The Info List - Ferry

A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water. Most ferries operate regular return services. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi. Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels. However, ship connections of much larger distances (such as over long distances in water bodies like the Mediterranean Sea) may also be called ferry services, especially if they carry vehicles.


1 History

1.1 In ancient times

2 Notable services

2.1 Africa 2.2 Europe 2.3 North America 2.4 Oceania 2.5 Asia 2.6 India

3 Types

3.1 Double-ended 3.2 Hydrofoil 3.3 Hovercraft 3.4 Catamaran 3.5 Roll-on/roll-off 3.6 Cruiseferry
/ RoPax 3.7 Fast RoPax
ferry 3.8 Turntable ferry 3.9 Pontoon ferry 3.10 Train ferry 3.11 Foot ferry 3.12 Cable ferry 3.13 Air ferries

4 Docking 5 First, shortest, largest 6 Sustainability

6.1 Alternative fuels

7 Accidents 8 See also 9 References

9.1 Notes 9.2 Bibliography

10 External links


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)

In ancient times[edit] The profession of the ferryman is embodied in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
in Charon, the boatman who transported souls across the River Styx
River Styx
to the Underworld. Speculation that a pair of oxen propelled a ship having a water wheel can be found in 4th century Roman literature "Anonymus De Rebus Bellicis". Though impractical, there is no reason why it could not work and such a ferry, modified by using horses, was used in Lake Champlain in 19th-century America. See "When Horses Walked on Water: Horse-Powered Ferries in Nineteenth-Century America" (Smithsonian Institution Press; Kevin Crisman, co-authored with Arthur Cohn, Executive Director of the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum). See Experiment (horse powered boat). Notable services[edit] Africa[edit]

MV Victoria (formerly RMS Victoria) at Bukoba Port
in Lake Victoria, Africa.

The Marine Services Company of Tanzania
offers passenger and cargo services in three of the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
viz. Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Nyasa. It also operates one of the oldest ferries in the region, the MV Liemba
MV Liemba
which was built in 1913 during the German colonial rule. Europe[edit] The busiest seaway in the world, the English Channel, connects Great Britain and mainland Europe, sailing mainly to French ports, such as Calais, Dunkirk, Dover, Dieppe, Roscoff, Cherbourg-Octeville, Caen, St Malo and Le Havre. Ferries from Great Britain also sail to Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain
and Ireland. Some ferries carry mainly tourist traffic, but most also carry freight, and some are exclusively for the use of freight lorries. In Britain, car-carrying ferries are sometimes referred to as RORO
(roll-on, roll-off) for the ease by which vehicles can board and leave.

MS Silja Symphony leaving Helsinki
via the Kustaanmiekka strait to the Baltic Sea.

The busiest single ferry route (at least in terms of the number of departures) is across the northern part of Øresund, between Helsingborg, Scania, Sweden
and Elsinore, Denmark. Before the Øresund bridge was opened in July 2000, car and "car & train" ferries departed up to seven times every hour. In 2013, this has been reduced, but a car ferry still departs from each harbor every 15 minutes during daytime.[1] The route is around 2.2 nautical miles (4.1 km; 2.5 mi) and the crossing takes 22 minutes. Today, all ferries on this route are constructed so that they do not need to turn around in the harbors. This also means that the ferries lack natural stems and sterns, since the vessels sail in both directions (rather than "sail backwards"). Due to the same circumstances, starboard and port-side are "dynamic" and depending of in what direction the ferry sails. Despite the short crossing, the ferries are equipped with restaurants (on 3 out of 4 ferries), cafeteria, kiosks and WC toilets. (Passengers without cars often make a "double or triple return" journey in the restaurants; for this, a common single journey ticket is sufficient. Passenger and bicycle passenger tickets are inexpensive compared with longer routes.)

Ro-Pax Festos Palace in Piraeus, Greece

Large cruiseferries sail in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
between Finland, Åland, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia
and Saint Petersburg, Russia
and from Italy
to Sardinia, Corsica, Spain
and Greece. In many ways, these ferries are like cruise ships, but they can also carry hundreds of cars on car decks. Besides providing passenger and car transport across the sea, Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
cruiseferries are a popular tourist destination unto themselves, with multiple restaurants, nightclubs, bars, shops and entertainment on board. Also many smaller ferries operate on domestic routes in Finland, Sweden
and Estonia. The south-west and southern parts of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
has several routes mainly for heavy traffic and cars. The ferry routes of Trelleborg- Rostock
SWE-GER, Trelleborg- Travemünde
SWE-GER, Trelleborg- Świnoujście
SWE-POL, Gedser- Rostock
DEN-GER, Gdynia- Karlskrona
POL-SWE, and Ystad- Świnoujście
SWE-POL are all typical transports ferries. On the longer of these routes, simple cabins are available. The Rødby- Puttgarden
DEN-GER route also carries day passenger trains between Copenhagen
and Hamburg, and on the Trelleborg- Sassnitz
SWE-GER route, it also has capacities for the daily night trains between Berlin
and Malmö. In Istanbul, ferries connect the European and Asian shores of Bosphorus, as well as Princes Islands
Princes Islands
and nearby coastal towns. In 2014 İDO
transported 47 million passengers, the largest ferry system in the world.[2] North America[edit]

MV Spirit of Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
en route to Tsawwassen from Swartz Bay. Route 1 is BC Ferries
BC Ferries
busiest route.

Due to the numbers of large freshwater lakes and length of shoreline in Canada, various provinces and territories have ferry services. BC Ferries
BC Ferries
operates the third largest ferry service in the world which carries travellers between Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
and the British Columbia mainland on the country's west coast. This ferry service operates to other islands including the Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
and Haida Gwaii. In 2015, BC Ferries carried more than 8 million vehicles and 20 million passengers.[3] Canada's east coast has been home to numerous inter- and intra-provincial ferry and coastal services, including a large network operated by the federal government under CN Marine
CN Marine
and later Marine Atlantic. Private and publicly owned ferry operations in eastern Canada include Marine Atlantic, serving the island of Newfoundland, as well as Bay, NFL, CTMA, Coastal Transport, and STQ to name but a few. Canadian waters in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
once hosted numerous ferry services, however these have been reduced to those offered by Owen Sound Transportation and several smaller operations. There are also several commuter passenger ferry services operated in major cities, such as Metro Transit in Halifax, Toronto Island ferries
Toronto Island ferries
in Toronto and SeaBus
in Vancouver.

The Spokane sailing from Edmonds to Kingston, one of ten routes served by Washington State Ferries.

Washington State Ferries
Washington State Ferries
operates the most extensive ferry system in the United States and the second largest in the world by vehicles carried, with ten routes on Puget Sound
Puget Sound
and the Strait of Juan de Fuca serving terminals in Washington and Vancouver Island.[4] In 2016, Washington State Ferries
Washington State Ferries
carried 10.5 million vehicles and 24.2 million riders in total.[5] The Staten Island Ferry
Staten Island Ferry
in New York City, sailing between the boroughs of Manhattan
and Staten Island, is the nation's single busiest ferry route by passenger volume. Unlike riders on many other ferry services, Staten Island Ferry
Staten Island Ferry
passengers do not pay any fare to ride it. New York City also has a network of smaller ferries, or water taxis, that shuttle commuters along the Hudson River
Hudson River
from locations in New Jersey and Northern Manhattan
down to the midtown, downtown and Wall Street business centers. Several ferry companies also offer service linking midtown and lower Manhattan
with locations in the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn, crossing the city's East River. New York City
New York City
Mayor Bill de Blasio announced in February 2015 that city would begin an expanded Citywide Ferry
Service some time in 2017 linking heretofore relatively isolated communities such as Manhattan's Lower East Side, Soundview in The Bronx, Astoria and the Rockaways in Queens
and such Brooklyn neighborhoods as Bay Ridge, Sunset Park, and Red Hook with existing ferry landings in Lower Manhattan
and Midtown Manhattan. The New Orleans
New Orleans
area also has many ferries in operation that carry both vehicles and pedestrians. Most notable is the Algiers Ferry. This service has been in continuous operation since 1827 and is one of the oldest operating ferries in North America. In New England, vehicle-carrying ferry services between mainland Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard
Martha's Vineyard
and Nantucket
are operated by The Woods Hole, Martha's Vineyard
Martha's Vineyard
and Nantucket
Steamship Authority, which sails year-round between Woods Hole
Woods Hole
and Vineyard Haven
Vineyard Haven
as well as Hyannis and Nantucket. Seasonal service is also operated from Woods Hole to Oak Bluffs
Oak Bluffs
from Memorial Day to Labor Day. As there are no bridges or tunnels connecting the islands to the mainland, The Steamship Authority ferries in addition to being the only method for transporting private cars to or from the islands, also serves as the only link by which heavy freight and supplies such as food and gasoline can be trucked to the islands. Additionally, Hy-Line Cruises operates high speed catamaran service from Hyannis to both islands, as well as traditional ferries, and several smaller operations run seasonal passenger only service primarily geared towards tourist day-trippers from other mainland ports, including New Bedford, (New Bedford Fast Ferry) Falmouth, (Island Queen ferry and Falmouth Ferry) and Harwich (Freedom Cruise Line). Ferries also bring riders and vehicles across Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
to such Connecticut
cities as Bridgeport and New London, and to Block Island
Block Island
in Rhode Island
Rhode Island
from points on Long Island. The San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
has several ferry services, such as the Blue & Gold Fleet, connecting with cities as far as Vallejo. The majority of ferry passengers are daily commuters and tourists. A ferry serves Angel Island (which also accepts private craft). The only way to get to Alcatraz
is by ferry. Until the completion of the Mackinac Bridge
in the 1950s, ferries were used for vehicle transportation between the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, across the Straits of Mackinac in the United States. Ferry
service for bicycles and passengers continues across the straits for transport to Mackinac Island, where motorized vehicles are almost completely prohibited. This crossing is made possible by three ferry lines, Arnold Transit Company, Shepler's Ferry, and Star Line Ferry. Mexico also has ferry services run by Baja Ferries that connect La Paz located on the Baja California Peninsula with Mazatlán
and Topolobampo. There are also passenger ferries that run from Playa del Carmen to the island of Cozumel. Oceania[edit]

MS  Spirit of Tasmania II at port in Devonport, Australia.

In Australia, two Spirit of Tasmania ferries carry passengers and vehicles 300 kilometres across Bass Strait, the body of water that separates Tasmania
from the Australian mainland, often under famously turbulent sea conditions. These run overnight but also include day crossings in peak time. Both ferries are based in the northern Tasmanian port city of Devonport and sail to Melbourne. In New Zealand, ferries connect Wellington
in the North Island
North Island
with Picton in the South Island, linking New Zealand's two main islands. The 92 km route takes three hours, and is run by two companies – government-owned Interislander, and independent Bluebridge. Asia[edit]

A ferry underway in Penang, Malaysia.

The inside of a passenger ferry on route between Shikoku
and Kyushu. The number of actual seats is usually very limited on Japanese passenger ferries, with larger spaces dedicated to tatami or broadloom areas where passengers can sit or lie down

Hong Kong has the Star Ferry
Star Ferry
carry passengers across Victoria Harbour and various carriers carrying travellers between Hong Kong Island to outlying islands like Cheung Chau, Lantau Island and Lamma Island. Water transport in Mumbai
Water transport in Mumbai
consists of ferries, hovercrafts, and catamarans, operated by various government agencies as well as private entities. The Kerala State Water Transport Department
Kerala State Water Transport Department
(SWTD), operating under the Ministry of Transport, Government of Kerala, India regulates the inland navigation systems in the Indian state of Kerala and provides inland water transport facilities. It stands for catering to the passenger and cargo traffic needs of the inhabitants of the waterlogged areas of the Districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam, Ernakulam, Kannur
and Kasargode. SWTD ferry service is also one of the most affordable modes to enjoy the beauty of the scenic Kerala backwaters. The Malaysian state of Penang
is home to the oldest ferry service in the country. This famous ferry service, now renamed Rapid Ferry, connects the Raja Tun Uda Ferry Terminal
Raja Tun Uda Ferry Terminal
at Weld Quay in George Town on Penang
Island with the Sultan Abdul Halim Ferry Terminal
Sultan Abdul Halim Ferry Terminal
in Butterworth on Peninsular Malaysia. It has also become a famous tourist attraction among foreigners. Along the way, ferry commuters will get to see the skyline of George Town and Butterworth, as well as the Penang
Bridge. India[edit] India's ro-ro ferry service between Ghogha
and Dahej
was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
on 22 October 2017. It aims to connect South Gujarat
South Gujarat
and Saurashtra currently separated by 360 km of roadway to 31 km of ferry service. It is a part of the larger Sagar Mala project. [6] Types[edit] Ferry
designs depend on the length of the route, the passenger or vehicle capacity required, speed requirements and the water conditions the craft must deal with. Double-ended[edit]

in Ontario (Manitoulin Island) vehicles load via the front and back of the ferry opening hull

Double-ended ferries have interchangeable bows and sterns, allowing them to shuttle back and forth between two terminals without having to turn around. Well-known double-ended ferry systems include the Staten Island Ferry, Washington State Ferries, Star Ferry, several boats on the North Carolina
North Carolina
System, and the Lake Champlain Transportation Company. Most Norwegian fjord and coastal ferries are double-ended vessels. All ferries from southern Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
to the mainland of Canada are double-ended. Some ferries in Sydney, Australia and British Columbia
British Columbia
are also double-ended. In 2008, BC Ferries launched three of the largest double-ended ferries in the world. Hydrofoil[edit] Hydrofoils
have the advantage of higher cruising speeds, succeeding hovercraft on some English Channel
English Channel
routes where the ferries now compete against the Eurotunnel and Eurostar
trains that use the Channel Tunnel. Passenger-only hydrofoils also proved a practical, fast and relatively economical solution in the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
but were recently replaced by faster catamaran "high speed" ferries that can carry cars. Their replacement by the larger craft is seen by critics as a retrograde step given that the new vessels use much more fuel and foster the inappropriate use of cars[7] in islands already suffering from the impact of mass tourism.

Mark 3 SR.N4
hovercraft, Dover

Hovercraft[edit] Hovercraft
were developed in the 1960s and 1970s to carry cars. The largest was the massive SR.N4
which carried cars in its centre section with ramps at the bow and stern between England and France. The hovercraft was superseded by catamarans which are nearly as fast and are less affected by sea and weather conditions. Only one service now remains, a foot passenger service between Portsmouth
and the Isle of Wight run by Hovertravel. Catamaran[edit]

built Catamaran
HSC Manannan
HSC Manannan
entering Douglas, Isle of Man

Since 1990 high speed Catamarans have revolutionised ferry services, replacing hovercraft, hydrofoils and conventional monohull ferries. In the 1990s there were a variety of builders, but the industry has consolidated to two builders of large vehicular ferries between 60 and 120 metres. Incat
of Hobart, Tasmania
favours a Wave-piercing hull
Wave-piercing hull
to deliver a smooth ride, while Austal
of Perth, Western Australia builds ships based on SWATH designs. Both these companies also compete in the smaller river ferry industry with a number of other ship builders. Stena Line
Stena Line
once operated the largest catamarans in the world, the Stena HSS class, between the United Kingdom and Ireland. These waterjet-powered vessels, displaced 19,638 tonnes, accommodating 375 passenger cars and 1,500 passengers. Other examples of these super-size catamarans are found in the Brittany Ferries
Brittany Ferries
fleet with the Normandie Express and the Normandie Vitesse. Roll-on/roll-off[edit]

Lorries preparing to unload from the Pont-Aven, the Brittany Ferries flagship

ferries (RORO) are large conventional ferries named for the ease by which vehicles can board and leave. Cruiseferry
/ RoPax[edit] A cruiseferry is a ship that combines the features of a cruise ship with a roll-on/roll-off ferry. They are also known as RoPax
for their combined Roll on/Roll Off and passenger design. Fast RoPax

MS Superfast XI

Fast RoPax
ferries are conventional ferries with a large garage intake and a relatively large passenger capacity, with conventional diesel propulsion and propellers that sail over 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph). Pioneering this class of ferries was Attica Group, when it introduced Superfast I between Greece
and Italy
in 1995 through its subsidiary company Superfast Ferries. Cabins, if existent, are much smaller than those on cruise ships.[citation needed] Turntable ferry[edit]

Turntable ferry at Isle of Skye, Scotland

This type of ferry allows vehicles to load from the "side". The vehicle platform can be turned. When loading, the platform is turned sideways to allow sideways loading of vehicles. Then the platform is turned back, in line with the vessel, and the journey across water is made. Pontoon ferry[edit]

The Lower Kingswear
to Dartmouth ferry, Devon, England. The pontoon carries eight cars and is towed across the River Dart
River Dart
by a small tug. Two ropes connect the tug to the pontoon.

Pontoon ferries carry vehicles across rivers and lakes and are widely used in less-developed countries with large rivers where the cost of bridge construction is prohibitive. One or more vehicles are carried on a pontoon with ramps at either end for vehicles to drive on and off. Cable ferries (next section) are usually pontoon ferries, but pontoon ferries on larger rivers are motorised and able to be steered independently like a boat. Train ferry[edit]

Train and car ferry between Calabria and Sicily, Italy

A train ferry is a ship designed to carry railway vehicles. Typically, one level of the ship is fitted with railway tracks, and the vessel has a door at the front and/or rear to give access to the wharves. Foot ferry[edit] Foot ferries are small craft used to ferry foot passengers, and often also cyclists, over rivers. These are either self-propelled craft or cable ferries. Such ferries are for example to be found on the lower River Scheldt in Belgium
and in particular the Netherlands. Regular foot ferry service also exists in the capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, and across the Yarra River
Yarra River
in Melbourne, Australia at Newport. Restored, expanded ferry service in the Port
of New York and New Jersey uses boats for pedestrians only. Cable ferry[edit] Main article: Cable ferry

One of several self-propelled cable ferries that cross the lower reaches of the Murray River
Murray River
in South Australia

Very short distances may be crossed by a cable or chain ferry, which is usually a pontoon ferry (see above), where the ferry is propelled along and steered by cables connected to each shore. Sometimes the cable ferry is human powered by someone on the boat. Reaction ferries are cable ferries that use the perpendicular force of the current as a source of power. Examples of a current propelled ferry are the four Rhine ferries in Basel, Switzerland.[8] Cable ferries may be used in fast-flowing rivers across short distances. With an ocean crossing of approximately 1900 metres, the cable ferry between Vancouver Island and Denman Island in British Columbia; is the longest one in the world. Free ferries operate in some parts of the world, such as at Woolwich in London, England (across the River Thames); in Amsterdam, Netherlands
(across the IJ waterway); along the Murray River
Murray River
in South Australia, and across many lakes in British Columbia. Many cable ferries operate on lakes and rivers in Canada, among them a cable ferry that charges a toll operates on the Rivière des Prairies between Laval-sur-le-Lac and Île Bizard
Île Bizard
in Quebec, Canada. Air ferries[edit] In the 1950s and 1960s, travel on an "air ferry" was possible—airplanes, often ex-military, specially equipped to take a small number of cars in addition to "foot" passengers. These operated various routes including between the United Kingdom and Continental Europe. Companies operating such services included Channel Air Bridge, Silver City Airways, and Corsair. The term is also applied to any "ferrying" by air, and is commonly used when referring to airborne military operations. Docking[edit]

of the ferry lies on the ferry slip. Note the remarkable size of this double sided ferry: 74 m × 17.5 m (243 ft × 57 ft), 2000 passengers with 60 cars

boats often dock at specialized facilities designed to position the boat for loading and unloading, called a ferry slip. If the ferry transports road vehicles or railway carriages there will usually be an adjustable ramp called an apron that is part of the slip. In other cases, the apron ramp will be a part of the ferry itself, acting as a wave guard when elevated and lowered to meet a fixed ramp at the terminus — a road segment that extends partially underwater. First, shortest, largest[edit] The world's largest ferries are typically those operated in Europe, with different vessels holding the record depending on whether length, gross tonnage or car vehicle capacity is the metric. On 11 October 1811, inventor John Stevens' ship the Juliana, began operation as the first steam-powered ferry (service was between New York City, and Hoboken, New Jersey).[9] The Elwell Ferry, a cable ferry in North Carolina, travels a distance of 110 yards (100 m),[10] shore to shore, with a travel time of five minutes.[11] A contender as oldest ferry in continuous operation is the Mersey Ferry
from Liverpool
to Birkenhead, England. In 1150, the Benedictine Priory at Birkenhead
was established. The monks used to charge a small fare to row passengers across the estuary.[12] In 1330, Edward III granted a charter to the Priory and its successors for ever: "the right of ferry there… for men, horses and goods, with leave to charge reasonable tolls". However, there may have been a short break following the Dissolution of the monasteries. Another claimant as the oldest ferry service in continuous operation is the Rocky Hill - Glastonbury Ferry, running between the towns of Rocky Hill and Glastonbury, Connecticut.[13] Established in 1655, the ferry has run continuously since, only ceasing operation every winter when the river freezes over. A long running salt water ferry service is the Halifax/Dartmouth ferry, running between the cities of Halifax and Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, which has run year-round since 1752, and is currently run by the region's transit authority, Metro Transit.[14] However the Mersey Ferry
Mersey Ferry
predates it as the oldest salt water ferry. By far the largest commuter ferry system in the world is the Ferries in Istanbul, Turkey, operated by İDO
with 87 vessels serving 86 ports of call. Another two of the world's large ferry systems are located in the Strait of Georgia, in the Canadian province of British Columbia, and Puget Sound, in the U.S. state of Washington. BC Ferries
BC Ferries
in British Columbia
British Columbia
operates 36 vessels, visiting 47 ports of call, while Washington State Ferries
Washington State Ferries
owns 28 vessels, travelling to 20 ports of call around Puget Sound. On the west coast of Scotland, Caledonian MacBrayne operate a network calling at 50 ports using a fleet of 31 vessels, 10 of which are 80m or longer. This includes a high proportion of lifeline services to island communities and as such most of the routes are heavily subsidised by the government. Sydney Ferries
Sydney Ferries
in Sydney, Australia
Sydney, Australia
operates 31 passenger ferries in Port Jackson
Port Jackson
( Sydney
Harbour), carrying 18 million passengers annually. It operates catamarans and other types of ferries on these routes, with the most famous likely being the Circular Quay-Manly route. Between 1938 and 1974 this route operated the South Steyne, billed at the time as the largest and fastest ferry of its type. Sydney Ferries
Sydney Ferries
became an independent corporation owned by the government in 2004. Some of world's busiest ferry routes include the Star Ferry
Star Ferry
in Hong Kong and the Staten Island Ferry
Staten Island Ferry
in New York City. Metrolink Queensland operates 21 passenger ferries on behalf of Brisbane
City Council, 12 being single-hulled ferries and 9 CityCats (catamarans), along the Brisbane
River from the University of Queensland through the city to Brett's Wharf. The gas turbine powered Luciano Federico L operated by Montevideo-based Buquebus, holds the Guinness World Record for the fastest car ferry boat in the world, in service between Montevideo, Uruguay
and Buenos Aires, Argentina: its maximum speed, achieved in sea trials, was 60.2 knots (111.5 km/h; 69.3 mph).[15] It can carry 450 passengers and 52 cars along the 110-nautical-mile (200 km; 130 mi) route.[16] Sustainability[edit]

Fast Ro-Pax ferries, like MS Star, have also notable CO2 emissions.

The contributions of ferry travel to climate change have received less scrutiny than land and air transport, and vary considerably according to factors like speed and the number of passengers carried. Average carbon dioxide emissions by ferries per passenger-kilometre seem to be 0.12 kg (4.2 oz).[17] However, 18-knot ferries between Finland
and Sweden
produce 0.221 kg (7.8 oz) of CO2, with total emissions equalling a CO2 equivalent of 0.223 kg (7.9 oz), while 24–27-knot ferries between Finland
and Estonia produce 0.396 kg (14.0 oz) of CO2 with total emissions equalling a CO2 equivalent of 0.4 kg (14 oz).[18] With the price of oil at high levels, and with increasing pressure from consumers for measures to tackle global warming, a number of innovations for energy and the environment were put forward at the Interferry conference in Stockholm. According to the company Solar Sailor, hybrid marine power and solar wing technology are suitable for use with ferries, private yachts and even tankers.[19] Megawatt-class battery electric ferries operate in Scandinavia, with several more scheduled for operation.[20] Alternative fuels[edit] Alternative fuels are becoming more widespread on ferries. The fastest passenger ferry in the world Buquebus, runs on LNG, while Sweden's Stena plans to operate its 1500-passenger ferries on methanol in 2015.[21] Both fuels reduce emissions considerably and displace costly diesel fuel. Since 2015, Norwegian ferry company Norled has operated the electrical car ferry "MF Ampere" on the Lavik-Opedal connection on the E39 north of Bergen. The connection Anda-Lote, further north on the Norwegian west coast, will be the world's first connection served only by electrical car ferries. The first of the two ships, "MF Gloppefjord", was put into operation in January 2018. The owner, Fjord1, has commissioned a further seven battery-powered ferries to be in operation from 2020.[22] A total of 60 battery powered car ferries are assumed to be operational in Norway within 2023. Accidents[edit] The following notable maritime disasters involved ferries.

MS Estonia
– 852 deaths MS Herald of Free Enterprise – 193 deaths MS Scandinavian Star
MS Scandinavian Star
– 159 deaths MV Doña Paz
MV Doña Paz
– 4,386 deaths MV Sewol – 304 deaths TEV Wahine
TEV Wahine
– 53 deaths

See also[edit]

Nautical portal

Experiment (horse-powered boat) Largest ferries of Europe List of ferry operators Sea tractor Transporter bridge

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "in Swedish, "Vi seglar var 15:e minut" means "We sail every 15 minutes"". Hhferries.se. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ Starr, Stephen (28 May 2015). " Istanbul
shows ferries have a future". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ "ANNUAL REPORT 2015–2016 : BRITISH COLUMBIA FERRY SERVICES INC. & B.C. FERRY AUTHORITY" (PDF). Bcferries.com. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ "WSDOT Ferries Division : NATION'S LARGEST FERRY SYSTEM" (PDF). Wsdot.wa.gov. December 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ "Washington State Ferries : Traffic Statistics Rider Segment report" (PDF). Wsdot.wa.gov. 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ "Why Gujarat's Ro-Ro ferry is a revolutionary step for Indian economy". The Economic Times. 2017-10-22. Retrieved 2017-10-22.  ^ "ATAN official web page: Fast Ferries - pointless gas-guzzlers". Atan.org. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ "Fähri Verein Basel". Faehri.ch. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ "Hoboken Historical Museum - Steamboat Innovation". Hobokenmuseum.org. Retrieved 2017-04-05.  ^ "Elwell Ferry, Kelly, NC". Living in Style, August/September 2008, Christopher E. Nelson.  ^ "Elwell Ferry: When getting 'away' is closer than you think". Star News Online, Jim Hanchett, 2 December 2005.  ^ "101 Interesting Facts". Mersey Ferries. Archived from the original on 4 September 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2013.  ^ Transportation, Department of. "Department of Transportation". Ct.gov. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ "Halifax Regional Municipality (Metro Transit) page – "Harbour Ferries"". Halifax.ca. Archived from the original on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ " Luciano Federico L -". ship-technology.com.  ^ "AMD 1130 - "Luciano Federico L"". Amd.com.au. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ Philippe Holthof (10 April 2009). "'SOx and CO2 Emissions once again Hot Topic at Ferry
Shipping Conference' : Ferry
Shipping Conference 08: Building Bridges in the Industry" (PDF). Shippax.se. p. 3. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2009.  ^ "Interferry hears about green alternatives". Tmcnet.com. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  ^ "VIDEO: Plugging in Finland's first electric ferry - Marine Log". Marinelog.com. 2017-11-20. Retrieved 2017-12-04.  ^ "Stena to operate 1,500 passenger ferry on methanol - Marine Log". Marinelog.com. Retrieved 2017-12-04.  ^ "Fjord 1 orders seven electric ferries from Havyard - electrive.com". electrive.com. 2018-03-08. Retrieved 2018-03-24. 


 Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Ferry". Encyclopedia Americana.  Robins, Nick (1996). The Evolution of the British Ferry. Kilgetty, Pembrokeshire: Ferry
Publications. ISBN 1871947316. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ferry.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ferries.

"Off Ferries, New And Old", May 1931, Popular Science Photography of European locations visitable by ferry  "Ferry". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

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ship Submarine Cargo Vessel Train ferry


Chemical tanker FPSO unit Gas carrier LNG
carrier Oil tanker


Cable ferry Cargo liner Cruise ship Cruiseferry Ferry Narrowboat Ocean liner RORO
ship Train ferry


Diving support vessel Fireboat Platform supply vessel Pusher Tender Tugboat


Floating restaurant Cable layer Crane vessel Dredger Drillship Fishing vessel Icebreaker Merchant submarine Narco-submarine Pipe-laying ship Research vessel Riverboat Semi-submersible Snagboat

v t e

Public transport




rapid transit Charabanc Express bus Guided bus Intercity bus


Open top bus Public light bus Rail replacement bus Shuttle bus Transit bus Trolleybus


Cable car Commuter rail Funicular Heavy rail Heritage railway Heritage streetcar High-speed rail Horsecar Inter-city rail Interurban Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Monorail Rapid transit Regional rail Rubber-tyred metro Street running Tram Tram-train

Vehicles for hire

Auto rickshaw Boda-boda Cycle rickshaw Gondola Hackney carriage Limousine Motorcycle taxi Paratransit Personal rapid transit Pulled rickshaw Share taxi Taxicab


Car jockey Flexible carpooling Real-time ridesharing Slugging Vanpool


Cable ferry Ferry Hovercraft Hydrofoil Ocean liner Water taxi

Other transport

Aerial tramway Airline Airliner Bicycle-sharing Carsharing Elevator Escalator Gondola
lift Horse-drawn vehicle Maglev Moving walkway People mover Trackless train


Airport Bus
bulb Bus
garage (bus depot) Bus
lane Bus
stand Bus
station Bus
stop Bus
terminus Bus
turnout (bus bay) Dry dock Hangar Harbor Interchange station Kassel kerb Layover Metro station Park and ride Port Queue jump Taxicab
stand Train station Tram
stop Transit mall Transport hub

Ticketing and fares

Automated fare collection Bus
advertising Contract of carriage Dead mileage Exit fare Fare
avoidance Fare
evasion Farebox recovery ratio Free public transport Free travel pass Integrated ticketing Manual fare collection Money train Paid area Proof-of-payment Reduced fare program Smart cards Ticket machine Transfer Transit pass


Circle route Cross-city route Network length Non-revenue track Radial route Transport network


Checked baggage First class Sleeper Standing passenger Travel class


bunching Clock-face scheduling Headway On-time performance Public transport
Public transport
timetable Short turn


security Rail subsidies Security Transit district Transit police Transit-oriented development
Transit-oriented development
(TOD) Transportation authority

Other topics

Boarding Crush load Destination sign Hail and ride Prohibited activities Request stop Passenger load factor Transit map

Authority control

GND: 4127897-5 HDS: 7957 NDL: 00563125 KulturNav: 7fa5d768-0439-46c1-ae42-