ESPERANTO (/ˌɛspəˈræntoʊ/ or /-ˈrɑː-/ ; in Esperanto: _
listen (help ·info )) is a constructed international auxiliary
language . It is the most widely spoken constructed language in the
world. The Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist
L. L. Zamenhof
L. L. Zamenhof published the
first book detailing Esperanto,
Unua Libro ,_ on 26 July 1887. The
Esperanto derives from _Doktoro Esperanto_ ("Esperanto"
translates as "one who hopes"), the pseudonym under which Zamenhof
published _Unua Libro_.
* 1 Overview
* 2 History
* 2.1 Creation
* 2.2 Later history
* 3 Official use
* 3.1 Achievement of its creator\'s goals
* 4 Linguistic properties
* 4.1 Alphabet
* 4.1.1 Writing diacritics
* 4.2 Classification
* 4.4 Living language
* 4.5 Neutrality
* 4.5.1 Origin
* 4.5.2 Gender
* 4.6.1 Consonants
* 4.6.2 Vowels
* 4.7 Sample text
* 4.8 Simple phrases
* 5 Education
* 5.1 Third-language acquisition
* 6 Community
* 6.1 Geography and demography
* 6.1.1 Number of speakers
* 6.1.2 Native speakers
* 6.3 Noted authors in
* 6.4 Popular culture
* 6.6 Commerce and trade
* 6.7 Goals of the movement
* 6.8 Symbols and flags
* 6.9 Politics
* 6.10 Religion
* 6.10.2 Bahá\'í Faith
* 6.10.5 Christianity
* 6.10.6 Mormons
* 6.10.7 Islam
* 7 Modifications
* 8 Eponymous entities
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
Zamenhof had three goals, as he wrote in _Unua Libro_:
* "To render the study of the language so easy as to make its
acquisition mere play to the learner."
* "To enable the learner to make direct use of his knowledge with
persons of any nationality, whether the language be universally
accepted or not; in other words, the language is to be directly a
means of international communication."
* "To find some means of overcoming the natural indifference of
mankind, and disposing them, in the quickest manner possible, and en
masse, to learn and use the proposed language as a living one, and not
only in last extremities, and with the key at hand."
According to the database _
Ethnologue _ (published by the Summer
Linguistics ), up to two million people worldwide, to
varying degrees, speak Esperanto, including about 1,000 to 2,000
native speakers who learned
Esperanto from birth. The World Esperanto
Association has more than 5,500 members in 120 countries. Its usage
is highest in Europe, East Asia, and South America. _lernu! _ is one
of the most popular online learning platforms for
reported 150,000 registered users in 2013, and sees between 150,000
and 200,000 visitors each month. With about 241,000 articles,
Esperanto is the 32nd-largest as measured by the
number of articles, and is the largest in a constructed
language. On 22 February 2012,
Google Translate added
its 64th language. On 28 May 2015, the language learning platform
Duolingo launched an
Esperanto course for English speakers. On 26
October 2016, the course for Spanish speakers appeared on the same
platform. As of 27 May 2017 , over 1,000,000 users have started to
Esperanto on Duolingo.
World Congress of Esperanto was organized in
Boulogne-sur-Mer (France) in 1905. Since then, congresses have been
held in various countries every year, with the exceptions of years
during the world wars. Although no country has adopted Esperanto
Esperantujo is the collective name given to places where
it is spoken.
Esperanto was recommended by the
French Academy of Sciences in 1921
and recognized by
UNESCO in 1954 , which recommended in 1985 that
international non-governmental organizations use Esperanto.
Esperanto PEN Centro is the official branch of
Esperanto writers in
Esperanto is currently the language of instruction of the
International Academy of Sciences in
San Marino .
History of Esperanto
Esperanto book by L. L. Zamenhof.
Esperanto was created in the late 1870s and early 1880s by L. L.
Zamenhof , a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist from
Białystok , then part
of the Russian Empire. According to Zamenhof, he created the language
to reduce the "time and labour we spend in learning foreign tongues"
and to foster harmony between people from different countries: "Were
there but an international language, all translations would be made
into it alone ... and all nations would be united in a common
brotherhood." His feelings and the situation in
Białystok may be
gleaned from an extract from his letter to Nikolai Borovko:
"The place where I was born and spent my childhood gave direction to
all my future struggles. In
Białystok the inhabitants were divided
into four distinct elements: Russians, Poles, Germans and Jews; each
of these spoke their own language and looked on all the others as
enemies. In such a town a sensitive nature feels more acutely than
elsewhere the misery caused by language division and sees at every
step that the diversity of languages is the first, or at least the
most influential, basis for the separation of the human family into
groups of enemies. I was brought up as an idealist; I was taught that
all people were brothers, while outside in the street at every step I
felt that there were no people, only Russians, Poles, Germans, Jews
and so on. This was always a great torment to my infant mind, although
many people may smile at such an 'anguish for the world' in a child.
Since at that time I thought that 'grown-ups' were omnipotent, so I
often said to myself that when I grew up I would certainly destroy
this evil." — L. L. Zamenhof, in a letter to Nikolai Borovko, ca.
About his goals Zamenhof wrote that he wants mankind to "learn and
use", "en masse", "the proposed language as a living one". The goal
Esperanto to become a general world language was not the only goal
of Zamenhof; he also wanted to "enable the learner to make direct use
of his knowledge with persons of any nationality, whether the language
be universally accepted or not; in other words, the language is to be
directly a means of international communication."
After some ten years of development, which Zamenhof spent translating
Esperanto as well as writing original prose and verse,
the first book of
Esperanto grammar was published in Warsaw on the
26th of July 1887. The number of speakers grew rapidly over the next
few decades, at first primarily in the Russian Empire and Central
Europe, then in other parts of Europe, the Americas, China, and Japan.
In the early years, speakers of
Esperanto kept in contact primarily
through correspondence and periodicals, but in 1905 the first world
Esperanto speakers was held in
Boulogne-sur-Mer , France.
Since then world congresses have been held in different countries
every year, except during the two World Wars. Since the Second World
War, they have been attended by an average of more than 2,000 people
and up to 6,000 people.
Zamenhof's name for the language was simply _Internacia Lingvo_
Esperanto groups in
Europe in 1905.
The autonomous territory of
Neutral Moresnet , between what is today
Belgium and Germany, had a sizable proportion of Esperanto-speakers
among its small and multiethnic population. There was a proposal to
Esperanto its official language.
However, neither Belgium nor Prussia (now within Germany) had ever
surrendered its original claim to it. Around 1900,
particular was taking a more aggressive stance towards the territory
and was accused of sabotage and of obstructing the administrative
process in order to force the issue. It was the First World War,
however, that was the catalyst that brought about the end of
neutrality. On 4 August 1914,
Germany invaded Belgium, leaving
Moresnet at first "an oasis in a desert of destruction". In 1915, the
territory was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, without international
After the Great War, there was a proposal for the League of Nations
Esperanto as their working language, following a report by
Nitobe Inazō , an official delegate of League of Nations during the
World Congress of Esperanto in Prague. Ten delegates accepted the
proposal with only one voice against, the French delegate, Gabriel
Hanotaux . Hanotaux did not like how the French language was losing
its position as the international language and saw
Esperanto as a
threat, effectively wielding his veto power to block the decision.
However, two years later, the League recommended that its member
Esperanto in their educational curricula. For this
reason, many people see the 1920s as the heyday of the Esperanto
Anarchism as a political movement was very supportive during
this time of anationalism as well as of the
Antwerp August 1911.
Esperanto attracted the suspicion of many states. The situation was
especially pronounced in Nazi Germany, Francoist Spain up until the
1950s, and in the
Soviet Union from 1937 to 1956.
In Nazi Germany, there was a motivation to forbid
Zamenhof was Jewish, and due to the internationalist nature of
Esperanto, which was perceived as "Bolshevist". In his work, _Mein
Kampf_, Adolf Hitler specifically mentioned
Esperanto as an example of
a language that could be used by an international Jewish conspiracy
once they achieved world domination. Esperantists were killed during
the Holocaust, with Zamenhof's family in particular singled out for
being killed. The efforts of a minority of Esperantists to expel
Jewish colleagues and align themselves with the Reich were futile and
Esperanto was legally forbidden in 1935. Esperantists in German
concentration camps taught the language to fellow prisoners, telling
guards they were teaching Italian, the language of one of Germany's
In Imperial Japan, the left-wing of the Japanese
was forbidden, but its leaders were careful enough not to give the
impression to the government that the Esperantists were socialist
revolutionaries, which proved a successful strategy.
October Revolution of 1917,
Esperanto was given a measure
of government support by the new workers' states in the former Russian
Empire and later by the
Soviet Union government, with the Soviet
Esperanto Association being established as an officially recognized
organization. In his biography on
Joseph Stalin , Leon Trotsky
mentions that Stalin had studied Esperanto. However, in 1937, at the
height of the
Great Purge , Stalin completely reversed the Soviet
government's policies on Esperanto; many
Esperanto speakers were
executed, exiled or held in captivity in the Gulag labour camps. Quite
often the accusation was: "You are an active member of an
international spy organisation which hides itself under the name of
'Association of Soviet Esperantists' on the territory of the Soviet
Union." Until the end of the Stalin era it was dangerous to use
Esperanto in the
Soviet Union despite the fact that it was never
officially forbidden to speak Esperanto.
Italy allowed the use of Esperanto, finding its phonology
similar to that of Italian and publishing some tourist material in the
During and after the
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War , Francoist Spain forbade
anarchists , socialists and Catalan nationalists for many years, among
whom the use of
Esperanto was extensive, but in the 1950s the
Esperanto movement was tolerated again.
Location of Moresnet.
Esperanto has not been a secondary official language of any
recognized country, but it entered the education system of several
countries such as
Hungary and China.
There were plans at the beginning of the 20th century to establish
Neutral Moresnet as the world's first
Esperanto state. In addition,
the self-proclaimed artificial island micronation of Rose Island used
Esperanto as its official language in 1968, and another micronation,
Republic of Molossia , uses
Esperanto as an official
language alongside English.
The Chinese government has used
Esperanto since 2001 for daily news
China also uses
International and for the internet magazine _El Popola Ĉinio_.
Vatican Radio has an
Esperanto version of its website.
The US Army has published military phrase books in Esperanto, to be
used from the 1950s until the 1970s in war games by mock enemy forces
Esperanto is the working language of several non-profit international
organizations such as the _
Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda _, a left-wing
cultural association which has members in over 85 countries. There is
also Education@Internet , which has developed from an Esperanto
organization; most others are specifically
The largest of these, the
World Esperanto Association , has an
official consultative relationship with the
United Nations and UNESCO
, which recognized
Esperanto as a medium for international
understanding in 1954.
Esperanto is also the first language of
teaching and administration of one university, the International
Academy of Sciences
San Marino .
In the summer of 1924, the
American Radio Relay League
American Radio Relay League adopted
Esperanto as its official international auxiliary language, and hoped
that the language would be used by radio amateurs in international
communications, but its actual use for radio communications was
All the personal documents issued by the
World Service Authority ,
World Passport , are written in Esperanto, together with
English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, and Chinese.
ACHIEVEMENT OF ITS CREATOR\'S GOALS
Zamenhof's goal to "enable the learner to make direct use of his
knowledge with persons of any nationality, whether the language be
universally accepted or not", as he wrote in 1887, has been achieved
as the language is currently spoken by people living in more than one
On the other hand, one common criticism made is that
failed to live up to the hopes of its creator, who dreamed of it
becoming a universal second language. In this regard it has to be
noted that Zamenhof was well aware that it may take much time, maybe
even _many centuries_, to get this hope into reality. In his speech at
World Esperanto Congress in
Cambridge in 1907 he said, "we hope
that earlier or later, maybe after many centuries, on a neutral
language foundation, understanding one each other, the nations will
build ... a big family circle."
Esperanto alphabet is based on the
Latin script , using a
one-sound-one-letter principle, except for . It includes six letters
with diacritics : ĉ , ĝ , ĥ , ĵ , ŝ (with circumflex ), and ŭ
(with breve ). The alphabet does not include the letters _q, w, x,_ or
_y_, which are only used when writing unassimilated foreign terms or
The 28-letter alphabet is: A B C ĉ D E F G ĝ H ĥ I J ĵ K L M N O
P R S ŝ T U ŭ V Z
All unaccented letters are pronounced approximately as in the IPA ,
with the exception of _c_.
Esperanto _j_ and _c_ are used in a way
familiar to speakers of many European languages, but which is largely
unfamiliar to English speakers: _j_ has a _y_ sound , as in _Yellow_
and _boY,_ and _c_ has a _ts_ sound , as in _hiTS_ or the _zz_ in
_piZZa_. The accented letters are a bit like _h_-digraphs in English:
_Ĉ_ is pronounced like English _ch_, and _ŝ_ like _sh_. _Ĝ_ is the
_g_ in _Gem_, _ĵ_ a _zh_ sound, as in _fuSion_ or French _Jacques_,
and the rare _ĥ_ is like the German _BaCH_, Scottish Gaelic, Scots
and Scottish Standard English _loCH_, or how
Scouse people sometimes
pronounce the 'k' in _booK_ and 'ck' in _chiCKen_.
Even with the widespread adoption of
Unicode , the letters with
diacritics (found in the "Latin-Extended A" section of the Unicode
Standard ) can cause problems with printing and computing, because
they are not found on most physical keyboards and are left out of
There are two principal workarounds to this problem, which substitute
digraphs for the accented letters. Zamenhof, the inventor of
Esperanto, created an "h-convention", which replaces _ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ,
ŝ,_ and _ŭ_ with _ch, gh, hh, jh, sh,_ and _u,_ respectively. If
used in a database, a program in principle could not determine whether
to render, for example, _ch_ as _c_ followed by _h_ or as _ĉ_, and
would fail to render, for example, the word _senchava_ properly. A
more recent "x-convention " has gained ground since the advent of
computing. This system replaces each diacritic with an _x_ (not part
Esperanto alphabet) after the letter, producing the six
digraphs _cx, gx, hx, jx, sx,_ and _ux._
There are computer keyboard layouts that support the Esperanto
alphabet, and some systems use software that automatically replaces x-
or h-convention digraphs with the corresponding diacritic letters (for
example, Amiketo for
Microsoft Windows ,
Mac OS X
Mac OS X , and
Esperanta Klavaro for
Windows Phone , and
Gboard and AnySoftKeyboard
for Android ).
Criticisms are made of the letters with circumflex diacritics, which
some find odd or cumbersome, along with their being invented
Esperanto rather than borrowed from existing
languages; as well as being arguably unnecessary, as for example with
the use of _ŭ_ instead of _w_.
The phonology , grammar , vocabulary , and semantics are based on the
Indo-European languages spoken in Europe. The sound inventory is
essentially Slavic , as is much of the semantics, whereas the
vocabulary derives primarily from the
Romance languages , with a
lesser contribution from
Germanic languages and minor contributions
Slavic languages and Greek.
Pragmatics and other aspects of the
language not specified by Zamenhof's original documents were
influenced by the native languages of early authors, primarily
Russian, Polish, German, and French. Paul Wexler proposes that
Esperanto is relexified Yiddish , which he claims is in turn a
relexified Slavic language, though this model is not accepted by
Esperanto has been described as "a language lexically predominantly
Romanic , morphologically intensively agglutinative , and to a certain
degree isolating in character". Typologically ,
prepositions and a pragmatic word order that by default is
_subject–verb–object ._ Adjectives can be freely placed before or
after the nouns they modify, though placing them before the noun is
more common. New words are formed through extensive prefixing and
Esperanto words are mostly derived by stringing together roots ,
grammatical endings, and at times prefixes and suffixes . This process
is regular, so that people can create new words as they speak and be
understood. Compound words are formed with a modifier-first,
head-final order, as in English (compare "birdsong" and "songbird,"
and likewise, _birdokanto_ and _kantobirdo_). Speakers may optionally
insert an _o_ between the words in a compound noun if placing them
together directly without the _o_ would make the resulting word hard
to say or understand.
The different parts of speech are marked by their own suffixes: all
common nouns end in _-o_, all adjectives in _-a_, all derived adverbs
in _-e_, and all verbs in one of six tense and mood suffixes, such as
the present tense _-as_. Nouns and adjectives have two cases:
nominative for grammatical subjects and in general, and accusative for
direct objects and (after a preposition) to indicate direction of
Singular nouns used as grammatical subjects end in _-o_, plural
subject nouns in _-oj_ (pronounced like English "oy"). Singular
direct object forms end in _-on_, and plural direct objects with the
combination _-ojn_ (; rhymes with "coin"): _-o-_ indicates that the
word is a noun, _-j-_ indicates the plural, and _-n_ indicates the
accusative (direct object) case. Adjectives agree with their nouns;
their endings are singular subject _-a_ (; rhymes with "ha!"), plural
subject _-aj_ (, pronounced "eye"), singular object _-an_, and plural
object _-ajn_ (; rhymes with "fine").
The suffix _-n_, besides indicating the direct object, is used to
indicate movement and a few other things as well.
The six verb inflections consist of three tenses and three moods.
They are present tense _-as_, future tense _-os_, past tense _-is_,
infinitive mood _-i_, conditional mood _-us_ and jussive mood _-u_
(used for wishes and commands). Verbs are not marked for person or
number. Thus, _kanti_ means "to sing", _mi kantas_ means "I sing", _vi
kantas_ means "you sing", and _ili kantas_ means "they sing".
Word order is comparatively free. Adjectives may precede or follow
nouns; subjects, verbs and objects may occur in any order. However,
the article _la_ "the", demonstratives such as _tiu_ "that" and
prepositions (such as _ĉe_ "at") must come before their related
nouns. Similarly, the negative _ne_ "not" and conjunctions such as
_kaj_ "and" and _ke_ "that" must precede the phrase or clause that
they introduce. In copular (A = B) clauses, word order is just as
important as in English: "people are animals" is distinguished from
"animals are people".
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Hungarian Academy of Sciences has found that
all the requirements of a living language.
This is most often noted in regard to the vocabulary , but applies
equally to the orthography , phonology , and semantics , all of which
are thoroughly European . The vocabulary, for example, draws about
two-thirds from Romance and one-third from
Germanic languages ; the
syntax is Romance; and the phonology and semantics are Slavic . The
grammar is arguably more European than not, but
Claude Piron among
others argues that the derivation system is not particularly European,
though the inflection is.
Gender reform in Esperanto
Esperanto is frequently accused of being inherently sexist , because
the default form of some nouns is masculine while a derived form is
used for the feminine, which is said to retain traces of the
male-dominated society of late 19th-century
Europe of which Esperanto
is a product. Some masculine nouns, primarily titles and kin terms,
such as _sinjoro_ "Mr, sir" vs. _sinjorino_ "Mrs, lady" and _patro_
"father" vs. _patrino_ "mother". In addition, nouns that denote
persons and whose definitions are not explicitly male are often
assumed to be male unless explicitly made female, such as _doktoro,_ a
PhD doctor (male or unspecified) versus _doktorino,_ a female PhD.
This is analogous to the situation with the English suffix _-ess,_ as
in baron/baroness, waiter/waitress etc.
Esperanto pronouns are
similar. As in English, _li_ "he" may be used generically, whereas
_ŝi_ "she" is always female.
Esperanto has 23 consonants, five vowels, and two semivowels that
combine with the vowels to form six diphthongs . (The consonant /j/
and semivowel /i̯/ are both written _j_, and the uncommon consonant
/dz/ is written with the digraph _dz _, which is the only consonant
that doesn't have its own letter.) Tone is not used to distinguish
meanings of words. Stress is always on the second-last vowel in fully
Esperanto words unless a final vowel _o_ is elided, which occurs
mostly in poetry. For example, _familio_ "family" is , with the stress
on the second _i_, but when the word is used without the final _o
(famili’),_ the stress remains on the second _i_: .
The 23 consonants are:
The sound /r / is usually trilled , but may be tapped . The /v / is
normally pronounced like English _v,_ but may be pronounced (between
English _v_ and _w_) or , depending on the language background of the
speaker. A semivowel /u̯/ normally occurs only in diphthongs after
the vowels /a / and /e /, not as a consonant /w/. Common, if debated,
assimilation includes the pronunciation of _nk_ as and _kz_ as .
A large number of consonant clusters can occur, up to three in
initial position (as in _stranga_, "strange") and four in medial
position (as in _instrui_, "teach"). Final clusters are uncommon
except in foreign names, poetic elision of final _o,_ and a very few
basic words such as _cent_ "hundred" and _post_ "after".
Esperanto has the five vowels found in such languages as Swahili ,
Modern Hebrew , and
Modern Greek .
There are also two semivowels, /i̯/ and /u̯/, which combine with
the monophthongs to form six falling diphthongs : _aj, ej, oj, uj,
aŭ,_ and _eŭ_.
Since there are only five vowels, a good deal of variation in
pronunciation is tolerated. For instance, _e_ commonly ranges from
(French _é_) to (French _è_). These details often depend on the
speaker's native language. A glottal stop may occur between adjacent
vowels in some people's speech, especially when the two vowels are the
same, as in _heroo_ "hero" ( or ) and _praavo_ "great-grandfather" (
Listen to this excerpt
Problems playing this file? See media help ._
The following short extract gives an idea of the character of
Esperanto. (Pronunciation is covered above; the
Esperanto letter _j_
is pronounced like English _y_.)
«En multaj lokoj de Ĉinio estis temploj de la drako-reĝo. Dum
trosekeco oni preĝis en la temploj, ke la drako-reĝo donu pluvon al
la homa mondo. Tiam drako estis simbolo de la supernatura estaĵo. Kaj
pli poste, ĝi fariĝis prapatro de la plej altaj regantoj kaj
simbolis la absolutan aŭtoritaton de la feŭda imperiestro. La
imperiestro pretendis, ke li estas filo de la drako. Ĉiuj liaj
vivbezonaĵoj portis la nomon drako kaj estis ornamitaj per diversaj
drakofiguroj. Nun ĉie en Ĉinio videblas drako-ornamentaĵoj, kaj
cirkulas legendoj pri drakoj.»
* English translation:
_In many places in China, there were temples of the dragon-king.
During times of drought, people would pray in the temples that the
dragon-king would give rain to the human world. At that time the
dragon was a symbol of the supernatural creature. Later on, it became
the ancestor of the highest rulers and symbolised the absolute
authority of a feudal emperor. The emperor claimed to be the son of
the dragon. All of his personal possessions carried the name "dragon"
and were decorated with various dragon figures. Now dragon decorations
can be seen everywhere in
China and legends about dragons circulate._
THIS ARTICLE INCLUDES INLINE LINKS TO AUDIO FILES. If you have
trouble playing the files, see Media help .
Below are listed some useful
Esperanto words and phrases along with
Ĝis (la) revido
What is your name?
Kio estas via nomo?
My name is Marco.
Mia nomo estas Marko
How are you?
Kiel vi fartas?
I am well.
Mi fartas bone
Do you speak Esperanto?
Ĉu vi parolas Esperante?
I don't understand you
Mi ne komprenas vin
Forgive me/Excuse me
I love you
Mi amas vin
One beer, please
Unu bieron, mi petas
Where is the toilet?
Kie estas la necesejo?
What is that?
Kio estas tio?
That is a dog
Tio estas hundo
We will love!
I am a beginner in Esperanto.
Mi estas komencanto de
The core vocabulary of
Esperanto was defined by _Lingvo internacia_,
published by Zamenhof in 1887. This book listed 900 roots; these could
be expanded into tens of thousands of words using prefixes, suffixes,
and compounding. In 1894, Zamenhof published the first Esperanto
dictionary , _Universala Vortaro_, which had a larger set of roots.
The rules of the language allowed speakers to borrow new roots as
needed; it was recommended, however, that speakers use most
international forms and then derive related meanings from these.
Since then, many words have been borrowed, primarily (but not solely)
from the European languages. Not all proposed borrowings become
widespread, but many do, especially technical and scientific terms.
Terms for everyday use, on the other hand, are more likely to be
derived from existing roots; _komputilo_ "computer", for instance, is
formed from the verb _komputi_ "compute" and the suffix _-ilo_ "tool".
Words are also calqued ; that is, words acquire new meanings based on
usage in other languages. For example, the word _muso_ "mouse" has
acquired the meaning of a computer mouse from its usage in English.
Esperanto speakers often debate about whether a particular borrowing
is justified or whether meaning can be expressed by deriving from or
extending the meaning of existing words.
Some compounds and formed words in
Esperanto are not entirely
straightforward; for example, _eldoni_, literally "give out", means
"publish", paralleling the usage of certain European languages (such
as German ). In addition, the suffix _-um-_ has no defined meaning;
words using the suffix must be learned separately (such as _dekstren_
"to the right" and _dekstrumen_ "clockwise").
There are not many idiomatic or slang words in Esperanto, as these
forms of speech tend to make international communication
difficult—working against Esperanto's main goal.
Instead of derivations of
Esperanto roots, new roots are taken from
European languages in the endeavor to create an international
Esperanto speakers learn the language through self-directed study ,
online tutorials, and correspondence courses taught by volunteers.
More recently, free teaching websites, like _lernu! _ and _
Esperanto instruction is rarely available at schools, including four
primary schools in a pilot project under the supervision of the
University of Manchester , and by one count at a few universities.
Hungary , these mostly involve informal
arrangements rather than dedicated departments or state sponsorship.
Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest had a department of
Esperanto from 1966 to 2004, after which time
instruction moved to vocational colleges; there are state examinations
Esperanto instructors. Additionally, Adam Mickiewicz University
Poland offers a diploma in Interlinguistics. The Senate of Brazil
passed a bill in 2009 that would make
Esperanto an optional part of
the curriculum in public schools , although mandatory if there is
demand for it. As of 2015 the bill is still under consideration by
the Chamber of Deputies .
Various educators have estimated that
Esperanto can be learned in
anywhere from one quarter to one twentieth the amount of time required
for other languages.
Claude Piron , an Esperanto-Activist and
Chinese–English–Russian–Spanish translator for the United
Nations, argued that
Esperanto is far more intuitive than many ethnic
Esperanto relies entirely on innate reflexes differs from
all other languages in that you can always trust your natural tendency
to generalize patterns. ... The same neuropsychological law Jean
Piaget _generalizing assimilation_—applies to word formation as well
as to grammar."
The Institute of Cybernetic Pedagogy at Paderborn (Germany) has
compared the length of study time it takes natively French-speaking
high-school students to obtain comparable 'standard' levels in
Esperanto, English, German, and Italian. The results were:
* 2000 hours studying German
* 1500 hours studying English
* 1000 hours studying Italian (or any other
Romance language )
* 150 hours studying Esperanto.
Propaedeutic value of Esperanto
Four primary schools in Britain, with 230 pupils, are currently
following a course in "propaedeutic Esperanto"—that is, instruction
Esperanto to raise language awareness and accelerate subsequent
learning of foreign languages—under the supervision of the
University of Manchester . As they put it, _Many schools used to
teach children the recorder , not to produce a nation of recorder
players, but as a preparation for learning other instruments.
Esperanto, not to produce a nation of Esperanto-speakers, but as a
preparation for learning other languages._
Studies have been conducted in
New Zealand ,
United States ,
Australia . The results of these studies were
favorable and demonstrated that studying
Esperanto before another
foreign language expedites the acquisition of the other, natural
language. This appears to be because learning subsequent foreign
languages is easier than learning one's first foreign language,
whereas the use of a grammatically simple and culturally flexible
auxiliary language like
Esperanto lessens the first-language learning
hurdle. In one study, a group of European secondary school students
Esperanto for one year, then French for three years, and ended
up with a significantly better command of French than a control group,
who studied French for all four years.
GEOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHY
Location map of hosts of the
Esperanto community hospitality
Pasporta Servo (akin to
CouchSurfing ), by 2015.
Esperanto is by far the most widely spoken constructed language in
the world. Speakers are most numerous in
East Asia ,
especially in urban areas , where they often form
Esperanto clubs .
Esperanto is particularly prevalent in the northern and central
countries of Europe; in China,
Korea , Japan, and
Iran within Asia;
Argentina , and
Mexico in the Americas; and in
Number Of Speakers
An estimate of the number of
Esperanto speakers was made by Sidney S.
Culbert , a retired psychology professor at the University of
Washington and a longtime Esperantist, who tracked down and tested
Esperanto speakers in sample areas in dozens of countries over a
period of twenty years. Culbert concluded that between one and two
million people speak
Esperanto at Foreign Service Level 3 ,
"professionally proficient" (able to communicate moderately complex
ideas without hesitation, and to follow speeches, radio broadcasts,
etc.). Culbert's estimate was not made for
Esperanto alone, but
formed part of his listing of estimates for all languages of more than
one million speakers, published annually in the
World Almanac and Book
of Facts. Culbert's most detailed account of his methodology is found
in a 1989 letter to David Wolff. Since Culbert never published
detailed intermediate results for particular countries and regions, it
is difficult to independently gauge the accuracy of his results.
In the Almanac, his estimates for numbers of language speakers were
rounded to the nearest million, thus the number for
is shown as two million. This latter figure appears in _
Assuming that this figure is accurate, that means that about 0.03% of
the world's population speak the language. Although it is not
Zamenhof's goal of a universal language , it still represents a level
of popularity unmatched by any other constructed language.
Marcus Sikosek (now Ziko van Dijk ) has challenged this figure of 1.6
million as exaggerated. He estimated that even if
were evenly distributed, assuming one million
worldwide would lead one to expect about 180 in the city of Cologne .
Van Dijk finds only 30 fluent speakers in that city, and similarly
smaller-than-expected figures in several other places thought to have
a larger-than-average concentration of
Esperanto speakers. He also
notes that there are a total of about 20,000 members of the various
Esperanto organizations (other estimates are higher). Though there are
Esperanto speakers who are not members of any
Esperanto organization, he thinks it unlikely that there are fifty
times more speakers than organization members.
Jouko Lindstedt , an expert on native-born Esperanto
speakers, presented the following scheme to show the overall
proportions of language capabilities within the
* _1,000 have
Esperanto as their native language._
* _10,000 speak it fluently._
* _100,000 can use it actively._
* _One million understand a large amount passively._
* _Ten million have studied it to some extent at some time._
In 2017, doctoral student Svend Vendelbo Nielsen has estimated around
Esperanto speakers worldwide, taking into account association
memberships, user-generated data from
Esperanto websites and census
statistics. This number, however, was disputed by statistician Sten
Johansson, who questioned the reliability of the source data and
highlighted a wide margin of error, the latter point with which
Nielsen agrees. Both have stated, however, that this new number is
likely more realistic than some earlier projections.
In the absence of Dr. Culbert's detailed sampling data, or any other
census data, it is impossible to state the number of speakers with
certainty. According to the website of the World
: Numbers of textbooks sold and membership of local societies put
"the number of people with some knowledge of the language in the
hundreds of thousands and possibly millions".
Native Esperanto speakers
Esperanto speakers, _denaskuloj,_ have learned the language
from birth from Esperanto-speaking parents. This usually happens when
Esperanto is the chief or only common language in an international
family, but sometimes occurs in a family of devoted Esperantists. The
15th edition of _Ethnologue_ cited estimates that there were 200 to
2000 native speakers in 1996, but these figures were removed from the
16th and 17th editions. As of 1996, there were approximately 350
attested cases of families with native
Esperanto books at the
World Esperanto Congress , Rotterdam
2008. Main articles:
Esperanto culture ,
Esperanto literature ,
Esperanto film , and
Esperantists can access an international culture , including a large
body of original as well as translated literature . There are more
Esperanto books, both originals and translations, as well
as several regularly distributed
Esperanto magazines . In 2013 a
Esperanto opened in China. Esperantists use the language
for free accommodations with Esperantists in 92 countries using the
Pasporta Servo or to develop pen pals through _
Every year, Esperantists meet for the World Congress of Esperanto
_(Universala Kongreso de Esperanto)_.
Esperanto music , such as _Kaj Tiel Plu_, has been
in various folk traditions. There is also a variety of classical and
semi-classical choral music, both original and translated, as well as
large ensemble music that includes voices singing
Esperanto texts. Lou
Harrison , who incorporated styles and instruments from many world
cultures in his music, used
Esperanto titles and/or texts in several
of his works, most notably _La Koro-Sutro_ (1973). David Gaines used
Esperanto poems as well as an excerpt from a speech by Dr. Zamenhof
for his _Symphony No. 1 (Esperanto)_ for mezzo-soprano and orchestra
(1994–98). He wrote original
Esperanto text for his _Povas plori mi
ne plu_ (_I Can Cry No Longer_) for unaccompanied
SATB choir (1994).
There are also shared traditions , such as
Zamenhof Day , and shared
behaviour patterns. Esperantists speak primarily in
Esperanto meetings .
Esperanto occasionally criticize it as "having no
culture". Proponents, such as Prof.
Humphrey Tonkin of the University
of Hartford , observe that
Esperanto is "culturally neutral by design,
as it was intended to be a facilitator between cultures, not to be the
carrier of any one national culture". The late Scottish Esperanto
William Auld wrote extensively on the subject, arguing that
Esperanto is "the expression of a common human culture , unencumbered
by national frontiers. Thus it is considered a culture on its own."
NOTED AUTHORS IN ESPERANTO
Some authors of works in
Muztar Abbasi (Translated the
Quran into Esperanto)
Kazimierz Bein (Kabe)
* Jorge Camacho
Fernando de Diego (mainly translations)
* Nikolai Nekrasov
* _Nemere_ István ("Nemere" is surname)
Frederic Pujulà i Vallès
L. L. Zamenhof
L. L. Zamenhof
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Esperanto in popular culture
Esperanto has been used in a number of films and novels. Typically,
this is done either to add the exotic flavour of a foreign language
without representing any particular ethnicity, or to avoid going to
the trouble of inventing a new language. The
Charlie Chaplin film _The
Great Dictator _ (1940) showed Jewish ghetto shop signs in Esperanto.
Two full-length feature films have been produced with dialogue
entirely in Esperanto: _
Angoroj ,_ in 1964, and _Incubus ,_ a 1965
B-movie horror film. A language school teaching "Entrenationo"
(representing a satire on Esperanto) is featured in Graham Greene's
The Confidential Agent _, which was made into a film starring
Charles Boyer and Lauren Bacall (1945). Other amateur productions have
been made, such as a dramatization of the novel _Gerda Malaperis_
(Gerda Has Disappeared). In _Stamboul Train_, Greene used
the language on signs at the main train station in Budapest. A number
of mainstream films in national languages have used
Esperanto in some
Esperanto is used as the universal language in the far future of
Harry Harrison 's _
Stainless Steel Rat _ and _
Deathworld _ stories.
Poul Anderson 's story "High Treason " takes place in a future where
Earth became united politically but was still divided into many
languages and cultures, and
Esperanto became the language of its space
armed forces, fighting wars with various extraterrestrial races.
Esperanto is said to be the official language of all the peoples of
Phillip Jose Farmer's "Riverworld" series.
The opening song to the popular video game _
Final Fantasy XI
Final Fantasy XI _,
"Memoro de la Ŝtono", was written in Esperanto. It was the first game
in the series that was played online, and would have players from both
Japan and North America (official European support was added after the
North American launch) playing together on the same servers, using an
auto-translate tool to communicate. The composer,
Nobuo Uematsu , felt
Esperanto was a good language to symbolize worldwide unity.
In the geek fiction novel "Off to Be the Wizard",
programmed as the language that triggers all of the wizard's spells.
Philip, Martin's teacher, explains that this is because "no one really
Esperanto and it's easy to learn".
Esperanto is also found in the comic book series _Saga _ as the
language Blue, spoken by the inhabitants of Wreath. It is rendered in
blue-colored text. Blue is generally only spoken by inhabitants of
Wreath, while most other cultures use a universal language that
appears to be simply named "Language." Some Wreath inhabitants use
translator rings to communicate with those who don't speak Blue. Magic
seems to be activated via the linguistic medium of blue.
In the television show _
Red Dwarf _, which begins in the late 22nd
Arnold Rimmer constantly spends his time trying to
Esperanto and failing, even compared to his bunkmate Dave Lister
who only maintains a casual interest. Additionally many of the signs
around the ship _
Red Dwarf _ are written in both English and
Esperanto. The novel _
Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers _ states that,
although not required, it is widely expected that officers in the
Space Corps be fluent in the language, hence Rimmer's interest.
Bertalan Farkas , the first
In 1921 the
French Academy of Sciences recommended using Esperanto
for international scientific communication. A few scientists and
mathematicians, such as Maurice Fréchet (mathematics), John C. Wells
Helmar Frank (pedagogy and cybernetics), and Nobel
Reinhard Selten (economics) have published part of their work
in Esperanto. Frank and Selten were among the founders of the
International Academy of Sciences in
San Marino , sometimes called the
Esperanto University", where
Esperanto is the primary language of
teaching and administration.
A message in
Esperanto was recorded and included in _
Voyager 1 _'s
Golden Record .
COMMERCE AND TRADE
Esperanto business groups have been active for many years. The French
Chamber of Commerce did research in the 1920s and reported in _The New
York Times _ in 1921 that
Esperanto seemed to be the best business
GOALS OF THE MOVEMENT
Zamenhof had three goals, as he wrote already in 1887: to create an
easy language, to create a language ready to use "whether the language
be universally accepted or not" and to find some means to get many
people learn the language. So Zamenhof's intention was not only to
create an easy-to-learn language to foster international understanding
as a general language, but also to create a language for immediate use
by a (small) language community.
Esperanto was to serve as an
international auxiliary language, that is, as a universal second
language, not to replace ethnic languages. This goal was widely shared
Esperanto speakers in the early decades of the movement. Later,
Esperanto speakers began to see the language and the culture that had
grown up around it as ends in themselves, even if
Esperanto is never
adopted by the
United Nations or other international organizations.
Esperanto speakers who want to see
Esperanto adopted officially or on
a large scale worldwide are commonly called _finvenkistoj _, from
_fina venko_, meaning "final victory". It has to be noted that there
are two kinds of "finvenkismo"–"desubismo" and "desuprismo"; the
first aims to spread
Esperanto between ordinary people ("desube", from
below) aiming to form a steadily growing community of Esperanto
speakers. The second aims to act from above ("desupre"), beginning
with politicians. Zamenhof considered the first way to have a better
perspective, as "for such affairs as ours, governments come with their
approval and help usually only, when everything is already completely
Those who focus on the intrinsic value of the language are commonly
called _raŭmistoj _, from Rauma ,
Finland , where a declaration on
the short-term improbability of the "fina venko" and the value of
Esperanto culture was made at the International Youth Congress in
1980. However the "Manifesto de Raŭmo" clearly mentions the
intention to further spread the language: "We want to spread Esperanto
to put into effect its positive values more and more, step by step
In 1996 the Prague Manifesto was adopted at the annual congress of
World Esperanto Association (UEA); it was subscribed by individual
participants and later by other
SYMBOLS AND FLAGS
Esperanto symbols _ The verda
stelo_ _ The jubilea simbolo _
The earliest flag, and the one most commonly used today, features a
green five-pointed star against a white canton , upon a field of
green. It was proposed to Zamenhof by Irishman Richard Geoghegan ,
author of the first
Esperanto textbook for English speakers, in 1887.
The flag was approved in 1905 by delegates to the first conference of
Esperantists at Boulogne-sur-Mer. A version with an "E" superimposed
over the green star is sometimes seen. Other variants include that for
Christian Esperantists, with a white
Christian cross superimposed upon
the green star, and that for Leftists, with the color of the field
changed from green to red .
In 1987, a second flag design was chosen in a contest organized by
the UEA celebrating the first centennial of the language. It featured
a white background with two stylised curved "E"s facing each other.
Dubbed the "jubilea simbolo" (jubilee symbol ), it attracted
criticism from some Esperantists, who dubbed it the "melono" (melon)
because of the design's elliptical shape. It is still in use, though
to a lesser degree than the traditional symbol, known as the "verda
stelo" (green star).
Esperanto has been placed in many proposed political situations. The
most popular of these is the
Europe–Democracy–Esperanto , which
aims to establish
Esperanto as the official language of the European
Union . Grin's Report, published in 2005 by
François Grin , found
that the use of English as the lingua franca within the European Union
costs billions annually and significantly benefits English-speaking
countries financially. The report considered a scenario where
Esperanto would be the lingua franca, and found that it would have
many advantages, particularly economically speaking, as well as
Esperanto writer Nikolai Nekrasov was arrested during the
Stalinist repressions of the late 1930s, accused of being "an
organizer and leader of a fascist, espionage, terrorist organization
of Esperantists", and executed on 4 October 1938. Another Esperanto
Vladimir Varankin was executed on 3 October 1938.
Esperanto has served an important role in several religions, such as
Oomoto from Japan and the Bahá\'í Faith from
Iran , and has been
encouraged by others, like some
Oomoto religion encourages the use of
Esperanto among its
followers and includes Zamenhof as one of its deified spirits.
The Bahá\'í Faith encourages the use of an auxiliary international
language . The Baha'i's believe that it will not be the language of
the future, although it has great potential in this role, as it has
not been chosen by the people. `Abdu\'l-Bahá praised the ideal of
Esperanto, and there was an affinity between Esperantists and
Bahá'ís during the late 19th century and early 20th century.
On February 12, 1913,
`Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk to the Paris
Now, praise be to God that Dr. Zamenhof has invented the Esperanto
language. It has all the potential qualities of becoming the
international means of communication. All of us must be grateful and
thankful to him for this noble effort; for in this way he has served
his fellowmen well. With untiring effort and self-sacrifice on the
part of its devotees
Esperanto will become universal. Therefore every
one of us must study this language and spread it as far as possible so
that day by day it may receive a broader recognition, be accepted by
all nations and governments of the world, and become a part of the
curriculum in all the public schools. I hope that
Esperanto will be
adopted as the language of all the future international conferences
and congresses, so that all people need acquire only two
languages—one their own tongue and the other the international
language. Then perfect union will be established between all the
people of the world. Consider how difficult it is today to communicate
with various nations. If one studies fifty languages one may yet
travel through a country and not know the language. Therefore I hope
that you will make the utmost effort, so that this language of
Esperanto may be widely spread
Lidia Zamenhof , daughter of L. L. Zamenhof, became a Bahá'í around
James Ferdinand Morton, Jr. , an early member of the Bahá\'í
Faith in Greater Boston , was vice-president of the
for North America .
Ehsan Yarshater , the founding editor of
Encyclopædia Iranica _, notes how as a child in
Iran he learned
Esperanto and that when his mother was visiting Haifa on a Bahá\'í
pilgrimage he wrote her a letter in Persian as well as Esperanto. At
the request of 'Abdu’l-Baha,
Agnes Baldwin Alexander became an early
Esperanto and used it to spread the Bahá’í teachings
at meetings and conferences in Japan.
Today there exists an active sub-community of Bahá'í Esperantists
and various volumes of Bahá\'í literature have been translated into
Esperanto. In 1973, the Bahá\'í Esperanto-League for active Bahá'í
Esperanto was founded.
In 1908, spiritist Camilo Chaigneau wrote an article named "Spiritism
and Esperanto" in the periodic _La Vie d'Outre-Tombe_ recommending the
Esperanto in a "central magazine" for all spiritists and
Esperanto then became actively promoted by spiritists,
at least in
Brazil , initially by Ismael Gomes Braga and František
Lorenz ; the latter is known in
Brazil as Francisco Valdomiro Lorenz,
and was a pioneer of both spiritist and
Esperantist movements in this
Spiritist Federation publishes
translations of Spiritism\'s basic books , and encourages Spiritists
to become Esperantists.
The first translation of the
Esperanto was a translation
Tanakh or Old Testament done by
L. L. Zamenhof
L. L. Zamenhof . The
translation was reviewed and compared with other languages'
translations by a group of British clergy and scholars before its
publication at the British and Foreign
Bible Society in 1910. In 1926
this was published along with a New Testament translation, in an
edition commonly called the "Londona Biblio". In the 1960s, the
_Internacia Asocio de Bibliistoj kaj Orientalistoj_ tried to organize
a new, ecumenical
Bible version. Since then, the Dutch
Remonstrant pastor Gerrit Berveling has translated the
Deuterocanonical or apocryphal books in addition to new translations
of the Gospels, some of the New Testament epistles, and some books of
Tanakh or Old Testament. These have been published in various
separate booklets, or serialized in _Dia Regno_, but the
Deuterocanonical books have appeared in recent editions of the Londona
Esperanto during the 95th
World Congress of Esperanto in
Esperanto organizations include two that were formed early
in the history of Esperanto:
International Union of Catholic Esperantists . Two
Roman Catholic popes, John Paul II and Benedict XVI , have regularly
Esperanto in their multilingual _urbi et orbi _ blessings at
Easter and Christmas each year since Easter 1994.
International League of Christian Esperantists .
Individual churches using
Esperanto Society, with activities as described in an
issue of "The Friend"
Christadelphian publications in Esperanto.
* There are instances of Christian apologists and teachers who use
Esperanto as a medium. Nigerian pastor Bayo Afolaranmi's "Spirita
nutraĵo" (spiritual food) Yahoo mailing list, for example, has hosted
weekly messages since 2003.
Chick Publications , publisher of Protestant fundamentalist themed
evangelistic tracts, has published a number of comic book style tracts
Jack T. Chick translated into Esperanto, including "This Was Your
Life!" ("Jen Via Tuta Vivo!")
Book of Mormon
Book of Mormon has been partially translated into Esperanto,
although the translation has not been officially endorsed by The
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints .
Ayatollah Khomeini of
Iran called on Muslims to learn
praised its use as a medium for better understanding among peoples of
different religious backgrounds. After he suggested that Esperanto
replace English as an international lingua franca , it began to be
used in the seminaries of
Qom . An
Esperanto translation of the Qur'an
was published by the state shortly thereafter. In 1981, its usage
became less popular when it became apparent that followers of the
Bahá\'í Faith were interested in it. However, during the recent
decades, specially after the establishment of the Sabzandishan
(Green-Thinkers) Institute in 1996, the first official Esperanto
Iran ever, and publication of its 56-page organ, called
Payame Sabzandishan (Message of Green-Thinkers), a seasonal
(quarterly) magazine in
Esperanto and Persian from the autumn of 2002
till now, and recognition of the Iranian Esperanto-Association by the
Universal Esperanto-Association (which enjoys official relations with
UNESCO ) as its Iranian official branch in 2005, a new era
Iran for spreading of
Esperanto Movement as vastly as
possible. During this new era, i.a. there have been speeches,
lectures, seminars and courses in different cultural centers,
universities and schools; publication of original and translated books
and articles on
Esperanto and specially its neutrality (politically,
religiously, nationally, racially, etc.) by diverse publishers and in
varied Persian newspapers and magazines; ... E.g. in the Persian
William Auld 's book, called The Phenomenon
14 annexes were added to show more the history and neutrality of
Esperanto language: as example, in the first annex, called The Views
of World Celebrities on Esperanto, the Persian readers can read the
positive views and opinions of 15 acclaimed and famous leaders and
Esperanto from different countries, religions, political
backgrounds, languages and races, like
Mahatma Gandhi ,
Leo Tolstoy ,
Romain Rolland ,
Umberto Eco ,
Rudolf Diesel ,
Rabindranath Tagore ,
Helen Keller ,
Lu Xun ,
J. R. R. Tolkien , ... (
William Auld was
nominated for the
Nobel Prize in Literature in 1999, 2004, and 2006
making him the first person to be nominated for works in Esperanto.)
Esperanto itself has changed little since the publication of
Fundamento de Esperanto _ (Foundation of Esperanto), a number of
reform projects have been proposed over the years, starting with
Zamenhof\'s proposals in 1894 and Ido in 1907. Several later
constructed languages, such as Universal , were based on Esperanto.
In modern times, attempts have been made to eliminate perceived
sexism in the language, such as
There are some geographical and astronomical features named after
Esperanto, or after its creator L. L. Zamenhof. These include
Esperanto Island in
Zed Islands off
Livingston Island , and the
1421 Esperanto and
1462 Zamenhof discovered by Finnish
Yrjö Väisälä .
* Language portal
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Comparison between Esperanto and Ido
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North American Summer Esperanto Institute
Semajno de Kulturo Internacia
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Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max
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* ^ _A_ _B_ "Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj (AIS) San-Marino".
Ais-sanmarino.org. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
* ^ The letter is quoted in Esperanto: The New Latin for the Church
and for Ecumenism, by Ulrich Matthias. Translation from
Mike Leon and Maire Mullarney
* ^ "Dr. Esperanto\' International Language". L. Samenhof.
Retrieved 2016-04-15. Facsimile of the title page of the First Book
in English, 1889. "Esperanto". Ling.ohio-state.edu. 2003-01-25.
* ^ Musgrave, George Clarke. _Under Four Flags for France_, 1918,
* ^ "Anarkiistoj estis inter la pioniroj de la disvastigo de
Esperanto. En 1905 fondiĝis en Stokholmo la unua anarkiisma
Esperanto-grupo. Sekvis multaj aliaj: en Bulgario, Ĉinio kaj aliaj
landoj. Anarkiistoj kaj anarki-sindikatistoj, kiuj antaŭ la Unua
Mondmilito apartenis al la nombre plej granda grupo inter la proletaj
esperantistoj, fondis en 1906 la internacian ligon Paco-Libereco, kiu
eldonis la Internacian Socian Revuon. Paco-libereco unuiĝis en 1910
kun alia progresema asocio, Esperantista Laboristaro. La komuna
organizaĵo nomiĝis Liberiga Stelo. Ĝis 1914 tiu organizaĵo eldonis
multe da revolucia literaturo en Esperanto, interalie ankaŭ
anarkiisma. Tial povis evolui en la jaroj antaŭ la Unua Mondmilito
ekzemple vigla korespondado inter eŭropaj kaj japanaj anarkiistoj. En
1907 la Internacia Anarkiisma Kongreso en Amsterdamo faris rezolucion
pri la afero de internacia lingvo, kaj venis dum la postaj jaroj
similaj kongresaj rezolucioj. Esperantistoj, kiuj partoprenis tiujn
kongresojn, okupiĝis precipe pri la internaciaj rilatoj de la
anarkiistoj.""ESPERANTO KAJ ANARKIISMO" by Will Firth
* ^ Sutton, Geoffrey (2008). _Concise Encyclopedia of the Original
Literature of Esperanto, 1887–2007_. Mondial. pp. 161–162. ISBN
978-1-59569-090-6 . LCCN 2008023213 .
OCLC 230802330 . OL 12559707W .
Hitler specifically attacked
Esperanto as a threat in a speech in
Munich (1922) and in _Mein Kampf_ itself (1925). The Nazi Minister for
Education banned the teaching of
Esperanto on 17 May 1935 ... all
Esperantists were essentially enemies of the state, serving through
their language Jewish‑internationalist aims.
* ^ "About ESW and the Holocaust Museum". Esperantodc.org.
1995-12-05. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved
* ^ Lins, Ulrich (1988). _Die gefährliche Sprache_. Gerlingen:
Bleicher. p. 112. ISBN 3-88350-023-2 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Lins, Ulrich (2008). "
Esperanto as language and idea in
China and Japan" (PDF). _Language Problems and Language Planning_.
John Benjamins. 32 (1): 47–60. ISSN 0272-2690 . doi
:10.1075/lplp.32.1.05lin . Retrieved 2 July 2012.
* ^ "Donald J. Harlow, The
Esperanto Book, chapter 7".
Literaturo.org. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
* ^ Leon Trotsky. "Chapter IV: The period of reaction: Leon
Trotsky: Stalin –An appraisal of the man and his influence (1940)".
Marxists.org. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
* ^ Ulrich Lins: Die gefährliche Sprache. Die Verfolgung der
Esperantisten unter Hitler und Stalin. Bleicher: Gerlingen, 1988, p.
220 and elsewhere.
* ^ "La utilización del esperanto durante la Guerra Civil
Española". Nodo50.org. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
* ^ Lins, Ulrich (2017-02-10). _Dangerous Language — Esperanto
under Hitler and Stalin_. Springer. ISBN 9781137549174 .
* ^ Michael Byram and Adelheid Hu: _Routledge Encyclopedia of
Language Teaching and Learning._ 2nd edition. Taylor and Francis,
Hoboken 2013, ISBN 978-1-136-23554-2 , page 229.
* ^ "
Anarchism The Anarchist Library".
_theanarchistlibrary.org_. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
* ^ "What is Esperanto?". _Republic of Molossia_. 226 Mary Lane,
Dayton, Nevada ,
United States . Archived from the original on
2017-07-06. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
Esperanto is the second language of
the Republic of Molossia.
* ^ "
China Interreta Informa Centro-esperanto.china.org.cn".
* ^ h"Radio Vatikana".
* ^ "_The Maneuver Enemy_ website". Kafejo.com. 2004-06-02.
* ^ "
Esperanto language". _Encyclopedia Britannica_. Retrieved
* ^ _A_ _B_ "An Update on Esperanto". New York: Universala
Esperanto‑Asocio. Archived from the original on 2016-02-05. Based on
the number of textbooks sold and membership ..., the number of people
with some knowledge of
Esperanto is in the hundreds of thousands and
possibly millions. ... In 1954 ...
UNESCO ... recognised that the
Esperanto match UNESCO’s aims and ideals, and
official relations were established between
UNESCO and UEA.
* ^ "World Government Documents (Personal)". Worldservice.org.
Retrieved 14 January 2015.
* ^ Saul Levin, 1993. "Can an Artificial Language Be More than a
Hobby? The Linguistic and Sociological Obstacles". In Ian Richmond
(ed.) _Aspects of internationalism: language & culture_.
* ^ _The Christian Century_, 1930, 47:846
* ^ "(...) ni esperas, ke pli aŭ malpli frue, eble post multaj
Sur neŭtrala lingva fundamento,
Komprenante unu la alian,
La popoloj faros en konsento
Unu grandan rondon familian." L. L. Zamenhof. Kongresaj paroladoj.
Jekaterinburg (Ruslanda Esperantisto). 1995, p. 23–24 * ^ These
letters occasionally have these values in English as well, for example
the _j_ in _halleluJah , Jarlsberg ,_ or _
Jägermeister _, and the _c_
in the name of composer _PendereCki _, Czech president _VáClav Havel
_, or the mineral _letovicite _.
* ^ Amiketo and Tajpi are keyboard layouts which support the
Esperanto alphabet for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux
* ^ "Esperanta Klavaro". _windowsphone.com_.
* ^ "Critiche all\'esperanto ed alle altre lingue internazionali".
Parracomumangi.altervista.org. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
* ^ Wexler, Paul (2002). _Two-tiered
Relexification in Yiddish:
Jews, Sorbs, Khazars, and the Kiev-Polessian Dialect_. De Gruyter
Mouton. ISBN 9783110898736 .
* ^ Bernard Spolsky,_The Languages of the Jews: A Sociolinguistic
Cambridge University Press, 2014 pp.157,180ff. p.183
* ^ Blanke, Detlev (1985). "Internationale Plansprachen. Eine
Einführung" . _Sammlung Akademie-Verlag_. Akademie-Verlag. ISSN
* ^ _Laŭ la komuna opinio de gvidaj fakuloj de la Instituto,
Esperanto apartenas al la kategorio de vivaj lingvoj. Pli detale
traktante la temon, konsiderante la historion kaj la nunan staton de
Esperanto, a.) ĝi estas grandmezure normigita, b.) amplekse
sociiĝinta, c.) ne-etna viva lingvo, kiu en sekundara lingva komunumo
plenumas ĉiujn eblajn lingvajn funkciojn, kaj samtempe ĝi funkcias
kiel pera lingvo. – Ĉi supre diritaj respegulas la sciencan
starpunkton de nia Instituto. "Malgranda fina venko". El Hungario_
* ^ _Le Defi des Langues_ by Claude Piron. Harmattan, 1994.
* ^ Languages with common words with Esperanto
* ^ Bertilo (in Esperanto)
* ^ (in Italian)
* ^ Kalocsay & Waringhien, _Plena analiza gramatiko_ (1985:73)
* ^ Kalocsay & Waringhien (1985) _Plena analiza gramatiko de
Esperanto_, § 17, 22
* ^ Maire Mullarney _Everyone's Own Language_, p147, Nitobe Press,
Channel Islands, 1999
* ^ _La Bona Lingvo_,
Claude Piron . Vienna: Pro Esperanto, 1989.
_La lingvo volas eleganti, ne elefanti._ "The language wants to be
elegant, not elephantine."
* ^ "
Esperanto en universitatoj". Uea.Org. 2003-04-17. Archived
from the original on 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
* ^ "enhavo". Web.archive.org. 2009-10-27. Archived from the
original on 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
* ^ "Elte Btk". Webcitation.org. Archived from the original on
October 25, 2009. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
* ^ "Diploma in
Interlinguistics (ESPERANTO)". Archived from the
original on 2012-04-18.
* ^ "Atividade Legislativa – Projetos e Matrias" (in Portuguese).
Senado.gov.br. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
* ^ "PL 6162/2009 – Projetos de Lei e Outras Proposições –
Câmara dos Deputados" (in Portuguese). Camara.gov.br. Retrieved 14
* ^ "Entidades manifestam apoio à proposta de incluir ensino de
Esperanto na grade de disciplinas da rede pública". _Senado Federal
Portal de Notícias_ (in Portuguese). Retrieved 14 January 2015.
* ^ "Is
Esperanto four times easier to learn?". Esperanto-USA.
* ^ Piron, Claude: "The hidden perverse effect of the current
system of international communication", published lecture notes
* ^ Flochon, Bruno, 2000, « L'espéranto », in Gauthier, Guy
(ed.) _Langues: une guerre à mort, Panoramiques._ 4e trim. 48:
89–95. Cited in François Grin, _L\'enseignement des langues
étrangères comme politique publique_ (French)
* ^ "Springboard to Languages". Springboard2languages.org.
* ^ Report: Article in _Enciklopedio de Esperanto_, volume I,
p.436, on the pedagogic value of Esperanto.
* ^ Report: Christian Rudmick, _The Wellesley College
* ^ Report: Edward Thorndike, _Language Learning_. Bureau of
Publications of Teachers College, 1933. Interlingua.org
* ^ Helen S. Eaton, "The Educational Value of an Artificial
Language." _The Modern Language Journal_, #12, pp. 87–94 (1927).
* ^ Protocols of the annual November meetings in Paderborn
"Laborkonferencoj: Interlingvistiko en Scienco kaj Klerigo" (Working
Science and Education), which can be
obtained from the Institute of Pedagogic Cybernetics in Paderborn.
Also in the works by Frank, Lobin, Geisler, and Meder.
* ^ "Study International Language (known as Esperanto) Commission,
Interministerial Decree" (PDF). Internacialingovo.org. 1993. Retrieved
14 January 2015.
* ^ Bishop, Alan J. (1997). "_Ekparoli_ Project Report
1994–1997". Clayton, Australia: Monash University. Archived from the
original on 2003-12-04.
* ^ Williams, N. (1965) 'A language teaching experiment', _Canadian
Modern Language Review_ 22.1: 26–28
* ^ Byram, Michael (2001). _Routledge Encyclopedia of Language
Teaching and Learning_. Routledge. p. 464. ISBN 0-415-33286-9 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Sikosek, Ziko M. _
Esperanto Sen Mitoj_ ("Esperanto
without Myths"). Second edition. Antwerp: Flandra Esperanto-Ligo,
* ^ "Afrika Agado" (in Esperanto). Pagesperso-orange.fr. Archived
from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
* ^ Culbert, Sidney S. Three letters about his method for
estimating the number of
Esperanto speakers, scanned and HTMLized by
* ^ "Number of Esperantists (methods)". Panix.com. Retrieved
* ^ "Nova takso: 60.000 parolas Esperanton" (in Esperanto). Libera
Folio. 2017-02-13. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
* ^ "
Ethnologue report for language code:epo". Ethnologue.com.
Jouko Lindstedt (January 2006). "Native
Esperanto as a Test
Case for Natural Language" (PDF).
University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki —Department
of Slavonic and Baltic Languages and Literatures.
Esperanto at _
Ethnologue _ (15th ed., 2005)
Esperanto at _
Ethnologue _ (16th ed., 2009)
* ^ Corsetti, Renato (1996). A mother tongue spoken mainly by
fathers. Language Problems and Language Planning 20: 3, 263–73
* ^ "China\'s first
Esperanto museum opens". Xinhuanet.com.
Retrieved 14 January 2015.
* ^ Ellemberg, Enrique (2014-06-08) . "
Esperanto Koresponda Servo".
Esperanto Fremont. Archived from the original on
* ^ Ziko van Dijk. _Sed homoj kun homoj: Universalaj Kongresoj de
Esperanto 1905–2005_. Rotterdam: UEA, 2005.
* ^ Szilvási László. "International
Eventoj.hu. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
* ^ "musicexpress.com.br". Musicexpress.com.br. Retrieved 14
* ^ Auld, William. _La Fenomeno Esperanto_ ("The Esperanto
Phenomenon"). Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1988.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Peter Glover Forster (1982). _The
Walter de Gruyter. p. 181. ISBN 978-90-279-3399-7 .
* ^ "Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj rande de pereo". _Libera
Folio_ (in Esperanto). 2011-09-05. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
* ^ Frank, Helmar ; Fössmeier, Reinhard (2000). _AIS — La
Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino / Die Internationale
Akademie der Wissenschaften San Marino_. Institut für Kybernetik. p.
449. ISBN 978-3-929853-12-4 .
* ^ "PARIS BUSINESS MEN WOULD USE ESPERANTO; Chamber of Commerce
Committee Finds It Useful as a Code in International Trade.". _The New
York Times_. 16 February 1921. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
* ^ Feeney, Mark (1999-05-12). "Esperanto: A surprising 2 million
speakers worldwide get their words’ worth; from the ‘planned
language’ created in the 19th century". _The Boston Globe_. p. F01.
ISSN 0743-1791 . (Subscription required (help)). Esperantists speak of
the _fina venko_, or ‘final victory’. The concept is that
eventually every moderately educated person ... will know Esperanto
enough to ... order a cup of coffee....
* ^ "La celo, por kiu ni laboras, povas esti atingita per du vojoj:
aŭ per laborado de homoj privataj, t.e. de la popolaj amasoj, aŭ per
dekreto de la registaroj. Plej kredeble nia afero estos atingita per
la vojo unua, ĉar al tia afero, kiel nia, la registaroj venas kun sia
sankcio kaj helpo ordinare nur tiam, kiam ĉio estas jam tute preta."
L. L. Zamenhof. Speech in Washington. 1910
* ^ Silfer, Giorgio (1999). "Kion signifas Raŭmismo". _La Ondo de
Esperanto_ (in Esperanto). Kaliningrad, Russia. Archived from the
original on 2002-05-30.
* ^ "Ni celas disvastigi Esperanton por pli kaj pli, iom post iom
realigi ĝiajn pozitivajn valorojn (...)" Manifesto de Raŭmo
* ^ "Flags of Esperanto". Flagspot.net. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
* ^ "
Esperanto flag: The jubilee symbol". Fotw.net. Retrieved
* ^ "
Esperanto flag". Fotw.net. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
* ^ "The
Esperanto portal". Oomoto.or.jp. Retrieved
* ^ "The Baha\'i Faith and Esperanto". Bahaa Esperanto-Ligo (
B.E.L. ). Retrieved 2006-08-26.
* ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Zamenhof, Lidia". _A concise encyclopedia
of the Bahá'í Faith_. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 368. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Smith, Peter (2000). "Esperanto". _A concise
encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith_. Oxford: Oneworld Publications.
pp. 134–135. ISBN 1-85168-184-1 .
* ^ Esslemont, J.E. (1980) . "Universal Language". _Bahá\'u\'lláh
and the New Era_ (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í
Publishing Trust. p. 165. ISBN 0-87743-160-4 .
* ^ Katz,
Esther (1999). "Morton, Jr., James Ferdinand
(1870-1941)". _The Margaret Sanger Papers Electronic Edition: Margaret
Sanger and The Woman Rebel, 1914-1916_. Model Editions Partnership.
Retrieved June 6, 2017.
* ^ "Interview with Professor Ehsan Yarshater, the Founder and
Editor of Encyclopedia Iranica". _Payvand News_. March 25, 2016.
Retrieved May 22, 2017.
* ^ (in Portuguese) O Espiritismo e o
* ^ "Uma só língua, uma só bandeira, um só pastor: Spiritism
Brazil by David Pardue" (PDF). University of Kansas
Libraries. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
* ^ "La Sankta Biblio – "Londona text"". Archived from the
original on 2006-12-22. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
* ^ "Linguistic Democracy - Christmas 2010, Benedict XVI and
Radicals: the use of
Esperanto remains to be the only thing in
* ^ Eric Walker (27 May 2005). "
Esperanto Lives On". _The Friend_.
* ^ Botten J. The Captive Conscience 2002 p.110 re. Esperanto
speaking Christadelphians in Tsarist Russia.
* ^ "Internacia Biblio-Misio". Biblio-misio.org. Retrieved
* ^ Bayo Afolaranmi. "Spirita nutraĵo" (in Esperanto). Retrieved
* ^ "
Esperanto "This Was Your Life"". Chick.com. Retrieved
* ^ http://pemanoj.blogspot.com.au/
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Esperanto – Have any governments opposed
Esperanto?". Donald J. Harlow. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
* ^ "
Iran (in Persian)". Porneniu. Retrieved
* ^ "
Esperanto Island". Data.aad.gov.au. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
* Emily van Someren. Republication of the thesis \'The EU Language
Regime, Lingual and Translational Problems\'.
* _Ludovikologia dokumentaro I_ Tokyo: Ludovikito, 1991. Facsimile
reprints of the _Unua Libro_ in Russian, Polish, French, German,
English and Swedish, with the earliest
Esperanto dictionaries for
* Fundamento de Esperanto. HTML reprint of 1905 _Fundamento_, from
the Academy of Esperanto.
Esperanto Lessons. Including the alphabet, adjectives, nouns,
plural, gender, numbers, phrases, grammar, vocabulary, verbs, exam,
audio, and translation.
* Auld, William. _La Fenomeno Esperanto_ ("The Esperanto
Phenomenon"). Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1988.
* Butler, Montagu C. _Step by Step in Esperanto_. ELNA 1965/1991.
ISBN 0-939785-01-3 .
* DeSoto, Clinton (1936). _200 Meters and Down_. West Hartford,
American Radio Relay League
American Radio Relay League , p. 92.
* Crystal, David, article "Esperanto" in _The New Penguin
Encyclopedia_, Penguin Books, 2002.
* Crystal, David, _How Language Works_ (pages 424–5), Penguin
Books, 2006. ISBN 978-0-14-101552-1 .
* Everson, Michael . "The Alphabets of Europe: Esperanto" (PDF).
(25.4 KB). Evertype, 2001.
* Forster, Peter G. _The
Esperanto Movement_. The Hague: Mouton
Publishers, 1982. ISBN 90-279-3399-5 .
* Gledhill, Christopher. _The
Grammar of Esperanto: A Corpus-Based
Description._ Second edition. Lincom Europa, 2000. ISBN 3-89586-961-9
* Harlow, Don. The
Esperanto Book. Self-published on the web
* Okrent, Arika. In the Land of Invented Languages.
* Wells, John . _Lingvistikaj aspektoj de Esperanto_ ("Linguistic
aspects of Esperanto"). Second edition. Rotterdam: Universala
* Zamenhof, Ludovic Lazarus, _Dr. Esperanto\'s International
Language: Introduction HTML online version 2006. Print edition (2007)
also available from ELNA or UEA.
* Patterson, Robert; Huff, Stanley M. (November 1999), "The Decline
and Fall of Esperanto", _Journal of the American Medical Informatics
Association_, 6 (6): 444–446, PMC 61387 , PMID 10579602 , doi
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