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The GODAVARI is the second longest river in India
India
after the river Ganges
Ganges
having its source at Triambakeshwar, Maharashtra. It starts in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and flows east for 1,465 kilometres (910 mi) emptying into Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
draining the Indian states Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(48.6%), Telangana
Telangana
(18.8%), Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
(4.5%), Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
(10.9%), Madhya Pradesh (10.0%), Odisha
Odisha
(5.7%), Karnataka
Karnataka
(1.4%) and Puducherry (Yanam ) through its extensive network of tributaries. Measuring up to 312,812 km2 (120,777 sq mi), it forms one of the largest river basins in the Indian subcontinent , with only the Ganges
Ganges
and Indus
Indus
rivers having a drainage basin larger than it in India. In terms of length, catchment area and discharge, the Godavari
Godavari
river is the largest in peninsular India
India
and had been dubbed as the 'DAKSHINA GANGA\' – the South Ganges river

The river has been revered in Hindu
Hindu
scriptures since many millennia and continues to harbor and nourish rich cultural heritages. However, in the past few decades, the river has been abused with relentless construction of barrages and dams. The river delta, supporting 729 persons/km2 – nearly twice the density average for the nation, has been categorized as having substantial risk to greater risk of flooding with rising sea levels.

CONTENTS

* 1 Course

* 1.1 Within Maharashtra
Maharashtra
* 1.2 Within Telangana
Telangana
* 1.3 Within Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh

* 2 Tributaries * 3 Religious signifiance * 4 Settlements along the Godavari
Godavari
* 5 Places of interest * 6 Flora and Fauna * 7 Waterfalls * 8 Crossings * 9 Dams * 10 Hydro power stations * 11 Mineral deposits * 12 Ecological concerns * 13 In popular culture * 14 See also * 15 References * 16 External links

COURSE

Godavari
Godavari
River delta extending into the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
(upper river in image) Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam
Temple during 2005 floods

The Godavari
Godavari
originates in the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
of central India
India
near Nasik
Nasik
in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, 80 km (50 mi) from the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
. It flows for 1,465 km (910 mi), first eastwards across the Deccan Plateau then turns southeast, entering the West Godavari district and East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, until it splits into two watercourses that widen into a large river delta and flow into the Bay of Bengal.

The Godavari
Godavari
River has a coverage area of 312,812 km2 (120,777 sq mi), which is nearly one-tenth of the area of India
India
and is greater than the areas of England
England
and Ireland
Ireland
put together. The river basin is considered to be divided into 3 sections:

* Upper (source to confluence with Manjira ), * Middle (between confluence of Manjira and Pranhita ) and * Lower ( Pranhita confluence to mouth).

These put together account for 24.2% of the total basin area. The rivers annual average water inflows are nearly 110 billion cubic metres. Nearly 50% of the water availability is being harnessed. The water allocation from the river among the riparian states are governed by the Godavari Water Disputes Tribunal . The river has highest flood flows in India
India
and experienced recorded flood of 3.6 million cusecs in the year 1986 and annual flood of 1.0 million cusecs is normal.

WITHIN MAHARASHTRA

In Maharashtra
Maharashtra
state where it takes origin, the river has an extensive course, the upper basin (origin to its confluence with Manjira ) of which lies entirely within the state, cumulatively draining an area as large as 152,199 km2 (58,764 sq mi) – about half the area of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
. Within Nashik
Nashik
District the river assumes a north-easterly course till it flows into the Gangapur Reservoir created by a dam of the same name. The reservoir along with the Kashypi Dam provides potable water to Nashik, one of the largest cities located on its banks. The river as it emerges through the dam, some 8 km (5.0 mi) upstream from Nashik, flows on a rocky bed undulated by a series of chasms and rocky ledges, resulting in the formation of two significant waterfalls – the Gangapur waterfalls and the Someshwar Waterfalls, the latter, located at Someshwar and more popularly known as the Dudhsagar Waterfall About 10 km (6.2 mi) east of Gangapur the river passes the town of Nashik
Nashik
where it collects its effluents in the form of the river Nasardi on its right bank.

About 0.5 km (0.31 mi) south direction from Nashik, the river bends sharply to the east, washing the base of a high cliff formerly the site of a Mughal fort, but which is now being eaten away by the action of floods. About 25 km (16 mi) below Nasik
Nasik
is the confluence of the Godavari
Godavari
and one of its tributaries, the Darna river . The stream occupies, for nine months in the year, a small space in a wide and gravelly bed, the greyish banks being 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) high, topped with a deep layer of black soil. A few kilometres after its meeting with the Darna, the Godavari
Godavari
swerves to the north-east, till the Banganga , from the north-west, meets it on the left. The course of the main stream then tends more decidedly south. At Nandur-Madhmeshwar, the Kadva , a second large affluent, brings considerable increase to the waters of the Godavari. The river begins its southeasterly course characteristic of rivers of the Deccan Plateau . The river beyond exits the Niphad Taluka of Nashik
Nashik
and enter the Kopargaon taluka , Ahmednagar District . Within Ahmednagar the river quickly completes its short course, flowing alongside the town of Kopargaon and reaching Puntamba. Beyond this the river has been deployed as a natural boundary between the following districts :

* Ahmednagar and Aurangabad : Along the boundary here, it receives its first major tributary Pravara River , draining the former district, the confluence located at Pravarasangam. By virtue of a sub-tributary of Pravara – Mandohol, which originates in Pune District – the basin impinges the Pune District . The river at Paithan has been impounded by the Jayakwadi Dam
Jayakwadi Dam
forming the NathSagar Reservoir. Kalsubai located in Godavari
Godavari
basin, is the highest peak in Maharashtra. * Beed
Beed
and Jalna * Beed
Beed
and Parbhani : Located along here is its merger with Sindphana , an important tributary which drains a considerably large area within Beed
Beed
. The sub-tributary river Bindusara forms a landmark at Beed
Beed
.

The river beyond, near the village Sonpeth, flows into Parbhani . Its course is relatively non-significant except for receiving two smaller streams – Indrayani and Masuli – merging at its left and right banks respectively. Within the last taluka of the district Parbhani , Purna , the river drains a major tributary of the same name: Purna

It then exits into the neighboring district of Nanded
Nanded
where 10 km (6.2 mi) before reaching the town Nanded, is impounded by the Vishnupuri Dam and thus with it, bringing Asia's largest lift irrigation projects to life. A little downstream from Nanded, the river receives Asna, a small stream, on its left bank.It then runs into the controversial Babli project soon ends its course within Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, albeit temporarily, at its merger with a major tributary – Manjira .

The river after flowing into Telangana, re-emerges to run as a state boundary separating the Mancherial , Telangana
Telangana
from Gadchiroli , Maharashtra. At the state border, it runs between Sironcha and Somnoor Sangam receiving one tributary at each of those nodal points – the Pranhita and subsequently the Indravati .

WITHIN TELANGANA

Road Bridge over Godavari
Godavari
River at Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam

Godavari
Godavari
enters into Telangana
Telangana
in Nizamabad district at Kandakurthy where Manjira, Haridra rivers joins Godavari
Godavari
and forms Triveni Sangamam. The river flows along the border between Nirmal and Mancherial districts in the north and Nizamabad , Jagityal , Peddapalli Ramagundam districts to its south. About 12 km (7.5 mi) after entering Telangana
Telangana
it merges with the back waters of the Sriram Sagar Dam . The river after emerging through the dam gates, enjoys a wide river bed, often splitting to encase sandy islands. The river receives a minor but significant tributary Kadam river . It then emerges at its eastern side to act as state border with Maharashtra only to later enter into Bhadradri Kothagudem district . In this district the river flows through an important Hindu
Hindu
pilgrimage town – Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam
.

The river further swells after receiving a minor tributary Kinnerasani River and exits into Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
.

WITHIN ANDHRA PRADESH

Godavari
Godavari
River at Papi Hills in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Godavari river near Yanam

Within the state of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
, it flows through hilly terrain of the Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
known as the Papi hills which explains the narrowing of its bed as it flows through a gorge for a few km, only to re-widen at Polavaram . Before crossing the Papi hills, it receives its last major tributary Sabari River on its left bank. The river upon reaching the plains begins to widen out until it reaches Rajamundry . Arma Konda or Jindhagada Peak (1,680 m (5,510 ft) above msl ) located near Paderu is the highest peak in the Godavari
Godavari
river basin as well as in Eastern Ghats.

After crossing Rajahmundry , the Godavari
Godavari
splits into two branches which are called Vriddha Gautami (Gautami Godavari) and Vasishta Godavari. Again the Gautami branch splits into two branches namely Gautami and Nilarevu. Similarly the Vasishta splits into two branches named Vasishta and Vainateya. These four branches which join the Bay of Bengal at different places, are forming a delta of length 170 km (110 mi) along the coast of the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and is called the Konaseema region. This delta along with the delta of the Krishna
Krishna
River is called the _Rice Granary_ of South India
India
.

TRIBUTARIES

The major tributaries of the river can be classified as the left bank tributaries which include the Purna , Pranhita , Indravati and Sabari River covering nearly 59.7% of the total catchment area of the basin and the right bank tributaries Pravara , Manjira , Manair together contributing 16.1% of the basin.

Pranhita is the largest tributary covering about 34% of its drainage basin. Though the river proper flows only for 113 km (70 mi), by virtue of its extensive tributaries Wardha , Wainganga
Wainganga
, Penganga , the sub-basin drains all of Vidharba region as well as the southern slopes of the Satpura Ranges . Indravati is the 2nd largest tributary, known as the "lifeline" of the Kalahandi
Kalahandi
, Nabarangapur of Odisha margin:auto;position:relative;width:200px;height:200px;overflow:hidden">

DRAINAGE BASIN OF GODAVARI Upper, Middle and Lower Basins of Godavari
Godavari
(24.2%) Pranhita (34.87%) Indravati (12.98%) Manjira (9.86%) Sabari (6.53%) Purna (4.98%) Manair (4.18%) Pravara (2.08%)

Major Tributaries of Godavari
Godavari
River TRIBUTARY BANK CONFLUENCE LOCATION CONFLUENCE ELEVATION LENGTH SUB-BASIN AREA

Pravara Right Pravara Sangam, Nevasa , Ahmednagar , Maharashtra
Maharashtra
463 m (1,519 ft) 208 km (129 mi) 6,537 km2 (2,524 sq mi)

Purna Left Jambulbet, Parbhani , Marathwada , Maharashtra
Maharashtra
358 m (1,175 ft) 373 km (232 mi) 15,579 km2 (6,015 sq mi)

Manjira Right Kandakurthi, Renjal, Nizamabad, Telangana
Telangana
332 m (1,089 ft) 724 km (450 mi) 30,844 km2 (11,909 sq mi)

Manair Right Arenda, Manthani , Karimnagar , Telangana
Telangana
115 m (377 ft) 225 km (140 mi) 13,106 km2 (5,060 sq mi)

Pranhita Left Kaleshwaram, Mahadevpur , Karimnagar , Telangana
Telangana
99 m (325 ft) 113 km (70 mi) 109,078 km2 (42,115 sq mi)

Indravati Left Somnoor Sangam, Sironcha , Gadchiroli , Maharashtra
Maharashtra
82 m (269 ft) 535 km (332 mi) 41,655 km2 (16,083 sq mi)

Sabari Left Kunawaram, East Godavari
East Godavari
, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
25 m (82 ft) 418 km (260 mi) 20,427 km2 (7,887 sq mi)

Other than these 7 principal ones, it has many smaller but significant ones draining into it.

RELIGIOUS SIGNIFIANCE

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Goddess Godavari
Godavari

The river is sacred to Hindus and has several places on its banks, that have been places of pilgrimage for thousands of years. Amongst the huge numbers of people who have bathed in her waters as a rite of cleansing are said to have been the deity Baladeva 5000 years ago and the saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu 500 years ago. Every twelve years, Pushkaram fair is held on the banks of the river.

A legend has it that the sage Gautama lived in the Brahmagiri Hills at Tryambakeshwar with his wife Ahalya. The couple lived the rest of their lives in the then village called _Govuru_, known as Kovvur ("cow") since the British rule. Ahalya lived in a nearby place called _Thagami_ (now Thogummi ). The sage, as a reason for the practice of _annadanam_ ("giving away food" to the needy), started cultivating rice crops and other crops. Once, the god Ganesha
Ganesha
, on the wish of the munis , sent a miraculous cow _maaya-dhenu_, which resembled a normal cow. It entered the sage's abode and started spoiling the rice while he was meditating. Since cattle is sacred to Hindus and shall always be treated with respect, he put the _dharbha_ grass on the cow. But, to his surprise, it fell dead. Seeing what happened before their eyes, the munis and their wives cried out, "We thought that Gautama-maharishi is a righteous man, but he committed bovicide (killing of a cow or cattle)!". The sage wished to atone for this grievous sin. Therefore he went to Nashik
Nashik
and observed tapas to Lord Tryambakeshwara (a manifestation of the god Shiva
Shiva
), on the advice of the munis, praying for atonement and asking Him to make the Ganges flow over the cow. Shiva
Shiva
was pleased with the sage and diverted the Ganges
Ganges
which washed away the cow and gave rise to the Godavari
Godavari
river in Nashik. The water stream flowed past Kovvur and ultimately merged with the Bay of Bengal.

SETTLEMENTS ALONG THE GODAVARI

Trimbakeshwar
Trimbakeshwar

In MAHARASHTRA:

* Nashik
Nashik
(Holy city and site of Simhastha Kumbha Mela
Kumbha Mela
bathing festivals) * Trimbakeshwar
Trimbakeshwar
(shrine to the Jyotirlinga of the god Shiva
Shiva
) * Kopargaon * Puntamba
Puntamba
– A place of pilgrimage with a number of ancient temples including the last resting place ( Samadhi
Samadhi
) of Sant Changdev in Puntamba. * Paithan (Ancient capital of the Satavahana dynasty ) * Gangakhed * Nanded
Nanded
(Location of the Hazur Sahib Nanded
Nanded
Sikh gurdwara ) * Sironcha (Town situated near the confluence of Godavari
Godavari
and Pranahita rivers)

Kaleshwara Mukteswara Swamy Temple

In TELANGANA:

* Basara , Nirmal district (Gnana Saraswati
Saraswati
Temple) * Goodem gutta, Adilabad (Temple) Luxettipet , Adilabad. * Mancherial , Adilabad * Nirmal , Nirmal district ( Nirmal Toys) * Chennur , Adilabad * Tadpakal , Nizamabad (Armoor Toys) * Battapur, Nizamabad (Armoor Toys) * Dharmapuri, TelanganaDharmapuri, Karimnagar (Narasimha Swamy Temple) * Godavarikhani , Ramagundam Sripada Yellampalli project * Manthani , Peddapalli district (Gautameshwara Swami (Siva) Temple, Sri Rama, Sarswathi Temples) * Kaleshwaram , Jayashankar Bhupalapally district (Kaleswara Mukhteswara swamy (Siva) Temple) * Mahadevpur Jayashankar Bhupalapally district * Eturunagaram , Jayashankar Bhupalapally district * Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam
, Bhadradri Kothagudem district

Antarvedi temple

In ANDHRA PRADESH:

* Rajamundry , East Godavari
East Godavari
(Sri Kotilingeswara Alayam) * Mukteswaram , East Godavari
East Godavari
(Sri Kshana Muktheswaraswamivari Devalayam) * Ravulapalem , East Godavari
East Godavari
* Dowleswaram , East Godavari
East Godavari
(Where the Akhanda Godavari
Godavari
splits into two streams called "Vriddha Gautami" and "Vashista" before joining Bay of Bengal) * Kotipalli , East Godavari
East Godavari
(Sri Someswaraswamivari Alayam) * Antarvedi , East Godavari
East Godavari
( Antarvedi is famous for the Sri Laxmi Narasimhaswamivari Mandhiram constructed between the 15th and 16th centuries. There is also a temple of Lord Siva that is older than Narasimha Swamy
Narasimha Swamy
temple. The temple's idol of Lord Siva was installed by Lord Srirama. * Yanam (Yanam is located in East Godavari
East Godavari
District, where the Vriddha Gautami joins Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
) * Polavaram , West Godavari (Sri Bhadrakalisametha Sri Veereswaraswamivari Mandhiram) * Pattiseema , West Godavari (Sri Veerabhadraswamivari Devalayam) * Kovvur , West Godavari (Sundareswaraswamivari Alayam) * Tallapudi , West Godavari * Narsapur , West Godavari

PLACES OF INTEREST

Sites of pilgrimage include:

* Basar (originally, Vyasara) – Sri Gyana Saraswati
Saraswati
temple is situated on the banks of Godavari
Godavari
in Adilabad district, Telangana. It is 210 km from state capital Hyderabad and accessible by road and rail (nearest major station: Nizamabad, although Basar station also exists). It is considered that the sage Vyasa
Vyasa
wrote the Mahabharata on the banks of Godavari
Godavari
at this location near Harsha house it is the beautiful scenario, and thus the place came to be known as Vyasara. * Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam
Hindu
Hindu
Temple of Lord Rama
Rama
. * Dharmapuri, Telangana
Telangana
Hindu
Hindu
Temple of Lord Narasimha . Godavari
Godavari
flows from north to south in Dharmapuri, hence the river is locally called 'Dakshina Vahini' * Kaleshwaram – Sri Kaleswara Mukhteswara swamy Temple is situated here on the banks of Triveni sangamam of rivers godavari and pranahita. It is 125 kilometres away from Karimnagar city, 115 km away from Warangal city. * Trimbakeshwar
Trimbakeshwar
– One of the twelve Jyotirlingas and ancient temple of Lord Shiva
Shiva
. * Nanded
Nanded
Takht Sri Hazur Sahib , one of the five most sacred places in Sikhism . * Nashik
Nashik
– One of the four Sinhastha Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
, Hindu
Hindu
pilgrimage place. * Paithan – Saint Eknath's native place, famous Jayakwadi dam
Jayakwadi dam
, and a beautiful garden named after Sant Dnyneshwar .

Scenic View of Araku Valley in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh

* Antarvedi , East Godavari
East Godavari
( Antarvedi is famous for the Laxmi Narasimha Swamy
Narasimha Swamy
temple constructed between the 15th and 16th centuries. There is also a temple of Lord Siva that is older than Narasimha Swamy
Narasimha Swamy
temple. The temple's idol of Lord Siva was installed by Lord Srirama. * Konaseema – Delta of Godavari. * Pattiseema – A village where a Hindu
Hindu
temple is located on a small hill on an island in the river. * Kovvur – A village where cows resided and a place where the maaya-dhenu fell dead. Footprints of the maaya-dhenu were seen even today in the famous place Kovvur called "Goshpadakshetram" also called "Gopadala Revu" where the footprints of the holy cow are seen near the temple of Lord Shiva. Also a village which is the reason for the birth of river Godavari
Godavari
. Famous for a Sanskrit school which has been built 63 years back. * Rajahmundry – A town known for its role in Telugu culture and birthplace of writers such as Nannaya , one of the Kavitrayam trinity of poets who translated the Mahabharata into Telugu. The Godavari Pushkaralu is a major local festival that is staged every 12 years. * Araku Valley which is a popular hill station in Vishakhapatnam District . * Lambasingi hill station known for snowfall during winter season in Vishakhapatnam district. * Deomali peak located in the Godavari
Godavari
basin is the highest peak (1672 m msl ) in Odisha
Odisha
state.

FLORA AND FAUNA

See also: Wildlife sanctuaries of India
India
, Tiger reserves of India
India
, and List of national parks of India
India

* The Krishna
Krishna
Godavari
Godavari
Basin is one of the main nesting sites of the endangered Olive Ridley sea turtle . Godavari
Godavari
is also a home to the endangered fringed-lipped carp ( Labeo fimbriatus ). * The Coringa mangrove forests in the Godavari
Godavari
delta are the second largest mangrove formation in the country. Part of this has been declared as the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary , renowned for reptiles. They also provide an important habitat to a wide variety of fish and crustaceans. These forests also act as barriers against cyclones, tropical storms, and storm surges , thus protecting the nearby villages. * The Jayakwadi Bird Sanctuary is another haven for birds located near the town of Paithan spread across the back waters of the NathSagar Reservoir formed by impounding the Godavari
Godavari
by the massive Jayakwadi Dam
Jayakwadi Dam
. Its 341 km2 area is dotted by islands within the reservoir which serve as nesting sites for the birds. * The Nandurmadmeshwar Bird Sanctuary is located along the back waters of the Godavari
Godavari
river near Nashik
Nashik
at its confluence with Kadva River . It is known as the Bharatpur of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
for the wide diversity of bird life that it harbours.

The following are few other wildlife sanctuaries located in the river basin.

* Papikonda Wildlife Sanctuary * Indravati National Park * Kanger Ghati National Park * Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary * Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary * Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary * Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary * Pocharam Forest -webkit-column-width: 20em; column-width: 20em;">

* Teerathgarh * Chitrakoot * Sahastrakunda * Kuntala * Pochera * Bogatha

Panoramic view of downstream pond below the Chitrakoote Falls

CROSSINGS

Havelock Bridge on the left and Godavari
Godavari
Arch Bridge on the right

There are 4 bridges spanning the river between East Godavari
East Godavari
and West Godavari
Godavari
districts.

* Old Godavari
Godavari
Bridge (also known as Havelock bridge, and named after then Madras governor) * Godavari
Godavari
Bridge (also known as Rail-cum-road bridge and Kovvur- Rajahmundry Bridge) * Godavari
Godavari
Arch Bridge (also known as New railway bridge) * Fourth Bridge (also known as new road bridge)

* Old Godavari
Godavari
Bridge

Construction of this bridge started in 1876, and was completed in 1897. It was constructed under the supervision of F.T. Granville Walton who had constructed the Dufferin Bridge over the Ganges, and Granville Mills, both British engineers. Spanning over 3 km in length, it linked the East Godavari
East Godavari
and West Godavari districts. The bridge has been a vital link enabling trains to run between Chennai
Chennai
and Howrah
Howrah
. Trains continued over the bridge for a century until 1997, when train services over the bridge were suspended after the construction of two additional bridges.

* Godavari
Godavari
Bridge

Construction of this bridge started in 1970, and was completed in 1974. It serves as both a railway and a roadway between the East Godavari
Godavari
and West Godavari Districts.

* Godavari
Godavari
Arch Bridge

This bridge was completed in 1997, was built upstream of the earlier bridges.

* Fourth Bridge

This bridge is the newest. It was opened to public from Godavari Pushkaras 2015. This is a road connectivity bridge link supposed to ease traffic flow between Rajamundry and Kovvur

DAMS

Jayakwadi Dam: upstream view Sriram Sagar Dam Dowleswaram Dam near Rajahmundry on River Godavari
Godavari

The main Godavari
Godavari
river up to the confluence with Pranhita tributary is dammed fully to utilise the available water for irrigation. However, its main tributaries Pranhita, Indravati and Sabari which join in the lower reaches of the basin, carry three times more water compared to main Godavari. In the year 2015, the water surplus Godavari
Godavari
river is linked to the water deficit Krishna
Krishna
river by commissioning the Polavaram right bank canal with the help of Pattiseema lift scheme to augment water availability to the Prakasam Barrage located in Andhra Pradesh. Maximum number of dams are constructed in Godavari
Godavari
river basin than in any other river basin of India. The following are the few dams located in the river basin:

* Gangapur Dam : This is a large earth fill dam with gross water storage of 215.88 million cubic metres, and located 10 km (6.2 mi) upstream from Nashik
Nashik
city. The reservoir known as the Gangapur Bandh Sagar provides drinking water to the Nashik
Nashik
city and also supplies water to the thermal power station situated downstream at Eklahare . * Jayakwadi dam
Jayakwadi dam
: Located near Paithan , it is one of the largest earthen dams in India. This dam was built to address the dual problems of flooding along the banks, during monsoon months, and that of drought, rest of the year, in the Marathwada region. Two 'left' and 'right' canals provide the irrigation to fertile land up to Nanded district . This dam has contributed to industrial development of Aurangabad and Jalna , Maharashtra
Maharashtra
. Majalgaon Dam is also constructed under Jayakwadi stage 2 to expand the irrigation potential further in Parbhani , Nanded
Nanded
and Beed
Beed
districts . * Vishnupuri barrage: Asia's Largest Lift Irrigation project, the Vishnupuri Prakalp has been constructed on the river at a distance of 5 km (3.1 mi) from the city Nanded. * Ghatghar Dam was built for hydro power generation by diverting the water of Pravara tributary outside Godavari
Godavari
river basin to a west flowing river which joins Arabian sea. * Upper Vaitarna reservoir was built across west flowing Vaitarna river merging some part of Godavari
Godavari
river catchment area. Godavari water impounded in this reservoir is diverted outside the river basin for Mumbai
Mumbai
city drinking water supply after generating hydro power. * Sriram Sagar Dam : This is another multipurpose project on the Godavari
Godavari
River on the borders of Adilabad and Nizamabad District. It is near the town of Pochampad, 60 km away from Nizamabad. It has been described by The Hindu
Hindu
as a "lifeline for a large part of Telangana
Telangana
". It serves the irrigation needs in Karimnagar , Warangal , Adilabad , Nalgonda , and Khammam
Khammam
districts and also generates power. * Dowleswaram Barrage was built by Sir Arthur Cotton in 1852. It got damaged in 1987 floods, and rebuilt as a barrage cum roadway soon after and named after him. The roadway connects Dowleswaram in East Godavari
Godavari
and Vijjeswaram in West Godavari. The irrigation canals of this barrage also form part of National Waterway 4 .

HYDRO POWER STATIONS

Upper Indiravati power house

Godavari
Godavari
river is one of the rivers whose water energy is least harnessed for generating hydro electricity. Many hydro power projects with storage reservoirs are held up due to forest submergence and population displacement difficulties. 600 MW capacity Upper Indravati hydro power station is the biggest hydro power station which diverts Godavari
Godavari
river water to the Mahanadi river
Mahanadi river
basin. The following is the list of hydro electric power stations excluding small and medium installations.

Hydroelectric power stations on Godavari
Godavari
river NAME OF THE PROJECT RATED POWER (IN MW )

Upper Indravati 600

Machkund 120

Balimela 510

Upper Sileru 240

Lower Sileru 460

Upper Kolab 320

Pench 160

Ghatghar pumped storage 250

Polavaram (under construction) 960

MINERAL DEPOSITS

See also: List of mines in India
India

Godavari
Godavari
river basin is endowed with rich mineral deposits such as oil -webkit-column-width: 20em; column-width: 20em;">

* Krishna
Krishna
Godavari
Godavari
Basin , oil "> Dried up Godavari
Godavari
exposing flood basalt river bed as seen from the back of Changdev temple in Puntamba
Puntamba

The frequent drying up of the Godavari
Godavari
river in the drier months has been a matter of great concern. Indiscriminate damming along the river has been cited as an obvious reason. Within Maharashtra
Maharashtra
sugarcane irrigation has been blamed as one of the foremost causes.

In 2013, the river was at its all-time low in the Nizamabad district of Telangana. This had hit the growth of fish, making the life of fishermen miserable.The water-level was so low that people could easily walk into the middle of the river. Shortage in rainfall and closure of the controversial Babli project gates in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
was thought to have affected the water flow in the river and water availability to the Sriram Sagar Project except during above 20% excess monsoon (i.e. one out of four years) years.

A study has found that the delta is at a greater risk as the rate of sediment aggradation (raising the level of the delta through sediment deposition) no longer exceeds relative sea-level rise. It further states that the suspended sediment load at the delta has reduced from 150·2 million tons during 1970–1979 to 57·2 million tons by 2000–2006, which translates into a three-fold decline in the past 4 decades. Impacts of this can be seen in destroyed villages like Uppada in Godavari
Godavari
delta, destruction of Mangrove forests and fragmentation of shoreline – possibly a fallout of dam construction.

Said to further epitomise the insensitivity towards Godavari, is the Polavaram Project which is touted to be gigantic – both in terms of size and violations. Deemed as being pointless and politically driven, the project raises questions about environmental clearance, displacement of upstream human habitations, loss of forest cover, technicalities in the dam design which are said to play down flood threats and unsafe embankments.

High alkalinity water is discharged from the ash dump areas of many coal fired power stations into the river which further increases the alkalinity of the river water whose water is naturally of high alkalinity since the river basin is draining vast area of basalt formations. This problem aggravates during the lean flow months in entire river basin. Already the Godavari
Godavari
basin area in Telangana
Telangana
is suffering from high alkalinity and salinity water problem which is converting soils in to unproductive sodic alkali soils . The following are the few coal fired power stations located in the river basin:

Thermal power stations in Godavari
Godavari
river basin NAME OF POWER STATION RATED POWER (IN MW )

Koradi Thermal Power Station 2,600

Khaparkheda Thermal Power Station 1,340

Tirora Thermal Power Station 3,300

Butibori Power Project 600

Rattan India
India
Nashik
Nashik
TPS 1,350

Chandrapur STPS 3,340

Mauda Super Thermal Power Station 1,000

Parli Thermal Power Station
Parli Thermal Power Station
1,130

Dhariwal Power Station 300

Nashik
Nashik
Thermal Power Station 910

Wardha Warora Power Plant 540

Pench Thermal Power Plant 1,320

Lanco Vidarbha
Vidarbha
Thermal Power 1,320

NTPC Ramagundam 2,600

Kothagudem Thermal Power Station 1,720

Kakatiya Thermal Power Station 1,100

Ramagundam B Thermal Power Station 60

Manuguru
Manuguru
Heavy water plant's power station N/A

Singareni thermal power station 1,800

Bhadradri Thermal Power Plant 1,080

IN POPULAR CULTURE

One of the ships of the Indian Navy has been named INS _Godavari_ after the river.

SEE ALSO

* Godavari Water Disputes Tribunal * Detailed list of Tributaries * Godavari
Godavari
River Basin Irrigation Projects

* Godavari
Godavari
Arch Bridge * Godavari
Godavari
Bridge * Old Godavari
Godavari
Bridge

* List of dams and reservoirs in India
India
* River basins in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
* Godavari Maha Pushkaram

REFERENCES

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Godavari
river basin map" * ^ "Integrated Hydrological DataBook(Non-Classified River Basins)" (PDF). Central Water Commission. p. 9. Retrieved 2015-10-13. * ^ http://india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/wrpinfo/index.php?title=Basins * ^ "Dakshina Ganga (Ganga of South India) – River Godavari". Important India. Retrieved 2015-10-21. * ^ http://www.igbp.net/download/18.62dc35801456272b46d4b/1398850074082/NL82-Deltas_infographic.pdf * ^ South Asia Network on Dams Rivers and People (2014). "Shrinking and Sinking Deltas: Major role of Dams in delta subsidence and effective sea level rise" (PDF). Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ "India: Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
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Bhadrachalam
was under a sheet of water". Retrieved 26 May 2014. * ^ "Water flow data at Polavaram". Retrieved 26 May 2014. * ^ http://www.nih.ernet.in/rbis/basin%20maps/godavari_about.htm * ^ "Dudhsagar Waterfalls, Nashik". Nashik
Nashik
Directory. Retrieved 2015-10-18. * ^ " Beed
Beed
district". Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ "Subbasin of Godavari". Hydrology and Water Resources Information System for India. Retrieved 2015-10-21. * ^ "Arma Konda, India". Retrieved 22 January 2015. * ^ "Mountain peaks database". Retrieved 15 November 2015. * ^ Kakani Nageswara Rao, et al.; _Holocene environmental changes of the Godavari
Godavari
Delta, east coast of India, inferred from sediment core analyses and AMS 14C dating_, Geomorphology, 175–176 (2012) pp.163–175 * ^ Central Water Commission (2012). "Integrated Hydrological Data Book (Non-classified river basins)" (PDF). Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ "Hydrology and water resources information for India". _www.nih.ernet.in_. National Institute of Hydrology, India. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ Venkateshwarlu, K. (2012-05-03). "Godavari". _The Hindu_. Retrieved 2012-05-16. * ^ Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Forest Department. "Aurangabad Circle". Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ Nashik. "Nandur Madhmeshwar Bird Sanctuary". Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ "Dams in Godavari
Godavari
basin". Retrieved 2015-10-17. * ^ "Dams in Nashik
Nashik
District". National Informatics Centre (NIC), Collectorate, Nashik. Archived from the original on 2013-08-10. Retrieved 2015-10-17. * ^ vijdiw. "Jaikwadi Dam and Its Nath Sagar Reservoir". authorstream.com. Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ "Vishnupuri barrage B00473". Retrieved 30 July 2016. * ^ Maharashtra
Maharashtra
projects hit Sriram Sagar project inflows: BJP. _The Hindu_, May 16, 2005 * ^ "Power Houses in Godavari
Godavari
Basin". Retrieved 27 March 2015. * ^ "Proposed projects on Indravati river" (PDF). Retrieved 4 January 2015. * ^ "Upper Indravati Power_House PH01496". Retrieved 27 March 2015.

* ^ Pawar, Yogesh (18 March 2013). "Krishna, Godavari
Godavari
basins drying up". Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ J. Keller, A. Keller and G. Davids. " River basin
River basin
development phases and implications of closure" (PDF). Retrieved 25 August 2012. * ^ R Prasad. "Sinking Indian deltas put millions at risk". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People (2014). "Godavari\'s Story". Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ B Hema Malini; K Nageswara Raol (10 November 2004). "Coastal erosion and habitat loss along the Godavari
Godavari
delta front – a fallout of dam construction (?)" (PDF). _Current Science_. p. 1232. Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ Mahapatra, Richard (2011). " Polavaram fraud". Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ Times of India
India
(5 July 2015). " Polavaram dam works to begin on Oct. 22". Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ Rediff News (29 May 2014). " Telangana
Telangana
bandh over Modi govt\'s ordinance on Polavaram". Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ Chemical weathering in the Krishna
Krishna
Basin and Western Ghats
Western Ghats
of the Deccan Traps, India * ^ " Alkalinity and salinity bane of soil in T state". Retrieved 23 October 2015.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to GODAVARI RIVER _.

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