Esperanto (/ˌɛspəˈræntoʊ/ or /-ˈrɑː-/; Esperanto:
Esperanto [espeˈranto] listen (help·info)) is a
constructed international auxiliary language. With an estimated two
million speakers worldwide, it is the most widely spoken
constructed language in the world. The Polish-Jewish
L. L. Zamenhof
L. L. Zamenhof published the first book detailing
Esperanto, Unua Libro, in
Warsaw on July 26 [O.S. July
14] 1887. The name of
Esperanto derives from Doktoro Esperanto
Esperanto translates as "one who hopes"), the pseudonym under which
Zamenhof published Unua Libro.
2.2 Later history
3 Official use
3.1 Achievement of its creator's goals
4 Linguistic properties
4.1.1 Writing diacritics
4.4 Living language
4.7 Sample text
4.8 Simple phrases
5.1 Third-language acquisition
6.1 Geography and demography
6.1.1 Number of speakers
6.1.2 Native speakers
7.1 Noted authors in Esperanto
7.2 Popular culture
7.4 Commerce and trade
7.5 Goals of the movement
7.6 Symbols and flags
7.8.2 Bahá'í Faith
9 Eponymous entities
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
Zamenhof had three goals, as he wrote in Unua Libro:
"To render the study of the language so easy as to make its
acquisition mere play to the learner."
"To enable the learner to make direct use of his knowledge with people
of any nationality, whether the language be universally accepted or
not; in other words, the language is to be directly a means of
"To find some means of overcoming the natural indifference of mankind,
and disposing them, in the quickest manner possible, and en masse, to
learn and use the proposed language as a living one, and not only in
last extremities, and with the key at hand."
According to the database
Ethnologue (published by the Summer
Institute of Linguistics), up to two million people worldwide, to
varying degrees, speak Esperanto, including about 1000 to 2000
native speakers who learned
Esperanto from birth. The Universal
Esperanto Association has more than 5500 members in 120 countries.
Its usage is highest in Europe, East Asia, and South America.
lernu! is one of the most popular online learning platforms for
Esperanto and reported 150,000 registered users in 2013, and sees
between 150,000 and 200,000 visitors each month. With about
Esperanto is the 32nd-largest as
measured by the number of articles, and is the largest
in a constructed language. On 22 February 2012, Google Translate
Esperanto as its 64th language. On 28 May 2015, the language
Duolingo launched an
Esperanto course for English
speakers. On 26 October 2016, the course for Spanish speakers
appeared on the same platform. As of
27 May 2017[update], over one million users have started to
Esperanto on Duolingo.
World Congress of Esperanto
World Congress of Esperanto was organized in
Boulogne-sur-Mer (France) in 1905. Since then, congresses have been
held in various countries every year, with the exceptions of years
during the World Wars. Although no country has adopted Esperanto
Esperantujo is the collective name given to places where
it is spoken.
Esperanto was recommended by the
French Academy of Sciences
French Academy of Sciences in 1921
and recognized by
UNESCO in 1954, which recommended in 1985 that
international non-governmental organizations use Esperanto.
Esperanto PEN Centro is the official branch of
Esperanto writers in
Esperanto is currently the language of instruction of the
International Academy of Sciences in San Marino.
Main article: History of Esperanto
Esperanto book by
L. L. Zamenhof
L. L. Zamenhof published in 1887 in the
Esperanto was created in the late 1870s and early 1880s by L. L.
Zamenhof, a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist from Białystok, then part
of the Russian Empire, but now part of Poland. According to Zamenhof,
he created the language to reduce the "time and labour we spend in
learning foreign tongues" and to foster harmony between people from
different countries: "Were there but an international language, all
translations would be made into it alone ... and all nations
would be united in a common brotherhood." His feelings and the
Białystok may be gleaned from an extract from his letter
to Nikolai Borovko:
"The place where I was born and spent my childhood gave direction to
all my future struggles. In
Białystok the inhabitants were divided
into four distinct elements: Russians, Poles, Germans and Jews; each
of these spoke their own language and looked on all the others as
enemies. In such a town a sensitive nature feels more acutely than
elsewhere the misery caused by language division and sees at every
step that the diversity of languages is the first, or at least the
most influential, basis for the separation of the human family into
groups of enemies. I was brought up as an idealist; I was taught that
all people were brothers, while outside in the street at every step I
felt that there were no people, only Russians, Poles, Germans, Jews
and so on. This was always a great torment to my infant mind, although
many people may smile at such an 'anguish for the world' in a child.
Since at that time I thought that 'grown-ups' were omnipotent, so I
often said to myself that when I grew up I would certainly destroy
— L. L. Zamenhof, in a letter to Nikolai Borovko, ca. 1895
About his goals Zamenhof wrote that he wants mankind to "learn and
use", "en masse", "the proposed language as a living one". The goal
Esperanto to become a general world language was not the only goal
of Zamenhof; he also wanted to "enable the learner to make direct use
of his knowledge with persons of any nationality, whether the language
be universally accepted or not; in other words, the language is to be
directly a means of international communication."
After some ten years of development, which Zamenhof spent translating
Esperanto as well as writing original prose and verse,
the first book of
Esperanto grammar was published in
Warsaw on 26 July
1887. The number of speakers grew rapidly over the next few decades,
at first primarily in the
Russian Empire and Central Europe, then in
other parts of Europe, the Americas, China, and Japan. In the early
years, speakers of
Esperanto kept in contact primarily through
correspondence and periodicals, but in 1905 the first world congress
Esperanto speakers was held in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. Since then
world congresses have been held in different countries every year,
except during the two World Wars. Since the Second World War, they
have been attended by an average of more than 2000 people and up to
Zamenhof's name for the language was simply Internacia Lingvo
Esperanto groups in
Europe in 1905.
The autonomous territory of Neutral Moresnet, between what is today
Belgium and Germany, had a sizable proportion of Esperanto-speakers
among its small and multiethnic population. There was a proposal to
Esperanto its official language.
However, neither Belgium nor Prussia (now within Germany) had ever
surrendered its original claim to it. Around 1900,
particular was taking a more aggressive stance towards the territory
and was accused of sabotage and of obstructing the administrative
process in order to force the issue. It was the First World War,
however, that was the catalyst that brought about the end of
neutrality. On 4 August 1914,
Germany invaded Belgium, leaving
Moresnet at first "an oasis in a desert of destruction". In 1915,
the territory was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, without
After the Great War, a great opportunity seemed to arise for Esperanto
when the Iranian delegation to the
League of Nations
League of Nations proposed that it
be adopted for use in international relations, following a report by
Nitobe Inazō, an official delegate of
League of Nations
League of Nations during the
World Congress of Esperanto
World Congress of Esperanto in Prague. Ten delegates accepted
the proposal with only one voice against, the French delegate, Gabriel
Hanotaux. Hanotaux did not like how the French language was losing its
position as the international language and saw
Esperanto as a threat,
effectively wielding his veto power to block the decision. However,
two years later, the League recommended that its member states include
Esperanto in their educational curricula. For this reason, many people
see the 1920s as the heyday of the
Anarchism as a
political movement was very supportive during this time of
anationalism as well as of the
Antwerp August 1911.
Esperanto attracted the suspicion of many states. The situation was
especially pronounced in Nazi Germany, Francoist Spain up until the
1950s, and in the
Soviet Union from 1937 to 1956.
In Nazi Germany, there was a motivation to forbid
Zamenhof was Jewish, and due to the internationalist nature of
Esperanto, which was perceived as "Bolshevist". In his work, Mein
Kampf, Adolf Hitler specifically mentioned
Esperanto as an example of
a language that could be used by an international Jewish conspiracy
once they achieved world domination. Esperantists were killed
during the Holocaust, with Zamenhof's family in particular singled out
for being killed. The efforts of a minority of Esperantists to
expel Jewish colleagues and align themselves with the Reich were
Esperanto was legally forbidden in 1935. Esperantists in
German concentration camps taught the language to fellow prisoners,
telling guards they were teaching Italian, the language of one of
Germany's Axis allies.
In Imperial Japan, the left-wing of the Japanese
was forbidden, but its leaders were careful enough not to give the
impression to the government that the Esperantists were socialist
revolutionaries, which proved a successful strategy.
October Revolution of 1917,
Esperanto was given a measure of
government support by the new workers' states in the former Russian
Empire and later by the
Soviet Union government, with the Soviet
Esperanto Association being established as an officially recognized
organization. In his biography on Joseph Stalin, Leon Trotsky
mentions that Stalin had studied Esperanto. However, in 1937, at
the height of the Great Purge, Stalin completely reversed the Soviet
government's policies on Esperanto; many
Esperanto speakers were
executed, exiled or held in captivity in the Gulag labour camps. Quite
often the accusation was: "You are an active member of an
international spy organisation which hides itself under the name of
'Association of Soviet Esperantists' on the territory of the Soviet
Union." Until the end of the Stalin era it was dangerous to use
Esperanto in the
Soviet Union despite the fact that it was never
officially forbidden to speak Esperanto.
Italy allowed the use of Esperanto, finding its phonology
similar to that of Italian and publishing some tourist material in the
During and after the Spanish Civil War, Francoist Spain forbade
anarchists, socialists and Catalan nationalists for many years, among
whom the use of
Esperanto was extensive, but in the 1950s the
Esperanto movement was tolerated again.
Location of Moresnet.
Esperanto has not been a secondary official language of any recognized
country, but it entered the education system of several countries such
as Hungary and China.
There were plans at the beginning of the 20th century to establish
Neutral Moresnet as the world's first
Esperanto state. In addition,
the self-proclaimed artificial island micronation of Rose Island used
Esperanto as its official language in 1968, and another micronation,
the extant Republic of Molossia, uses
Esperanto as an official
language alongside English.
The Chinese government has used
Esperanto since 2001 for daily news on
China also uses
China Radio International
and for the internet magazine El Popola Ĉinio.
Vatican Radio has an
Esperanto version of its website.
The US Army has published military phrase books in Esperanto, to
be used from the 1950s until the 1970s in war games by mock enemy
Esperanto is the working language of several non-profit international
organizations such as the Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda, a left-wing
cultural association which has members in over 85 countries. There
is also Education@Internet, which has developed from an Esperanto
organization; most others are specifically
The largest of these, the Universal
Esperanto Association, has an
official consultative relationship with the
United Nations and UNESCO,
Esperanto as a medium for international understanding
in 1954. The
World Esperanto Association
World Esperanto Association has collaborated in
2017 with Unesco to deliver an
Esperanto translation its magazine
Unesco Courier (Unesko Kuriero en Esperanto).
Esperanto is also the first language of teaching and administration of
one university, the International Academy of Sciences San Marino.
In the summer of 1924, the
American Radio Relay League
American Radio Relay League adopted
Esperanto as its official international auxiliary language, and hoped
that the language would be used by radio amateurs in international
communications, but its actual use for radio communications was
All the personal documents sold by the World Service Authority,
including the World Passport, are written in Esperanto, together with
English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, and Chinese.
Achievement of its creator's goals
Zamenhof's goal to "enable the learner to make direct use of his
knowledge with persons of any nationality, whether the language be
universally accepted or not", as he wrote in 1887, has been
achieved as the language is currently spoken by people living in more
than one hundred countries.
On the other hand, one common criticism made is that
failed to live up to the hopes of its creator, who dreamed of it
becoming a universal second language. In this regard it has to
be noted that Zamenhof was well aware that it may take much time,
maybe even many centuries, to get this hope into reality. In his
speech at the
World Esperanto Congress
World Esperanto Congress in
Cambridge in 1907 he said,
"we hope that earlier or later, maybe after many centuries, on a
neutral language foundation, understanding one each other, the nations
will build ... a big family circle."
Esperanto alphabet is based on the Latin script, using a
one-sound-one-letter principle, except for [d͡z]. It includes six
letters with diacritics: ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ (with circumflex), and ŭ
(with breve). The alphabet does not include the letters q, w, x, or y,
which are only used when writing unassimilated foreign terms or proper
The 28-letter alphabet is:
a b c ĉ d e f g ĝ h ĥ i j ĵ k l m n o p r s ŝ t u ŭ v z
All unaccented letters are pronounced approximately as in the IPA,
with the exception of c.
Esperanto j and c are used in a way familiar
to speakers of many European languages, but which is largely
unfamiliar to English speakers: j has a y sound [j~i̯], as in yellow
and boy, and c has a ts sound [t͡s], as in hits or the zz in
pizza. The accented letters are a bit like h-digraphs in English:
Ĉ is pronounced like English ch, and ŝ like sh.
Ĝ is the g in gem,
ĵ a zh sound, as in fusion or French Jacques, and the rare ĥ is like
the German Bach, Scottish Gaelic, Scots and Scottish Standard English
loch, or how
Scouse people sometimes pronounce the 'k' in book and
'ck' in chicken.
Even with the widespread adoption of Unicode, the letters with
diacritics (found in the "Latin-Extended A" section of the Unicode
Standard) can cause problems with printing and computing, because they
are not found on most physical keyboards and are left out of certain
There are two principal workarounds to this problem, which substitute
digraphs for the accented letters. Zamenhof, the inventor of
Esperanto, created an "h-convention", which replaces ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ,
ŝ, and ŭ with ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, and u, respectively. If used in a
database, a program in principle could not determine whether to
render, for example, ch as c followed by h or as ĉ, and would fail to
render, for example, the word senchava properly. A more recent
"x-convention" has gained ground since the advent of computing. This
system replaces each diacritic with an x (not part of the Esperanto
alphabet) after the letter, producing the six digraphs cx, gx, hx, jx,
sx, and ux.
There are computer keyboard layouts that support the Esperanto
alphabet, and some systems use software that automatically replaces x-
or h-convention digraphs with the corresponding diacritic letters (for
example, Amiketo for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux,
Esperanta Klavaro for Windows Phone, and
AnySoftKeyboard for Android).
Criticisms are made of the letters with circumflex diacritics, which
some find odd or cumbersome, along with their being invented
Esperanto rather than borrowed from existing
languages; as well as being arguably unnecessary, as for example with
the use of ĥ instead of x and ŭ instead of w.
The phonology, grammar, vocabulary, and semantics are based on the
Indo-European languages spoken in Europe. The sound inventory is
essentially Slavic, as is much of the semantics, whereas the
vocabulary derives primarily from the Romance languages, with a lesser
Germanic languages and minor contributions from
Slavic languages and Greek.
Pragmatics and other aspects of the
language not specified by Zamenhof's original documents were
influenced by the native languages of early authors, primarily
Russian, Polish, German, and French. Paul Wexler proposes that
Esperanto is relexified Yiddish, which he claims is in turn a
relexified Slavic language, though this model is not accepted by
Esperanto has been described as "a language lexically predominantly
Romanic, morphologically intensively agglutinative, and to a certain
degree isolating in character". Typologically,
prepositions and a pragmatic word order that by default is
subject–verb–object. Adjectives can be freely placed before or
after the nouns they modify, though placing them before the noun is
more common. New words are formed through extensive prefixing and
Esperanto words are mostly derived by stringing together roots,
grammatical endings, and at times prefixes and suffixes. This process
is regular, so that people can create new words as they speak and be
understood. Compound words are formed with a modifier-first,
head-final order, as in English (compare "birdsong" and "songbird,"
and likewise, birdokanto and kantobirdo). Speakers may optionally
insert an o between the words in a compound noun if placing them
together directly without the o would make the resulting word hard to
say or understand.
The different parts of speech are marked by their own suffixes: all
common nouns end in -o, all adjectives in -a, all derived adverbs in
-e, and all verbs in one of six tense and mood suffixes, such as the
present tense -as. Nouns and adjectives have two cases: nominative for
grammatical subjects and in general, and accusative for direct objects
and (after a preposition) to indicate direction of movement.
Singular nouns used as grammatical subjects end in -o, plural subject
nouns in -oj (pronounced [oi̯] like English "oy"). Singular direct
object forms end in -on, and plural direct objects with the
combination -ojn ([oi̯n]; rhymes with "coin"): -o- indicates that the
word is a noun, -j- indicates the plural, and -n indicates the
accusative (direct object) case. Adjectives agree with their nouns;
their endings are singular subject -a ([a]; rhymes with "ha!"), plural
subject -aj ([ai̯], pronounced "eye"), singular object -an, and
plural object -ajn ([ai̯n]; rhymes with "fine").
The suffix -n, besides indicating the direct object, is used to
indicate movement and a few other things as well.
The six verb inflections consist of three tenses and three moods. They
are present tense -as, future tense -os, past tense -is, infinitive
mood -i, conditional mood -us and jussive mood -u (used for wishes and
commands). Verbs are not marked for person or number. Thus, kanti
means "to sing", mi kantas means "I sing", vi kantas means "you sing",
and ili kantas means "they sing".
Word order is comparatively free. Adjectives may precede or follow
nouns; subjects, verbs and objects may occur in any order. However,
the article la "the", demonstratives such as tiu "that" and
prepositions (such as ĉe "at") must come before their related nouns.
Similarly, the negative ne "not" and conjunctions such as kaj "and"
and ke "that" must precede the phrase or clause that they introduce.
In copular (A = B) clauses, word order is just as important as in
English: "people are animals" is distinguished from "animals are
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Hungarian Academy of Sciences has found that
all the requirements of a living language.[clarification needed]
The vocabulary, orthography, phonology, and semantics, are all
thoroughly European. The vocabulary, for example, draws about
two-thirds from Romance and one-third from Germanic languages; the
syntax is Romance; and the phonology and semantics are
Slavic. The grammar is arguably more European than
Claude Piron among others argues that the derivation system
is not particularly European, though the inflection is.
Main article: Gender reform in Esperanto
Esperanto is frequently accused of being inherently sexist, because
the default form of some nouns is masculine while a derived form is
used for the feminine, which is said to retain traces of the
male-dominated society of late 19th-century
Europe of which Esperanto
is a product. Some masculine nouns, primarily titles and kin
terms, such as sinjoro "Mr, sir" vs. sinjorino "Ms, lady" and patro
"father" vs. patrino "mother". In addition, nouns that denote persons
and whose definitions are not explicitly male are often assumed to be
male unless explicitly made female, such as doktoro, a PhD doctor
(male or unspecified) versus doktorino, a female PhD. This is
analogous to the situation with the English suffix -ess, as in
baron/baroness, waiter/waitress etc.
Esperanto pronouns are similar.
As in English, li "he" may be used generically, whereas ŝi "she" is
Esperanto has 23 consonants, five vowels, and two semivowels that
combine with the vowels to form six diphthongs. (The consonant /j/ and
semivowel /i̯/ are both written j, and the uncommon consonant /dz/ is
written with the digraph dz, which is the only consonant that
doesn't have its own letter.) Tone is not used to distinguish meanings
of words. Stress is always on the second-last vowel in fully Esperanto
words unless a final vowel o is elided, which occurs mostly in poetry.
For example, familio "family" is [fa.mi.ˈli.o], with the stress on
the second i, but when the word is used without the final o
(famili’), the stress remains on the second i: [fa.mi.ˈli].
The 23 consonants are:
The sound /r/ is usually an alveolar trill [r], but can also be a
uvular trill [ʀ], a uvular fricative [ʁ], and an alveolar
approximant [ɹ]. Many other forms such an alveolar tap [ɾ] are
done and accepted in practice. The /v/ is normally pronounced like
English v, but may be pronounced [ʋ] (between English v and w) or
[w], depending on the language background of the speaker. A semivowel
/u̯/ normally occurs only in diphthongs after the vowels /a/ and /e/,
not as a consonant /w/. Common, if debated, assimilation includes the
pronunciation of nk as [ŋk] and kz as [ɡz].
A large number of consonant clusters can occur, up to three in initial
position (as in stranga, "strange") and four in medial position (as in
instrui, "teach"). Final clusters are uncommon except in foreign
names, poetic elision of final o, and a very few basic words such as
cent "hundred" and post "after".
Esperanto has the five vowels found in such languages as Spanish,
Swahili, Modern Hebrew, and Modern Greek.
There are also two semivowels, /i̯/ and /u̯/, which combine with the
monophthongs to form six falling diphthongs: aj, ej, oj, uj, aŭ, and
Since there are only five vowels, a good deal of variation in
pronunciation is tolerated. For instance, e commonly ranges from [e]
(French é) to [ɛ] (French è). These details often depend on the
speaker's native language. A glottal stop may occur between adjacent
vowels in some people's speech, especially when the two vowels are the
same, as in heroo "hero" ([he.ˈro.o] or [he.ˈro.ʔo]) and praavo
"great-grandfather" ([pra.ˈa.vo] or [pra.ˈʔa.vo]).
Listen to this excerpt
Problems playing this file? See media help.
The following short extract gives an idea of the character of
Esperanto. (Pronunciation is covered above; the
Esperanto letter j
is pronounced like English y.)
«En multaj lokoj de Ĉinio estis temploj de la drako-reĝo. Dum
trosekeco oni preĝis en la temploj, ke la drako-reĝo donu pluvon al
la homa mondo. Tiam drako estis simbolo de la supernatura estaĵo. Kaj
pli poste, ĝi fariĝis prapatro de la plej altaj regantoj kaj
simbolis la absolutan aŭtoritaton de la feŭda imperiestro. La
imperiestro pretendis, ke li estas filo de la drako. Ĉiuj liaj
vivbezonaĵoj portis la nomon drako kaj estis ornamitaj per diversaj
drakofiguroj. Nun ĉie en Ĉinio videblas drako-ornamentaĵoj, kaj
cirkulas legendoj pri drakoj.»
In many places in China, there were temples of the dragon-king. During
times of drought, people would pray in the temples that the
dragon-king would give rain to the human world. At that time the
dragon was a symbol of the supernatural creature. Later on, it became
the ancestor of the highest rulers and symbolised the absolute
authority of a feudal emperor. The emperor claimed to be the son of
the dragon. All of his personal possessions carried the name "dragon"
and were decorated with various dragon figures. Now dragon decorations
can be seen everywhere in
China and legends about dragons circulate.
This article includes inline links to audio files. If you have trouble
playing the files, see Media help.
Below are listed some useful
Esperanto words and phrases along with
Ĝis (la) revido
[ˈdʒis (la) re.ˈvi.do]
What is your name?
Kio estas via nomo?
[ˈki.o ˌes.tas ˌvi.a ˈno.mo]
My name is Marco.
Mia nomo estas Marko
[ˌmi.a ˈno.mo ˌes.tas ˈmar.ko]
How are you?
Kiel vi fartas?
[ˈki.el vi ˈfar.tas]
I am well.
Mi fartas bone
[mi ˈfar.tas ˈbo.ne]
Do you speak Esperanto?
Ĉu vi parolas Esperante?
[ˈtʃu vi pa.ˈro.las ˌes.pe.ˈran.te]
I don't understand you
Mi ne komprenas vin
[mi ˌne kom.ˈpre.nas ˌvin]
Forgive me/Excuse me
I love you
Mi amas vin
[mi ˈa.mas ˌvin]
One beer, please
Unu bieron, mi petas
[ˈu.nu bi.ˈe.ron, mi ˈpe.tas]
Where is the toilet?
Kie estas la necesejo?
[ˈki.e ˈes.tas ˈla ˌne.tse.ˈse.jo]
What is that?
Kio estas tio?
[ˈki.o ˌes.tas ˈti.o]
That is a dog
Tio estas hundo
[ˈti.o ˌes.tas ˈhun.do]
We will love!
I am a beginner in Esperanto.
Mi estas komencanto de Esperanto
[mi ˈes.tas ˌko.men.ˈtsan.to de ˌes.pe.ˈran.to]
The core vocabulary of
Esperanto was defined by Lingvo internacia,
published by Zamenhof in 1887. This book listed 900 roots; these could
be expanded into tens of thousands of words using prefixes, suffixes,
and compounding. In 1894, Zamenhof published the first Esperanto
dictionary, Universala Vortaro, which had a larger set of roots. The
rules of the language allowed speakers to borrow new roots as needed;
it was recommended, however, that speakers use most international
forms and then derive related meanings from these.
Since then, many words have been borrowed, primarily (but not solely)
from the European languages. Not all proposed borrowings become
widespread, but many do, especially technical and scientific terms.
Terms for everyday use, on the other hand, are more likely to be
derived from existing roots; komputilo "computer", for instance, is
formed from the verb komputi "compute" and the suffix -ilo "tool".
Words are also calqued; that is, words acquire new meanings based on
usage in other languages. For example, the word muso "mouse" has
acquired the meaning of a computer mouse from its usage in English.
Esperanto speakers often debate about whether a particular borrowing
is justified or whether meaning can be expressed by deriving from or
extending the meaning of existing words.
Some compounds and formed words in
Esperanto are not entirely
straightforward; for example, eldoni, literally "give out", means
"publish", paralleling the usage of certain European languages (such
as German). In addition, the suffix -um- has no defined meaning; words
using the suffix must be learned separately (such as dekstren "to the
right" and dekstrumen "clockwise").
There are not many idiomatic or slang words in Esperanto, as these
forms of speech tend to make international communication
difficult—working against Esperanto's main goal.
Instead of derivations of
Esperanto roots, new roots are taken from
European languages in the endeavor to create an international
Esperanto speakers learn the language through self-directed study,
online tutorials, and correspondence courses taught by volunteers.
More recently, free teaching websites, like lernu! and Duolingo, are
Esperanto instruction is rarely available at schools, including four
primary schools in a pilot project under the supervision of the
University of Manchester, and by one count at a few universities.
China and Hungary, these mostly involve informal
arrangements rather than dedicated departments or state sponsorship.
Eötvös Loránd University
Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest had a department of
Esperanto from 1966 to 2004, after which time
instruction moved to vocational colleges; there are state examinations
Esperanto instructors. Additionally, Adam Mickiewicz
Poland offers a diploma in Interlinguistics. The
Senate of Brazil
Senate of Brazil passed a bill in 2009 that would make
optional part of the curriculum in public schools, although mandatory
if there is demand for it. As of 2015[update] the bill is still under
consideration by the Chamber of Deputies.
Various educators have estimated that
Esperanto can be learned in
anywhere from one quarter to one twentieth the amount of time required
for other languages. Claude Piron, an Esperanto-Activist and
Chinese–English–Russian–Spanish translator for the United
Nations, argued that
Esperanto is far more intuitive than many ethnic
Esperanto relies entirely on innate reflexes [and] differs
from all other languages in that you can always trust your natural
tendency to generalize patterns. ... The same neuropsychological
law [—called by]
Jean Piaget generalizing assimilation—applies to
word formation as well as to grammar."
The Institute of Cybernetic Pedagogy at Paderborn (Germany) has
compared the length of study time it takes natively French-speaking
high-school students to obtain comparable 'standard' levels in
Esperanto, English, German, and Italian. The results were:
2,000 hours studying German
1,500 hours studying English
1,000 hours studying Italian (or any other Romance language)
150 hours studying Esperanto.[unreliable source?]
Main article: Propaedeutic value of Esperanto
Four primary schools in Britain, with 230 pupils, are currently
following a course in "propaedeutic Esperanto"—that is, instruction
Esperanto to raise language awareness and accelerate subsequent
learning of foreign languages—under the supervision of the
University of Manchester. As they put it,
Many schools used to teach children the recorder, not to produce a
nation of recorder players, but as a preparation for learning other
instruments. [We teach] Esperanto, not to produce a nation of
Esperanto-speakers, but as a preparation for learning other
Studies have been conducted in New Zealand, United
States, Germany, Italy and Australia. The
results of these studies were favorable and demonstrated that studying
Esperanto before another foreign language expedites the acquisition of
the other, natural language. This appears to be because learning
subsequent foreign languages is easier than learning one's first
foreign language, whereas the use of a grammatically simple and
culturally flexible auxiliary language like
Esperanto lessens the
first-language learning hurdle. In one study, a group of European
secondary school students studied
Esperanto for one year, then French
for three years, and ended up with a significantly better command of
French than a control group, who studied French for all four years.
Main article: Esperantujo
Geography and demography
Location map of hosts of the
Esperanto community hospitality service
Pasporta Servo (akin to CouchSurfing), by 2015.
Esperanto is by far the most widely spoken constructed language in the
world. Speakers are most numerous in
Europe and East Asia,
especially in urban areas, where they often form
Esperanto is particularly prevalent in the northern and central
countries of Europe; in China, Korea, Japan, and
Iran within Asia;
in Brazil, Argentina, and
Mexico in the Americas; and in
Countering a common criticism against Esperanto, the statistician
Svend Nielsen has found there to be no significant correlation between
the number of
Esperanto speakers and similarity of a given national
mother language to Esperanto. He concludes that
Esperanto tends to be
more popular in countries that are rich, with widespread Internet
access and that tend to contribute more to science and culture.
Linguistic diversity within a country was found to have a slight
inverse correlation with
Number of speakers
An estimate of the number of
Esperanto speakers was made by Sidney S.
Culbert, a retired psychology professor at the University of
Washington and a longtime Esperantist, who tracked down and tested
Esperanto speakers in sample areas in dozens of countries over a
period of twenty years. Culbert concluded that between one and two
million people speak
Esperanto at Foreign Service Level 3,
"professionally proficient" (able to communicate moderately complex
ideas without hesitation, and to follow speeches, radio broadcasts,
etc.). Culbert's estimate was not made for
Esperanto alone, but
formed part of his listing of estimates for all languages of more than
one million speakers, published annually in the
World Almanac and Book
of Facts. Culbert's most detailed account of his methodology is found
in a 1989 letter to David Wolff. Since Culbert never published
detailed intermediate results for particular countries and regions, it
is difficult to independently gauge the accuracy of his results.
In the Almanac, his estimates for numbers of language speakers were
rounded to the nearest million, thus the number for
is shown as two million. This latter figure appears in Ethnologue.
Assuming that this figure is accurate, that means that about 0.03% of
the world's population speak the language. Although it is not
Zamenhof's goal of a universal language, it still represents a level
of popularity unmatched by any other constructed language.
Marcus Sikosek (now Ziko van Dijk) has challenged this figure of 1.6
million as exaggerated. He estimated that even if
were evenly distributed, assuming one million
worldwide would lead one to expect about 180 in the city of Cologne.
Van Dijk finds only 30 fluent speakers in that city, and similarly
smaller-than-expected figures in several other places thought to have
a larger-than-average concentration of
Esperanto speakers. He also
notes that there are a total of about 20,000 members of the various
Esperanto organizations (other estimates are higher). Though there are
Esperanto speakers who are not members of any
Esperanto organization, he thinks it unlikely that there are fifty
times more speakers than organization members.
Finnish linguist Jouko Lindstedt, an expert on native-born Esperanto
speakers, presented the following scheme to show the overall
proportions of language capabilities within the
Esperanto as their native language.
10,000 speak it fluently.
100,000 can use it actively.
One million understand a large amount passively.
Ten million have studied it to some extent at some time.
In 2017, doctoral student Svend Nielsen has estimated around 63,000
Esperanto speakers worldwide, taking into account association
memberships, user-generated data from
Esperanto websites and census
statistics. This number, however, was disputed by statistician Sten
Johansson, who questioned the reliability of the source data and
highlighted a wide margin of error, the latter point with which
Nielsen agrees. Both have stated, however, that this new number is
likely more realistic than some earlier projections.
In the absence of Dr. Culbert's detailed sampling data, or any other
census data, it is impossible to state the number of speakers with
certainty. According to the website of the World Esperanto
Numbers of textbooks sold and membership of local societies put "the
number of people with some knowledge of the language in the hundreds
of thousands and possibly millions".
Main article: Native
Esperanto speakers, denaskuloj, have learned the language from
birth from Esperanto-speaking parents. This usually happens when
Esperanto is the chief or only common language in an international
family, but sometimes occurs in a family of devoted Esperantists.
The 15th edition of
Ethnologue cited estimates that there were 200 to
2000 native speakers in 1996, but these figures were removed from
the 16th and 17th editions. As of 1996, there were approximately
350 attested cases of families with native
Esperanto books at the World
Esperanto Congress, Rotterdam 2008.
Esperanto literature, Esperanto
Esperantists can access an international culture, including a large
body of original as well as translated literature. There are more than
Esperanto books, both originals and translations, as well as
several regularly distributed
Esperanto magazines. In 2013 a museum
Esperanto opened in China. Esperantists use the language
for free accommodations with Esperantists in 92 countries using the
Pasporta Servo or to develop pen pals through
Every year, Esperantists meet for the World Congress of Esperanto
(Universala Kongreso de Esperanto).
Esperanto music, such as Kaj Tiel Plu, has been in
various folk traditions. There is also a variety of classical and
semi-classical choral music, both original and translated, as well as
large ensemble music that includes voices singing
Esperanto texts. Lou
Harrison, who incorporated styles and instruments from many world
cultures in his music, used
Esperanto titles and/or texts in several
of his works, most notably La Koro-Sutro (1973). David Gaines used
Esperanto poems as well as an excerpt from a speech by Dr. Zamenhof
for his Symphony No. One (Esperanto) for mezzo-soprano and orchestra
(1994–98). He wrote original
Esperanto text for his Povas plori mi
ne plu (I Can Cry No Longer) for unaccompanied
SATB choir (1994).
There are also shared traditions, such as Zamenhof Day, and shared
behaviour patterns. Esperantists speak primarily in
Esperanto occasionally criticize it as "having no
culture". Proponents, such as Prof.
Humphrey Tonkin of the University
of Hartford, observe that
Esperanto is "culturally neutral by design,
as it was intended to be a facilitator between cultures, not to be the
carrier of any one national culture". The late Scottish Esperanto
William Auld wrote extensively on the subject, arguing that
Esperanto is "the expression of a common human culture, unencumbered
by national frontiers. Thus it is considered a culture on its
A number of
Esperanto associations also advance education in and about
the international language
Esperanto and aim to preserve and promote
the culture and heritage of Esperanto.
its list of Intangible heritage in 2014.
Noted authors in Esperanto
Some authors of works in
Muztar Abbasi (Translated the
Quran into Esperanto)
Kazimierz Bein (Kabe)
Fernando de Diego (mainly translations)
Frederic Pujulà i Vallès
L. L. Zamenhof
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Esperanto in popular culture
Esperanto has been used in a number of films and novels. Typically,
this is done either to add the exotic flavour of a foreign language
without representing any particular ethnicity, or to avoid going to
the trouble of inventing a new language. The
Charlie Chaplin film The
Great Dictator (1940) showed Jewish ghetto shop signs in Esperanto.
Two full-length feature films have been produced with dialogue
entirely in Esperanto: Angoroj, in 1964, and Incubus, a 1965 B-movie
horror film which is also notable for starring
William Shatner shortly
before he began working on Star Trek.
A language school teaching "Entrenationo" (representing a satire on
Esperanto) is featured in Graham Greene's novel The Confidential
Agent, which was made into a film starring Charles Boyer and Lauren
Bacall (1945). Other amateur productions have been made, such as a
dramatization of the novel Gerda Malaperis (Gerda Has Disappeared). In
Stamboul Train, Greene used
Esperanto as the language on signs at the
main train station in Budapest. A number of mainstream films in
national languages have used
Esperanto in some way.
Esperanto is used as the universal language in the far future of Harry
Stainless Steel Rat
Stainless Steel Rat and
Deathworld stories. Poul Anderson's
story "High Treason" takes place in a future where Earth became united
politically but was still divided into many languages and cultures,
Esperanto became the language of its space armed forces, fighting
wars with various extraterrestrial races.
Esperanto is said to be the
official language of all the peoples of Phillip Jose Farmer's
The opening song to the popular video game Final Fantasy XI, "Memoro
de la Ŝtono", was written in Esperanto. It was the first game in the
series that was played online, and would have players from both Japan
and North America (official European support was added after the North
American launch) playing together on the same servers, using an
auto-translate tool to communicate. The composer, Nobuo Uematsu, felt
Esperanto was a good language to symbolize worldwide unity.
In the geek fiction novel "Off to Be the Wizard",
programmed as the language that triggers all of the wizard's spells.
Philip, Martin's teacher, explains that this is because "no one really
Esperanto and it's easy to learn".
Esperanto is also found in the
Image Comics series Saga as the
language Blue, spoken by the horned inhabitants of Wreath. It is
rendered in blue-colored text. Blue is generally only spoken by
inhabitants of Wreath, while most other cultures use a universal
language that appears to be simply named "Language." Some Wreath
inhabitants use translator rings to communicate with those who don't
speak Blue. Magic seems to be activated via the linguistic medium of
In the television show Red Dwarf, which begins in the late 22nd
Arnold Rimmer constantly spends his time trying to
Esperanto and failing, even compared to his bunkmate Dave Lister
who only maintains a casual interest. Additionally many of the signs
around the ship
Red Dwarf are written in both English and Esperanto.
Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers
Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers states that, although not
required, it is widely expected that officers in the Space Corps be
fluent in the language, hence Rimmer's interest.
Hungarian astronaut Bertalan Farkas, the first
Esperantist in space.
In 1921 the
French Academy of Sciences
French Academy of Sciences recommended using
international scientific communication. A few scientists and
mathematicians, such as Maurice Fréchet (mathematics), John C. Wells
Helmar Frank (pedagogy and cybernetics), and Nobel
Reinhard Selten (economics) have published part of their work
in Esperanto. Frank and Selten were among the founders of the
International Academy of Sciences in San Marino, sometimes called the
Esperanto University", where
Esperanto is the primary language of
teaching and administration.
A message in
Esperanto was recorded and included in Voyager 1's Golden
Commerce and trade
Esperanto business groups have been active for many years. The French
Chamber of Commerce did research in the 1920s and reported in The New
York Times in 1921 that
Esperanto seemed to be the best business
Goals of the movement
Zamenhof had three goals, as he wrote already in 1887: to create an
easy language, to create a language ready to use "whether the language
be universally accepted or not" and to find some means to get many
people learn the language. So Zamenhof's intention was not only to
create an easy-to-learn language to foster international understanding
as a general language, but also to create a language for immediate use
by a (small) language community.
Esperanto was to serve as an
international auxiliary language, that is, as a universal second
language, not to replace ethnic languages. This goal was widely shared
Esperanto speakers in the early decades of the
movement. Later,
Esperanto speakers began to see the
language and the culture that had grown up around it as ends in
themselves, even if
Esperanto is never adopted by the United Nations
or other international organizations.
Esperanto speakers who want to see
Esperanto adopted officially or on
a large scale worldwide are commonly called finvenkistoj, from fina
venko, meaning "final victory". It has to be noted that there are
two kinds of "finvenkismo"–"desubismo" and "desuprismo"; the first
aims to spread
Esperanto between ordinary people ("desube", from
below) aiming to form a steadily growing community of Esperanto
speakers. The second aims to act from above ("desupre"), beginning
with politicians. Zamenhof considered the first way to have a better
perspective, as "for such affairs as ours, governments come with their
approval and help usually only, when everything is already completely
Those who focus on the intrinsic value of the language are commonly
called raŭmistoj, from Rauma, Finland, where a declaration on the
short-term improbability of the "fina venko" and the value of
Esperanto culture was made at the International Youth Congress in
1980. However the "Manifesto de Raŭmo" clearly mentions the
intention to further spread the language: "We want to spread Esperanto
to put into effect its positive values more and more, step by
In 1996 the Prague Manifesto was adopted at the annual congress of the
World Esperanto Association
World Esperanto Association (UEA); it was subscribed by individual
participants and later by other
Symbols and flags
The verda stelo
The jubilea simbolo
The earliest flag, and the one most commonly used today, features a
green five-pointed star against a white canton, upon a field of green.
It was proposed to Zamenhof by Irishman Richard Geoghegan, author of
Esperanto textbook for English speakers, in 1887. The flag
was approved in 1905 by delegates to the first conference of
Esperantists at Boulogne-sur-Mer. A version with an "E" superimposed
over the green star is sometimes seen. Other variants include that for
Christian Esperantists, with a white
Christian cross superimposed upon
the green star, and that for Leftists, with the color of the field
changed from green to red.
In 1987, a second flag design was chosen in a contest organized by the
UEA celebrating the first centennial of the language. It featured a
white background with two stylised curved "E"s facing each other.
Dubbed the "jubilea simbolo" (jubilee symbol), it attracted
criticism from some Esperantists, who dubbed it the "melono" (melon)
because of the design's elliptical shape. It is still in use, though
to a lesser degree than the traditional symbol, known as the "verda
stelo" (green star).
Esperanto has been placed in many proposed political situations. The
most popular of these is the Europe–Democracy–Esperanto, which
aims to establish
Esperanto as the official language of the European
Union. Grin's Report, published in 2005 by François Grin, found that
the use of English as the lingua franca within the European Union
costs billions annually and significantly benefits English-speaking
countries financially. The report considered a scenario where
Esperanto would be the lingua franca, and found that it would have
many advantages, particularly economically speaking, as well as
Esperanto writer Nikolai Nekrasov was arrested during the
Stalinist repressions of the late 1930s, accused of being "an
organizer and leader of a fascist, espionage, terrorist organization
of Esperantists", and executed on 4 October 1938. Another Esperanto
Vladimir Varankin was executed on 3 October 1938.
Esperanto has served an important role in several religions, such as
Oomoto from Japan and the
Bahá'í Faith from Iran, and has been
encouraged by others, like some
Oomoto religion encourages the use of
Esperanto among its
followers and includes Zamenhof as one of its deified spirits.
Bahá'í Faith encourages the use of an auxiliary international
language. The Baha'i's believe that it will not be the language of the
future, although it has great potential in this role, as it has not
been chosen by the people.
`Abdu'l-Bahá praised the ideal of
Esperanto, and there was an affinity between Esperantists and
Bahá'ís during the late 19th century and early 20th
On February 12, 1913,
`Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk to the Paris Esperanto
Now, praise be to God that Dr. Zamenhof has invented the Esperanto
language. It has all the potential qualities of becoming the
international means of communication. All of us must be grateful and
thankful to him for this noble effort; for in this way he has served
his fellowmen well. With untiring effort and self-sacrifice on the
part of its devotees
Esperanto will become universal. Therefore every
one of us must study this language and spread it as far as possible so
that day by day it may receive a broader recognition, be accepted by
all nations and governments of the world, and become a part of the
curriculum in all the public schools. I hope that
Esperanto will be
adopted as the language of all the future international conferences
and congresses, so that all people need acquire only two
languages—one their own tongue and the other the international
language. Then perfect union will be established between all the
people of the world. Consider how difficult it is today to communicate
with various nations. If one studies fifty languages one may yet
travel through a country and not know the language. Therefore I hope
that you will make the utmost effort, so that this language of
Esperanto may be widely spread
Lidia Zamenhof, daughter of L. L. Zamenhof, became a Bahá'í around
1925. James Ferdinand Morton, Jr., an early member of the
Bahá'í Faith in Greater Boston, was vice-president of the Esperanto
League for North America. Ehsan Yarshater, the founding editor of
Encyclopædia Iranica, notes how as a child in
Iran he learned
Esperanto and that when his mother was visiting Haifa on a Bahá'í
pilgrimage he wrote her a letter in Persian as well as Esperanto.
At the request of 'Abdu’l-Baha,
Agnes Baldwin Alexander became an
early advocate of
Esperanto and used it to spread the Bahá’í
teachings at meetings and conferences in Japan.
Today there exists an active sub-community of Bahá'í Esperantists
and various volumes of
Bahá'í literature have been translated into
Esperanto. In 1973, the
Bahá'í Esperanto-League for active Bahá'í
Esperanto was founded.
In 1908, spiritist Camilo Chaigneau wrote an article named "Spiritism
and Esperanto" in the periodic La Vie d'Outre-Tombe recommending the
Esperanto in a "central magazine" for all spiritists and
Esperanto then became actively promoted by spiritists,
at least in Brazil, initially by Ismael Gomes Braga and František
Lorenz; the latter is known in
Brazil as Francisco Valdomiro Lorenz,
and was a pioneer of both spiritist and
Esperantist movements in this
Spiritist Federation publishes
translations of Spiritism's basic books, and encourages Spiritists to
The first translation of the
Esperanto was a translation of
Tanakh or Old Testament done by L. L. Zamenhof. The translation
was reviewed and compared with other languages' translations by a
group of British clergy and scholars before its publication at the
British and Foreign
Bible Society in 1910. In 1926 this was published
along with a New Testament translation, in an edition commonly called
the "Londona Biblio". In the 1960s, the Internacia Asocio de
Bibliistoj kaj Orientalistoj tried to organize a new, ecumenical
Bible version. Since then, the Dutch Remonstrant pastor
Gerrit Berveling has translated the
Deuterocanonical or apocryphal
books in addition to new translations of the Gospels, some of the New
Testament epistles, and some books of the
Tanakh or Old Testament.
These have been published in various separate booklets, or serialized
in Dia Regno, but the
Deuterocanonical books have appeared in recent
editions of the Londona Biblio.
Esperanto during the 95th
World Congress of Esperanto
World Congress of Esperanto in
Esperanto organizations include two that were formed early
in the history of Esperanto:
1910—The International Union of Catholic Esperantists. Two Roman
Catholic popes, John Paul II and Benedict XVI, have regularly used
Esperanto in their multilingual urbi et orbi blessings at Easter and
Christmas each year since Easter 1994.
1911—The International League of Christian Esperantists.
Individual churches using
Esperanto Society, with activities as described in an issue
of "The Friend"
Christadelphian publications in Esperanto.
There are instances of Christian apologists and teachers who use
Esperanto as a medium. Nigerian pastor Bayo Afolaranmi's "Spirita
nutraĵo" (spiritual food) Yahoo mailing list, for example, has hosted
weekly messages since 2003.
Chick Publications, publisher of Protestant fundamentalist themed
evangelistic tracts, has published a number of comic book style tracts
Jack T. Chick
Jack T. Chick translated into Esperanto, including "This Was Your
Life!" ("Jen Via Tuta Vivo!")
Book of Mormon
Book of Mormon has been partially translated into Esperanto,
although the translation has not been officially endorsed by The
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Ayatollah Khomeini of
Iran called on Muslims to learn
praised its use as a medium for better understanding among peoples of
different religious backgrounds. After he suggested that Esperanto
replace English as an international lingua franca, it began to be used
in the seminaries of Qom. An
Esperanto translation of the Qur'an was
published by the state shortly thereafter.
Main article: Esperantido
Esperanto itself has changed little since the publication of
Fundamento de Esperanto
Fundamento de Esperanto (Foundation of Esperanto), a number of
reform projects have been proposed over the years, starting with
Zamenhof's proposals in 1894 and Ido in 1907. Several later
constructed languages, such as Universal, were based on Esperanto.
In modern times, attempts have been made to eliminate perceived sexism
in the language, such as Riism.
See also: Zamenhof-
There are some geographical and astronomical features named after
Esperanto, or after its creator L. L. Zamenhof. These include
Esperanto Island in
Zed Islands off Livingston Island, and the
1421 Esperanto and
1462 Zamenhof discovered by Finnish
Esperantist Yrjö Väisälä.
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Esperanto and Ido
Esperanto and Interlingua
Esperanto and Novial
Distributed Language Translation
Encyclopedias in Esperanto
Esperantic Studies Foundation
List of largest languages without official status
North American Summer
(English) Semajno de Kulturo Internacia
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archived from the original on 2011-11-19, But in terms of invented
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that's a major accomplishment as compared to the 900 or so other
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^ a b "Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj (AIS) San-Marino".
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^ The letter is quoted in Esperanto: The New Latin for the Church and
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^ "Anarkiistoj estis inter la pioniroj de la disvastigo de Esperanto.
En 1905 fondiĝis en Stokholmo la unua anarkiisma Esperanto-grupo.
Sekvis multaj aliaj: en Bulgario, Ĉinio kaj aliaj landoj. Anarkiistoj
kaj anarki-sindikatistoj, kiuj antaŭ la Unua Mondmilito apartenis al
la nombre plej granda grupo inter la proletaj esperantistoj, fondis en
1906 la internacian ligon Paco-Libereco, kiu eldonis la Internacian
Socian Revuon. Paco-libereco unuiĝis en 1910 kun alia progresema
asocio, Esperantista Laboristaro. La komuna organizaĵo nomiĝis
Liberiga Stelo. Ĝis 1914 tiu organizaĵo eldonis multe da revolucia
literaturo en Esperanto, interalie ankaŭ anarkiisma. Tial povis
evolui en la jaroj antaŭ la Unua Mondmilito ekzemple vigla
korespondado inter eŭropaj kaj japanaj anarkiistoj. En 1907 la
Internacia Anarkiisma Kongreso en Amsterdamo faris rezolucion pri la
afero de internacia lingvo, kaj venis dum la postaj jaroj similaj
kongresaj rezolucioj. Esperantistoj, kiuj partoprenis tiujn
kongresojn, okupiĝis precipe pri la internaciaj rilatoj de la
anarkiistoj.""ESPERANTO KAJ ANARKIISMO" by Will Firth
^ Sutton, Geoffrey (2008). Concise Encyclopedia of the Original
Literature of Esperanto, 1887–2007. Mondial. pp. 161–162.
ISBN 978-1-59569-090-6. LCCN 2008023213.
OCLC 230802330. OL 12559707W. Hitler specifically attacked
Esperanto as a threat in a speech in Munich (1922) and in
Mein Kampf itself (1925). The Nazi Minister for Education
banned the teaching of
Esperanto on 17 May 1935 ... all
Esperantists were essentially enemies of the state, serving through
their language Jewish‑internationalist aims.
^ "About ESW and the Holocaust Museum". Esperantodc.org. 1995-12-05.
Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved
^ Lins, Ulrich (1988). Die gefährliche Sprache. Gerlingen: Bleicher.
p. 112. ISBN 3-88350-023-2.
^ a b Lins, Ulrich (2008). "
Esperanto as language and idea in China
and Japan" (PDF). Language Problems and Language Planning. John
Benjamins. 32 (1): 47–60. doi:10.1075/lplp.32.1.05lin.
ISSN 0272-2690. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December
2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
^ "Donald J. Harlow, The
Esperanto Book, chapter 7". Literaturo.org.
^ Leon Trotsky. "Chapter IV: The period of reaction: Leon Trotsky:
Stalin –An appraisal of the man and his influence (1940)".
Marxists.org. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
^ Ulrich Lins: Die gefährliche Sprache. Die Verfolgung der
Esperantisten unter Hitler und Stalin. Bleicher: Gerlingen, 1988, p.
220 and elsewhere.
^ "La utilización del esperanto durante la Guerra Civil Española".
Nodo50.org. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
^ Lins, Ulrich (2017-02-10). Dangerous Language —
Hitler and Stalin. Springer. ISBN 9781137549174.
^ Michael Byram and Adelheid Hu: Routledge Encyclopedia of Language
Teaching and Learning. 2nd edition. Taylor and Francis, Hoboken 2013,
ISBN 978-1-136-23554-2, page 229.
Anarchism The Anarchist Library".
theanarchistlibrary.org. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
^ "What is Esperanto?". Republic of Molossia. 226 Mary Lane, Dayton,
Nevada, United States. Archived from the original on 2017-07-06.
Esperanto is the second language of the Republic
China Interreta Informa Centro-esperanto.china.org.cn".
^ h"Radio Vatikana". Archived from the original on 2016-02-11.
^ "The Maneuver Enemy website". Kafejo.com. 2004-06-02. Retrieved
Esperanto language". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved
^ a b "An Update on Esperanto". New York: Universala
Esperanto‑Asocio. Archived from the original on 2016-02-05. Based on
the number of textbooks sold and membership ..., the number of
people with some knowledge of
Esperanto is in the hundreds of
thousands and possibly millions. ... In 1954 ...
UNESCO ... recognised that the achievements of
UNESCO’s aims and ideals, and official relations were established
UNESCO and UEA.
^ Report on the international petition in favour of Esperanto, Unesco,
1st June 1954
^ "World Government Documents (Personal)". Worldservice.org. Retrieved
14 January 2015.
^ Saul Levin, 1993. "Can an Artificial Language Be More than a Hobby?
The Linguistic and Sociological Obstacles". In Ian Richmond (ed.)
Aspects of internationalism: language & culture.
^ The Christian Century, 1930, 47:846
^ "(...) ni esperas, ke pli aŭ malpli frue, eble post multaj
Sur neŭtrala lingva fundamento,
Komprenante unu la alian,
La popoloj faros en konsento
Unu grandan rondon familian." L. L. Zamenhof. Kongresaj paroladoj.
Jekaterinburg (Ruslanda Esperantisto). 1995, p. 23–24
^ These letters occasionally have these values in English as well, for
example the j in hallelujah, Jarlsberg, or Jägermeister, and the c in
the name of composer Penderecki, Czech president Václav Havel, or the
^ Amiketo and Tajpi are keyboard layouts which support the Esperanto
alphabet for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux
^ "Esperanta Klavaro". windowsphone.com.
^ "Critiche all'esperanto ed alle altre lingue internazionali".
Parracomumangi.altervista.org. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
^ Wexler, Paul (2002). Two-tiered
Relexification in Yiddish: Jews,
Sorbs, Khazars, and the Kiev-Polessian Dialect. De Gruyter Mouton.
^ Bernard Spolsky,The Languages of the Jews: A Sociolinguistic
Cambridge University Press, 2014 pp.157,180ff. p.183
^ Blanke, Detlev (1985). "Internationale Plansprachen. Eine
Einführung" [International Planned Languages. An Introduction].
Sammlung Akademie-Verlag. Akademie-Verlag. ISSN 0138-550X.
^ Laŭ la komuna opinio de gvidaj fakuloj de la Instituto, Esperanto
apartenas al la kategorio de vivaj lingvoj. Pli detale traktante la
temon, konsiderante la historion kaj la nunan staton de Esperanto, a.)
ĝi estas grandmezure normigita, b.) amplekse sociiĝinta, c.) ne-etna
viva lingvo, kiu en sekundara lingva komunumo plenumas ĉiujn eblajn
lingvajn funkciojn, kaj samtempe ĝi funkcias kiel pera
lingvo. – Ĉi supre diritaj respegulas la sciencan starpunkton
de nia Instituto. "Malgranda fina venko". El Hungario
^ Le Defi des Langues by Claude Piron. Harmattan, 1994.
^ "Similar languages to Esperanto". www.ezglot.com. Retrieved 6
^ Bertilo (in Esperanto)
^  (in Italian)
^ Kalocsay & Waringhien, Plena analiza gramatiko (1985:73)
^ Kalocsay & Waringhien (1985) Plena analiza gramatiko de
Esperanto, § 17, 22
^ "PMEG - Bazaj elparolaj reguloj - Konsonanta variado". PMEG.
Fundamento de Esperanto
Fundamento de Esperanto - Gramatiko Franca". Akademio de
Fundamento de Esperanto
Fundamento de Esperanto - Gramatiko Angla". Akademio de
^ Maire Mullarney Everyone's Own Language, p147, Nitobe Press, Channel
^ La Bona Lingvo, Claude Piron. Vienna: Pro Esperanto, 1989. La lingvo
volas eleganti, ne elefanti. "The language wants to be elegant, not
Esperanto en universitatoj". Uea.Org. 2003-04-17. Archived from the
original on 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
^ "enhavo". Web.archive.org. 2009-10-27. Archived from the original on
2009-10-27. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
^ "Elte Btk". Webcitation.org. Archived from the original on October
25, 2009. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
^ "Diploma in
Interlinguistics (ESPERANTO)". Archived from the
original on 2012-04-18.
^ "Atividade Legislativa – Projetos e Matrias" (in Portuguese).
Senado.gov.br. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
^ "PL 6162/2009 – Projetos de Lei e Outras Proposições – Câmara
dos Deputados" (in Portuguese). Camara.gov.br. Retrieved 14 January
^ "Entidades manifestam apoio à proposta de incluir ensino de
Esperanto na grade de disciplinas da rede pública". Senado Federal
Portal de Notícias (in Portuguese). Retrieved 14 January
Esperanto four times easier to learn?". Esperanto-USA. Retrieved
^ Piron, Claude: "The hidden perverse effect of the current system of
international communication", published lecture notes
^ Flochon, Bruno, 2000, « L'espéranto », in Gauthier, Guy
(ed.) Langues: une guerre à mort, Panoramiques. 4e trim. 48: 89–95.
Cited in François Grin, L'enseignement des langues étrangères comme
politique publique (French)
^ "Springboard to Languages". Springboard2languages.org. Retrieved
^ Report: Article in Enciklopedio de Esperanto, volume I, p.436, on
the pedagogic value of Esperanto.
^ Report: Christian Rudmick, The Wellesley College Danish-Esperanto
^ Report: Edward Thorndike, Language Learning. Bureau of Publications
of Teachers College, 1933. Interlingua.org
^ Helen S. Eaton, "The Educational Value of an Artificial Language."
The Modern Language Journal, #12, pp. 87–94 (1927).
Blackwellpublishing.com Archived 2009-07-03 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Protocols of the annual November meetings in Paderborn
"Laborkonferencoj: Interlingvistiko en Scienco kaj Klerigo" (Working
Science and Education), which can be
obtained from the Institute of Pedagogic Cybernetics in Paderborn.
Also in the works by Frank, Lobin, Geisler, and Meder.
^ "Study International Language (known as Esperanto) Commission,
Interministerial Decree" (PDF). Internacialingovo.org. 1993. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 9 July 2011. Retrieved 14 January
^ Bishop, Alan J. (1997). "Ekparoli Project Report 1994–1997".
Clayton, Australia: Monash University. Archived from the original on
^ Williams, N. (1965) 'A language teaching experiment', Canadian
Modern Language Review 22.1: 26–28
^ Byram, Michael (2001). Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching
and Learning. Routledge. p. 464. ISBN 0-415-33286-9.
^ a b Sikosek, Ziko M.
Esperanto Sen Mitoj ("
Myths"). Second edition. Antwerp: Flandra Esperanto-Ligo, 2003.
^ "Afrika Agado" (in Esperanto). Pagesperso-orange.fr. Archived from
the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
^ Svend Vendelbo Nielsen (September 24, 2017). "Explaining the density
Esperanto speakers with language and politics". Kalkulinda.
Retrieved October 7, 2017.
^ Culbert, Sidney S. Three letters about his method for estimating the
Esperanto speakers, scanned and HTMLized by David Wolff
^ "Number of Esperantists (methods)". Panix.com. Retrieved
^ "Nova takso: 60.000 parolas Esperanton" [New estimate: 60.000 speak
Esperanto] (in Esperanto). Libera Folio. 2017-02-13. Retrieved
Ethnologue report for language code:epo". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved
Jouko Lindstedt (January 2006). "Native
Esperanto as a Test Case for
Natural Language" (PDF). University of Helsinki—Department of
Slavonic and Baltic Languages and Literatures.
Ethnologue (15th ed., 2005)
Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
^ Corsetti, Renato (1996). A mother tongue spoken mainly by fathers.
Language Problems and Language Planning 20: 3, 263–73
^ "China's first
Esperanto museum opens". Xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 14
^ Ellemberg, Enrique (2014-06-08) [1st pub. 1996].
Esperanto Koresponda Servo". Fremont, California:
Archived from the original on 2016-01-11.
^ Ziko van Dijk. Sed homoj kun homoj: Universalaj Kongresoj de
Esperanto 1905–2005. Rotterdam: UEA, 2005.
^ Szilvási László. "International
Esperanto meetings". Eventoj.hu.
^ "musicexpress.com.br". Musicexpress.com.br. Retrieved 14 January
^ Auld, William. La Fenomeno
Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1988.
^ Update 79, oct. 2017, p. 2,
Esperanto Association of Britain (EAB)
^ Polish Intangible Cultural Heritage List, Narodowy Instytut
Dziedzictwa (Polish national heritage institute), p. 14-15, 2014.
^ a b Peter Glover Forster (1982). The
Esperanto Movement. Walter de
Gruyter. p. 181. ISBN 978-90-279-3399-7.
^ "Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj rande de pereo". Libera Folio
(in Esperanto). 2011-09-05. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ Frank, Helmar; Fössmeier, Reinhard (2000). AIS — La Akademio
Internacia de la Sciencoj
San Marino / Die Internationale Akademie der
Wissenschaften San Marino. Institut für Kybernetik. p. 449.
^ "PARIS BUSINESS MEN WOULD USE ESPERANTO; Chamber of Commerce
Committee Finds It Useful as a Code in International Trade". The New
York Times. 16 February 1921. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
^ Feeney, Mark (1999-05-12). "Esperanto: A surprising 2 million
speakers worldwide get their words' worth; from the 'planned language'
created in the 19th century". The Boston Globe. p. F01.
ISSN 0743-1791. (Subscription required (help)). Esperantists
speak of the fina venko, or ‘final victory’. The concept
is that eventually every moderately educated person ... will know
Esperanto enough to ... order a cup of coffee ...
^ "La celo, por kiu ni laboras, povas esti atingita per du vojoj: aŭ
per laborado de homoj privataj, t.e. de la popolaj amasoj, aŭ per
dekreto de la registaroj. Plej kredeble nia afero estos atingita per
la vojo unua, ĉar al tia afero, kiel nia, la registaroj venas kun sia
sankcio kaj helpo ordinare nur tiam, kiam ĉio estas jam tute preta."
L. L. Zamenhof. Speech in Washington. 1910
^ Silfer, Giorgio (1999). "Kion signifas Raŭmismo". La Ondo de
Esperanto (in Esperanto). Kaliningrad, Russia. Archived from the
original on 2002-05-30.
^ "Ni celas disvastigi Esperanton por pli kaj pli, iom post iom
realigi ĝiajn pozitivajn valorojn". Manifesto de Raŭmo
^ "Flags of Esperanto". Flagspot.net. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
Esperanto flag: The jubilee symbol". Fotw.net. Retrieved
Esperanto flag". Fotw.net. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
Esperanto portal". Oomoto.or.jp. Retrieved
^ "The Baha'i Faith and Esperanto". Bahaa Esperanto-Ligo ( B.E.L. ).
Archived from the original on 2006-10-17. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Zamenhof, Lidia". A concise encyclopedia of
the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 368.
^ a b c Smith, Peter (2000). "Esperanto". A concise encyclopedia of
the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 134–135.
^ Esslemont, J.E. (1980) . "Universal Language". Bahá'u'lláh
and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í
Publishing Trust. p. 165. ISBN 0-87743-160-4.
Esther (1999). "Morton, Jr., James Ferdinand (1870-1941)". The
Margaret Sanger Papers Electronic Edition: Margaret Sanger and The
Woman Rebel, 1914-1916. Model Editions Partnership. Retrieved June 6,
^ "Interview with Professor Ehsan Yarshater, the Founder and Editor of
Encyclopedia Iranica". Payvand News. March 25, 2016. Retrieved May 22,
^ (in Portuguese) O Espiritismo e o
^ "Uma só língua, uma só bandeira, um só pastor:
Brazil by David Pardue" (PDF). University of Kansas
Libraries. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-23. Retrieved
^ "La Sankta Biblio – "Londona text"". Archived from the
original on 2006-12-22. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
^ "Linguistic Democracy - Christmas 2010, Benedict XVI and Radicals:
the use of
Esperanto remains to be the only thing in common".
^ Eric Walker (27 May 2005). "
Esperanto Lives On". The Friend.
^ Botten J. The Captive Conscience 2002 p.110 re.
Christadelphians in Tsarist Russia.
^ "Internacia Biblio-Misio". Biblio-misio.org. Retrieved
^ Bayo Afolaranmi. "Spirita nutraĵo" (in Esperanto). Retrieved
Esperanto "This Was Your Life"". Chick.com. Retrieved
^ "ELEKTITAJ ĈAPITROJ EL LA LIBRO DE MORMON". Retrieved 6 October
^ "Esperanto – Have any governments opposed Esperanto?". Donald
J. Harlow. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009. Retrieved
Iran (in Persian)". Porneniu. Retrieved
Esperanto Island". Data.aad.gov.au. Retrieved 14 January
Emily van Someren. Republication of the thesis 'The EU Language
Regime, Lingual and Translational Problems'.
Ludovikologia dokumentaro I Tokyo: Ludovikito, 1991. Facsimile
reprints of the
Unua Libro in Russian, Polish, French, German, English
and Swedish, with the earliest
Esperanto dictionaries for those
Fundamento de Esperanto. HTML reprint of 1905 Fundamento, from the
Academy of Esperanto.
Esperanto Lessons. Including the alphabet, adjectives, nouns, plural,
gender, numbers, phrases, grammar, vocabulary, verbs, exam, audio, and
Auld, William. La Fenomeno
Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1988.
Butler, Montagu C. Step by Step in Esperanto. ELNA 1965/1991.
DeSoto, Clinton (1936). 200 Meters and Down. West Hartford,
Connecticut, US: American Radio Relay League, p. 92.
Crystal, David, article "Esperanto" in The New Penguin Encyclopedia,
Penguin Books, 2002.
Crystal, David, How Language Works (pages 424–5), Penguin Books,
2006. ISBN 978-0-14-101552-1.
Everson, Michael. "The Alphabets of Europe: Esperanto"
(PDF). (25.4 KB). Evertype, 2001.
Forster, Peter G. The
Esperanto Movement. The Hague: Mouton
Publishers, 1982. ISBN 90-279-3399-5.
Gledhill, Christopher. The
Grammar of Esperanto: A Corpus-Based
Description. Second edition. Lincom Europa, 2000.
Harlow, Don. The
Esperanto Book. Self-published on the web
Okrent, Arika. In the Land of Invented Languages.
Wells, John. Lingvistikaj aspektoj de
Esperanto ("Linguistic aspects
of Esperanto"). Second edition. Rotterdam: Universala
Zamenhof, Ludovic Lazarus, Dr. Esperanto's International Language:
Introduction & Complete
Grammar The original 1887 Unua Libro,
English translation by Richard H. Geoghegan; HTML online version 2006.
Print edition (2007) also available from ELNA or UEA.
Patterson, Robert; Huff, Stanley M. (November 1999), "The Decline and
Fall of Esperanto", Journal of the American Medical Informatics
Association, 6 (6): 444–446, doi:10.1136/jamia.1999.0060444,
PMC 61387 , PMID 10579602
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