In linguistics , GRAMMAR (from Greek : γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses , phrases , and words in any given natural language . The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology , morphology , and syntax , often complemented by phonetics , semantics , and pragmatics .
USE OF THE TERM
For linguists, grammar refers to cognitive information underlying language use. Speakers of a language have a set of internalized rules for using that language. These rules constitute grammar, and the vast majority of the information in the grammar is—at least in the case of one's native language —acquired not by conscious study or instruction, but by observing other speakers. Much of this work is done during early childhood; learning a language later in life usually involves a greater degree of explicit instruction.
The term "grammar" can also be used to describe the rules that govern the linguistic behaviour of a group of speakers. The term "English grammar", therefore, may have several meanings. It may refer to the whole of English grammar, that is, to the grammars of all the speakers of the language, in which case, the term encompasses a great deal of variation. Alternatively, it may refer only to what is common to the grammars of all, or of the vast majority of English speakers (such as subject–verb–object word order in simple declarative sentences ). Or it may refer to the rules of a particular, relatively well-defined variety of English (such as standard English for a particular region).
A specific description, study or analysis of such rules may also be
referred to as a grammar. A reference book describing the grammar of a
language is called a "reference grammar" or simply "a grammar" (see
History of English grammars ). A fully explicit grammar that
exhaustively describes the grammatical constructions of a language is
called a descriptive grammar. This kind of linguistic description
contrasts with linguistic prescription , an attempt to discourage or
suppress some grammatical constructions, while promoting others. For
example, preposition stranding occurs widely in
Outside linguistics the term grammar is often used in a rather different sense. In some respects, it may be used more broadly, including rules of spelling and punctuation , which linguists would not typically consider to form part of grammar, but rather as a part of orthography , the set of conventions used for writing a language. In other respects, it may be used more narrowly, to refer to prescriptive grammar only and excluding those aspects of a language's grammar that are not subject to variation or debate. Jeremy Butterfield claimed that, for non-linguists, " Grammar is often a generic way of referring to any aspect of English that people object to."
The word grammar is derived from Greek γραμματικὴ τέχνη (grammatikē technē), which means "art of letters", from γράμμα (gramma), "letter", itself from γράφειν (graphein), "to draw, to write". The same Greek root also appears in graphics , grapheme , and photograph .
Further information: History of linguistics
The Babylonians made some early attempts at language description,
but the first systematic grammars, of
In the West, grammar emerged as a discipline in Hellenism from the 3rd century BC forward with authors like Rhyanus and Aristarchus of Samothrace , the oldest extant work being the Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική), attributed to Dionysius Thrax (c. 100 BC). Latin grammar developed by following Greek models from the 1st century BC, due to the work of authors such as Orbilius Pupillus , Remmius Palaemon , Marcus Valerius Probus , Verrius Flaccus , and Aemilius Asper .
A grammar of Irish originated in the 7th century with the Auraicept
na n-Éces .
Arabic grammar emerged with Abu al-Aswad al-Du\'ali in
the 7th century. The first treatises on
Hebrew grammar appeared in the
High Middle Ages
Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts , grammar was
taught as a core discipline throughout the
Grammars of non-European languages began to be compiled for the purposes of evangelization and Bible translation from the 16th century onward, such as Grammatica o Arte de la Lengua General de los Indios de los Reynos del Perú (1560), and a Quechua grammar by Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás .
In 1643 there appeared
Ivan Uzhevych 's Grammatica sclavonica and, in
1762, the Short Introduction to English
Robert Lowth was
also published. The Grammatisch-Kritisches Wörterbuch der
hochdeutschen Mundart, a
From the latter part of the 18th century, grammar came to be
understood as a subfield of the emerging discipline of modern
linguistics . The Serbian grammar by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić
arrived in 1814, while the Deutsche Grammatik of the Brothers Grimm
was first published in 1818. The Comparative
DEVELOPMENT OF GRAMMARS
Main articles: Historical linguistics and History of English grammars
Grammars evolve through usage and also due to separations of the human population. With the advent of written representations , formal rules about language usage tend to appear also. Formal grammars are codifications of usage that are developed by repeated documentation over time, and by observation as well. As the rules become established and developed, the prescriptive concept of grammatical correctness can arise. This often creates a discrepancy between contemporary usage and that which has been accepted, over time, as being correct. Linguists tend to view prescriptive grammars as having little justification beyond their authors' aesthetic tastes, although style guides may give useful advice about standard language employment, based on descriptions of usage in contemporary writings of the same language. Linguistic prescriptions also form part of the explanation for variation in speech, particularly variation in the speech of an individual speaker (an explanation, for example, for why some people say "I didn't do nothing", some say "I didn't do anything", and some say one or the other depending on social context).
The formal study of grammar is an important part of education for children from a young age through advanced learning , though the rules taught in schools are not a "grammar" in the sense most linguists use the term, particularly as they are often prescriptive rather than descriptive .
Constructed languages (also called planned languages or conlangs) are
more common in the modern day than they used to be, although still
extremely uncommon compared to natural languages. Many have been
designed to aid human communication (for example, naturalistic
Syntax refers to linguistic structure above the word level (e.g. how
sentences are formed)—though without taking into account intonation
, which is the domain of phonology. Morphology, by contrast, refers to
structure at and below the word level (e.g. how compound words are
formed), but above the level of individual sounds, which, like
intonation, are in the domain of phonology. No clear line can be
drawn, however, between syntax and morphology.
Analytic languages use
syntax to convey information that is encoded via inflection in
synthetic languages . In other words, word order is not significant
and morphology is highly significant in a purely synthetic language,
whereas morphology is not significant and syntax is highly significant
in an analytic language. Chinese and Afrikaans , for example, are
highly analytic, and meaning is therefore very context-dependent.
(Both do have some inflections, and have had more in the past; thus,
they are becoming even less synthetic and more "purely" analytic over
Main article: Grammar framework
Various "grammar frameworks" have been developed in theoretical linguistics since the mid-20th century, in particular under the influence of the idea of a "universal grammar " in the United States. Of these, the main divisions are:
* Transformational grammar (TG) * Systemic functional grammar (SFG) * Principles and Parameters Theory (P it contrasts with vernacular dialects, which may be the objects of study in descriptive grammar but which are rarely taught prescriptively. The standardized "first language " taught in primary education may be subject to political controversy, because it may sometimes establish a standard defining nationality or ethnicity .
Recently, efforts have begun to update grammar instruction in primary and secondary education. The primary focus has been to prevent the use of outdated prescriptive rules in favour of more accurate descriptive ones and to change perceptions about relative "correctness" of standard forms in comparison to non-standard dialects.
The pre-eminence of
Parisian French has reigned largely unchallenged
throughout the history of modern French literature. Standard Italian
is not based on the speech of the capital, Rome, but on the speech of
Norwegian has two standards,
In the United States, the Society for the Promotion of Good Grammar designated March 4 as National Grammar Day in 2008.
* Category:Grammars of specific languages * Ambiguous grammar * Government and binding * Grammeme * Harmonic Grammar * Higher order grammar * Linguistic typology * List of linguists * Paragrammatism * Usage
* ^ Traditionally, the mental information used to produce and process linguistic utterances is referred to as "rules". However, other frameworks employ different terminology, with theoretical implications. Optimality theory , for example, talks in terms of "constraints", while construction grammar , cognitive grammar , and other "usage-based" theories make reference to patterns, constructions, and "schemata" * ^ O'Grady, William; Dobrovolsky, Michael; Katamba, Francis (1996). Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction. Harlow, Essex: Longman. pp. 4–7; 464–539. ISBN 9780582246911 . * ^ Holmes, Janet (2001). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (second ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman. pp. 73–94. ISBN 978-0582328617 . ; for more discussion of sets of grammars as populations, see: Croft, William (2000). Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow, Essex: Longman. pp. 13–20. ISBN 978-0582356771 . * ^ Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum, 2002, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, p. 627f. * ^ Lundin, Leigh (September 23, 2007). "The Power of Prepositions". On Writing. Cairo: Criminal Brief. * ^ Jeremy Butterfield, (2008). Damp Squid: The English Language Laid Bare, Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 978-0199574094 . p. 142. * ^ Harper, Douglas . "Grammar". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved April 8, 2010 * ^ McGregor, William B. (2015). Linguistics: An Introduction. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0567583529 . * ^ G. Khan, J. B. Noah, The Early Karaite Tradition of Hebrew Grammatical Thought (2000) * ^ Pinchas Wechter, Ibn Barūn's Arabic Works on Hebrew Grammar and Lexicography (1964) * ^ Gussenhoven, Carlos; Jacobs, Haike (2005). Understanding Phonology (second ed.). London: Hodder Arnoldd. ISBN 978-0340807354 . * ^ "National Grammar Day: Brought to you by Grammar Girl and the Society for the Promotion of Good Grammar".
* American Academic Press, The (ed.). William Strunk, Jr. , et al. The Classics of Style: The Fundamentals of Language Style From Our American Craftsmen. Cleveland: The American Academic Press, 2006. ISBN 0978728203 . * Rundle, Bede. Grammar in Philosophy. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. ISBN 0198246129 .
Look up GRAMMAR in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
* Sayce, Archibald