Hakra, known as Ghaggar
Ghaggar
before the Ottu barrage and as the Hakra downstream of the barrage,[51] rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna
Yamuna
and the Satluj
Satluj
and enters the state near Pinjore
Pinjore
in the Panchkula
Panchkula
district, passes through Ambala and Sirsa, it reaches Bikaner
Bikaner
in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and runs for 460 km (290 mi) before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan.[57] The seasonal Markanda River, known as the Aruna in ancient times, originates from the lower Shivalik Hills
Shivalik Hills
and enters Haryana
Haryana
west of Ambala, and swells into a raging torrent during monsoon is notorious for its devastating power, carries its surplus water on to the Sanisa Lake where the Markanda joins the Sarasuti and later the Ghaggar.[57] Southern Haryana
Haryana
has several south-east to north-west flowing seasonal rivulets originating from the Aravalli Range
Aravalli Range
in and around the hills in Mewat region, including Sahibi River[58][59][60][61] (called Najafgarh drain
Najafgarh drain
in Delhi),[62][63][64][65][66] Dohan river
Dohan river
(tributary of Sahibi, originates at Mandoli village near Neem Ka Thana
Neem Ka Thana
in Jhunjhunu district
Jhunjhunu district
of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and then disappears in Mahendragarh district),[59][61] Krishnavati river
Krishnavati river
(former tributary of Sahibi river, originates near Dariba and disappears in Mahendragarh
Mahendragarh
district much before reaching Sahibi river)[59][61] and Indori river
Indori river
(longest tributary of Sahibi River, originates in Sikar district
Sikar district
of Rajasthan and flows to Rewari
Rewari
district of Haryana), these once were tributaries of the Drishadwati/ Saraswati
Saraswati
river.[67][68][69] Major canals are Western Yamuna
Yamuna
Canal,[70] [71][72] Sutlej
Sutlej
Yamuna
Yamuna
link canal (from Sutlej
Sutlej
river tributary of Indus), [71][72] and Indira Gandhi Canal.[73] Major dams are Kaushalya Dam
Kaushalya Dam
in Panchkula
Panchkula
district,[74] Hathnikund Barrage[70][75] and Tajewala Barrage
Tajewala Barrage
on Yamuna
Yamuna
in Yamunanagar district,[70][76][77] Pathrala barrage
Pathrala barrage
on Somb river in Yamunanagar district,[70][77] ancient Anagpur Dam
Anagpur Dam
near Surajkund
Surajkund
in Faridabad district,[78][79] and Ottu barrage
Ottu barrage
on Ghaggar-Hakra River
Ghaggar-Hakra River
in Sirsa district.[80][81][82] Major lakes are Dighal Wetland, Basai Wetland, Badkhal Lake
Badkhal Lake
in Faridabad,[83][84][85] holy Brahma
Brahma
Sarovar[86][87] and Sannihit Sarovar in Kurukshetra,[88] Blue Bird Lake
Blue Bird Lake
in Hisar,[89][90] Damdama Lake at Sohna
Sohna
in Gurgram district,[91][92] Hathni Kund in Yamunanagar district,[70][75] Karna Lake at Karnal,[93] ancient Surajkund
Surajkund
in Faridabad,[78][94][95] and Tilyar Lake
Tilyar Lake
in Rohtak.[96][97][98] The Haryana
Haryana
State Waterbody Management Board is responsible for rejuvenation of 14,000 Johads of Haryana
Haryana
and up to 60 lakes in National Capital Region falling within the Haryana
Haryana
state.[99][100] Only hot spring of Haryana
Haryana
is the Sohna
Sohna
Sulphur Hot Spring at Sohna
Sohna
in Gurugram
Gurugram
district.[101][102] Tosham Hill range
Tosham Hill range
has several sacred sulphur pond of religious significance that are revered for the healing impact of sulfur, such as Pandu Teerth Kund, Surya Kund, Kukkar Kund, Gyarasia Kund or Vyas Kund.[103] Seasonal waterfalls include Tikkar Taal twin lakes at Morni
Morni
hiills, Dhosi Hill
Dhosi Hill
in Mahendragarh
Mahendragarh
district and Pali village
Pali village
on outskirts of Faridabad. Climate[edit] Haryana
Haryana
is extremely hot in summer at around 45 °C (113 °F) and mild in winter. The hottest months are May and June and the coldest December and January.[67] The climate is arid to semi-arid with average rainfall of 354.5 mm. Around 29% of rainfall is received during the months from July to September, and the remaining rainfall is received during the period from December to February.[47] Flora and fauna[edit]

State symbols of Haryana

Formation day 1 November (Day of separation from Punjab)

State mammal Black buck[104]

State bird Black francolin

State tree Peepal[104]

State flower Lotus[104]

Forests[edit] Forest Cover in the state in 2013 was 3.59% (1586 km2) and the Tree Cover in the state was 2.90% (1282 km2), giving a total forest and tree Cover of 6.49%.[105] In 2016-17, 18,412 hectares were brought under tree cover by planting 14.1 million seedlings.[4] Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black buck, nilgai, panther, fox, mongoose, jackal and wild dog. More than 450 species of birds are found here.[106][107][108] Wildlife[edit] See also: List of National Parks & Wildlife Sanctuaries of Haryana, India Haryana
Haryana
has two national parks, eight wildlife sanctuaries, two wildlife conservation areas, four animal and bird breeding centers, one deer park and three zoos, all of which are managed by the Haryana Forest Department of the Government of Haryana.[109][110] Environmental and ecological issues[edit] See also: Air pollution in India Haryana Environment Protection Council
Haryana Environment Protection Council
is the advisory committee and Department of Environment, Haryana]] is the department responsible for administration of environment. Areas of Haryana
Haryana
surrounding Delhi NCR are most polluted. During smog of November 2017, Air quality index of Gurugram
Gurugram
and Faridabad
Faridabad
showed that the density of Fine particulates (2.5 PM diameter) was an average of 400 PM and monthly average of Haryana
Haryana
was 60 PM. Other sources of pollution are exhaust gases from old vehicles, stone crushers and brick kiln. Haryana
Haryana
has 75 lakh (7,500,000) old vehicles, of which 40% are old more polluting vehicles, besides 500,000 new vehicles are added every year. Other majorly polluted cities are Bhiwani, Bahadurgarh, Dharuhera, Hisar and Yamunanagar.[111] Administration[edit] Divisions[edit]

Ten Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituencies in Haryana

See also: List of cities in Haryana
Haryana
by population The state is divided into divided into 6 revenue divisions, 5 Police Ranges and 3 Police Commissionerates (c. January 2017).[112][113][114][115] Six revenue divisions are: Ambala, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Hisar, Karnal
Karnal
and Faridabad.[112] Haryana
Haryana
has 10 municipal corporations (Gurigram, Faridabad, Ambala, Panchkula, Yamunanagar, Rohtak, Hisar, Panipat, Karnal
Karnal
and Sonepat), 18 municipal councils and 52 municipalities (c. Jan 2018).[116] Within these there are 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,841 villages, 6212 villages panchayats and numerous smaller dhanis.[6] Districts[edit] Main article: List of districts of Haryana

Divisions Districts

Ambala Ambala, Kurukshetra, Panchkula, Yamuna
Yamuna
Nagar

Faridabad Faridabad, Palwal, Nuh

Gurgaon Gurgaon, Mahendragarh, Rewari,

Hisar Fatehabad, Jind, Hisar, Sirsa,

Rohtak Jhajjar, Charkhi Dadri, Rohtak, Sonipat, Bhiwani[49]

Karnal Karnal, Panipat, Kaithal

Law and order[edit] Haryana Police
Haryana Police
force is the law enforcement agency of Haryana. Five Police Ranges are Ambala, Hissar, Karnal, Rewari
Rewari
and Rohtak.[117] Three Police Commissionerates are Faridabad, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
and Panchkula.[112] Cybercrime investigation cell is based in Gurgaon's Sector 51.[118] The highest judicial authority in the state is the Punjab and Haryana High Court, with next higher right of appeal to Supreme Court of India. Haryana
Haryana
uses e-filing facility.[119] Governance and e-governance[edit] See also: CMs, Assembly, Assembly constituencies, Lok Sabha constituencies, and Political dynasties The Common Service Centres (CSCs) have been upgraded in all districts to offer hundreds of e-services to citizens, including application of new water connection, sewer connection, electricity bill collection, ration card member registration, result of HBSE, admit cards for board examinations, online admission form for government colleges, long route booking of buses, admission forms for Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
University and HUDA plots status inquiry.[120] Haryana
Haryana
has become the first state to implement Aadhaar-enabled birth registration in all the districts.[120] Thousands of all traditional offline state and central government services are also available 24/7 online through single unified UMANG app and portal as part of Digital India initiative.[121][122] Economy[edit] Main articles: Economy of Haryana, SEZs in Haryana, Companies in Gurugram, and Tourism in Haryana Haryana's 14th placed 12.96% 2012-17 CAGR[10] estimated 2017-18 GSDP of US$95 billion[4] is split in to 52% services, 30% industries and 18% agriculture.[4] Services sector is split across 45% in real estate and financial & professional services, 26% trade and hospitality, 15% state and central govt employees, and 14% transport and logistics & warehousing.[4] In IT services, Gurugram
Gurugram
ranks number 1 in India
India
in growth rate and existing technology infrastructure, and number 2 in startup ecosystem, innovation and livability (Nov 2016).[12] Industries sector is split across 69% manufacturing, 28% construction, 2% utilities and 1% mining.[4] In industrial manufacturing, Haryana produces India's 67% of passenger cars, 60% of motorcycles, 50% of tractors and 50% of the refrigerators.[4] Services and industrial sectors are boosted by 7 operational SEZs and additional 23 formally approved SEZs (20 already notified and 3 in-principal approval) that are mostly spread along the Delhi–Mumbai Industrial Corridor, Amritsar Delhi Kolkata Industrial Corridor
Amritsar Delhi Kolkata Industrial Corridor
and Delhi Western Peripheral Expressway in NCR).[4] Agriculture sector is split across 93% crops and livestock, 4% commercial forestry and logging, and 2% fisheries.[4] Agriculture sector of Haryana, with only less than 1.4% area of India, contributes 15% food grains to the central food security public distribution system,[4] and 7% of total national agricultural exports including 60% of total national Basmati
Basmati
rice export.[4] Agriculture[edit] Crops[edit] Haryana
Haryana
is traditionally an agrarian society of zamindars (owner-cultivator farmers). The Green Revolution in Haryana
Haryana
of 1960s[123] combined with completion of Bhakra Dam
Bhakra Dam
in 1963[124] and Western Yamuna
Yamuna
Command Network canal system in 1970s resulted in the significantly increased food grain production.[123] In 2015-2016, Haryana
Haryana
produced the following principal crops: 13,352,000 tonne wheat, 4,145,000 tonne rice, 7,169,000 tonne sugarcane, 993,000 tonne cotton and 855,000 tonne oilseeds (mustard seed, sunflower, etc.). Fruits, vegetables and spices[edit] Vegetable production was: Potato
Potato
853,806 tonnes, Onion
Onion
705,795 tonnes, Tomato
Tomato
675,384 tonnes, Cauliflower
Cauliflower
578,953 tonnes, Leafy Vegetables 370,646 tonnes, Brinjal
Brinjal
331,169 tonnes, guard 307,793 tonnes, Peas 111,081 tonnes and others 269,993 tonnes.[4] Fruits production was: Citrus
Citrus
301,764 tonnes, Guava
Guava
152,184 tonnes, Mango
Mango
89,965 tonnes, Chikoo 16,022 tonnes, Aonla 12,056 tonnes and other fruits 25,848 tonnes.[4] Spices production was: Garlic
Garlic
40,497 tonnes, Fenugreek
Fenugreek
9,348 tonnes, Ginger
Ginger
4,304 tonnes and others 840 tonnes.[4] Flowers and medicinal plants[edit] Cut flowers
Cut flowers
production was: Marigold 61,830 tonnes, Gladiolus 24,486,200 lakh, Rose
Rose
18,611,600 lakh and other 6,913,000 lakh.[4] Medicinal plants production was: Aloe vera
Aloe vera
1403 tonnes and Stevia
Stevia
13 tonnes.[4] Livestock[edit] Haryana
Haryana
is well known for its high-yield Murrah buffalo.[125][126][127][128] Other breeds of cattle native to Haryana are Haryanvi, Mewati, Sahiwal and Nili-Ravi.[129] Research[edit] To support its agrarian economy, both central government (Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Central Sheep Breeding Farm, National Research Centre on Equines, Central Institute of Fisheries, National Dairy Research Institute, Indian Institute of Wheat
Wheat
and Barley Research and National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources) and state government (CCS HAU, LUVAS, Government Livestock Farm, Regional Fodder Station and Northern Region Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute) have opened several institutes for research and education.[130][131][132] Industrial sector[edit] Manufacturing[edit] See also: Automotive industry in Haryana

The headquarters of DLF Limited, India's largest real estate company, in Gurgaon, Haryana.

Faridabad
Faridabad
is one of the biggest industrial city of Haryana
Haryana
as well as North India.[133] The City is home to large-scale MNC companies like India
India
Yamaha Motor Pvt. Ltd., Havells
Havells
India
India
Limited,[134] JCB India Limited, Indian Oil
Indian Oil
(R&D),[135] and Larsen & Toubro (L&T)[136]. Eyewear e-tailer Lenskart and healthcare startup Lybrate have their headquarters in Faridabad.[137][138] Hissar, a NCR Counter Magnet city known as steel and cotton spinning hub as well as upcoming integrated industrial aerocity and aero MRO hub at Hisar Airport,[139][140][141] is a fast developing city and the hometown of Navin Jindal
Navin Jindal
and Subhash Chandra
Subhash Chandra
of Zee TV
Zee TV
fame. Savitri Jindal, Navin Jindal's mother, has been listed by Forbes
Forbes
as the third richest woman in world.[142] Panipat
Panipat
has heavy industry, including a refinery operated by the Indian Oil
Indian Oil
Corporation, a urea manufacturing plant operated by National Fertilizers
National Fertilizers
Limited and a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant. It is known for its woven modhas or round stools.[143] Sonepat: IMT Kundli, Nathupur, Rai and Bari are industrial areas with several Small and medium-sized enterprises, including come large ones such as Atlas cycles, E.C.E., Birla factory, OSRAM[144][145][146] Gurugram: IMT Minesar, Dundahera
Dundahera
and Sohna
Sohna
are industrial and logistics hub,[147][148][149] that also has National Security Guards, Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs, National Brain Research Centre and National Bomb Data Centre.[150]

Utilities[edit] Haryana
Haryana
State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the state. Haryana
Haryana
was the first state in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970 as well as the first in the country to link all villages with all-weather roads and provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state.[151][better source needed] Power in the state are:

Renewable and non-polluting sources

Hydroelectricity

Bhakra-Nangal Dam Hydroelectric Power Plant WYC Hydro Electric Station, 62.4 MW, Yamunanagar[152]

Solar power
Solar power
stations

Faridabad
Faridabad
Solar Power Plant: being setup by HPGCL Faridabad (c.2016).[153]

Nuclear power
Nuclear power
stations

Gorakhpur Nuclear Power Plant, 2800MW, Fatehabad, Phase-I 1400MW by 2021[154][155]

Coal-fired thermal power stations

Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram Thermal Power Station, 600MW, Yamunanagar,[152] Indira Gandhi Super Thermal Power Project, 1500MW, Jhajjar[152] Jhajjar
Jhajjar
Power Station, 1500MW[152] Panipat
Panipat
Thermal Power Station I, 440MW[152] Panipat
Panipat
Thermal Power Station II, 920MW[152] Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power Station, 1200MW, Hisar[152]

Services sector[edit] Transport[edit]

Admin map of Haryana
Haryana
with RTO codes

Roads and Highways[edit] Haryana
Haryana
has a total road length of 26,062 kilometres (16,194 mi), including 2,482 kilometres (1,542 mi) 29 national highways, 1,801 kilometres (1,119 mi) state highways, 1,395 kilometres (867 mi) Major District Roads (MDR) and 20,344 kilometres (12,641 mi) Other District Roads (ODR) (c. December 2017).[156] A fleet of 3,864 Haryana Roadways
Haryana Roadways
buses covers a distance of 1.15 million km per day, and it was the first state in the country to introduce luxury video coaches.[157] Ancient Delhi
Delhi
Multan Road and Grand Trunk Road, South Asia's oldest and longest major roads, pass through Haryana. GT Road passes through the districts of Sonipat, Panipat, Karnal, Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
and Ambala
Ambala
in north Haryana
Haryana
where it enters Delhi
Delhi
and subsequently the industrial town of Faridabad
Faridabad
on its way. The 135.6 kilometres (84.3 mi) Kundli-Manesar- Palwal
Palwal
Expressway(KMP) will provide a high-speed link to northern Haryana
Haryana
with its southern districts such as Sonepat, Gurgaon, Jhajjar
Jhajjar
and Faridabad.[158] The Delhi-Agra Expressway (NH-2) that passes through Faridabad
Faridabad
is being widened to six lanes from current four lanes.[159] It will further boost Faridabad's connectivity with Delhi. Railway[edit] See also: Railway stations in Haryana, NWR history, NR history, and NCR history Rail network in Haryana
Haryana
is covered by 5 rail divisions under 3 rail zones. Diamond Quadrilateral High-speed rail network,[160] Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor (72 km)[161] and Western Dedicated Freight Corridor (177 km)[162] pass through Haryana. Bikaner
Bikaner
railway division of North Western Railway zone
North Western Railway zone
manages rail network in western and southern Haryana
Haryana
covering Bhatinda-Dabwali-Hanumangarh line, Rewari-Bhiwani-Hisar-Bathinda line, Hisar-Sadulpur line and Rewari-Loharu-Sadulpur line.[163][164] Jaipur railway division of North Western Railway zone
North Western Railway zone
manages rail network in south-west Haryana
Haryana
covering Rewari-Reengas-Jaipur line, Delhi-Alwar-Jaipur line and Loharu-Sikar line.[165] Delhi
Delhi
railway division of Northern Railway zone
Northern Railway zone
manages rail network in north and east and central Haryana
Haryana
covering Delhi- Ambala
Ambala
line, Delhi-Rohtak- Tohana
Tohana
line, Rewari– Rohtak
Rohtak
line, Jind- Sonepat
Sonepat
line and Delhi- Rewari
Rewari
line.[166][167][168][169][170] Agra railway division of North Central Railway zone
North Central Railway zone
manages another very small part of network in south-east Haryana
Haryana
covering Palwal-Mathura line only.[171][172] Ambala
Ambala
railway division of Northern Railway zone
Northern Railway zone
manages small part of rail network in north-east Haryana
Haryana
covering Ambala- Yamunanagar
Yamunanagar
line, Ambala- Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
line and UNESCO World Heritage Kalka–Shimla Railway.[173] Metro[edit] Main articles: Delhi
Delhi
Metro and Gurugram
Gurugram
Metro Delhi
Delhi
Metro connects the national capital Delhi
Delhi
with NCR cities such as Faridabad, Gurugram
Gurugram
and Bahadurgarh. Faridabad
Faridabad
has the longest metro network in the NCR Region consisting of 9 stations and track length being 14 km.[174] Sky Way[edit] The Haryana
Haryana
and Delhi
Delhi
governments have constructed the 4.5-kilometre (2.8 mi) international standard Delhi
Delhi
Faridabad
Faridabad
Skyway, the first of its kind in North India, to connect Delhi
Delhi
and Faridabad.[175] Communication and media[edit] Haryana
Haryana
has a statewide network of telecommunication facilities. Haryana
Haryana
Government has its own statewide area network by which all government offices of 22 districts and 126 blocks across the state are connected with each other thus making it the first SWAN of the country.[176][177][178] Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
and most of the leading private sector players (such as Reliance Infocom, Tata Teleservices, Bharti Telecom, Idea
Idea
Vodafone Essar, Aircel, Uninor
Uninor
and Videocon) have operations in the state. Important areas around Delhi are an integral part of the local Delhi
Delhi
Mobile Telecommunication System. This network system would easily cover major towns like Faridabad
Faridabad
and Gurgaon. Electronic media
Electronic media
channels include, MTV, 9XM, Star Group, SET Max, News Time, NDTV 24x7
NDTV 24x7
and Zee Group. The radio stations include All India Radio
Radio
and other FM stations. The major newspapers of Haryana
Haryana
include Dainik Bhaskar, Punjab Kesari, Jag Bani, Dainik Jagran, The Tribune, Amar Ujala, Hindustan Times, Dainik Tribune, The Times of India
India
and Hari-Bhumi. Healthcare[edit] See also: Haryana
Haryana
Civil Medical Services, Teaching hospitals, and NRHM The Total Fertility Rate of Haryana
Haryana
is 2.3. The Infant Mortality Rate is 41 (SRS 2013) and Maternal Mortality Ratio is 146 (SRS 2010–2012).[179] Education[edit]

Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak

Literacy[edit] Literacy rate in Haryana
Haryana
has seen an upward trend and is 76.64 percent as per 2011 population census. Male
Male
literacy stands at 85.38 percent, while female literacy is at 66.67 percent. In 2001, the literacy rate in Haryana
Haryana
stood at 67.91 percent of which male and female were 78.49 percent and 55.73 percent literate respectively.[180] As of 2013[update], Gurgaon
Gurgaon
city had the highest literacy rate in Haryana
Haryana
at 86.30% followed by Panchkula
Panchkula
at 81.9 per cent and Ambala
Ambala
at 81.7 percent.[181] In terms of districts, as of 2012[update] Rewari
Rewari
had the highest literacy rate in Haryana
Haryana
at 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy was 79%, and female 67%.[182] Schools[edit] Haryana
Haryana
Board of School Education, established in September 1969 and shifted to Bhiwani
Bhiwani
in 1981, conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. Over seven lakh candidates attend annual examinations in February and March; 150,000 attend supplementary examinations each November. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana
Haryana
Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year.[183] The Haryana
Haryana
government provides free education to women up to the bachelor's degree level. In 2015-2016, there were nearly 20,000 schools, including 10,100 state government schools (36 Aarohi Schools, 11 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas, 21 Model Sanskriti Schools, 8744 government primary school, 3386 government middle school, 1284 government high school and 1967 government senior secondary schools),[184] 7,635 private schools (200 aided,[185] 6612 recognized unaided,[186] and 821 unrecognied unaided private schools.[187])and several hundred other central government and private schools such as Kendriya Vidyalaya, Indian Army Public Schools, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya
Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya
and DAV schools affiliated to central government's CBSE and ICSE school boards. Universities and higher education[edit] See also: List of institutions of higher education in Haryana and List of Medical, Ayurvedic, Dental, Physiotherapy, Nursing and Para-medical colleges in Haryana Haryana
Haryana
has 29 universities and 299 colleges, including 115 government colleges, 88 govt-aided colleges and 96 self-finance colleges (c. Jan 2018).[188] Hisar has three universities: Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana
Haryana
Agricultural University - Asia's largest agricultural university,[189] Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences); several national agricultural and veterinary research centres (National Research Centre on Equines),[190] Central Sheep Breeding Farm,[191] National Institute on Pig Breeding and Research,[192] Northern Region Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute[193] and Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes (CIRB);[194] and more than 20 colleges including Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha.[195] Union Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad
Ravi Shankar Prasad
announced on 27 February 2016 that National Institute of Electronics and Information Technology (NIELIT) would be set up in Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
to provide computer training to youth and a Software Technology Park of India
India
(STPI) would be set up in Panchkula’s existing HSIIDC IT Park in Sector 23.[196] Hindi
Hindi
and English are compulsory languages in schools whereas Punjabi, Sanskrit and Urdu are chosen as optional languages.[197] Sports[edit] See also: Stadiums in Haryana

Vijender Singh Beniwal, middleweight boxer from Bhiwani, Haryana

Former volleyball player Balwant Sagwal

In the 2010 Commonwealth Games
2010 Commonwealth Games
at Delhi, 22 out of 38 gold medals that India
India
won came from Haryana.[198] During the 33rd National Games held in Assam
Assam
in 2007, Haryana
Haryana
stood first in the nation[199] with a medal tally of 80, including 30 gold, 22 silver and 28 bronze medals. The 1983 World-Cup-winning captain Kapil Dev
Kapil Dev
is from Haryana. Nahar Singh Stadium was built in Faridabad
Faridabad
in the year 1981 for international cricket. This ground has the capacity to hold around 25,000 people as spectators.[200] Tejli Sports Complex is an Ultra-Modern sports complex in Yamuna
Yamuna
Nagar. Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
is a multi-sport complex.[201] Chief Minister of Haryana
Chief Minister of Haryana
Manohar Lal Khattar
Manohar Lal Khattar
announced the "Haryana Sports and Physical Fitness Policy", a policy to support 26 Olympic sports, on 12 January 2015 with the words "We will develop Haryana
Haryana
as the sports hub of the country."[202][203] Haryana
Haryana
is home to Haryana
Haryana
Gold, one of India's eight professional basketball teams which compete in the country's UBA Pro Basketball League. See also[edit]

Book: India

List of Monuments of National Importance in Haryana List of State Protected Monuments in Haryana Outline of Haryana Politics of Haryana Tourism in Haryana Haryanvi cinema

Haryana
Haryana
portal Geography portal Asia
Asia
portal South Asia
Asia
portal India
India
portal

Notes[edit]

^ a b " Haryana
Haryana
at a Glance". Government of Haryana. Retrieved 1 March 2016.  ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 52nd report (July 2014 to June 2015)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 85–86. Retrieved 16 February 2016.  ^ " Haryana
Haryana
Population Sex Ratio in Haryana
Haryana
Literacy rate data". Census Commission of India. Retrieved 13 August 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t " Haryana
Haryana
State Budget 2017-18" (PDF). Haryana
Haryana
Finance Dept. Retrieved 7 October 2017.  ^ "This is NCR's new foodie magnet; have you been yet?". India
India
Today. 26 March 2017.  ^ a b NIDM, p. 4. ^ " Haryana
Haryana
Hurricane". indianexpress.com. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008.  ^ Byres, T.J. Rural labour relations in India. Taylor & Francis, 1999. ISBN 978-0-7146-8046-0.  ^ "STATE WISE DATA" (PDF). Economic Statistical Organisation Punjab. Central Statistical Organisation, New Delhi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.  ^ a b Industrial Development & Economic Growth in Haryana, India Brand Equity Foundation, Nov 2017. ^ http://www.citymayors.com/statistics/urban_growth1.html ^ a b India’s Top 12 Tech Cities: Digital Indian Cities Survey, 2016, CEOWORLD magazine, Nov 2016. ^ a b Did Climate Change Kill The Indus
Indus
Civilisation?, Swarajya magazine, 31 May 2016. ^ An Early Attestation of the Toponym Ḍhillī, by Richard J. Cohen, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1989, pp. 513–519

हरियाणए देसे असंखगाम, गामियण जणि अणवरथ काम परचक्क विहट्टणु सिरिसंघट्टणु, जो सुरव इणा परिगणियं रिउ रुहिरावट्टणु बिउलु पवट्टणु, ढिल्ली नामेण जि भणियं Translation: there are countless villages in Haryana
Haryana
country. The villagers there work hard. They don't accept domination of others, and are experts in making the blood of their enemies flow. Indra himself praises this country. The capital of this country is Dhilli.

^ Haryana
Haryana
Britannica Online Encyclopedia ^ Bijender K Punia (1993). Tourism management: problems and prospects. APH. p. 18. ISBN 978-81-7024-643-5.  ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India
India
- Haryana
Haryana
Plus". www.tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 4 August 2016.  ^ Rakhigarhi, the biggest Harappan site, The Hindu, 27 March 2014  ^ Atul Kumar Sinha & Abhay Kumar Singh 2007, p. 401. ^ Elliot, Sir Henry Miers; Dowson, John (1871). The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period: Ed. from the Posthumous Papers of the Late Sir H. M. Elliot ... Trübner and Company. pp. en.  ^ Phadke, H.A. (1990). Haryana, Ancient and Medieval. Harman Publishing House. p. 123.  ^ Arnold P. Kaminsky; Roger D. Long (2011). India
India
Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. ABC-CLIO. p. 300. ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3.  ^ the punjab reorganisation act, 1966 - Chief Secretary, Haryana (PDF)  ^ History of Haryana
History of Haryana
- Haryana
Haryana
Day: A new state is born!, archived from the original on 2 October 2013  ^ Haryana
Haryana
will get Chandigarh, Punjab can claim Lahore or Shimla, says a peeved Hooda, 25 July 2013  ^ List of Haryana
Haryana
Chief Ministers from November 1, 1966 till date, The Indian Express, 21 October 2014  ^ a b "Population by religion community - 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.  ^ "How polarisation of non- Jat
Jat
votes brought BJP to shores in Haryana - Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". 20 October 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ " Haryana
Haryana
government announced the formation of rules to register Anand Karaj, the Sikh
Sikh
marriage ceremony".  ^ Govt. of India, Census (2001). "Census India
India
2001" (PDF). Retrieved March 28, 2013.  ^ a b "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 4 December 2016.  ^ "Bagri". Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ "Revised Land and Revenue Settlement of Hisar District 9006-9011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ Gusain 2000, p. 14. ^ "Mina - South Asian people". Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ Moonis Raza (1993). Social structure and regional development: a social geography perspective : essays in honour of Professor Moonis Raza. Rawat Publications Original from-the University of California. p. 166.  ^ Sachchidananda Encyclopaedic Profile of Indian Tribes Volume 1 - 1996 817141298X p416. ^ Bhatia, Sheveta (August 17, 2010). "Second Innings". Indian Express. Retrieved 17 March 2011.  ^ a b c d "Journal of Punjab Studies - Center for Sikh
Sikh
and Punjab Studies - UC Santa Barbara". www.global.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ a b A Glossary of the tribes & castes of Punjab by H. A Rose ^ a b c d e f g h Manorma Sharma, 2007, Musical Heritage of India, Page 65. ^ a b c d e S. C. Bhatt and Gopal K. Bhargava, 2006, Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: 21 Arts and Crafts of Haryana. ^ a b c [S. Gajrani, 2004, History, Religion and Culture of India, Volume 1, Page 96. ^ From plate to plough: A clear trend towards non-vegetarianism in India, Indian Express, 23 October 2016. ^ Cuisine of Haryana, Haryana
Haryana
Tourism. ^ NIDM, p. 2. ^ a b Home, Department of Agriculture (Haryana), archived from the original on 17 November 2015  ^ Organizations  ^ a b NIDM, p. 3. ^ "River Saraswati
Saraswati
is for real, found in Haryana", Zee Nees, 8 May 2015  ^ a b Britannica, Dale Hoiberg, Indu Ramchandani. Students' Britannica India, Volumes 1-5. Popular Prakashan, 2000. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5. ... The Ghaggar
Ghaggar
River rises in the Shiwalik Range, northwestern Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
State, and flows about 320 km southwest through Haryana
Haryana
State, where it receives the Saraswati
Saraswati
River. Beyond the Otu Barrage, the Ghaggar
Ghaggar
River is known as the Hakra River which loses itself in the Thar Desert. Just southwest of Sirsa
Sirsa
it feeds two irrigation canals that extend into Rajasthan. ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b c d e "Rivers in Ambala, Markanda River Ambala, Tangri River Ambala". www.ambalaonline.in. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ a b c d e Chopra, Sanjeev (25 September 2010). "Overflowing Ghaggar, Tangri inundate some villages along Punjab- Haryana
Haryana
border". The Indian Express. Retrieved 9 April 2017.  ^ "Kaushalya Dam". 13 December 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ Sehgal, Manjeet (28 March 2015). "Scam worth Rs 217 crore behind 'failed' Kaushalya Dam, says CAG". Daily Mail. Retrieved 9 April 2017.  ^ "HaryanaOnline - Geography of Haryana". Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ a b Geography- others, District Administration, Kurukshetra  ^ Cultural Contours of India: Dr. Satya Prakash Felicitation Volume, Vijai Shankar Śrivastava, 1981. ISBN 0391023586 ^ a b c "Sahibi river". Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ A.k.jain (4 December 2017). "River Pollution". APH Publishing. Retrieved 4 December 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ a b c Minerals and Metals in Ancient India: Archaeological evidence, Arun Kumar Biswas, Sulekha Biswas, University of Michigan. 1996. ISBN 812460049X. ^ "Latest News, Breaking News Live, Current Headlines, India
India
News Online - The Indian Express". cities.expressindia.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017. [permanent dead link] ^ Environment Minister raises a stink over Najafgarh jheel[permanent dead link], 22 February 2005, The Indian Express ^ Najafgarh basin Delhi’s most polluted area, 25 December 2009, The Indian Express ^ Najafgarh drain
Najafgarh drain
11th among highly polluted industrial clusters, 25 Dec 2009, The Times of India ^ drain causes less pollution in Yamuna
Yamuna
now, 4 July 2006, The Indian Express ^ a b " Geography of Haryana
Geography of Haryana
- Map, Shivaliks, Ghaggar, Yamuna, Saraswati, Morni
Morni
- India". haryana-online.com. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016.  ^ Siwach, Sukhbir (7 December 2014), " Haryana
Haryana
to meet Rajasthan
Rajasthan
over stopping of river waters", Times of India  ^ Sudhir Bhargava,"Location of Brahmavarta and Drishadwati
Drishadwati
River is important to find earliest alignment of Saraswati
Saraswati
River", International Conference, 20–22 Nov. 2009, "Saraswati-a perspective" pages 114–117, Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
University, Kurukshetra, Organised by: Saraswati
Saraswati
Nadi Shodh Sansthan, Haryana. ^ a b c d e "Western Yamuna
Yamuna
Canal Major Irrigation Project JI01653 -". india-wris.nrsc.gov.in. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ a b [1] Archived 7 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "PIB Press Releases". pib.nic.in. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ Ramtanu Maitra: The Indira Gandhi Canal: greening the desert in India
India
EIR Volume 14, Number 7, February 13, 1987 ^ "Kaushalya Dam". Hills of Morni. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2014.  ^ a b Tak, Prakash C.; Jagdish P. Sati; Anjum N. Rizvi (April 2010). "Status of waterbirds at Hathnikund Barrage
Hathnikund Barrage
wetland, Yamunanagar District, Haryana, India" (PDF). 2 (4): 841. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2011.  ^ Tak, Prakash C.; Jagdish P. Sati; Anjum N. Rizvi (April 2010). "Status of waterbirds at Hathnikund Barrage
Hathnikund Barrage
wetland, Yamunanagar District, Haryana, India" (PDF). 2 (4): 841. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2011.  ^ a b Haberman, David L. (2006). River of love in an age of pollution: the Yamuna
Yamuna
River of northern India. University of California Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-520-24789-5. Retrieved 2 June 2011.  ^ a b Peck, Lucy (2005). Delhi
Delhi
- A thousand years of Building. Suraj Kund dam and Surajkund
Surajkund
tank. New Delhi: Roli Books Pvt Ltd. p. 29. ISBN 81-7436-354-8. Retrieved 2009-09-05. One of the two significant structures in the area, the dam lies about 1 km [0.62 mi] to the north of the Anangpur village. A path from the main village street will lead you in to flat pastureland. Head for the small rocky hill ahead of you and climb over it. On the other side is another flat area, rather thickly covered in thorn trees. It is worth finding a way through them to the dam that straddles the gap between the two nearby hills. The dam is an impressive edifice 50 m [160 ft] wide and 7 m [23 ft] high built from accurately hewn quartzite blocks.---There is a passage for the egress of water at the level of the ground on the dammed side. The flat land across which you have walked is clearly caused by centuries of silt deposits in the lake that once existed behind this dam. The land around has been vwey heavily quarried recently, so further archaeological finds are unlikely.  ^ Madan Mohan. "Spatial Data Modeling in GIS for Historical Restoration and Conservation of Cultural Heritage of Seven Cities of Delhi" (pdf). Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University) New Delhi, India. Retrieved 2009-09-07. [dead link] ^ Sir William Wilson Hunter, India
India
Office, Imperial gazetteer of India, Clarendon Press, 1908, ... It was agreed between the British Government and the State of Bikaner
Bikaner
that the Dhanur lake, about 8 miles from Sirsa, should be converted into a reservoir by the construction of a masonry weir at Otu ... two canals, the northern and southern ... constructed with famine labor in 1896-7 ... 6.3 lakhs, of which 2.8 lakhs was debited to Bikaner
Bikaner
...  ^ Mukesh Bhardwaj (7 April 2002), "Tau here, Tau there, Tau everywhere", Indian Express, retrieved 28 November 2010, ... The prestigious Panipat
Panipat
Thermal Plant was named after Devi Lal, as was the new tourist complex at Ottu weir in Sirsa
Sirsa
...  ^ "बस साल भर बाद खेतों की प्यास बुझाएगी ओटू झील (Ottu reservoir will begin quenching the thirst of fields in only a year)", Dainik Jagran, 27 May 2010, retrieved 28 November 2010, ... किसानों की समस्या से निजात दिलाने में सहायक ओटू झील की याद बरबस किसानों व सिंचाई विभाग को आना लाज़िमी है। सिंचाई विभाग ने किसानों के हित को ध्यान में रखते हुए झील की खुदाई की गति तेज़ कर दी है (it is obvious that the suffering farmers and the irrigation department would look to the Ottu reservoir. Mindful of the farmers' interests, the irrigation department has accelerated the work to deepen Ottu reservoir) ...  ^ "Badkhal". Haryana
Haryana
Tourism, Government of Haryana. Archived from the original on 2014-03-02. Retrieved 2014-03-18.  ^ "Delhi's water bodies face threat of extinction". India
India
Today. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-18.  ^ "Lakes left high and dry: Study finds Delhi
Delhi
has lost over 190 of its 611 water bodies... and is doing nothing to save the rest". Daily Mail. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-18.  ^ United New of India
India
(29 March 2006). "Lakhs take dip in Brahma Sarovar on Occasion of Solar Eclipse". oneindia.in. UNI. Retrieved 25 October 2014.  ^ Dutt, K.G. (23 August 1998). "Three hundred thousand take holy dip". The Tribune India. Retrieved 25 October 2014.  ^ "Religious Places in Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
- Brahma
Brahma
Sarovar". Kurukshetra district website. Retrieved 2014-08-08.  ^ "Title: The Tribune - Hisar Bluebird lake, Published 23 December 2014, Accessed: 26 March 2016". Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ "Blue Bird (Hisar)". 11 October 2011. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ Damdama lake, official website. ^ Rajiv Tiwari, " Delhi
Delhi
A Travel Guide", isbn 9798128819703. ^ Page 153, Tourism: Theory, Planning, and Practice, By K.K. Karma, Krishnan K. Kamra, Published 1997, Indus
Indus
Publishing, ISBN 81-7387-073-X ^ Sharma, Y.D (2001). Delhi
Delhi
and its Neighbourhood. Surjakund and Anagpur Dam. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. p. 100 in 161. Archived from the original on 31 August 2005. Retrieved 5 September 2009. Page 100: Suraj Kund lies about 3 km south-east of Tughlaqabad in district Gurgaon---The reservoir is believed to have been constructed in the tenth century by King Surjapal of Tomar dynasty, whose existence is based on Bardic tradition. Page 101: About 2 km south-west of Surajkund, close to the village of Anagpur (also called Arangpur is a dam ascribed to Anagpal of the Tomar Dynasty, who is also credited with building the Lal Kot  ^ "Ticketed Monuments – Haryana: Suraj Kund". National Informatics Centre, Government of India. Retrieved 2009-09-05.  ^ Page 149, India: A Travel Guide, By B.R. Kishore, published 2001, Diamond Pocket Books (P) Limited, ISBN 81-284-0067-3 ^ "List of zoos who have submitted their master plan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ "Protected Area". haryanaforest.gov.in. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ " Haryana
Haryana
to develop 50-60 small lakes, water bodies in NCR: Manohar Lal Khattar", Indian Express, 1 November 2017. ^ " Haryana
Haryana
to constitute pond management authority ", Business Standard, 1 November 2017. ^ " Sohna
Sohna
Hot Spring.", The Tribune. ^ "Hotel Detail - Haryana Tourism
Haryana Tourism
Corporation Limited". haryanatourism.gov.in. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ 2004, "Records, Volume 135, Part 1.", Geological Survey of India, Page 144. ^ a b c "State animals, birds, trees and flowers" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2007. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ Welcome To Our Website, Haryana
Haryana
Forest Department  ^ Flora and Fauna  ^ Conservation of Wildlife  ^ Fauna
Fauna
of Haryana, archived from the original on 2 December 2015  ^ Parks, Reserves and Other Protected Areas in Haryana  ^ "Protected Area". haryanaforest.gov.in. Retrieved 4 August 2016.  ^ "From Punjab to Patna pollution spreads.", Dainik Jagran, 12 November 2017. ^ a b c Reorganisation of Haryana
Haryana
divisions, Daily Pioneer, 3 January 2017. ^ Haryana
Haryana
approves to create two new revenue divisions, 2 Feb 2017. ^ Authority set up to rejig administrative units across Haryana, Times of India, 3 Jan 2017. ^ Haryana
Haryana
approves to create two new revenue divisions, Web India, 2 Feb 2017. ^ Municipal taxes will be sanctioned to the weak bodies of the state, Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran
news, 11 Jan 2018. ^ Haryana
Haryana
establishes five police ranges, business Standard, 16 January 2017. ^ " Haryana
Haryana
Police", Haryana
Haryana
Police  ^ "HC starts e-filing, gets Wi-Fi complex", The Tribune, Chandigarh, Tribune News Service, 1 December 2014  ^ a b "Digital India
India
campaign: Panchkula
Panchkula
comes out on top among all districts of Haryana". The Indian Express. 26 December 2015.  ^ "Government unveils Umang app for citizen services.", Economic Times, 23 Nov 2017. ^ "Govt's Umang app finally sees the light of the day: All you need to know.", Business Standard, 23 Nov 2017. ^ a b "About IARI". IARI. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ " Bhakra Dam
Bhakra Dam
Will Be Engineering Marvel". The Indian Express. 4 September 1955. p. 13. Retrieved 11 April 2017.  ^ "Murrah Buffalo".  ^ " Murrah buffalo
Murrah buffalo
sets record with 26.33 kg milk". tribuneindia.com. 2016-01-16. Retrieved 2016-04-24.  ^ " Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
farmer buys Haryana
Haryana
murrah buffalo for Rs 25L - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2013-08-11. Retrieved 2014-06-30.  ^ "Rs 40-lakh-a-year hurrah for owner of this Murrah!". Hindustan Times. 17 February 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014.  ^ "CIRB annual report 2015-16" (PDF). Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ M Gupta, 2011, Ranking of Indian institutions in agriculture & allied sciences. ^ Jagvir Singh Yadav, 1992, Evaluation of Agricultural Extension: A Study of Haryana, Page 44. ^ Salim Ahmed Lalli, 2007, Infrastructure and agricultural development in Haryana: policy implications. ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India
India
- Delhi
Delhi
and neighbourhood". tribuneindia.com.  ^ " File
File
not found".  ^ Manohar, Asit (26 March 2012). "IOC Faridabad
Faridabad
unit to pump in bio-fuel; R&D unit gearing to reduce pressure on conventional fuel". Times of India.  ^ L&T-Gulf Private Limited Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Abhishek Law. "Eye-wear e-tailer Lenskart looks at 150% growth this fiscal". The Hindu
Hindu
Business Line.  ^ "Faridabad: Rents climbing, sleepy town is hot property". The Times of India.  ^ Hisar aerodrome being considered for international airport, says MLA Archived 11 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine., HT Correspondent, Hindustan Times, Retrieved on 2 December 2014. ^ Haryana
Haryana
to develop international airport at Hisar, TravelBizMonitor, Retrieved in March 2016. ^ State shelves Hisar airport cargo project, The Tribune, 29 May 2015. ^ " Savitri Jindal and family". Forbes. Retrieved 13 July 2012.  ^ " Haryana
Haryana
culture". Indian mirror.  ^ "OSRAM". Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ "Atlas Cycles (Haryana) Ltd., Sonepat
Sonepat
(India)". www.atlascyclesonepat.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ "ECE Industries Ltd". www.eceindustriesltd.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ "Article Window". 5 February 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.  ^ " Haryana
Haryana
showpiece millennium city Gurgaon's 'powerless' original residents suffer". India.com. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015.  ^ Tanushree Roy Chowdhury (22 December 2010). "Villagers fume after Haryana
Haryana
CM skips KMP meet". The Times Of India. TNN. Retrieved 7 February 2011.  ^ "Pin Code of Manesar Gurgaon". citypincode.in. Retrieved 9 March 2014.  ^ General Information, archived from the original on 2012-09-09  ^ a b c d e f g HPGCL power plant capacity ^ " Haryana
Haryana
aims to install solar plants to replace old thermal plants", The Economic Times, 15 March 2016  ^ "Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan sigh Lays Foundation Stone of 2800 MW Gorakhpur Haryana
Haryana
Anu Vidyut Pariyojana (Nuclear Power Project)". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.  ^ Gorakhpur nuclear power plant makes headway. Down To Earth. 20 September 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2016. ^ Single agency to handle road repair work from January 1, Tribune, 29 Dec 2017. ^ Why Haryana? - Economic Infrastructure Archived 10 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "KMP Expressways to be completed by 2009". indianexpress.com. Archived from the original on 15 March 2007.  ^ "NH-2 widening to claim 25,000 trees in Faridabad
Faridabad
dist india". Hindustan Times. 2012-06-06. Retrieved 2015-11-03.  ^ Address by The President of India
India
to the Joint sitting of Parliament 2014 (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014  ^ "Eastern DFC". Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ "Western DFC". Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ Bikaner
Bikaner
Division map and history ^ "Overview of Bikaner
Bikaner
Division" (PDF). North Western Railway. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.  ^ Jaipur division network map ^ Delhi
Delhi
division map and history ^ "Zones and their Divisions in Indian Railways" (PDF). Indian Railways. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2016.  ^ " Ambala
Ambala
Railway Division". Railway Board. Northern Railway zone. Retrieved 13 January 2016.  ^ "Statement showing Category-wise No.of stations in IR based on Pass. earning of 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2016.  ^ "PASSENGER AMENITIES - CRITERIA= For Categorisation Of Stations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2016.  ^ NCR Zone map ^ "North Central Railways / Indian Railways Portal". www.ncr.indianrailways.gov.in. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ Ambala
Ambala
Division map and history. ^ "NCR's longest Metro line in Faridabad
Faridabad
delhi". Hindustan Times. 2012-01-23. Retrieved 2015-11-03.  ^ "Projects - Delhi
Delhi
- Faridabad
Faridabad
Elevated Expressway Project (dfskyway TM) (NH - 2)". HCC Infrastructure. 29 November 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2015.  ^ Egovonline.net Archived 30 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Punjabnewsline.com Archived 1 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The Tribune India". The Tribune. Retrieved 2008-02-06.  ^ State Wise Information, National Rural Health Mission, archived from the original on 2013-05-15  ^ Census 2011, Chapter 6 (State of Literacy) (PDF), pp. 114–117  ^ In Haryana, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
tops literacy rate but has worst sex ratio, Indian Express, 2013-05-23, retrieved 2015-11-03  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2013.  ^ History, Haryana
Haryana
Board of School Education  ^ "Management Information System - Reports". hryedumis.gov.in. Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ Haryana
Haryana
Education stats: aided private schools, 2015-2016 ^ " Haryana
Haryana
Education stats: Recognized unaided schools 2015-2016" (PDF). Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ " Haryana
Haryana
Education stats: list of unrecognisd unaided schools, 2015-2016" (PDF). Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ Haryana
Haryana
is growing rapidly in higher education, 299 colleges in small state, Jagram, 17 Jan 2018. ^ "About HAU". Haryana
Haryana
Agricultural University. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ "Vision 2030" (PDF). National Research Centre on Equines. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.  ^ "Central sheep breeding farm". Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, GoI. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ "Climate of Hisar". PPU. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ "About us". Northern Region Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ "About CIRB". Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ "Official website". Maharaja Agrasen Medical College. Retrieved 27 May 2012.  ^ "Under the Digital India
India
initiative: Software Technology Park of India", The Indian Express, 28 February 2016  ^ "National Committee for Linguistic
Linguistic
Minorities" (PDF). Retrieved 4 December 2017.  ^ Mizoramexpress.com Archived 26 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Official site for the 33rd National Games 2007, Guwahati Archived 19 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Nahar Singh Stadium
Nahar Singh Stadium
- India
India
- Cricket Grounds - ESPN Cricinfo". Cricinfo.  ^ "Tau Devi Lal Cricket Stadium - India
India
- Cricket Grounds - ESPN Cricinfo". Cricinfo.  ^ News Details, Office of Chief Minister of Haryana  ^ GoH 2015, p. 27.

References[edit]

GoH (12 January 2015), Haryana
Haryana
Sports and Physical Fitness Policy (PDF), Government of Haryana  Atul Kumar Sinha; Abhay Kumar Singh, eds. (2007), Udayana New Horizons in History, Classics and Inter-Cultural studies, Anamika Publishers, ISBN 81-7975-168-6  NIDM, National Disaster Risk Reduction Portal
Portal
- Haryana
Haryana
(PDF), National Institute of Disaster Management (MHA, GOI)  Sharma, Suresh K (2006). Haryana: Past and Present. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 763. ISBN 81-8324-046-1. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Khanna, C. L. (2008). Haryana
Haryana
General Knowledge. Agra: Upkar Prakashan. p. 75. ISBN 81-7482-383-2. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Yadav, Ram B. (2008). Folk Tales & Legends of Haryana. Gurgaon: Pinnacle Technology. p. 305. ISBN 81-7871-162-1. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Mittal, Satish Chandra (1986). Haryana, a Historical Perspective. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 183. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Singh, Mandeep; Kaur, Harvinder (2004). Economic Development Of Haryana. New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications. p. 234. ISBN 81-7629-558-2. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Gandhi, Mahatma (1977). Gandhiji and Haryana: A collection of his speeches and writings pertaining to Haryana. Usha Publications. p. 158. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Phadke, H. A. (1990). Haryana, ancient and medieval. Harman Publishing House. p. 256. ISBN 81-85151-34-2. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Singh, Chattar (2004). Social and economic change in Haryana. National Book
Book
Organisation. p. 252. ISBN 81-87521-10-4. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Yadav, Kripal Chandra (2002). Modern Haryana: History and culture, 1803–1966. Manohar Publishers & Distributors. p. 320. ISBN 81-7304-371-X. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Rai, Gulshan (1987). Formation of Haryana. B.R. Publishing Corporation. p. 223. ISBN 81-7018-412-6. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Handa, Devendra (2004). Buddhist remains from Haryana. Sundeep Prakashan. p. 97. ISBN 81-7574-153-8. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Haryana
Haryana
at a glance: Statistical overview & development indicators. Jagran Research Centre. 2007. p. 157. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Singh, Chander Pal (2003). Early medieval art of Haryana. Koshal Book Depot. p. 168. ISBN 81-86049-07-X. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Handa, Devendra (2006). Sculptures from Haryana: Iconography and style. Indian Institute of Advanced Study. p. 286. ISBN 81-7305-307-3. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Journal of Haryana
Haryana
Studies. Kurukshetra: Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
University. 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  Harvey, Bill; Harvey, William; Devasar, Nikhil; Grewal, Bikram; Oriental Bird Club (2006). Atlas of the birds of Delhi
Delhi
and Haryana. Rupa & Co. p. 352. ISBN 81-291-0954-9. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutHaryanaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Travel guide from Wikivoyage

Government

The Official Site of the Government of Haryana Official Tourism Site of Haryana, India

General information

Haryana
Haryana
Encyclopædia Britannica entry Haryana
Haryana
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Geographic data related to Haryana
Haryana
at OpenStreetMap

v t e

State of Haryana

Capital: Chandigarh

Topics

Outline History Tourism Geography Politics Government Governors Economy Sports

Districts and divisions

Ambala
Ambala
division

Ambala Kurukshetra Panchkula Yamuna
Yamuna
Nagar

Faridabad
Faridabad
division

Faridabad Nuh Palwal

Gurgaon
Gurgaon
division

Gurgaon Mahendragarh Rewari

Hisar division

Fatehabad Hisar Jind Sirsa

Karnal
Karnal
division

Kaithal Karnal Panipat

Rohtak
Rohtak
division

Bhiwani Charkhi Dadri Jhajjar Rohtak Sonipat

Major cities

Faridabad Gurgaon Panipat Yamunanagar Rohtak Hisar Karnal Sonipat Panchkula Bhiwani Sirsa Bahadurgarh Jind Kurukshetra Kaithal Rewari Palwal

Culture

Dance Music Swang Haryanvi Films Haryanvi language Loarki language Mewati language

Economy

Power stations and power organisations

Places of interest

Indus
Indus
Valley Civilization

Balu, Haryana Banawali Bhirrana Farmana Jognakhera Kunal Lohari Ragho Mitathal Rakhigarhi Siswal Sothi

Archaeological

Agroha Mound Chaneti Stupa Havelis: Nangal Sirohi Stepwells: Dhumaspur Baoli, Shahjahan ki Baoli

Forts

Asigarh Fort
Fort
(Hansi) Badhshapur Fort Buria Fort Chhachhrauli Fort Dhosi Hill
Dhosi Hill
Fort Fatehabad Fort Farrukhnagar
Farrukhnagar
Fort Hisar-e-Firoza Fort
Fort
Kotla Indor Fort Jind
Jind
Fort Kaithal
Kaithal
Fort Gajpat Singh Fort
Fort
at Karnal Loharu Fort Madhogarh Fort Mahendragarh
Mahendragarh
Fort Meham Fort Nahar Singh Fort
Fort
at Ballabhgargh Pinjore
Pinjore
Fort Raipur Rani Fort Fort
Fort
of King Saras of Sirsa Tosham
Tosham
Hill
Hill
Fort

Hills

Dhosi Hill
Dhosi Hill
near Narnaul Kotla Hill
Hill
in Mewat Indor Hill
Hill
in Mewat Madhogarh Hill
Hill
near Mahendragarh Mahendragarh
Mahendragarh
Hill Morni
Morni
Hills in Yamuna
Yamuna
Nagar Tosham
Tosham
Hill
Hill
in Bhiwani

Caves

Chyvan Rishi Cave
Cave
at Dhosi Hill Tosham
Tosham
Hill
Hill
Caverns Nar Narayan Cave
Cave
in Yamuna
Yamuna
Nagar

Historical

Bhima Devi Temple Complex
Bhima Devi Temple Complex
at Pinjore Dhosi Hill Farrukhnagar Mughal Bridge at Kernal Harsh ka Tilla at Kurukshetra Nahar Singh Mahal Narnaul Pataudi Palace Pinjore
Pinjore
Gardens Sthaneshwar Mahadev Temple Surajkund Tomb of Saikh Taiyab at Kaithal Tosham
Tosham
rock inscription State Protected Monuments Monuments of National Importance

Wildlife Sanctuary

Abubshahar Wildlife Sanctuary Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary Bir Shikargah Wildlife Sanctuary Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary Kalesar National Park Khaparwas Wildlife Sanctuary Khol Hi-Raitan Wildlife Sanctuary Morni Nahar Wildlife Sanctuary Saraswati
Saraswati
Wildlife Sanctuary Sohna Sultanpur Lake Bird Sanctuary

Endangered Wildlife Breeding

Chinkara Breeding Centre Kairu, Bhiwani Crocodile Breeding Centre, Kurukshetra Vulture Conservation and Breeding Centre, Pinjore Pheasant Breeding Centre Morni Pheasant Breeding Centre, Berwala Peacock & Chinkara Breading Centre, Jhabua in Rewari
Rewari
district Deer Park, Hisar

Zoos in Haryana

Bhiwani
Bhiwani
Zoo Hisar Deer Park Rohtak
Rohtak
Zoo Pipli Zoo

Herbal Parks

Shatavar Vatika Herbal Park, Hisar Ch. Surender Singh Memorial Herbal Park, Tosham Ch. Surender Singh Memorial Herbal Park, Kairu Ch. Devi Lal Herbal Nature Park

Lakes

Badkhal Lake Blue Bird Lake
Blue Bird Lake
at Hisar Damdama Lake Karna Lake Tilyar Lake
Tilyar Lake
at Rohtak

Dams

Anagpur Dam Hathnikund Barrage Kaushalya Dam Masani barrage Ottu barrage Palla barrage Pathrala barrage Tajewala Barrage

Rivers

Chautang Ghaggar-Hakra Markanda River Najafgarh Sahibi River Sarasvati River Yamuna

Religious

Adi Badri (Haryana)
Adi Badri (Haryana)
Sarsvati udgam sthal Agroha Dham Baba Thakur Banbhori
Banbhori
Devi Brahma
Brahma
Sarovar Bhuteshwar Temple Jayanti Devi Temple Jyotisar Kartikeya Temple Markandeshwar Mata Mansa Devi Mandir Nada Sahib Naugaja Peer Pindara Temple Sannihit Sarovar Sita Mai Temple Sthaneshwar Mahadev Temple Sheetla Mata Mandir Gurgaon St. Thomas' Church at Hisar

Offices

High Court Legislative Assembly Raj Bhavan

Public places

Kingdom of Dreams Mall of India The Oberoi

Extreme Corners of Haryana

Eastern-most point: Kalesar village Yamuna
Yamuna
riverbank in Yamuna
Yamuna
Nagar District Western-most point: Chautala-Sangari border road crossing in Sirsa district Southern-most point: Kol Gaon hill in Ferozepur Jhirka tehsil of Gurgaon
Gurgaon
district Northern-most point: Khokhra
Khokhra
village riverbank north of Chandigarh-Baddi river bridge in Panchkula
Panchkula
district

Highest-lowest of Haryana

Highest point: Karoh Peak
Karoh Peak
in Shivalik Hills
Shivalik Hills
of Panchkula
Panchkula
district Lowest natural Surface elevation point: Deepest Underground Cave: Coldest avg temp: Karoh Peak
Karoh Peak
in Shivalik Hills
Shivalik Hills
of Panchkula
Panchkula
district Hottest avg temp: Hisar Wettest avg rainfall: Morni
Morni
hills in Shivalik Hills
Shivalik Hills
of Panchkula district Driest avg rainfall: Bhiwani

Oldest of Haryana

Oldest archaeological site: Rakhigarhi
Rakhigarhi
4700 BC or 6700 years old Indus Valley Civilization in Hisar district Oldest archaeological mine site: Kaliyana hill Indus
Indus
Valley Civilization stone mine (3000 BC or 5000 years old) west of Charkhi Dadri

Government and Politics

Elections

1991 1996 1998 1999 2004 2009 2014

Chief Ministers

Banarsi Das Gupta Rao Birender Singh Bansi Lal Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Bhajan
Bhajan
Lal Devi Lal Om Prakash Chautala Hukam Singh Bhupinder Singh Hooda Manohar Lal Khattar

Governors

Dharma Vira Birendra Narayan Chakraborty Ranjit Singh Narula Jaisukh Lal Hathi Harcharan Singh Brar Surjit Singh Sandhawalia Ganpatrao Devji Tapase Saiyid Muzaffar Husain Burney Hari Anand Barari Dhanik Lal Mandal Mahaveer Prasad Babu Parmanand Om Prakash Verma Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai Jagannath Pahadia Kaptan Singh Solanki

State agencies

Dakshin Haryana
Haryana
Bijli Vitran Nigam Debt Conciliation Board Doordarshan Haryana Foreign Investment and NRI Cell Forests Department, Haryana Department of Economic and Statistical Analysis, Haryana Department of Environment, Haryana Department of Excise & Taxation, Haryana Department of Finance, Haryana Department of Industries & Commerce, Haryana Department of Industrial Training & Vocational Education, Haryana Department of Institutional Finance & Credit Control, Haryana Department of Labour & Employment, Haryana Department of Land records & Consolidation, Haryana Department of Revenue and Disaster Management, Haryana Department of Rehabilitation, Haryana Department of Higher Education, Haryana Department of School Education, Haryana Department of Elementary Education, Haryana Haryana
Haryana
Board of School Education Haryana
Haryana
Civil Medical Services Haryana
Haryana
Environment Protection Council Haryana
Haryana
Land Record Information System Haryana Power Generation Corporation Limited Haryana
Haryana
Police Haryana
Haryana
Roadways Haryana
Haryana
Seeds Development Corporation Haryana
Haryana
State Directorate of Archaeology & Museums Haryana
Haryana
State Legal Services Authority, Haryana Haryana Tourism
Haryana Tourism
Corporation Limited Haryana
Haryana
Urban Development Authority Haryana
Haryana
Waqf Board State Counselling Board, Haryana Uttar Haryana
Haryana
Bijli Vitran Nigam

Sports

Venues

Chaudhary Bansi Lal Cricket Stadium Nahar Singh Stadium Tau Devi Lal Stadium Sector 16 Stadium Mahabir Stadium

Associations

Haryana
Haryana
Archery Association Haryana
Haryana
Cricket Association

Teams

Haryana
Haryana
cricket team Haryana
Haryana
football team Bhiwani
Bhiwani
Boxing Club

Portal: Haryana Category: Haryana Wikiproject: Haryana

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States and union territories of India

States

Arunachal Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Telangana Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal

Union Territories

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli National Capital Territory of Delhi Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Puducherry

Capitals in India Proposed states and territories Historical Regions British Provinces

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 246175085 GND: 4239291-3 BNF:

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