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FIFE ( ; Scottish Gaelic : _Fìobha_) is a council area and historic county of Scotland
Scotland
. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
, with inland boundaries to Perth and Kinross
Perth and Kinross
and Clackmannanshire . By custom it is widely held to have been one of the major Pictish kingdoms , known as _Fib_, and is still commonly known as the KINGDOM OF FIFE within Scotland.

It is a lieutenancy area , and was a county of Scotland
Scotland
until 1975. It was very occasionally known by the anglicisation _Fifeshire_ in old documents and maps compiled by English cartographers and authors. A person from Fife
Fife
is known as a _Fifer_.

Fife
Fife
was a local government region divided into three districts : Dunfermline
Dunfermline
, Kirkcaldy and North-East Fife
Fife
. Since 1996 the functions of the district councils have been exercised by the unitary Fife Council.

Fife
Fife
is Scotland's third largest local authority area by population . It has a resident population of just under 367,000, over a third of whom live in the three principal towns of Dunfermline
Dunfermline
, Kirkcaldy and Glenrothes .

The historic town of St Andrews
St Andrews
is located on the northeast coast of Fife. It is well known for the University of St Andrews
St Andrews
, one of the most ancient universities in the world and is renowned as the home of golf .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Governance * 3 Geography * 4 Towns and villages * 5 Culture * 6 Notable Fifers * 7 Sports * 8 Media * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

The historical headquarters of Fife
Fife
County Council, in Cupar
Cupar

Fife, bounded to the north by the Firth of Tay and to the south by the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
, is a natural peninsula whose political boundaries have changed little over the ages. The Pictish king list and De Situ Albanie documents of the Poppleton manuscript mention the division of the Pictish realm into seven sub-kingdoms or provinces, one being Fife, though this is now regarded as a medieval invention. :70–72 The earliest known reference to the common epithet _The Kingdom of Fife_ dates from only 1678, in a proposition that the term derives from the quasi-regal privileges of the Earl of Fife . :132 The notion of a kingdom may derive from a misintrepretation of an extract from Wyntoun . :133 The name is recorded as _Fib_ in A.D. 1150 and _Fif_ in 1165. It was often associated with Fothriff .

The hill-fort of Clatchard Craig , near Newburgh , was occupied as an important Pictish stronghold between the sixth and eighth centuries AD.

Fife
Fife
was an important royal and political centre from the reign of King Malcolm III onwards, as the leaders of Scotland
Scotland
gradually moved southwards away from their ancient strongholds around Scone. Malcolm had his principal home in Dunfermline
Dunfermline
and his wife Margaret was the main benefactor of Dunfermline
Dunfermline
Abbey . The Abbey replaced Iona
Iona
as the final resting place of Scotland's royal elite, with Robert I amongst those to be buried there.

The Earl of Fife was until the 15th century considered the principal peer of the Scottish realm, and was reserved the right of crowning the nation's monarchs, reflecting the prestige of the area.

A new royal palace was gradually constructed at Falkland , formerly the stronghold of Clan MacDuff , and was used by successive monarchs of the House of Stuart , who favoured Fife
Fife
for its rich hunting grounds.

King James VI of Scotland
Scotland
described Fife
Fife
as a "beggar's mantle fringed wi gowd", the golden fringe being the coast and its chain of little ports with their thriving fishing fleets and rich trading links with the Low Countries
Low Countries
. Wool
Wool
, linen , coal and salt were all traded. Salt pans heated by local coal were a feature of the Fife
Fife
coast in the past. The distinctive red clay pan tiles seen on many old buildings in Fife
Fife
arrived as ballast on trading boats and replaced the previously thatched roofs.

In 1598, King James VI employed a group of 12 men from Fife, who became known as the Fife adventurers , to colonise the Isle of Lewis in an attempt to begin the "civilisation" and de-gaelicisation of the region. This endeavour lasted until 1609 when the colonists, having been opposed by the native population, were bought out by Kenneth Mackenzie , the clan chief of the Mackenzies .

Fife
Fife
became a centre of heavy industry in the 19th century. Coal had been mined in the area since at least the 12th century, but the number of pits increased ten-fold as demand for coal grew in the Victorian period. Previously rural villages such as Cowdenbeath rapidly swelled into towns as thousands moved to Fife
Fife
to find work in its mines. The opening of the Forth and Tay rail bridges linked Fife
Fife
with Dundee and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and allowed the rapid transport of goods. Modern ports were constructed at Methil , Burntisland and Rosyth
Rosyth
. Kirkcaldy became the world centre for the production of linoleum . Postwar
Postwar
Fife
Fife
saw the development of Scotland's second new town , Glenrothes . Originally to be based around a coal mine, the town eventually attracted a high number of modern Silicon Glen companies to the region. Fife
Fife
Council and Fife Constabulary also centre their operations in Glenrothes.

There are numerous notable historical buildings in Fife, some of which are managed by the National Trust for Scotland
Scotland
or Historic Scotland
Scotland
. They include Dunfermline
Dunfermline
Abbey (the last resting place of Scottish royalty), the palace in Culross, Ravenscraig Castle in Kirkcaldy, Dysart Harbour area, Balgonie Castle near Coaltown of Balgonie, Falkland Palace (hunting palace of the Scottish Kings), Kellie Castle near Pittenweem, Hill of Tarvit (a historical house), St. Andrews Castle, St. Andrews Cathedral and St. Rule\'s Tower .

GOVERNANCE

Fife
Fife
House, seat of Fife
Fife
Council Fifeshire "> Looking across the farmland of North East Fife
Fife
to the distant Lomond Hills
Lomond Hills

North of the Lomond Hills
Lomond Hills
can be found villages and small towns in a primarily agricultural landscape. The areas in the south and west of Fife, including the towns of Dunfermline
Dunfermline
, Glenrothes , Kirkcaldy and the Levenmouth region are lightly industrial and more densely populated. The only areas which could claim to be heavily industrial are Rosyth
Rosyth
, around the naval dockyard and perhaps the Mossmorran Natural Gas Liquids fractionation plant on the outskirts of Cowdenbeath.

The east corner of Fife, generally that east of a line between Leven and St Andrews
St Andrews
is recognised throughout Scotland
Scotland
as the East Neuk (or corner) of Fife, small settlements around sheltered harbours, with distinctive vernacular "Dutch" or corbie (crow) stepped gabled and stone-built architecture – an area much sought after as second homes of the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
professional classes since the Forth Road Bridge was built. The fishing industry on which the East Neuk settlements were built has declined in recent years with the main fishing fleet now operating from Pittenweem and the harbour in Anstruther being used as a marina for pleasure craft.

TOWNS AND VILLAGES

Cupar
Cupar
took over as county town from Crail
Crail
in the early 13th century. Glenrothes is now the administrative centre, after the decision to locate the headquarters of the newly established Fife
Fife
Regional Council there in 1975. Fife's three major towns are Kirkcaldy , Dunfermline and Glenrothes. According to the 2012 estimate, Dunfermline
Dunfermline
is the largest settlement by population, followed by Kirkcaldy then Glenrothes. The next most sizeable towns by population are St Andrews, Cowdenbeath, Rosyth, Methil and Dalgety Bay. The rest of Fife
Fife
includes smaller towns such as Inverkeithing, Kincardine, Anstruther, Lochgelly, Burntisland, Leven, Newburgh, Tayport and Cupar, and villages such as Springfield, Kinglassie, Kinghorn, Elie, Auchtertool, Crossgates, Ballingry and Auchtermuchty.

The county was formerly divided into parishes, often but not always based on a town or village:

* Abbotshall * Abdie * Aberdour * Anstruther Easter * Anstruther Wester * Arngask (Perthshire) * Auchterderran * Auchtermuchty * Auchtertool * Ballingry * Balmerino * Beath
Beath
* Buckhaven * Burntisland * Cameron * Carnbee * Carnock * Cellardyke * Ceres * Collessie * Cowdenbeath * Crail
Crail
* Creich * Crossgates * Culross (Perthshire) * Cults * Cupar
Cupar
* Dairsie * Dalgety * Dunbog * Dunfermline
Dunfermline
* Dunino * Dysart * Elie
Elie
* Falkland * Ferry Port on Craig * Flisk * Forgan * Freuchie * Glenrothes * Inverkeithing & Rosyth
Rosyth
* Kelty * Kemback * Kennoway * Kilconquhar * Kilmany * Kilrenny * Kinghorn * Kinglassie * Kingsbarns * Kingskettle * Kirkcaldy * Ladybank * Largo * Leslie * Leuchars * Leven * Lochgelly * Logie * Lumphinnans * Markinch * Methil * Monimail * Moonzie * Newburgh * Newburn * Pitlessie * Pittenweem * Saline * Scoonie * St Andrews
St Andrews
">

CULTURE

Falkland Palace Scottish Lowlands farm. Detail from Slezer's Prospect of Dunfermline, 1693 A closer view of the Lomond Hills, seen from Auchtermuchty

Fife
Fife
contains 4,961 listed buildings and 48 conservation areas . Domestic sites of importance include Falkland Palace , Kellie Castle , Dunfermline
Dunfermline
Palace , St Andrews
St Andrews
Castle , Culross Palace and Kirkcaldy's Ravenscraig Castle . Fife
Fife
has a number of ecclesiastical sites of historical interest. St Andrews
St Andrews
Cathedral was home to the powerful Archbishopric of St Andrews
St Andrews
, and later became a centre of the Scottish Reformation , while Dunfermline
Dunfermline
Abbey was the last resting place of a number of Scottish kings. Balmerino and Culross abbeys were both founded in the 13th century by the Cistercians , while a century before Lindores Abbey was founded by the Tironensians outside Newburgh ; all were highly important sites.

The Stanza Poetry Festival , East Neuk Festival , Pittenweem Arts Festival are events of national cultural importance. Smaller festivals like Cupar
Cupar
Arts Festival also take place. The Byre Theatre in St Andrews and Adam Smith
Adam Smith
Theatre in Kirkcaldy were both highly regarded as touring venues, the latter also being the base of the grand opera company Fife Opera . The Byre has re-opened in Autumn, 2014 following its going into administration in 2012.

NOTABLE FIFERS

* Robert Adam
Robert Adam
, architect * Stuart Adamson , musician ( Big Country , The Skids ) * Robert Hope Moncrieff Aitken (1826–1887), Lieutenant
Lieutenant
in the 13th, Bengal Native Infantry , awarded the Victoria Cross * Ian Anderson , musician, frontman of Jethro Tull * Iain Banks , writer * Lady Anne Barnard , travel writer, artist and socialite of the period * Andrew Whyte Barclay , (1817–1884), physician, Lumleian lecturer , and Harveian orator * Jim Baxter , footballer * Guy Berryman
Guy Berryman
, bassist from the band Coldplay
Coldplay
* Sir James Black , pharmacologist and nobel prize winner * Sir Ernley Blackwell , lawyer and civil servant * Martin Grehan , Footballer * Edith Bowman , BBC Radio 1/6 DJ * Gordon Brown
Gordon Brown
, former British Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer and former MP for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath * Scott Brown , Scotland
Scotland
and Celtic F.C. footballer * Gregory Burke , playwright * Alexander Buchanan Campbell , architect * Andrew Carnegie , industrialist and philanthropist * Jim Clark , two-times Formula One World Drivers' Champion * James Clephan , Lieutenant
Lieutenant
on board HMS _Spartiate_ during the Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar
* Archibald Constable (1774–1827), publisher, bookseller and stationer * Kenneth Cranham , actor * King Creosote , musician * David Danskin , principal founding member of Arsenal FC * Barbara Dickson , singer and actress * Thomas Millie Dow (1848–1919), artist, a member of the Glasgow School * Philip Charles Durham , sailor and captain of HMS _Defiance_ at Trafalgar * Marjorie Fleming (1803–1811), child writer and poet * Sir Sandford Fleming , (1827–1915), engineer, who proposed worldwide standard time zones , engineered on the Intercolonial Railway and the Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
* Valentine Fleming (1882–1917), member of parliament and father of the author Ian Fleming
Ian Fleming
* John Forbes , named the city of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
* Chris Fusaro , rugby player * Thomas Lomar Gray (1850–1908), engineer noted for his pioneering work in seismology * Thomas Hardy , (1747–1798), minister of religion, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland
Scotland
and Professor of Ecclesiastical History at Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University * Alexander Henderson (c.1583–1646), theologian, and an important ecclesiastical statesman * Shirley Henderson , actress * Peter Horne , rugby player * Bob Howie and Dave Howie , rugby players * Henrietta Keddie (1827–1914), novelist who wrote under the pseudonym Sarah Tytler * Deborah Knox , Olympic gold medallist in curling * Craig Levein , Scottish former professional footballer and manager * Jackie Leven , singer-songwriter * Wallace Lindsay , classical scholars, palaeographer, Professor of Humanity at St Andrews
St Andrews
University * Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie , 16th-century writer * Anne Macaulay musicologist, archaeologist, author and lecturer * Douglas Mackinnon , director * Val McDermid , writer * Ken McNaught , footballer, Aston Villa F.C. centre back, 1982 European Cup Winner * Willie McNaught , footballer, Raith Rovers F.C. defender * Tom Nairn (born 1932), political theorist of nationalism * Rab Noakes (born 1947) singer, songwriter, record producer * Aileen Paterson , author/illustrator * Dr John Philip (1775–1851), missionary in South Africa
South Africa
* David Pitcairn (1749–1809), physician * John Pitcairn (1722–1775), British Marine officer killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill * William Pitcairn (1712–1791), physician * Ian Rankin , writer * David Rollo , rugby player * Craig Russell (British author) , writer * Dougray Scott
Dougray Scott
, actor * Susan Stanglehands , roast beef entrepreneur * John Scrimgeour of Myres (fl. 16th century) Master of Work for royal buildings for James V and Mary, Queen of Scots * Alexander Selkirk
Alexander Selkirk
, seafarer and inspiration for _Robinson Crusoe _ * Sir Jimmy Shand , accordion player * Adam Smith
Adam Smith
, philosopher and economist * Jordan Smith , actor * Mary Fairfax Somerville (1780–1872), science writer and polymath * Lawrence Storione , miner and anarchist organiser * Sir John Struthers (1823–1899) first Regius Professor of Anatomy at the University of Aberdeen * John McDouall Stuart (1815–1866), explorer of Australia's interior * Michaela Tabb , first female snooker referee to appear at the Crucible * William Tennant , scholar and poet * John Thomson , former Celtic F.C. goalkeeper * KT Tunstall , musician * Jack Vettriano , artist * William Montgomery Watt (1909–2006), historian, Emeritus Professor in Arabic and Islamic Studies at the University of Edinburgh * Sir David Wilkie , painter * Alexander Wilson (1714–1786), surgeon, type-founder, astronomer, mathematician and meteorologist * James Wilson , signer of US Declaration of Independence, appointed by George Washington
George Washington
to first Supreme Court * Jocky Wilson , darts player * James Yorkston , musician * Douglas Young (1913–1973), poet, scholar, translator, and leader of the Scottish National Party

SPORTS

St Andrews
St Andrews
in Fife
Fife
is the home of golf , being the town in which the sport was invented, and the Royal and Ancient Golf
Golf
Club still has responsibility for overseeing the rules of the game today.

Fife
Fife
has four senior football clubs: Cowdenbeath , Raith Rovers , Dunfermline
Dunfermline
Athletic and East Fife
Fife
.

Fife Flyers are the UK's oldest ice hockey club and play in Britain's top flight, the Elite Ice Hockey League
Elite Ice Hockey League
.

Fife
Fife
is also home to eight rugby union clubs. Dunfermline
Dunfermline
RFC , Fife Southern RFC based in Rosyth, Glenrothes RFC, Howe of Fife RFC based in Cupar, Kirkcaldy RFC , Madras RFC, Waid Academy RFC and University of St Andrews
St Andrews
RFC - the oldest rugby club in Fife. Fife Lions are the sole rugby league club.

Kingdom Kangaroos are Fife's only Australian Rules Football team, with training held in Rosyth
Rosyth
and Kirkcaldy .

Aberdour Shinty Club have two men's teams, two women's teams and multiple youth squads.

MEDIA

Locally published newspapers include the _ Fife Free Press _ in Kirkcaldy ; the _ Dunfermline
Dunfermline
Press _ in Dunfermline
Dunfermline
; the _Glenrothes Gazette_ in Glenrothes , the _East Fife
Fife
Mail_ in Leven , the _Fife Herald_ in Cupar
Cupar
/ Howe of Fife
Fife
and the _ St Andrews
St Andrews
Citizen_ in St Andrews . DC Thompson publishes Fife
Fife
and West Fife
Fife
editions of the _Dundee Courier -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ _A_ _B_ _Complete Atlas of the British Isles_. Readers' Digest. 1965. p. 218. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Taylor, Simon; Gilbert Márkus (2012). _The Place-Names of Fife, Volume 5_. Donington, Lincs.: Shaun Tyas. ISBN 9781907730085 . * ^ "The site record for Clatchard Craig at RCAHMS". Canmore.rcahms.gov.uk. * ^ "Excavation Summary by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland" (PDF). * ^ "A Dictionary of Scottish Phrase and Fable". _google.co.uk_. * ^ "MPs of Fife". _Parliament UK_. Retrieved 1 August 2015. * ^ " Scotland
Scotland
Election 2016". _BB