Coordinates : 41°36′N 71°21′W / 41.600°N 71.350°W / 41.600; -71.350 (Narragansett Bay)
Launched: June 1764
Acquired: 28 March 1768 as Earl of Pembroke
Commissioned: 26 May 1768
Decommissioned: September 1774
Out of service: March 1775, sold
Renamed: Lord Sandwich, February 1776
Fate: Scuttled, Newport, Rhode Island , 1778
Class and type: Bark
Tons burthen: 366 49⁄94 (bm )
Length: 97 ft 8 in (29.77 m)
Beam: 29 ft 2 in (8.89 m)
Depth of hold: 11 ft 4 in (3.45 m)
* Full rigged ship * 3,321 square yards (2,777 m2) of sail
Speed: 7 to 8 knots (13 to 15 km/h) maximum
Boats "> her wreck had not been precisely located but was thought to be one of a cluster of five in Newport Harbor, and searching continued. Relics, including six of her cannon and an anchor, are displayed at maritime museums worldwide. A replica of Endeavour was launched in 1994 and is berthed alongside the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney Harbour. The US space shuttle Endeavour is named after the ship and she is depicted on the New Zealand fifty-cent coin .
* 1 Construction
* 2 Purchase and refit by the
* 3 Voyage of discovery
* 3.1 Outward voyage * 3.2 Pacific exploration * 3.3 Shipwreck * 3.4 Northward to Batavia * 3.5 Return voyage
* 4 Later service * 5 Final resting place * 6 Endeavour relics and legacy * 7 Replica vessels * 8 See also
* 9 Notes
* 9.1 Footnotes * 9.2 Citations
* 10 References * 11 External links
Endeavour was originally the merchant collier Earl of Pembroke, built
by Thomas Fishburn for Thomas Millner, launched in June 1764 from the
coal and whaling port of
A flat-bottomed design made her well-suited to sailing in shallow waters and allowed her to be beached for loading and unloading of cargo and for basic repairs without requiring a dry dock . Her hull , internal floors, and futtocks were built from traditional white oak , her keel and stern post from elm , and her masts from pine and fir . Plans of the ship also show a double keelson to lock the keel, floors and frames in place.
Some doubt exists about the height of her standing masts (excludes
top and gallant masts ), as surviving diagrams of Endeavour depict the
body of the vessel only, and not the mast plan. While her main and
foremast standing spars (excludes top and gallant masts ) are accepted
to be a standard (standards differed from shipyard to shipyard and
country to country ) 69 and 65 feet (21 and 20 m), respectively from
an annotation on one surviving ship plan
National Maritime Museum in
A more recent critical review of contemporary sources doesn't require
a supposed typo in 1771 to explain this shorter measurement for the
mizzen whilst at the same time offers supporting evidence of its cap
being at the taller supposed normal height. Sydney Parkinson's
sketches and paintings of Cooks Bark Endeavour along with the 1771
Woolwich Yard Bark Endeavour spar measurements National Maritime
The replica standing mizzen is built to this shorter measurement and stepped in the hold on the keelson, as is the model in the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich. There is a difference between the height of the mizzen fore-and-aft spar in the contemporary painting of Earl of Pembroke before the naval refit of 1768 by Luny (below) and its position on the replica in the photographs, compared to the height of the lowest spars on the fore and mainmasts.
PURCHASE AND REFIT BY THE ADMIRALTY
On 16 February 1768, the
On 27 May 1768, Cook took command of Earl of Pembroke, valued in
March at £2,307. 5s. 6d. but ultimately purchased for £2,840. 10s.
11d. and assigned for use in the Society's expedition. She was
refitted at Deptford on the
A longboat , pinnace and yawl were provided as ship's boats, though the longboat was rotten and had to be rebuilt and painted with white lead before it could be brought aboard. These were accompanied by two privately owned skiffs, one belonging to the boatswain John Gathrey, and the other to Banks. The ship was also equipped with a set of 28 ft (8.5 m) sweeps to allow her to be rowed forward if becalmed or demasted. The refitted vessel was commissioned as His Majesty's Bark the Endeavour, to distinguish her from the 4-gun cutter HMS Endeavour .
On 21 July 1768, Endeavour sailed to Galleon's Reach to take on
armaments to protect her against potentially hostile Pacific island
natives. Ten 4-pounder cannons were brought aboard, six of which were
mounted on the upper deck and the remainder stowed in the hold. Twelve
swivel guns were also supplied, and fixed to posts along the
quarterdeck, sides and bow. The ship departed for
VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Main article: First voyage of
The first port of call was
Endeavour then continued south along the coast of Africa and across
the Atlantic to South America, arriving in
Rio de Janeiro
Endeavour resumed her voyage on 21 January 1769, heading
west-northwest into warmer weather. She reached
The transit observed, Endeavour departed
In October 1769, Endeavour reached the coastline of New Zealand,
becoming the first European vessel to do so since
Abel Tasman 's
Heemskerck in 1642. Unfamiliar with such ships, the
Māori people at
Cook's first landing point in
Poverty Bay thought the ship was a
floating island, or a gigantic bird from their mythical homeland of
For the next four months, Cook charted the coast of Australia, heading generally northward. Just before 11 pm on 11 June 1770, the ship struck a reef, today called Endeavour Reef , within the Great Barrier Reef system. The sails were immediately taken down, a kedging anchor set and an unsuccessful attempt was made to drag the ship back to open water. The reef Endeavour had struck rose so steeply from the seabed that although the ship was hard aground, Cook measured depths up to 70 feet (21 m) less than one ship's length away.
Cook then ordered that the ship be lightened to help her float off the reef. Iron and stone ballast, spoiled stores and all but four of the ship's guns were thrown overboard, and the ship's drinking water pumped out. The crew attached buoys to the discarded guns with the intention of retrieving them later, but this proved impractical. Every man on board took turns on the pumps, including Cook and Banks.
When, by Cook's reckoning, about 40 to 50 long tons (41 to 51 t) of equipment had been thrown overboard, on the next high tide a second unsuccessful attempt was made to pull the ship free. In the afternoon of 12 June, the longboat carried out two large bower anchors, and block and tackle were rigged to the anchor chains to allow another attempt on the evening high tide. The ship had started to take on water through a hole in her hull. Although the leak would certainly increase once off the reef, Cook decided to risk the attempt and at 10:20 pm the ship was floated on the tide and successfully drawn off. The anchors were retrieved, except for one which could not be freed from the seabed and had to be abandoned.
As expected the leak increased once the ship was off the reef, and all three working pumps had to be continually manned. A mistake occurred in sounding the depth of water in the hold, when a new man measured the length of a sounding line from the outside plank of the hull where his predecessor had used the top of the cross-beams. The mistake suggested the water depth had increased by about 18 inches (46 cm) between soundings, sending a wave of fear through the ship. As soon as the mistake was realised, redoubled efforts kept the pumps ahead of the leak.
The prospects if the ship sank were grim. The vessel was 24 miles (39
km) from shore and the three ship's boats could not carry the entire
crew. Despite this,
Midshipman Jonathon Monkhouse proposed fothering the ship, as he had previously been on a merchant ship which used the technique successfully. He was entrusted with supervising the task, sewing bits of oakum and wool into an old sail, which was then drawn under the ship to allow water pressure to force it into the hole in the hull. The effort succeeded and soon very little water was entering, allowing the crew to stop two of the three pumps. Endeavour beached at Endeavour River for repairs after her grounding on the Great Barrier Reef in 1770. By Johann Fritzsch, published 1786.
Endeavour then resumed her course northward and parallel to the reef, the crew looking for a safe harbour in which to make repairs. On 13 June, the ship came to a broad watercourse that Cook named the Endeavour River . Cook attempted to enter the river mouth, but strong winds and rain prevented Endeavour from crossing the bar until the morning of 17 June. She grounded briefly on a sand spit but was refloated an hour later and warped into the river proper by early afternoon. The ship was promptly beached on the southern bank and careened to make repairs to the hull. Torn sails and rigging were also replaced and the hull scraped free of barnacles.
An examination of the hull showed that a piece of coral the size of a man's fist had sliced clean through the timbers and then broken off. Surrounded by pieces of oakum from the fother, this coral fragment had helped plug the hole in the hull and preserved the ship from sinking on the reef.
NORTHWARD TO BATAVIA
After waiting for the wind, Endeavour resumed her voyage on the
afternoon of 5 August 1770, reaching the northernmost point of Cape
York Peninsula fifteen days later. On 22 August, Cook was rowed ashore
to a small coastal island to proclaim British sovereignty over the
eastern Australian mainland. Cook christened his landing place
Possession Island , and ceremonial volleys of gunfire from the shore
and Endeavour's deck marked the occasion. Route of Endeavour
Endeavour then resumed her voyage westward along the coast, picking a
path through intermittent shoals and reefs with the help of the
pinnace, which was rowed ahead to test the water depth. By 26 August
she was out of sight of land, and had entered the open waters of the
After a three-day layover off the island of Savu , Endeavour sailed on to Batavia , the capital of the Dutch East Indies , on 10 October. A day later lightning during a sudden tropical storm struck the ship, but the rudimentary "electric chain" or lightning rod that Cook had ordered rigged to Endeavour's mast saved her from serious damage.
The ship remained in very poor condition following her grounding on
Great Barrier Reef
After riding at anchor for two weeks, Endeavour was heaved out of the
water on 9 November and laid on her side for repairs. Some damaged
timbers were found to be infested with shipworms , which required
careful removal to ensure they did not spread throughout the hull.
Broken timbers were replaced and the hull recaulked, scraped of
shellfish and marine flora, and repainted. Finally, the rigging and
pumps were renewed and fresh stores brought aboard for the return
journey to England. Repairs and replenishment were completed by
Christmas Day 1770, and the next day Endeavour weighed anchor and set
sail westward towards the
Though Endeavour was now in good condition, her crew were not. During the ship's stay in Batavia, all but 10 of the 94 people aboard had been taken ill with malaria and dysentery . By the time Endeavour set sail on 26 December, seven crew members had died and another forty were too sick to attend their duties. Over the following twelve weeks, a further 23 died from disease and were buried at sea, including Spöring, Green, Parkinson, and the ship's surgeon William Monkhouse.
Cook attributed the sickness to polluted drinking water, and ordered that it be purified with lime juice, but this had little effect. Jonathan Monkhouse, who had proposed fothering the ship to save her from sinking on the reef, died on 6 February, followed six days later by ship's carpenter John Seetterly, whose skilled repair work in Batavia had allowed Endeavour to resume her voyage. The health of the surviving crew members then slowly improved as the month progressed, with the last deaths from disease being three ordinary seamen on 27 February.
On 13 March 1771, Endeavour rounded the
Cape of Good Hope
Approximately one month after his return, Cook was promoted to the
While Cook was fêted for his successful voyage, Endeavour was
largely forgotten. Within a week of her return to England, she was
The first, with Joseph Irving as sailing master (replaced by John Dykes at Portsmouth due to illness), was to deliver "sufficient provisions to serve 350 men to the end of the year 1772"; she sailed from Portsmouth on 8 November 1771, but due to terrible weather did not arrive at Port Egmont (the British base in the Falkland Islands) until 1 March. Endeavour sailed from Port Egmont on 4 May in a three-month non-stop voyage until she anchored at Portsmouth.
The second voyage was to reduce the garrison and replace HM Sloop
Hound, John Burr Commander, with a smaller vessel, namely the 36-ton
shallop Penguin, commander Samuel Clayton. She was a collapsible
vessel and was no sooner built than taken apart, and the pieces were
stowed in Endeavour. Endeavour sailed in November with Hugh Kirkland
as the sailing master, and additionally the crew of Penguin, and four
ship's carpenters whose job was to reassemble Penguin on arrival,
which was 28 January 1773. On 17 April Endeavour and Hound sailed for
The third voyage sailed in January 1774 and her purpose was to
evacuate the Falklands entirely as Britain was faced with political
difficulties from the American Colonies, the French and the Spanish.
The government thought that if British ships and troops were engaged
in America, Spain might seize the Falklands, capturing the small
garrison at Port Egmont and maybe killing some of them - this, it was
feared, would trigger an outcry which might topple the government.
Endeavour was paid off in September 1774, and in March 1775 was sold by the Navy to shipping magnate J. Mather for £645. Mather returned her to sea for at least one commercial voyage to Archangel in Russia.
Once the American War of Independence had commenced, the British government needed ships to carry troops and materiel across the Atlantic. In 1775 Mather submitted Endeavour as a transport ship, and she was rejected. Thinking that renaming her would fool Deptford Yard, Mather resubmitted Endeavour under the name Lord Sandwich Lord Sandwich was rejected in no uncertain terms: "Unfit for service. She was sold out Service Called Endeavour Bark refused before". Lord Sandwich then had serious repairs, and on her third submission was accepted and was termed Lord Sandwich 2 as there was already a transport ship called Lord Sandwich.
Lord Sandwich 2, master William Author, sailed on 6 May 1776 from Portsmouth in a fleet of 100 vessels, 68 of which were transports, which was under orders to support Howe's campaign to capture New York. Lord Sandwich 2 carried 206 men mainly of the Hessian du Corps regiment of Hessian mercenaries . The crossing was terrible, and two Hessians who were in the same fleet have left us accounts of the voyage. The scattered fleet assembled at Halifax and then sailed to Sandy Hook where other ships and troops assembled. On 15 August 1776 Lord Sandwich 2 was anchored at Sandy Hook; also assembled there was Adventure (which had sailed with Resolution on Cook's second voyage), now a storeship, captain John Hallum. Another ship there at that time was HMS Siren, captain Tobias Furneaux, who had commanded Adventure on the second voyage.
New York was eventually captured, but
Newport, Rhode Island in the
hands of the Americans posed a threat as a base for recapturing New
York, so in November 1776 a fleet, which included Lord Sandwich 2
carrying Hessian Troops, set out to take
FINAL RESTING PLACE
The surrender of Burgoyne's army at Saratoga, brought France into the
war, and in the summer of 1778 a pincer plan was agreed to recapture
Newport: the Continental Army would approach overland, and a French
Fleet would sail into the harbour. To prevent the latter the British
commander, Captain John Brisbane, determined to blockade the bay by
sinking surplus vessels at its mouth. Between 3 and 6 August a fleet
The owners of the sunken vessels were compensated by the British
government for the loss of their ships. The
In 1991 the
In 1999 a combined research team from RIMAP and the Australian National Maritime Museum examined some known wrecks in the harbour and in 2000, RIMAP and the ANMM examined a site that appears to be one of the blockade vessels, partly covered by a separate wreck of a 20th-century barge. The older remains were those of a wooden vessel of approximately the same size, and possibly a similar design and materials as Lord Sandwich ex Endeavour. Confirmation that Cook's former ship had indeed been in Newport Harbor sparked considerable media and public interest in confirming her location. However, further mapping showed eight other 18th-century wrecks in Newport Harbor, some with features and conditions also consistent with Endeavour. In 2006 RIMAP announced that the wrecks were unlikely to be raised. In 2016 RIMAP concluded that there was a probability of 80 to 100% that the wreck of Endeavour was still in Newport Harbor, probably one of a cluster of five wrecks on the seafloor, and planned to investigate the ships and their artifacts further. They were seeking funds to build facilities for handling and storing recovered objects.
ENDEAVOUR RELICS AND LEGACY
In addition to the search for the remains of the ship herself, there
was considerable Australian interest in locating relics of the ship's
south Pacific voyage. In 1886, the Working Men's Progress Association
In 1937, a small part of Endeavour's keel was gifted to the
Australian Government by philanthropist
Charles Wakefield in his
capacity as president of the Admiral
Arthur Phillip Memorial .
Australian Prime Minister
Searches were resumed for the lost
Endeavour Reef cannons, but
expeditions in 1966, 1967, and 1968 were unsuccessful. They were
finally recovered in 1969 by a research team from the American Academy
of Natural Sciences , using a sophisticated magnetometer to locate
the cannons, a quantity of iron ballast and the abandoned bower
anchor. Conservation work on the cannons was undertaken by the
Australian National Maritime Museum, after which two of the cannons
were displayed at its headquarters in Sydney's
Darling Harbour , and
eventually put on display at
HM Bark Endeavour Replica
In January 1988, to commemorate the
Australian Bicentenary of
European settlement in Australia, work began in
The replica Endeavour visited various European ports before
undertaking her final ocean voyage from Whitehaven to Sydney Harbour
on 8 November 2004. Her arrival in Sydney was delayed when she ran
aground in Botany Bay, a short distance from the point where Cook
first set foot in
A second full-size replica of Endeavour is berthed on the River Tees in Stockton-on-Tees . While this reflects the external dimensions of Cook's vessel, this replica was constructed with a steel rather than a timber frame, has one less internal deck than the original, and is not designed to be put to sea.
The Russell Museum, in the
Bay of Islands ,
* Blue Latitudes , a travel book by Tony Horwitz * European and American voyages of scientific exploration
^ Other sources give Endeavour's length overall as 106 ft (32 m).
^ In today's terms, this equates to a valuation for Endeavour of
approximately £265,000 and a purchase price of £326,400.
^ Provisions loaded at the outset of the voyage included 6,000
pieces of pork and 4,000 of beef, nine tons of bread, five tons of
flour, three tons of sauerkraut, one ton of raisins and sundry
quantities of cheese, salt, peas, oil, sugar and oatmeal. Alcohol
supplies consisted of 250 barrels of beer, 44 barrels of brandy and 17
barrels of rum.
^ The shanghaiied man was John Thurman, born in New York but a
British subject and therefore eligible for involuntary impressment
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