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Elijah
Elijah
(/ɪˈlaɪdʒə/; ih-LY-jə; Hebrew: אֱלִיָּהוּ‬, Eliyahu, meaning "My God
God
is Yahu/Jah"[1][2]) or Elias
Elias
(/ɪˈlaɪəs/ ih-LY-əs; Greek: Ἡλίας Elías; Syriac: ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ‎ Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel[3] during the reign of King Ahab
King Ahab
(9th century BC), according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible. In 1 Kings 18, Elijah
Elijah
defended the worship of the Jewish God
God
over that of the Canaanite deity Baal. God also performed many miracles through Elijah, including resurrection (raising the dead), bringing fire down from the sky, and entering Heaven alive "by fire".[4] He is also portrayed as leading a school of prophets known as "the sons of the prophets".[5] Following his ascension, Elisha
Elisha
his disciple and most devoted assistant took over his role as leader of this school. The Book of Malachi
Book of Malachi
prophesies Elijah's return "before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD",[6] making him a harbinger of the Messiah
Messiah
and of the eschaton in various faiths that revere the Hebrew Bible. References to Elijah
Elijah
appear in Ecclesiasticus, the New Testament, the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud, the Quran, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and Bahá'í writings. In Judaism, Elijah's name is invoked at the weekly Havdalah
Havdalah
ritual that marks the end of Shabbat, and Elijah
Elijah
is invoked in other Jewish customs, among them the Passover Seder
Passover Seder
and the brit milah (ritual circumcision). He appears in numerous stories and references in the Haggadah
Haggadah
and rabbinic literature, including the Babylonian Talmud. The Christian
Christian
New Testament[7] notes that some people thought that Jesus
Jesus
was, in some sense, Elijah. But Jesus
Jesus
makes it clear that John the Baptist is "the Elijah" who was promised to come in Malachi
Malachi
3:23 in the Septuagint. ( Malachi
Malachi
4:5)[8] Elijah
Elijah
appears with Moses
Moses
during the Transfiguration of Jesus. Elijah
Elijah
is also a figure in various Christian
Christian
folk traditions, at times identified with earlier pagan thunder or sky gods. In Islam, Elijah
Elijah
appears in the Quran
Quran
as a prophet and messenger of God, where his biblical narrative of preaching against the worshipers of Baal
Baal
is recounted in a concise form.[9] Due to his importance to Muslims, Catholics and Orthodox Christians, Elijah
Elijah
has been venerated as the patron saint of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
since 1752.

Contents

1 Biblical
Biblical
accounts

1.1 1st and 2nd Kings

1.1.1 Widow of Zarephath 1.1.2 Challenge to Baal 1.1.3 Mount Horeb 1.1.4 Vineyard of Naboth 1.1.5 Ahaziah 1.1.6 Departure

1.2 Final mention: 2nd Chronicles 1.3 The Christian
Christian
end of Elijah
Elijah
in Malachi 1.4 One theory of textual analysis

2 In the Aggadah, Talmud, and Extra-canonical Books

2.1 Origin 2.2 Elijah's zeal for God 2.3 Ecclesiasticus

3 Elijah
Elijah
in Judaism

3.1 Elijah's chair 3.2 Elijah's cup 3.3 Havdalah

4 Elijah
Elijah
in Jewish folklore

4.1 Rabbi
Rabbi
Joshua
Joshua
ben Levi 4.2 Rabbi
Rabbi
Eliezer 4.3 Lilith

5 Elijah
Elijah
in Christianity

5.1 References in the New Testament

5.1.1 John the Baptist 5.1.2 Jesus
Jesus
Christ 5.1.3 Transfiguration 5.1.4 Other references

5.2 Prophet
Prophet
saint

5.2.1 Carmelite tradition 5.2.2 Liturgical commemorations 5.2.3 Pagan associations and mountaintops

5.3 Elijah
Elijah
and Elias
Elias
in the LDS Church

6 Elijah
Elijah
in Islam

6.1 Quran 6.2 Literature
Literature
and tradition

7 Elijah
Elijah
in the Bahá'i Faith 8 Controversies

8.1 Miracle
Miracle
of the ravens 8.2 Ascension into the heavens 8.3 Return

9 Elijah
Elijah
in arts and literature 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography

12.1 History 12.2 Folklore and tradition 12.3 Children's literature 12.4 References in the Qur'an

13 External links

Biblical
Biblical
accounts[edit]

Map of Israel
Israel
as it was in the 9th century BC. Blue is the Kingdom of Israel. Golden yellow is the Kingdom of Judah.

According to the Bible, by the 9th century BC, the Kingdom of Israel, once united under Solomon, was divided into the northern Kingdom of Israel
Israel
and southern Kingdom of Judah, which retained the historical capital of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
along with its Temple. However, scholars today are divided as to whether the united Kingdom under Solomon
Solomon
ever existed.[10] Omri, King of Israel, continued policies dating from the reign of Jeroboam, contrary to religious law, that were intended to reorient religious focus away from Jerusalem: encouraging the building of local temple altars for sacrifices, appointing priests from outside the family of the Levites, and allowing or encouraging temples dedicated to Baal, an important deity in ancient Canaanite religion.[11][12] Omri
Omri
achieved domestic security with a marriage alliance between his son Ahab
Ahab
and princess Jezebel, a priestess of Baal
Baal
and the daughter of the king of Sidon
Sidon
in Phoenicia.[13] These solutions brought security and economic prosperity to Israel
Israel
for a time,[14] but did not bring peace with the Israelite prophets, who were interested in a strict deuteronomic interpretation of the religious law. Under Ahab's kingship, these tensions were exacerbated. Ahab
Ahab
built a temple for Baal, and his wife Jezebel
Jezebel
brought a large entourage of priests and prophets of Baal
Baal
and Asherah
Asherah
into the country. It is in this context that Elijah
Elijah
is introduced in 1 Kings 17:1 as Elijah
Elijah
"the Tishbite". He warns Ahab
Ahab
that there will be years of catastrophic drought so severe that not even dew will form, because Ahab
Ahab
and his queen stand at the end of a line of kings of Israel
Israel
who are said to have "done evil in the sight of the Lord." 1st and 2nd Kings[edit]

Elijah
Elijah
in the wilderness, by Washington Allston.

No background for the person of Elijah
Elijah
is given except for his brief description as being a "Tishbite." His name in Hebrew means "My God
God
is Yahweh", and may be a title applied to him because of his challenge to worship of Baal.[15][16][17][18][19] As told in the Hebrew Bible, Elijah's challenge is bold and direct. Baal
Baal
was the Canaanite god responsible for rain, thunder, lightning, and dew. Elijah
Elijah
not only challenges Baal
Baal
on behalf of God
God
himself, but he also challenges Jezebel, her priests, Ahab
Ahab
and the people of Israel.[20] Widow of Zarephath[edit] Main article: Raising of the son of the widow of Zarephath After Elijah's confrontation with Ahab, God
God
tells him to flee out of Israel, to a hiding place by the brook Chorath, east of the Jordan, where he will be fed by ravens.[21] When the brook dries up, God
God
sends him to a widow living in the town of Zarephath in Phoenicia. When Elijah
Elijah
finds her and asks to be fed, she says that she does not have sufficient food to keep her and her own son alive. Elijah
Elijah
tells her that God
God
will not allow her supply of flour or oil to run out, saying, “Do not be afraid ... For thus says the Lord the God
God
of Israel: The jar of meal will not be emptied and the jug of oil will not fail until the day that the Lord sends rain on the earth.”[22] She feeds him the last of their food, and Elijah's promise miraculously comes true. God
God
gave her "manna" from heaven even while he was withholding food from his unfaithful people in the promised land. Some time later the widow's son dies and the widow cries, "You have come to me to bring my sin to remembrance, and to cause the death of my son!"[23] Elijah prays that God
God
might restore her son so that the trustworthiness of God's word might be demonstrated. 1 Kings 17:22 relates how God "listened to the voice of Elijah; the life of the child came into him again, and he revived."[24] This is the first instance of raising the dead recorded in Scripture. This non-Israelite widow was granted the life of her son, the only hope for a widow in ancient society. The widow cried, "...the word of the Lord in your mouth is truth."[25] She made a confession that the Israelites
Israelites
had failed to make. After more than three years of drought and famine, God
God
tells Elijah
Elijah
to return to Ahab
Ahab
and announce the end of the drought: not occasioned by repentance in Israel
Israel
but by the command of the Lord, who had determined to reveal himself again to his people. While on his way, Elijah
Elijah
meets Obadiah, the head of Ahab's household, who had hidden a hundred Jewish prophets when Ahab
Ahab
and Jezebel
Jezebel
had been killing them. Elijah
Elijah
sends Obadiah
Obadiah
back to Ahab
Ahab
to announce his return to Israel. Challenge to Baal[edit]

A statue of Elijah
Elijah
in the Cave of Elijah, Mount Carmel, Israel.

Elijah's offering is consumed by fire from heaven in a stained glass window at St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church
St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church
in Charleston, South Carolina

When Ahab
Ahab
confronts Elijah, he refers to him as the "troubler of Israel." Elijah
Elijah
responds by throwing the charge back at Ahab, saying that it is Ahab
Ahab
who has troubled Israel
Israel
by allowing the worship of false gods. Elijah
Elijah
then berates both the people of Israel
Israel
and Ahab
Ahab
for their acquiescence in Baal
Baal
worship. "How long will you go limping with two different opinions? If the Lord is God, follow him; but if Baal, then follow him."[26] And the people were silent. The Hebrew for this word, "go limping" or "waver", is the same as that used for "danced" in verse 26, where the prophets of Baal
Baal
frantically dance. Elijah speaks with sharp irony: in the religious ambivalence of Israel. Elijah
Elijah
proposes a direct test of the powers of Baal
Baal
and the Jewish God. The people of Israel, 450 prophets of Baal, and 400 prophets of Asherah
Asherah
are summoned to Mount Carmel. Two altars are built, one for Baal
Baal
and one for God. Wood
Wood
is laid on the altars. Two oxen are slaughtered and cut into pieces; the pieces are laid on the wood. Elijah
Elijah
then invites the priests of Baal
Baal
to pray for fire to light the sacrifice. They pray from morning to noon without success. Elijah ridicules their efforts. "At noon Elijah
Elijah
mocked them, saying, ‘Cry aloud! Surely he is a god; either he is meditating, or he has wandered away, or he is on a journey, or perhaps he is asleep and must be awakened.’"[27] They respond by cutting themselves and adding their own blood to the sacrifice (such mutilation of the body was strictly forbidden in the Mosaic law). They continue praying until evening without success. Elijah
Elijah
now orders that the altar of his god be drenched with water from "four large jars" poured three times.[28] He asks God
God
to accept the sacrifice. Fire falls from the sky, consuming the water, the sacrifice and the stones of the altar itself as well. Elijah
Elijah
then orders the deaths of the priests of Baal. Elijah
Elijah
prays earnestly for rain to fall again on the land. Then the rains begin, signaling the end of the famine. Mount Horeb[edit] Jezebel, enraged that Elijah
Elijah
had ordered the deaths of her priests, threatens to kill Elijah.[29] Later Elijah
Elijah
would prophesy about Jezebel's death, because of her sin. Elijah
Elijah
flees to Beersheba
Beersheba
in Judah, continues alone into the wilderness, and finally sits down under a shrub, praying for death. He falls asleep under the tree; the angel of the Lord touches him and tells him to wake up and eat. When he awakens he finds bread and a jar of water. He eats, drinks, and goes back to sleep. The angel comes a second time and tells him to eat and drink because he has a long journey ahead of him. Elijah
Elijah
travels for forty days and forty nights to Mount Horeb, where Moses
Moses
had received the Ten Commandments. Elijah
Elijah
is the only person described in the Bible as returning to Horeb, after Moses
Moses
and his generation had left Horeb several centuries before. He seeks shelter in a cave. God
God
again speaks to Elijah:[30] "What doest thou here, Elijah?". Elijah
Elijah
did not give a direct answer to the Lord's question but evades and equivocates, implying that the work the Lord had begun centuries earlier had now come to nothing, and that his own work was fruitless. Unlike Moses, who tried to defend Israel
Israel
when they sinned with the golden calf, Elijah
Elijah
bitterly complains over the Israelites' unfaithfulness and says he is the "only one left". Up until this time Elijah
Elijah
has only the word of God
God
to guide him, but now he is told to go outside the cave and "stand before the Lord." A terrible wind passes, but God
God
is not in the wind. A great earthquake shakes the mountain, but God
God
is not in the earthquake. Then a fire passes the mountain, but God
God
is not in the fire. Then a "still small voice" comes to Elijah
Elijah
and asks again, "What doest thou here, Elijah?" Elijah
Elijah
again evades the question and his lament is unrevised, showing that he did not understand the importance of the divine revelation he had just witnessed. God
God
then sends him out again, this time to Damascus
Damascus
to anoint Hazael
Hazael
as king of Aram, Jehu
Jehu
as king of Israel, and Elisha
Elisha
as his replacement.

The Cave of Elijah, Mount Carmel, Israel.

Vineyard of Naboth[edit] Elijah
Elijah
encounters Ahab
Ahab
again in 1 Kings 21, after Ahab
Ahab
has acquired possession of a vineyard by murder. Ahab
Ahab
desires to have the vineyard of Naboth
Naboth
of Jezreel. He offers a better vineyard or a fair price for the land. But Naboth
Naboth
tells Ahab
Ahab
that God
God
has told him not to part with the land. Ahab
Ahab
accepts this answer with sullen bad grace. Jezebel, however, plots a method for acquiring the land. She sends letters, in Ahab's name, to the elders and nobles who lived near Naboth. They are to arrange a feast and invite Naboth. At the feast, false charges of cursing God
God
and Ahab
Ahab
are to be made against him. The plot is carried out and Naboth
Naboth
is stoned to death. When word comes that Naboth
Naboth
is dead, Jezebel
Jezebel
tells Ahab
Ahab
to take possession of the vineyard. God
God
again speaks to Elijah
Elijah
and sends him to confront Ahab
Ahab
with a question and a prophecy: "Have you killed, and also taken possession?" and, "In the place where dogs licked up the blood of Naboth, dogs will also lick up your blood."[31] Ahab
Ahab
begins the confrontation by calling Elijah
Elijah
his enemy. Elijah
Elijah
responds by throwing the charge back at him, telling him that he has made himself the enemy of God
God
by his own actions. Elijah
Elijah
then goes beyond the prophecy he was given and tells Ahab
Ahab
that his entire kingdom will reject his authority; that Jezebel will be eaten by dogs within Jezreel; and that his family will be consumed by dogs as well (if they die in a city) or by birds (if they die in the country). When Ahab
Ahab
hears this he repents to such a degree that God
God
relents in punishing Ahab
Ahab
but will punish Jezebel
Jezebel
and their son: Ahaziah. Ahaziah[edit]

Russian icon
Russian icon
of the Prophet
Prophet
Elijah, 18th century ( Iconostasis
Iconostasis
of Kizhi monastery, Karelia, Russia).

Elijah's story continues now from Ahab
Ahab
to an encounter with Ahaziah. The scene opens with Ahaziah seriously injured in a fall. He sends to the priests of Baalzebub in Ekron, outside the kingdom of Israel, to know if he will recover. Elijah
Elijah
intercepts his messengers and sends them back to Ahaziah with a message "Is it because there is no God
God
in Israel
Israel
that you are sending to inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron?"[32] Ahaziah asks the messengers to describe the person who gave them this message. They tell him he was a hairy man with a leather belt around his waist and he instantly recognizes the description as Elijah
Elijah
the Tishbite. Ahaziah sends out three groups of soldiers to arrest Elijah. The first two are destroyed by fire which Elijah
Elijah
calls down from heaven. The leader of the third group asks for mercy for himself and his men. Elijah
Elijah
agrees to accompany this third group to Ahaziah, where he gives his prophecy in person. Ahaziah dies without recovering from his injuries in accordance with Elijah's word.[33] Departure[edit]

Elijah
Elijah
Departure and Elisha, Russian Orthodox icon of 17th century

According to 2 Kings 2:3–9, Elisha
Elisha
(Eliseus) and "the sons of the prophets" knew beforehand that Elijah
Elijah
would one day be assumed into heaven. Elisha
Elisha
asked Elijah
Elijah
to "let a double portion" of Elijah's "spirit" be upon him. Elijah
Elijah
agreed, with the condition that Elisha would see him be "taken". Elijah, in company with Elisha, approaches the Jordan. He rolls up his mantle and strikes the water.[34] The water immediately divides and Elijah
Elijah
and Elisha
Elisha
cross on dry land. Suddenly, a chariot of fire and horses of fire appear and Elijah
Elijah
is lifted up in a whirlwind. As Elijah
Elijah
is lifted up, his mantle falls to the ground and Elisha
Elisha
picks it up. Final mention: 2nd Chronicles[edit]

Saint
Saint
Elias
Elias
in the cave (below) and on a chariot of fire. A fresco from Rila Monastery, Bulgaria, medieval Orthodox tradition, renovated 20th century

Elijah
Elijah
is mentioned once more in 2 Chronicles 21:12, which will be his final mention in the Hebrew Bible. A letter is sent under the prophet's name to Jehoram of Judah. It tells him that he has led the people of Judah astray in the same way that Israel
Israel
was led astray. The prophet ends the letter with a prediction of a painful death. This letter is a puzzle to readers for several reasons. First, it concerns a king of the southern kingdom, while Elijah
Elijah
concerned himself with the kingdom of Israel. Second, the message begins with "Thus says YHVH, God
God
of your father David..." rather than the more usual "...in the name of YHVH
YHVH
the God
God
of Israel." Also, this letter seems to come after Elijah's ascension into the whirlwind. Michael Wilcock, formerly of Trinity College, Bristol, suggests a number of possible reasons for this letter, among them that it may be an example of a better known prophet's name being substituted for that of a lesser known prophet.[35] John Van Seters, however, rejects the letter as having any connection with the Elijah
Elijah
tradition.[36] However, Wilcock argues that Elijah's letter, 'does address a very 'northern' situation in the southern kingdom', and thus is authentic.[37] The Christian
Christian
end of Elijah
Elijah
in Malachi[edit]

"Lo, I will send you the prophet Elijah
Elijah
before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes. He will turn the hearts of parents to their children and the hearts of children to their parents, so that I will not come and strike the land with a curse."

Malachi
Malachi
4:5–6, New Revised Standard Version

While the final mention of Elijah
Elijah
in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
is in the Book of Chronicles, the Christian
Christian
Bible's ordering of the books of the Septuagint
Septuagint
places the Book of Malachi, which prophesies a messiah, before the Gospels [38] and means that Elijah's final Old Testament appearance is in the Book of Malachi, where it is written, "Lo, I will send you the prophet Elijah
Elijah
before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes."[39] That day is described as the burning of a great furnace, "... so that it will leave them neither root nor branch."[40] In Christianity
Christianity
it is traditionally believed that Elijah's appearance during the transfiguration of Jesus
Jesus
fulfilled this prophecy. Moreover, in the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew, Jesus
Jesus
identifies John the Baptist
John the Baptist
as the spiritual successor to Elijah: "and if you are willing to accept it, he is Elijah
Elijah
who is to come."[41] Finally, the verses in Malachi
Malachi
are believed to indicate that Elijah
Elijah
has a role in the end-times, immediately before the second coming of Jesus. One theory of textual analysis[edit] According to Susanne Otto, the Elijah
Elijah
stories were added to the Deuteronomistic History in four stages. The first stage dates from the final edition of the History, about 560 BC, when the three stories of Naboth’s vineyard, the death of Ahaziah, and the story of Jehu’s coup were included to embody the themes of the reliability of God's word and the cycle of Baal
Baal
worship and religious reform in the history of the Northern Kingdom. The narratives about the Omride wars were added shortly afterwards to illustrate a newly introduced theme, that the attitude of the king towards God
God
determines the fate of Israel. According to Otto, 1 Kings 17–18 was added in early post-Exilic times (after 538 BC) to demonstrate the possibility of a new life in community with God
God
after the time of judgment. Additionally, Otto suggests that in the fifth century BC, 1 Kings 19:1–18 and the remaining Elisha
Elisha
stories were inserted to give prophecy a legitimate foundation in the history of Israel. The foregoing Otto analysis is heavily disputed amongst biblical scholars.[42] In the Aggadah, Talmud, and Extra-canonical Books[edit] Jewish legends about Elijah
Elijah
abound in the aggadah, which is found throughout various collections of rabbinic literature, including the Babylonian Talmud. This varied literature does not merely discuss his life, but has created a new history of him, which, beginning with his death – or "translation" – ends only with the close of the history of the human race. The volume of references to Elijah
Elijah
in Jewish Tradition
Tradition
stands in marked contrast to that in the Canon. As in the case of most figures of Jewish legend, so in the case of Elijah, the biblical account became the basis of later legend. Elijah
Elijah
the precursor of the Messiah, Elijah
Elijah
zealous in the cause of God, Elijah the helper in distress: these are the three leading notes struck by the Aggadah, endeavoring to complete the biblical picture with the Elijah
Elijah
legends. His career is extensive, colorful, and varied. He has appeared the world over in the guise of a beggar and scholar. From the time of Malachi, who says of Elijah
Elijah
that God
God
will send him before "the great and dreadful day" (Mal. 3:23), down to the later stories of the Chasidic rabbis, reverence and love, expectation and hope, were always connected in the Jewish consciousness with Elijah. Origin[edit] Three different theories regarding Elijah's origin are presented in the Aggadah
Aggadah
literature: (1) he belonged to the tribe of Gad,[43] (2) he was a Benjamite from Jerusalem, identical with the Elijah
Elijah
mentioned in I Chronicles 8:27, and (3) he was a priest. Many Christian
Christian
Church fathers also[44] have stated that Elijah
Elijah
was a priest. Some Rabbis
Rabbis
have speculated that he should be identified with Phinehas.[45] According to later Kabbalistic literature,[46] Elijah
Elijah
was really an angel in human form, so that he had neither parents nor offspring.[citation needed] See Melchizedek. The Midrash
Midrash
Rabbah Exodus 4:2 states " Elijah
Elijah
should have revived his parents as he had revived the son of the Zarephathite" indicating he surely had parents. The Talmud
Talmud
states "Said he [Rabbah] to him (Elijah): Art thou not a priest: why then dost thou stand in a cemetery?"[47] Elijah's zeal for God[edit]

The statue of Elijah
Elijah
at the Saint
Saint
Elias
Elias
Cathedral, Aleppo, Syria

In spite of Elijah's many miracles, the mass of the Jewish people remained as godless as before. A midrash tells that they even abolished the sign of the covenant, and the prophet had to appear as Israel's accuser before God.[48] In the same cave where God
God
once appeared to Moses
Moses
and revealed Himself as gracious and merciful, Elijah
Elijah
was summoned to appear before God. By this summons he perceived that he should have appealed to God's mercy, instead of becoming Israel's accuser. The prophet, however, remained relentless in his zeal and severity, so that God
God
commanded him to appoint his successor.[49] The vision in which God
God
revealed Himself to Elijah
Elijah
gave him at the same time a picture of the destinies of man, who has to pass through "four worlds." This world was shown to the prophet by God
God
through symbolism: in the form of the wind, since it disappears as the wind; storm is the day of death, before which man trembles; fire is the judgment in Gehenna; and the stillness is the last day.[50] Three years after this vision[51] Elijah
Elijah
was "translated." Concerning the place to which Elijah
Elijah
was transferred, opinions differ among Jews and Christians, but the old view was that Elijah
Elijah
was received among the heavenly inhabitants, where he records the deeds of men,[52] a task which according to the apocalyptic literature is entrusted to Enoch.[citation needed] But as early as the middle of the 2nd century, when the notion of translation to heaven underwent divergent possible interpretations by Christian
Christian
theologians, the assertion was made that Elijah
Elijah
never entered into heaven proper.[53] In later literature paradise is generally designated as the abode of Elijah,[54] but since the location of paradise is itself uncertain, the last two statements may be identical. Ecclesiasticus[edit]

"At the appointed time, it is written, you are destined to calm the wrath of God
God
before it breaks out in fury, to turn the hearts of parents to their children, and to restore the tribes of Jacob."

— A line in Ecclesiasticus
Ecclesiasticus
describing Elijah's mission ( Ecclesiasticus
Ecclesiasticus
48:10).

In the Wisdom of Jesus
Jesus
ben Sira ( Sirach
Sirach
48:10) his tasks are altered to: 1) herald the eschaton, 2) calm God’s fury, 3) restore familial peace, and 4) restore the 12 tribes. Elijah
Elijah
in Judaism[edit] Elijah's chair[edit] See also: Brit milah

"Chair of Elijah" used during the brit milah (circumcision) ceremony. The Hebrew inscription reads "This is the chair of Elijah, remembered for Good."

At Jewish circumcision ceremonies, a chair is set aside for the use of the prophet Elijah. Elijah
Elijah
is said to be a witness at all circumcisions when the sign of the covenant is placed upon the body of the child. This custom stems from the incident at Mount Horeb
Mount Horeb
(1 Kings 19): Elijah
Elijah
had arrived at Mount Horeb
Mount Horeb
after the demonstration of God's presence and power on Mount Carmel. (1 Kings 18) God
God
asks Elijah to explain his arrival, and Elijah
Elijah
replies: "I have been very jealous for the Lord, the God
God
of hosts; for the people of Israel
Israel
have forsaken thy covenant, thrown down thy altars, and slain thy prophets with the sword; and I, even I only, am left; and they seek my life, to take it away" (1 Kings 19:10). According to Rabbinic tradition, Elijah's words were patently untrue (1 Kings 18:4 and 1 Kings 19:18), and since Elijah
Elijah
accused Israel
Israel
of failing to uphold the covenant, God
God
would require Elijah
Elijah
to be present at every covenant of circumcision.[55][56] Elijah's cup[edit] See also: Passover Seder In the Talmudic literature, Elijah
Elijah
would visit rabbis to help solve particularly difficult legal problems. Malachi
Malachi
had cited Elijah
Elijah
as the harbinger of the eschaton. Thus, when confronted with reconciling impossibly conflicting laws or rituals, the rabbis would set aside any decision "until Elijah
Elijah
comes."[57] One such decision was whether the Passover Seder
Passover Seder
required four or five cups of wine. Each serving of wine corresponds to one of the "four expressions of redemption" in the Book of Exodus:

"I am the Lord, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage, and I will redeem you with an out-stretched arm and with great acts of judgment, and I will take you for my people, and I will be your God; and you shall know that I am the Lord your God, who has brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians" (Exodus 6:6–7).

The next verse, "And I will bring you into the land which I swore to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; I will give it to you for a possession. I am the Lord." (Exodus 6:8) was not fulfilled until the generation following the Passover story, and the rabbis could not decide whether this verse counted as part of the Passover celebration (thus deserving of another serving of wine). Thus, a cup was left for the arrival of Elijah. In practice the fifth cup has come to be seen as a celebration of future redemption. Today, a place is reserved at the seder table and a cup of wine is placed there for Elijah. During the seder, the door of the house is opened and Elijah
Elijah
is invited in. Traditionally, the cup is viewed as Elijah’s and is used for no other purpose.[58][59] Havdalah[edit] See also: Havdalah Havdalah
Havdalah
is the ceremony that concludes the Sabbath
Sabbath
Day (Saturday evening in Jewish tradition). As part of the concluding hymn, an appeal is made to God
God
that Elijah
Elijah
will come during the following week. " Elijah
Elijah
the Prophet, Elijah
Elijah
the Tishbite. Let him come quickly, in our day with the messiah, the son of David."[58] Elijah
Elijah
in Jewish folklore[edit] The volume of references to Elijah
Elijah
in folklore stands in marked contrast to that in the canon. Elijah's miraculous transferral to heaven led to speculation as to his true identity. Louis Ginzberg equates him with Phinehas
Phinehas
the grandson of Aaron[60] (Exodus 6:25). Because of Phinehas' zealousness for God, he and his descendants were promised, "a covenant of lasting priesthood" (Numbers 25:13). Therefore, Elijah
Elijah
is a priest as well as a prophet. Elijah
Elijah
is also equated with the Archangel
Archangel
Sandalphon,[61] whose four wing beats will carry him to any part of the earth. When forced to choose between death and dishonor, Rabbi
Rabbi
Kahana chose to leap to his death. Before he could strike the ground, Elijah/ Sandalphon
Sandalphon
had appeared to catch him.[62] Yet another name for Elijah
Elijah
is " Angel
Angel
of the Covenant"[63] Rabbi
Rabbi
Joshua
Joshua
ben Levi[edit] References to Elijah
Elijah
in Jewish folklore range from short observations (e. g. It is said that when dogs are happy for no reason, it is because Elijah
Elijah
is in the neighborhood)[64] to lengthy parables on the nature of God’s justice. One such story is that of Rabbi
Rabbi
Joshua
Joshua
ben Levi. The rabbi, a friend of Elijah’s, was asked what favor he might wish. The rabbi answered only that he be able to join Elijah
Elijah
in his wanderings. Elijah
Elijah
granted his wish only if he refrained from asking any questions about any of the prophet’s actions. He agreed and they began their journey. The first place they came to was the house of an elderly couple who were so poor they had only one old cow. The old couple gave of their hospitality as best they could. The next morning, as the travelers left, Elijah
Elijah
prayed that the old cow would die and it did. The second place they came to was the home of a wealthy man. He had no patience for his visitors and chased them away with the admonition that they should get jobs and not beg from honest people. As they were leaving, they passed the man’s wall and saw that it was crumbling. Elijah prayed that the wall be repaired and it was so. Next, they came to a wealthy synagogue. They were allowed to spend the night with only the smallest of provisions. When they left, Elijah
Elijah
prayed that every member of the synagogue might become a leader. Finally, they came to a very poor synagogue. Here they were treated with great courtesy and hospitality. When they left, Elijah
Elijah
prayed that God
God
might give them a single wise leader. At this Rabbi
Rabbi
Joshua could no longer hold back. He demanded of Elijah
Elijah
an explanation of his actions. At the house of the old couple, Elijah
Elijah
knew that the Angel
Angel
of Death was coming for the old woman. So he prayed that God
God
might have the angel take the cow instead. At the house of the wealthy man, there was a great treasure hidden in the crumbling wall. Elijah
Elijah
prayed that the wall be restored thus keeping the treasure away from the miser. The story ends with a moral: A synagogue with many leaders will be ruined by many arguments. A town with a single wise leader will be guided to success and prosperity. "Know then, that if thou seest an evil-doer prosper, it is not always unto his advantage, and if a righteous man suffers need and distress, think not God
God
is unjust."[65] Rabbi
Rabbi
Eliezer[edit] The Elijah
Elijah
of legend did not lose any of his ability to afflict the comfortable. The case of Rabbi
Rabbi
Eliezer
Eliezer
son of Rabbi
Rabbi
Simon ben Yohai is illustrative. Once, when walking a beach, he came upon a hideously ugly man—the prophet in disguise. The man greeted him courteously, "Peace be with thee, Rabbi." Instead of returning the greeting, the rabbi could not resist an insult, "How ugly you are! Is there anyone as ugly as you in your town?" Elijah
Elijah
responded with, "I don’t know. Perhaps you should tell the Master Architect how ugly is this, His construction." The rabbi realized his wrong and asked for pardon. But Elijah
Elijah
would not give it until the entire city had asked for forgiveness for the rabbi and the rabbi had promised to mend his ways.[66] Lilith[edit] Elijah
Elijah
was always seen as deeply pious, it seems only natural that he would be pitted against an equally evil individual. This was found in the person of Lilith. Lilith
Lilith
in legend was the first wife of Adam. She rebelled against Adam, the angels, and even God. She came to be seen as a demon and a witch.[67][68] Elijah
Elijah
encountered Lilith
Lilith
and instantly recognized and challenged her, "Unclean one, where are you going?" Unable to avoid or lie to the prophet, she admitted she was on her way to the house of a pregnant woman. Her intention was to kill the woman and eat the child. Elijah
Elijah
pronounced his malediction, "I curse you in the Name of the Lord. Be silent as a stone!" But, Lilith
Lilith
was able to make a bargain with Elijah. She promises to "forsake my evil ways" if Elijah
Elijah
will remove his curse. To seal the bargain she gives Elijah
Elijah
her names so that they can be posted in the houses of pregnant women or new born children or used as amulets. Lilith
Lilith
promises, "where I see those names, I shall run away at once. Neither the child nor the mother will ever be injured by me."[69] Elijah
Elijah
in Christianity[edit] References in the New Testament[edit]

A Northern Russian icon
Russian icon
from ca. 1290 showing the ascent of Elijah toward heaven

In the New Testament, Jesus
Jesus
would say for those who believed, John the Baptist was Elijah, who would come before the "great and terrible day" as predicted by Malachi. Some English translations of the New Testament
New Testament
use Elias, a Latin form of the name. In the King James Version, "Elias" appears only in the texts translated from Greek. John the Baptist[edit] John the Baptist
John the Baptist
preached a message of repentance and baptism. He predicted the day of judgment using imagery similar to that of Malachi. He also preached that the Messiah
Messiah
was coming. All of this was done in a style that immediately recalled the image of Elijah
Elijah
to his audience. He wore a coat of camel's hair secured with a leather girdle (Matthew 3:4, Mark 1:6). He also frequently preached in wilderness areas near the Jordan River. In the Gospel
Gospel
of John, when John the Baptist
John the Baptist
was asked by a delegation of priests (present tense) "Art thou Elias", he replied "I am not" (John 1:21). Matthew 11:14 and Matthew 17:10–13 however, make it clear that John was the spiritual successor to Elijah. In the Nativity of St. John the Baptist
John the Baptist
in Luke, Gabriel
Gabriel
appears to Zechariah, John's father, and told him that John "will turn many of the sons of Israel to the Lord their God," and that he will go forth "in the spirit and power of Elijah" (Luke 1:16–17). Jesus
Jesus
Christ[edit]

Elijah
Elijah
appeared at the Transfiguration of Jesus

In the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke, Herod Antipas
Herod Antipas
hears some of the stories surrounding Jesus
Jesus
Christ. Some tell Herod that Jesus
Jesus
is John the Baptist (whom Herod had executed) come back to life. Others tell him that Jesus
Jesus
is Elijah.[70] Later in the same gospel, Jesus
Jesus
asks his disciples who the people say that he is. The apostles' answer includes Elijah
Elijah
among others.[71] However Jesus' ministry had little in common with that of Elijah; in particular, he preached the forgiveness of one's enemies, while Elijah killed his. Miracle
Miracle
stories similar to those of Elijah
Elijah
were associated with Jesus
Jesus
(e. g. raising of the dead,[72] miraculous feeding).[73] Jesus
Jesus
implicitly separates himself from Elijah
Elijah
when he rebukes James and John for desiring to call down fire upon an unwelcoming Samaritan village in a similar manner to Elijah.[74] Likewise, Jesus
Jesus
rebukes a potential follower who wanted first to return home to say farewell to his family, whereas Elijah
Elijah
permitted this of his replacement Elisha.[75] During Jesus' crucifixion, some of the onlookers wonder if Elijah
Elijah
will come to rescue him,[76] as by the time of Jesus, Elijah
Elijah
had entered folklore as a rescuer of Jews
Jews
in distress. Transfiguration[edit] Elijah
Elijah
makes an appearance in the New Testament
New Testament
during an incident known as the Transfiguration.[77] At the summit of an unnamed mount, Jesus' face begins to shine. The disciples who are with Him hear the voice of God
God
announce that Jesus is "My beloved Son." The disciples also see Moses
Moses
and Elijah
Elijah
appear and talk with Jesus. Peter is so struck by the experience that he asks Jesus
Jesus
if they should build three "tabernacles": one for Elijah, one for Jesus
Jesus
and one for Moses. There is agreement among some Christian
Christian
theologians that Elijah appears to hand over the responsibility of the prophets to Jesus
Jesus
as the woman by the well said to Jesus
Jesus
(John 4:19) "I perceive thou art a prophet." and Moses
Moses
also likewise came to hand over the responsibility of the law for the divinely announced Son of God.[78][79] Other references[edit] Elijah
Elijah
is mentioned four more times in the New Testament: in Luke, Romans, Hebrews, and James. In Luke 4:24–27, Jesus
Jesus
uses Elijah
Elijah
as an example of rejected prophets. Jesus
Jesus
says, "No prophet is accepted in his own country," and then mentions Elijah, saying that there were many widows in Israel, but Elijah
Elijah
was sent to one in Phoenicia. In Romans
Romans
11:1–6, Paul cites Elijah
Elijah
as an example of God's never forsaking his people (the Israelites). Hebrews 11:35 ("Women received their dead raised to life again...") refers to both Elijah
Elijah
raising the son of the widow of Zarephath and Elisha
Elisha
raising the son of the woman of Shunem, citing both Elijah
Elijah
and Elisha
Elisha
as Old Testament examples of faith.[80][81][82] In James 5:16–18, James says, "The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much," and then cites Elijah's prayers which started and ended the famine in Israel
Israel
as examples. Prophet
Prophet
saint[edit]

Elijah
Elijah
(Elias)

Russian Icon
Icon
of the Prophet
Prophet
Elijah
Elijah
(12th century, Pskov
Pskov
school. Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow).

Prophet

Venerated in Judaism Christianity Islam Baha'i Faith

Feast July 20

Attributes prophet, wonder-worker

Patronage Bosnia and Herzegovina

Elijah
Elijah
reviving the Son of the Widow of Zarephath by Louis Hersent

In Western Christianity, the Prophet
Prophet
Elijah
Elijah
is commemorated as a saint with a feast day on 20 July by the Roman Catholic Church[83] and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.[84] Catholics believe that he was unmarried and celibate.[85] In the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite, he is commemorated on the same date (in the 21st century, Julian Calendar
Julian Calendar
20 July corresponds to Gregorian Calendar 2 August). He is greatly revered among the Orthodox as a model of the contemplative life. He is also commemorated on the Orthodox liturgical calendar on the Sunday of the Holy Fathers (the Sunday before the Nativity of the Lord). Elijah
Elijah
has been venerated as the patron saint of Bosnia and Herzegovina since 26 August 1752, replacing George of Lydda
George of Lydda
at the request of Bishop Pavao Dragičević. The reasons for the replacement are unclear. It has been suggested that Elijah
Elijah
was chosen because of his importance to all three main religious groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina—Catholics, Muslims and Orthodox Christians.[86] Pope Benedict XIV is said to have approved Bishop Dragičević's request with the remark that a wild nation deserved a wild patron.[87] Carmelite tradition[edit]

1690 Musée des Augustins

Elijah
Elijah
is revered as the spiritual Father and traditional founder of the Catholic religious Order of Carmelites. In addition to taking their name from Mt. Carmel where the first hermits of the order established themselves, the Calced Carmelite and Discalced Carmelite traditions pertaining to Elijah
Elijah
focus upon the prophet’s withdrawal from public life.[88][89] The medieval Carmelite Book of the First Monks offers some insight into the heart of the Orders' contemplative vocation and reverence for the prophet. In the 17th Century the Bollandist Society, whose declared aim was to search out and classify materials concerning the saints venerated by the Church, and to print what seemed to be the most reliable sources of information [90] entered into controversy with the Carmelites
Carmelites
on this point. In writing of St. Albert, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and author of the Carmelite rule, the Bollandist Daniel Papebroch stated that the attribution of Carmelite origin to Elijah
Elijah
was insufficiently grounded. The Carmelites
Carmelites
reacted strongly. From 1681 to 1698 a series of letters, pamphlets and other documents was issued by each side. The Carmelites
Carmelites
were supported by a Spanish tribunal, while the Bollandists had the support of Jean de Launoy
Jean de Launoy
and the Sorbonne. In November 1698, Pope Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII
ordered an end to the controversy.[91] Liturgical commemorations[edit]

Elias
Elias
on Mount Horeb, Greek Orthodox icon.

Since most Eastern Churches
Eastern Churches
either use Greek as their liturgical language or translated their liturgies from the Greek, Elias
Elias
(or its modern iotacized form Ilias) is the form of the prophet's name used among most members of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite. The feast day of saint Elias
Elias
falls on July 20 of the Orthodox liturgical calendar (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, July 20 currently falls on August 2 of the modern Gregorian Calendar). This day is a major holiday in Lebanon
Lebanon
and is one of a handful of holidays there whose celebration is accompanied by a launching of fireworks by the general public. The full name of St. Elias
Elias
in Lebanon
Lebanon
translates to St. Elias
Elias
the Living because it is believed that he did not die but rode his fiery chariot to heaven. The reference to the fiery chariot is likely why the Lebanese celebrate this holiday with fireworks. Elias
Elias
is also commemorated, together with all of the righteous persons of the Old Testament, on the Sunday of the Holy Fathers (the Sunday before the Nativity of the Lord). The Apolytikion
Apolytikion
in the Fourth Tone for St. Elias:

The incarnate Angel, the Cornerstone of the Prophets, the second Forerunner of the Coming of Christ, the glorious Elias, who from above, sent down to Elisha
Elisha
the grace to dispel sickness and cleanse lepers, abounds therefore in healing for those who honor him.

The Kontakion
Kontakion
in the Second Tone for St. Elias:

O Prophet
Prophet
and foreseer of the great works of God, O greatly renowned Elias, who by your word held back the clouds of rain, intercede for us to the only Loving One.

Pagan associations and mountaintops[edit] See also: Peryn § The cult of Peroun in Peryn and in Novgorod Starting in the fifth century, Elias
Elias
is often connected with Helios, the Sun. The two words have very similar pronunciations in post-classical Greek; Elijah
Elijah
rode in his chariot of fire to heaven (2 Kings 2:11) just as Helios
Helios
drove the chariot of the sun across the sky; and the holocaust sacrifice offered by Elijah
Elijah
and burned by fire from heaven (1 Kings 18:38) corresponds to the sun warming the earth.[92] Sedulius writes poetically in the fifth century that the "bright path to glittering heaven" suits Elias
Elias
both "in merits and name", as changing one letter makes his name "Helios"; but he does not identify the two.[93] A homily entitled De ascensione Heliae, misattributed to Chrysostom, claims that poets and painters use the ascension of Elijah as a model for their depictions of the sun, and says that " Elijah
Elijah
is really Helios". Saint
Saint
Patrick appears to conflate Helios
Helios
and Elias.[94] In modern times, much Greek folklore also connects Elias with the sun.[95] In Greece, chapels and monasteries dedicated to Prophet
Prophet
Elias (Προφήτης Ηλίας) are often found on mountaintops, which themselves are often named after him. Since Wachsmuth (1864),[96] the usual explanation for this has been that Elias
Elias
was identified with Helios, who had mountaintop shrines. But few shrines of Helios
Helios
were on mountaintops, and sun-worship was subsumed by Apollo-worship by Christian
Christian
times, and so could not be confused with Elias.[97] The modern folklore is not good evidence for the origin of the association of the sun, Elias, and mountaintops.[98] Perhaps Elias
Elias
is simply a "natural patron of high places".[99] The association of Elias
Elias
with mountaintops seems to come from a different pagan tradition: Elias
Elias
took on the attributes and the locales associated with Zeus, especially his associations with mountains and his powers over rain, thunder, lighting, and wind. When Elias
Elias
prevailed over the priests of Baal, it was on Mount Carmel
Mount Carmel
(1 Kings 18:38), which later became known as Mount St. Elias. When he spent forty days in a cave, it was on Mount Horeb
Mount Horeb
(1 Kings 19:8). When Elias
Elias
confronted Ahab, he stopped the rains for three years (1 Kings 17:1-18:1).[98] A map of mountain-cults of Zeus
Zeus
shows that most of these sites are now dedicated to Elias, including Mount Olympus, Mount Lykaion, Mount Arachnaion, and Mount Taleton
Mount Taleton
on the mainland, and Mount Kenaion, Mount Oche, and Mount Kynados in the islands. Of these, the only one with a recorded tradition of a Helios
Helios
cult is Mount Taleton.[98] Elias
Elias
is associated with pre- Christian
Christian
lightning gods in many other European traditions. Among Albanians, pilgrimages are made to mountaintops to ask for rain during the summer. One such tradition that is gaining popularity is the 2 August pilgrimage to Ljuboten
Ljuboten
on the Sharr mountains. Muslims refer to this day as Aligjyn ("Ali Day"), and it is believed that Ali becomes Elias
Elias
at midday.[100]

This common depiction of the prophet Elijah
Elijah
riding a flaming chariot across the sky resulted in syncretistic folklore among the Slavs incorporating pre- Christian
Christian
motifs in the beliefs and rites regarding him in Slavic culture.

As Elijah
Elijah
was described as ascending into heaven in a fiery chariot, the Christian
Christian
missionaries who converted Slavic tribes
Slavic tribes
likely found him an ideal analogy for Perun, the supreme Slavic god of storms, thunder and lightning bolts. In many Slavic countries
Slavic countries
Elijah
Elijah
is known as Elijah
Elijah
the Thunderer (Ilija Gromovnik), who drives the heavens in a chariot and administers rain and snow, thus actually taking the place of Perun
Perun
in popular beliefs.[101][102][103] Perun
Perun
is also sometimes conflated with the legendary hero Elijah
Elijah
of Murom.[104][105] The feast of St. Elias
Elias
is known as Ilinden in South Slavic, and was chosen as the day of the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising
Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising
in 1903; it is now the holiday of Republic Day in the Republic of Macedonia. In Estonian folklore
Estonian folklore
Elijah
Elijah
is considered to be the successor of Ukko, the lightning spirit.[105] In Georgian mythology, he replaces Elwa.[105] A Georgian story about Elijah:

Once Jesus, the prophet Elijah, and St. George were going through Georgia. When they became tired and hungry they stopped to dine. They saw a Georgian shepherd and decided to ask him to feed them. First, Elijah
Elijah
went up to the shepherd and asked him for a sheep. After the shepherd asked his identity Elijah
Elijah
said that, he was the one who sent him rain to get him a good profit from farming. The shepherd became angry at him and told him that he was the one who also sent thunderstorms, which destroyed the farms of poor widows. (After Elijah, Jesus
Jesus
and St. George attempt to get help and eventually succeed).[106]

Elias
Elias
has other pagan associations: a modern legend about Elias mirrors precisely the legend of Odysseus
Odysseus
seeking a place where the locals would not recognize an oar—hence the mountaintops.[107] Elijah
Elijah
and Elias
Elias
in the LDS Church[edit] The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) acknowledges Elijah
Elijah
as a prophet. The LDS Church
LDS Church
teaches that the Malachi
Malachi
prophecy of the return of Elijah
Elijah
was fulfilled on April 3, 1836, when Elijah
Elijah
visited the prophet and founder of the church, Joseph
Joseph
Smith, along with Oliver Cowdery, in the Kirtland Temple
Kirtland Temple
as a resurrected being.[108] This event is chronicled in Doctrine and Covenants 110:13–16. This experience forms the basis for the church's focus on genealogy and family history and belief in the eternal nature of marriage and families. In Latter-day Saint
Saint
theology, the name-title Elias
Elias
is not always synonymous with Elijah
Elijah
and is often used for people other than the biblical prophet.[109] According to Joseph
Joseph
Smith,

The spirit of Elias
Elias
is first, Elijah
Elijah
second, and Messiah
Messiah
last. Elias is a forerunner to prepare the way, and the spirit and power of Elijah is to come after, holding the keys of power, building the Temple to the capstone, placing the seals of the Melchizedek
Melchizedek
Priesthood upon the house of Israel, and making all things ready; then Messiah
Messiah
comes to His Temple, which is last of all.[110]

People to whom the title Elias
Elias
is applied in Mormonism include Noah, the angel Gabriel
Gabriel
(who is considered to be the same person as Noah
Noah
in Mormon doctrine), Elijah, John the Baptist, John the Apostle, and an unspecified man who was a contemporary of Abraham.[111] Detractors of Mormonism have often alleged that Smith, in whose time and place the King James Version
King James Version
was the only available English translation of the Bible, simply failed to grasp the fact that the Elijah
Elijah
of the Old Testament and the Elias
Elias
of the New Testament
New Testament
are the same person.[112] Latter-day Saints deny this and say that the difference they make between the two is deliberate and prophetic. The names Elias
Elias
and Elijah
Elijah
refer to one who prepares the way for the coming of the Lord. This is applicable to John the Baptist
John the Baptist
coming to prepare the way for the Lord and His baptism; it also refers to Elijah appearing during the transfiguration to prepare for Jesus
Jesus
by restoring keys of sealing power.[112] Jesus
Jesus
then gave this power to the Twelve saying, "Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." [113] Elijah
Elijah
in Islam[edit]

Khizr and Elijah
Elijah
Praying in Mecca; Persian miniature
Persian miniature
from an illuminated manuscript of Stories of the Prophets
Stories of the Prophets
(c. 427 AH/ 1036 AD)

Part of a series on Islam Islamic
Islamic
prophets

Prophets in the Quran Listed by Islamic
Islamic
name and Biblical
Biblical
name.

ʾĀdam (Adam) ʾIdrīs (Enoch) Nūḥ (Noah) Hūd (Eber) Ṣāliḥ
Ṣāliḥ
(Salah) ʾIbrāhīm (Abraham) Lūṭ (Lot) ʾIsmāʿīl (Ishmael) ʾIsḥāq (Isaac) Yaʿqūb (Jacob) Yūsuf (Joseph) Ayūb (Job) Dhul-Kifl
Dhul-Kifl
(Ezekiel) Shuʿayb (Jethro) Mūsā (Moses) Hārūn (Aaron) Dāūd (David) Sulaymān (Solomon) Yūnus (Jonah) ʾIlyās (Elijah) Alyasaʿ (Elisha) Zakarīya (Zechariah) Yaḥyā (John) ʿĪsā (Jesus) Muḥammad (Muhammad)

Main events

Stories of the Prophets The Three Messengers

Views

Jews, Christians and Muslims prophets Abrahamic prophets

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Prophet
Prophet
Elijah
Elijah
Rescuing Nur ad-Dahr from the Sea, a scene from the Hamzanama, here imagined in a Persian miniature
Persian miniature
by Mir Sayyid Ali (c. 1550 AD)

Elijah
Elijah
(Arabic: إلياس‎ or إليا; Ilyas or Ilya) is also mentioned as a prophet in the Qur'an, al-An'am 85. Elijah's narrative in the Qur'an
Qur'an
and later Muslim
Muslim
tradition resembles closely that in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
and Muslim
Muslim
literature records Elijah's primary prophesying as taking place during the reign of Ahab
Ahab
and Jezebel
Jezebel
as well as Ahaziah.[114] He is seen by Muslims to be the prophetic predecessor to Elisha. While neither the Bible nor the Qur'an
Qur'an
mentions the genealogy of Elijah, some scholars of Islam
Islam
believe he may have come from the priestly family of the prophet Aaron.[115] Elijah
Elijah
is rarely associated with Islamic eschatology
Islamic eschatology
and Islam
Islam
views Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah.[116] However, Elijah
Elijah
is expected to come back along with the mysterious figure known as Khidr
Khidr
during the Last Judgment.[117] Elijah's figure has been identified with a number of other prophets and saints, including Idris, which is believed by some scholars to have been another name for Elijah,[118] and Khidr.[119] Islamic
Islamic
legend later developed the figure of Elijah, greatly embellishing upon his attributes, and some apocryphal literature gave Elijah
Elijah
the status of a half-human, half-angel.[120] Elijah
Elijah
also appears in later works of literature, including the Hamzanama.[121] Quran[edit] Elijah
Elijah
is mentioned in the Quran, where his preaching is recounted in a concise manner. The Quran
Quran
narrates that Elijah
Elijah
told his people to come to the worship of God
God
and to leave the worship of Baal, the primary idol of the area. The Quran
Quran
states, "Verily Elijah
Elijah
was one of the apostles. When he said to his people: "Will you not fear God? "Will ye call upon Ba'al and leave the Best of Creators, God, your LORD and Cherisher and the LORD and Cherisher of your fathers of old?" As-Saaffat 123–126[122] The Quran
Quran
makes it clear that the majority of Elijah's people denied the prophet and continued to follow idolatry. However, it mentions that a small number of devoted servants of God
God
among them followed Elijah
Elijah
and believed in and worshiped God. The Quran
Quran
states, "They denied him (Elijah), and will surely be brought to punishment, Except the sincere and devoted Servants of God
God
(among them). And We left his (memory) for posterity." As-Saaffat 127–128[123] In the Quran, God
God
praises Elijah
Elijah
in two places:

Peace be upon Elijah! This is how We reward those who do good. He is truly among our believing servants. — Quran, chapter 37 (As-Saaffat), verse 129–132[124]

And Zachariah and John and Jesus
Jesus
and Elijah, they were all from among the righteous — Quran, chapter 6 (Al-An'am), verse 85[125]

Numerous commentators, including Abdullah Yusuf Ali, have offered commentary on VI: 85 saying that Elijah, Zechariah, John the Baptist and Jesus
Jesus
were all spiritually connected. Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Abdullah Yusuf Ali
says, "The third group consists not of men of action, but Preachers of Truth, who led solitary lives. Their epithet is: "the Righteous." They form a connected group round Jesus. Zachariah was the father of John the Baptist, who is referenced as "Elias, which was for to come" (Matt 11:14); and Elias
Elias
is said to have been present and talked to Jesus
Jesus
at the Transfiguration on the Mount (Matt. 17:3)."[126] Literature
Literature
and tradition[edit] Muslim
Muslim
literature and tradition recounts that Elijah
Elijah
preached to the Kingdom of Israel, ruled over by Ahab
Ahab
and later his son Ahaziah. He is believed to have been a "prophet of the desert—like John the Baptist".[127] Elijah
Elijah
is believed to have preached with zeal to Ahab and his wife Jezebel, who according to Muslim
Muslim
tradition was partly responsible for the worship of false idols in this area. Muslims believe that it was because the majority of people refused to listen to Elijah
Elijah
that Elisha
Elisha
had to continue preaching the message of God
God
to Israel
Israel
after him.[128] Elijah
Elijah
has been the subject of legends and folktales in Muslim culture, usually involving his meeting with Khidr, and in one legend, with Muhammad
Muhammad
himself.[129] Most such legends, however, are regarded as folktales rather than actual events. In Islamic
Islamic
mysticism, however, Elijah
Elijah
is associated closely with the sage Khidr. One legend reported that Elijah
Elijah
and Khidr
Khidr
met together every year in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to go on the pilgrimage to Mecca.[130] Elijah
Elijah
appears also in the Hamzanama numerous times, where he is spoken of as being the brother of Khidr
Khidr
as well as one who drunk from the Fountain of Youth.[131] Although most Muslim
Muslim
scholars believed that Elijah
Elijah
preached in Israel, some early commentators on the Qur'an
Qur'an
stated that Elijah
Elijah
was sent to Baalbek, in Lebanon.[132] Modern scholars have rejected this claim, stating that the connection of the city with Elijah
Elijah
would have been made because of the first half of the city's name, that of Baal, which was the deity that Elijah
Elijah
exhorted his people to stop worshiping. Scholars who reject identification of Elijah's town with Baalbek further argue that the town of Baalbek
Baalbek
is not mentioned with the narrative of Elijah
Elijah
in either the Qur'an
Qur'an
or the Hebrew Bible.[133] Elijah
Elijah
in the Bahá'i Faith[edit] In the Bahá'í Faith, the Báb, founder of the Bábí
Bábí
Faith, is believed to be the return of Elijah
Elijah
and John the Baptist.[134] Both Elijah
Elijah
and John the Baptist
John the Baptist
are considered to be Lesser Prophets, whose stations are below that of a Manifestation of God
God
like Jesus Christ, Buddha, Muhammad, the Báb
Báb
or Bahá'u'lláh. The Báb
Báb
is buried on Mount Carmel, where Elijah
Elijah
had his confrontation with the prophets of Baal.[135] Controversies[edit] Miracle
Miracle
of the ravens[edit]

Elijah
Elijah
fed by the ravens, by Giovanni Lanfranco, Musée des beaux-arts de Marseille

That ravens fed Elijah
Elijah
by the brook Chorath
Chorath
has been questioned. The Hebrew text at 1 Kings 17:4–6 uses the word עֹרְבִים `ōrvīm, which means ravens, but with a different vocalization might equally mean Arabs. The Septuagint
Septuagint
has κορακες, ravens, and other traditional translations followed. Alternatives have been proposed for many years; for example Adam Clarke (d. 1832) treated it as a discussion already of long standing.[136] Objections to the traditional translation are that ravens are ritually unclean (see Leviticus 11:13–17) as well as physically dirty; it is difficult to imagine any method of delivery of the food which is not disgusting. The parallelism with the incident that follows, where Elijah
Elijah
is fed by the widow, also suggests a human, if mildly improbable, agent. Prof. John Gray chooses Arabs, saying "We adopt this reading solely because of its congruity with the sequel, where Elijah
Elijah
is fed by an alien Phoenician woman."[137] His translation of the verses in question is:

And the word of Jehovah came to Elijah
Elijah
saying, Go hence and turn eastward and hide thyself in the Wadi
Wadi
Chorath
Chorath
east of the Jordan, and it shall be that thou shalt drink of the wadi, and I have commanded the Arabs to feed thee there. And he went and did according to the word of Jehovah and went and dwelt in the Wadi
Wadi
Chorath
Chorath
east of the Jordan. And the Arabs brought him bread in the morning and flesh in the evening and he would drink of the wadi.

Ascension into the heavens[edit] In the Gospel
Gospel
of John, Jesus
Jesus
says: "And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, [even] the Son of man which is in heaven." (John 3:13) Traditionally Christianity
Christianity
interprets the "Son of Man" as a title of Jesus, but this has never been an article of faith and there are other interpretations. Further interpreting this quote, some Christians believe that Elijah
Elijah
was not assumed into heaven but simply transferred to another assignment either in heaven[138] or with King Jehoram of Judah.[138] The prophets reacted in such a way that makes sense if he was carried away, and not simply straight up (2 Kings 2:16). The question of whether Elijah
Elijah
was in heaven or elsewhere on earth depends partly on the view of the letter Jehoram received from Elijah in 2 Chronicles 21 after Elijah
Elijah
had ascended. Some have suggested that the letter was written before Elijah
Elijah
ascended, but only delivered later.[139] The rabbinical Seder Olam explains that the letter was delivered seven years after his ascension.[140] This is also a possible explanation for some variation in manuscripts of Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews
when dealing with this issue.[141] Others have argued that Elijah
Elijah
was only "caught away" such as Philip in Acts 8:39[142] John Lightfoot
John Lightfoot
reasoned that it must have been a different Elijah.[143] Elijah's name typically occurs in Jewish lists of those who have entered heaven alive. Return[edit] Centuries after his departure the Jewish nation awaits the coming of Elijah
Elijah
to precede the coming of the Messiah. For many Christians this prophecy was fulfilled in the gospels, where he appears during the Transfiguration alongside Moses
Moses
(Matthew 17:9–13). Commentators have said that Moses' appearance represented the law, while Elijah's appearance represented the prophets.[144] The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints believes that Elijah
Elijah
returned on April 3, 1836 in an appearance to Joseph Smith
Joseph Smith
and Oliver Cowdery, fulfilling the prophecy in Malachi. The Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
believes Elijah
Elijah
returned as the biblical prophet John the Baptist
John the Baptist
and as the Báb
Báb
who founded the Bábí
Bábí
Faith in 1844.[145][146] The Nation of Islam
Islam
believes Elijah
Elijah
returned as Elijah
Elijah
Muhammad, black separatist religious leader (who claimed to be a "messenger", not a prophet). This is considered less important than their belief that Allah
Allah
himself showed up in the person of Fard Muhammad, the founder of the group. It differs notably from most beliefs about Elijah, in that his re-appearance is usually the precursor to a greater one's appearance, rather than an afterthought.[147] Elijah
Elijah
in arts and literature[edit]

Perhaps the best-known representation of the story of Elijah
Elijah
is Felix Mendelssohn's oratorio "Elijah". The oratorio chronicles many episodes of Elijah's life, including his challenge to Ahab
Ahab
and the contest of the gods, the miracle of raising the dead, and his ascension into heaven. Composed and premiered in 1846, the oratorio was criticized by members of the New German School
New German School
but nonetheless remains one of the most popular Romantic choral-orchestral works in the repertoire. In Orlando Furioso, the English knight Astolfo
Astolfo
flies up to the moon in Elijah's flaming chariot. Elijah Rock is a traditional Christian
Christian
spiritual about Elijah, also sometimes used by Jewish youth groups. "Go Like Elijah" is a song by the American rock-pop-jazz songwriter Chi Coltrane. Lorenzetto
Lorenzetto
created a statue of Elijah
Elijah
with assistance of the young sculptor Raffaello da Montelupo, using designs by Raphael.[148] The Fifth Mountain by Paulo Coelho
Paulo Coelho
is based on the story of Elijah. Christian
Christian
metal band Disciple released the song " God
God
of Elijah" on their 2001 album By God. The theme of the song is the challenge Elijah placed against Ahab
Ahab
between Baal
Baal
and the god of Israel. The roots-fusion band Seatrain records, on the albums of the same name (1970), bandmember Peter Rowans song Waiting for Elijah, alluding to Elijahs second coming, see Old Testament references above. From 1974 to 1976 Philip K. Dick
Philip K. Dick
believed himself to be possessed by the spirit of Elijah.[149] He later included Elijah
Elijah
(as Elias
Elias
Tate) in his novel The Divine Invasion. On Ryan Adams' 2005 album 29, the song "Voices" speaks of Elijah, alluding to Elijah
Elijah
being the prophet of destruction. Journeys With Elijah: Eight Tales of the Prophet, book by Barbara Goldin and illustrated by Jerry Pinkney In 1996, Robin Mark created a praise song entitled Days of Elijah. Cormac McCarthy's post-apocalyptic novel The Road
The Road
(2006) features an old man who ambiguously refers to himself as Ely. Elijah
Elijah
("Lije") is the name of the protagonist in three novels of Isaac
Isaac
Asimov's Robot series. He is familiar with biblical stories and sometimes relates them in the narrative or in discussion with his robot partner who was built on a world devoid of religion. His wife is ironically named Jezebel. The popular movie Chariots of Fire
Chariots of Fire
alludes to the William Blake poem And did those feet in ancient time, which in turn alludes to the Elijah
Elijah
story. Elijah
Elijah
was played by John Hoyt
John Hoyt
in the 1953 film Sins of Jezebel. A series of paintings by Clive Hicks-Jenkins
Clive Hicks-Jenkins
around 2003–07 depicted Elijah
Elijah
being fed by a raven, inspired by fragments of a Tuscan altarpiece in Christ Church Picture Gallery
Christ Church Picture Gallery
in Oxford.[150] Referenced in the song "It Was Written", by Damian Marley, featuring Capleton
Capleton
and Drag-On. Referenced in the movie The Book of Eli, starring Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
in the title role as the man on a mission in a post-apocalyptic world to deliver the Bible for safe-keeping. I. L. Peretz
I. L. Peretz
wrote The Magician, which was illustrated by Marc Chagall in 1917, about Elijah.[151] Early in Moby-Dick, Ishmael
Ishmael
and Queequeg run into a scarred and deformed man named Elijah, a prophet (or perhaps merely a frightening stranger) who hints to them the perils of signing aboard Ahab's ship, the Pequod. Elijah
Elijah
appears in mystic Carl Jung's "Read Book" as one of central book heroes.

See also[edit]

Saints portal

Biblical
Biblical
narratives and the Qur'an Carmelites Eli (name) Elias Elisha Entering Heaven alive Khidr Legends and the Qur'an Prophets of Islam Stories of The Prophets St. Elijah's Church (other), for churches dedicated to Elijah Theophoric name Two witnesses

References[edit]

^ J. D. Douglas; F. F. Bruce; J. I. Packer; N. Hillyer; D. Guthrie; A.R. Millard; D. J. Wiseman, eds. (1982). New Bible Dictionary (2nd ed.). Wheaton, IL, US: Tyndale House. p. 319. ISBN 9780842346672.  ^ Wells, John C. (1990). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 239. ISBN 0-582-05383-8.  entry "Elijah" ^ Yonge, Charlotte Mary (1859). "The Kingdom of Samaria". The Chosen People (5th ed.).  ^ 2 Kings 2:11 ^ 2 Kings 2:3 ^ Malachi
Malachi
4:5 ^ Matthew 16:14 & Mark 8:28 ^ Malachi
Malachi
4:5, in the King James Bible. For Jesus' comments on John the Baptist as Elijah, see Matthew 11:14, Matthew 17:11–12, & Luke 1:16–17 ^ Tottoli, Roberto (2002). "Elijah". In Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Two. Boston: Brill. pp. 12–13.  ^ David
David
W. Baker; Bill T. Arnold (1 October 2004). The Face of Old Testament Studies: A Survey of Contemporary Approaches. Baker Academic. p. 215. ISBN 978-0-8010-2871-7.  ^ Kaufman, Yehezkel. "The Biblical
Biblical
Age." In Schwarz, Leo W. ed. Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People. Modern Library: New York. 1956. pp. 53–56. ^ Raven, John H. The History of the Religion of Israel. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1979. pp. 281–81. ^ Psalm 45, sometimes viewed as a wedding song for Ahab
Ahab
and Jezebel, may allude to this union and its problems: "Hear, O daughter, consider, and incline your ear; forget your people and your father’s house; and the king will desire your beauty. Since he is your lord, bow to him; the people of Tyre will sue your favor with gifts."Psalms 45:10–12) See: Smith, Norman H. "I Kings." in Buttrick, George A., et al. Eds. The Interpreter's Bible: Volume 3. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1982. p. 144. ^ Miller, J. M. and J. H. Hayes. A History of Ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2006. ^ New Bible Dictionary. 1982 (second edition). Tyndale Press, Wheaton, IL, US. ISBN 0-8423-4667-8, p. 323 ^  G. Hirsch, Emil; König, Eduard; Schechter, Solomon; Ginzberg, Louis; Seligsohn, M.; Kohler, Kaufmann (1903). "Elijah". In Singer, Isidore; et al. Jewish Encyclopedia. V. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. Retrieved 2007-04-08.  ^ "Elijah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalam: Keter Publishing House, 1971. p. 633. ^ Cogan, Mordechai. The Anchor Bible: I Kings. New York: Doubleday, 2001. p. 425. ^ In Werblowsky, R.J.Z., and Geoffrey Wigoder, eds. Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-19-508605-8 ^ 1 Kings 18:17-19 ^ "The Peraea and the Dead Sea". The Madaba Mosaic Map. Retrieved 13 October 2014.  ^ 1 Kings 17:13, 14, New Revised Standard Version ^ 1 Kings 17:18, New Revised Standard Version. ^ New Revised Standard Version ^ 1 Kings 17:24, New Revised Standard Version. ^ 1 Kings 18:21 ^ 1 Kings 18:27 ^ 1 Kings 18:33–34 ^ 1 Kings 19:1–13 ^ 1 Kings 19:9 ^ 1 Kings 21:19, New Revised Standard Version ^ 2 Kings 1:6 ^ 2 Kings 1:17 ^ 2 Kings 2:8 ^ Myers, J. M. The Anchor Bible: II Chronicles. Garden
Garden
City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1965. pp. 121–23. ^ VanSeters, John. "Elijah." In Jones, Lindsay. Editor in Chief. Encyclopedia of Religion. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2005. p. 2764. ^ IVP New Bible Commentary 21st Century Edition, p. 410. ^ "Jewish and Christian
Christian
Bibles: Comparative Chart". catholic-resources.org.  ^ Malachi
Malachi
4:5, New Revised Standard Version ^ Malachi
Malachi
4:1 ^ Matthew 11:14 ^ Otto, Susanne (2003-06-01). "Susanne Otto, "The Composition of the Elijah- Elisha
Elisha
Stories and the Deuteronomistic History"". Journal for the Study of the Old Testament. Jot.sagepub.com. 27 (4): 487–508. Retrieved 2014-03-05. (Online Abstract) ^ Midrash
Midrash
Genensis Rabbah lxxi. ^ Aphraates, "Homilies," ed. Wright, p. 314; Epiphanius, "Hæres." lv. 3, passim ^ Pirḳe R. El. xlvii.; Targ. Yer. on Num. xxv. 12 ^ Yalḳuṭ Reubeni, Bereshit, 9a, ed. Amsterdam ^ Baba Metzia 14B ^ Pirḳe R. El. xxix. ^ Tanna debe Eliyahu Zuṭa viii. ^ Tan., Peḳude, p. 128, Vienna ed. ^ Seder 'Olam R. xvii. ^ Ḳid. 70; Ber. R. xxxiv. 8 ^ Suk. 5a ^ Compare Pirḳe R. El. xvi. ^ "Elijah, Chair of." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1971. ^ Unterman, Alan. "Elijah’s Chair." Dictionary of Jewish Lore and Legend. London: Thames and Hudson, 1991. ^ "Elijah, Cup of." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1971. ^ a b Telushkin, Joseph. Jewish Literacy. New York: William Morrow, 2001. ^ " Rabbi
Rabbi
Ario S. and Tess Hyams Judaica Museum". Temple Beth Sholom. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-07-23. Retrieved 2007-06-23.  ^ Ginzberg, Lewis. Legends of the Bible. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1956. p. 580. ^ Ginzberg, Lewis. Legends of the Bible. Jewish Philadelphia: Publication Society of America, 1956. p. 589 ^ Ginzberg, Lewis. Legends of the Bible. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1956. pp. 590–91. ^ Schwartz, Howard. Tree
Tree
of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. p. 201. ^ Bialik, H. N. and Y. H Ravnitzky. eds. The Book of Legends: Sefer Ha-Aggadah. New York: Schocken Books, 1992. pp. 756, 782, 805. ^ Ginzberg, Lewis. Legends of the Bible. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1956. p. 599. ^ Ginzberg, Lewis. Legends of the Bible. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1956. p. 597. ^ Schwartz, Howard. Tree
Tree
of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. ^ Ginzberg, Lewis. Legends of the Bible. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1956. ^ Schwartz, Howard. Tree
Tree
of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. pp. 224–25. ^ Luke 9:7–9 also Mark 6:14–16 ^ Luke 9:18–19, also Matthew 16:13–16 ^ Mark 5:21–43, Luke 7:11–15, Luke 8:49–56, John 11 ^ Matthew 14:13–21, Mark 6:34–45, Luke 9:10–17, John 6:5–16; also Matthew 15:29–38 and Mark 8:1–9 ^ Luke 9:51–56 ^ Luke 9:61–62, 1 Kings 19:16–21 ^ Matthew 27:46–49, Mark 15:35–36 ^ Matthew 17:1–13, Mark 9:2–13 and Luke 9:28–36 ^ Albright, W. F. and C. S. Mann. The Anchor Bible: Matthew. New York: Doubleday, 1971. ^ Fitzmyer, Joseph
Joseph
A. The Anchor Bible: Luke I–IX. New York: Doubleday, 1981. ^ Gill, John. "Hebrews 11:35". biblestudytools.com. Retrieved 2015-09-25.  ^ Henry, Matthew. "Hebrews 11". biblestudytools.com. Retrieved 2015-09-25.  ^ Brown, Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David. "Hebrews 11". biblestudytools.com. Retrieved 2015-09-25.  ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7) ^ Calendar of Saints (Lutheran) ^ "Why are Priests Celibate?". Holy Spirit Interactive. 2010-08-19.  ^ Skoko, Iko (21 August 2012). "Sveti Ilija – zaštitnik Bosne i Hercegovine" (in Serbo-Croatian). Večernji list.  ^ Martić, Zvonko (2014). "Sveti Jure i sveti Ilija u pučkoj pobožnosti katolika u Bosni i Hercegovini" (in Serbo-Croatian). Svjetlo riječi.  ^ Ackerman, Jane. "Stories of Elijah
Elijah
and medieval Carmelite identity." History of Religions. 35(2). 1995. 124–47. ^ Ackerman, Jane. Elijah
Elijah
Prophet
Prophet
of Carmel. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Carmelite Studies Publications, 2003. ^ Thurston, Herbert. "The Bollandists and Their Work", The Tablet, July 27, 1907 ^ "Controversies with Other Orders", The Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel" ^ J. Theodore Bent, "The Sun
Sun
Myths of Modern Hellas", The Antiquary 20 (1889), p. 10 ^ Patrick McBrine, translator, Sedulius' Carmen paschale, lines 184–187 PDF Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. ^ K. Sarah-Jane Murray, From Plato to Lancelot: a preface to Chrétien de Troyes, Syracuse 2008, p. 148 Google Books ^ Mary Hamilton, "The Pagan Element in the Names of Saints", Annual of the British School at Athens 13: 348–56 (1907) Google Books ^ C. Wachsmuth, Das alte Griechenland im neuen, 1864, p. 23, cited by Hippolyte Delehaye, The Legends of the Saints: An Introduction to Hagiography, 1907, p. 174 ^ Delehaye, p. 174 ^ a b c Arthur Bernard Cook, Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion, 1925, p. 178 Google Books ^ F. Lenormant, Monographie de la voie sacrée Éleusinienne, 1864, p. 452 as quoted by Delehaye, p. 174 ^ Elsie, Robert (2001). A Dictionary of Albanian Religion, Mythology, and Folk Culture. NYU Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0814722145.  ^ Lenhoff, Gail. " Christian
Christian
and Pagan Strata in the East Slavic Cult of St. Nicholas: Polemical Notes on Boris Uspenskij's Filologičeskie Razyskanija v Oblasti Slavjanskix Drevnostej." The Slavic and East European Journal. (July 1984) 28.2 pp. 147–63. ^ McLeish, Kenneth. Myth: Myths and Legends of the World Explored. London: Facts on File, 1996. p. 506. ^ Cherry Gilchrist, Russian Magic: Living Folk Traditions of an Enchanted Landscape, ISBN 0-8356-0874-3, pp. 81ff full text ^ Mike Dixon-Kennedy, Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend, ISBN 1-57607-130-8, p. 218, full text ^ a b c Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions, ISBN 0-87779-044-2, s.v. "Slavic religion" full text ^ Gabidzashvili, Enriko. 1991. Saint
Saint
George: In Ancient Georgian Literature. Armazi – 89: Tbilisi, Georgia. ^ Arthur Bernard Cook, Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion, p. 171 ^ Petersen, Mark E. (August 1981), "The Mission of Elijah", Ensign  ^ Perkins, Keith W. (July 1999), "I Have a Question: How can Elias, who appeared with Moses
Moses
on the Mount of Transfiguration, be identified as both the Old Testament prophet Elijah
Elijah
and as John the Baptist?", Ensign  ^ Smith, Joseph, Jr. (1976) [1938]. Smith, Joseph
Joseph
Fielding, ed. Teachings of the Prophet
Prophet
Joseph
Joseph
Smith. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book. ISBN 0-87579-243-X. OCLC 22984603.  p. 340 ^ "Elias", Bible Dictionary, KJV (LDS), LDS Church  ^ a b Burton, Theodore M. Burton (May 1974), "The Power of Elijah", Ensign  ^ Matthew 18:18 ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Note. 4112: " Elias
Elias
is the same as Elijah, whose story will be found in the Old Testament in I Kings 17–19. and 2 Kings 1–2. Elijah
Elijah
lived in the reign of Ahab
Ahab
(896–874 BC) and Ahaziah (874–872 BC), kings of the (northern) kingdom of Israel
Israel
or Samaria. He was a prophet of the desert, like John the Baptist, unlike our holy Prophet, who took part in, controlled, and guided all the affairs of his people. Both Ahab
Ahab
and Azariah were prone to lapse into the worship of Baal, the sun-god worshipped in Syria. That worship also included the worship of nature-powers and procreative powers, as in the Hindu worship of the Lingam, and led to many abuses. King Ahab
King Ahab
had married a princess of Sidon, Jezebel, a wicked woman who led her husband to forsake Allah
Allah
and adopt Baal-worship." Elijah
Elijah
denounced all Ahab's sins as well as the sins of Ahaziah and had to flee for his life. Eventually, according to the Old Testament (4 Kings, 2:11) he was taken up in a whirlwind to heaven in a chariot of fire after he had left his mantle with Elisha
Elisha
the prophet." ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, p. 474 ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, C. Glasse, Elijah ^ " Islamic
Islamic
View of the Coming/Return of Jesus". islamicperspectives.com.  ^ Message of the Qur'an, M. Asad, Commentary on 19: 56–57 ^ Dimensions of Islam, F. Schuon, index. Sayyidna Khizr ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. III, H-Iram ^ Adventures of Amir Hamza, J. Seyller, p. 240 ^ Quran 37:123–126 ^ Quran 37:127–128 ^ Quran 37:129–132 ^ Quran 6:85 ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Note. 905" ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation, Commentary, Note on Elijah ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Stories of Elias
Elias
and Elisha ^ Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam
Islam
and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, Elijah: " Muslim
Muslim
exegetes report that the prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a band of followers once met Elijah
Elijah
on a journey outside Mecca. Elijah served the prophet with food from heaven and then left on a cloud heading for the heavens" ^ Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam
Islam
and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, Elijah: "It is reported by Ibn Kathir that every year during the month of Ramadan
Ramadan
in Jerusalem, the prophets Elijah
Elijah
and Khidr meet..." ^ The Adventures of Amir Hamza, trans. M. A. Farooqi, cf. List of Characters: Ilyas or Prophet
Prophet
Elias ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of Elias
Elias
and Elisha ^ Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam, B. M. Wheeler, Baalbek ^ Shoghi, Effendi (1944). God
God
Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, US: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 58. ISBN 0-87743-020-9.  ^ Esslemont, John. Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era. Wilmette, Illinois, US: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 18. ISBN 0-87743-160-4.  ^ Clarke, Adam. The Holy Bible ... with a Commentary and Critical Notes, Volume II, London 1836 ^ Gray, John. Old Testament Library, I & II Kings, SCM Press, London, 1964 ^ a b Coram, James. "biblical studies: The Fate of Enoch and Elijah". Concordant Publishing Concern. Archived from the original on 2013-05-22. Retrieved 2014-05-04.  ^ Bromiley International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: E–J p. 55 ^ Aryeh Kaplan The handbook of Jewish thought, Volume 1 1992 p. 116 "This was seven years after Elijah's death; Seder Olam Rabbah
Seder Olam Rabbah
17.25" ^ Begg C. Josephus' story of the later monarchy: (AJ 9, 1–10, 185) Section "Elijah's Letter" p119 ^ Ron Abel Wrested Scriptures "There is evidence that Elijah
Elijah
was back on earth after he was taken away in the whirlwind. It can be shown that a letter was received by Jehoram, King of Judah, from Elijah, after Elijah
Elijah
was taken to heaven. Either the letter was written before he went to heaven and delivered by a messenger on earth (unlikely), or Elijah
Elijah
was "caught away" as was Philip from the Gaza Road to Azotas, (about 17 miles, Acts 8:39, 40) for an unspecified purpose and returned to the earth. Consider the evidence: 1. Elijah
Elijah
had been taken to heaven in a whirlwind. (2 Kings 2:11). 2. Elisha
Elisha
had taken over the duties of Elijah
Elijah
in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Kings 3:10, 11)., 3. Jehoram received a letter from Elijah, the prophet. (2 Chron. 21:1, 9–12). King Jehoram reigned after Jehoshaphat. (2 Chron. 21:1)". ^ Barrett Richard A.F. A synopsis of criticisms upon those passages, Volume 3, Part 1 p. 234 1847 "But our Dr. Lightfoot is of opinion, that it is not meant of that Elijah, who was carried up to heaven, but of another of his name, who sent this letter" ^ " Elijah
Elijah
the prophet". lastdays-eschatology.net.  ^ "Bahá'í Reference Library – God
God
Passes By". Reference.bahai.org. 2010-12-31. pp. 49–60. Retrieved 5 March 2014.  ^ "Bahá'í Reference Library – Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and the New Era". Reference.bahai.org. 2010-12-31. pp. 15–16. Retrieved 5 March 2014.  ^ "Debate between NOI member and I". Retrieved 8 February 2017. I say, we don't call the Honorable Elijah
Elijah
Muhammad
Muhammad
a Prophet. We recognize Prophet
Prophet
Muhammad, of 1400 years ago as the Last Prophet
Prophet
of Allah. The Honorable Elijah
Elijah
Muhammad
Muhammad
is Allah's Last and Greatest Messenger to we, the Black man and woman in America.  ^ "Link to on-line biography of Lorenzetto
Lorenzetto
from Vasari's ''Vite''". Efn.org. Retrieved 2014-03-05.  ^ Rickman, Gregg. Philip K. Dick: The Last Testament. Long Beach, CA: Fragments West/The Valentine Press, 1985. ^ Jacqueline Thalmann, 'Windows to Grace' in Simon Callow, Andrew Green, Rex Harley, Clive Hicks-Jenkins, Kathe Koja, Anita Mills, Montserrat Prat, Jacqueline Thalmann, Damian Walford Davies and Marly Youmans, Clive Hicks-Jenkins
Clive Hicks-Jenkins
(2011: Lund Humphries) ISBN 978-1-84822-082-9, pp. 81–97 ^ "The Magician". World Digital Library. 1917. Retrieved 2013-09-30. 

Bibliography[edit]

Elijah: Prophet
Prophet
of Carmel, by Jane Ackerman, ICS Publications, 2003. ISBN 0-935216-30-8

History[edit]

Miller, J. M. and J. H. Hayes. A History of Ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2004. ISBN 0-664-22358-3

Folklore and tradition[edit]

Bialik, H. N. and Y. H Ravnitzky. eds. The Book of Legends: Sefer Ha-Aggadah. New York: Schocken Books, 1992. ISBN 0-8052-4113-2 Ginzberg, Lewis. Legends of the Bible. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1956. Schwartz, Howard. Tree
Tree
of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-508679-1 Wolfson, Ron and Joel L. Grishaver. Passover: The Family Guide to Spiritual Celebration. Woodstock, VT: Jewish Lights Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-58023-174-8

Children's literature[edit]

Aronin, Ben and Shay Rieger. The Secret of the Sabbath
Sabbath
Fish. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1978. ISBN 0-8276-0110-7 Goldin, Barbara. Journeys with Elijah: Eight Tales of the Prophet. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999. ISBN 0-15-200445-9 Jaffe, Nina. The Mysterious Visitor: Stories of the Prophet
Prophet
Elijah. New York: Scholastic Press, 1997. ISBN 0-590-48422-2 Jaffe, Nina. The Way Meat Loves Salt: A Cinderella Tale from the Jewish Tradition. New York: Holt Publishing, 1998. ISBN 0-8050-4384-5 Silverman, Erica. Gittel's Hands. Mahwah, NJ: Bridge Water
Water
Books, 1996. ISBN 0-8167-3798-3 Sydelle, Pearl. Elijah's Tears: Stories for the Jewish Holidays. New York: Holt Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0-8050-4627-5 Thaler, Mike. Elijah, Prophet
Prophet
Sharing: and Other Bible Stories to Tickle Your Soul. Colorado Springs, CO: Faith Kids Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7814-3512-9 Scheck, Joann. The Water
Water
That Caught On Fire. St. Louis, Missouri: Concordia Publishing House: ARCH Books, 1969. (59-1159)

References in the Qur'an[edit]

Mission of Elijah: 37:123–126, 37:127–128 Praise for Elijah: 6:85, 37:129–132

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elijah.

Legends of the Jews
Jews
by Louis Ginzberg. The legends of Elijah. Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Cosmic Voyages - Mentions (in passing) the story of Elijah
Elijah
being carried up to heaven in a flaming chariot as an inspiration for human flight Elijah
Elijah
by Rob Bradshaw Extensive dictionary style article. LDS Bible Dictionary Entry on Elijah Founder Statue
Statue
in St Peter's Basilica Holy, Glorious Prophet
Prophet
Elijah
Elijah
Orthodox icon and synaxarion Prophet
Prophet
Ilyas The Story of Ilyas (Elias) Holy, Glorious Prophet
Prophet
Elijah
Elijah
Orthodox icon and synaxarion "Elijah" in Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.  "Elijah". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

v t e

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible

Pre-Patriarchal

Abel Kenan Enoch Noah (in rabbinic literature)

Patriarchs / Matriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Levi Joseph Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah

Israelite prophets in the Torah

Moses (in rabbinic literature) Aaron Miriam Eldad and Medad Phinehas

Mentioned in the Former Prophets

Joshua Deborah Gideon Eli Elkanah Hannah Abigail Samuel Gad Nathan David Solomon Jeduthun Ahijah Shemaiah Elijah Elisha Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Jahaziel Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Huldah

Major

Isaiah (in rabbinic literature) Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel (in rabbinic literature)

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah (in rabbinic literature) Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Noahide

Beor Balaam Job (in rabbinic literature)

Other

Amoz Beeri Baruch Agur Uriah Buzi Mordecai Esther (in rabbinic literature) Oded Azariah

Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.

v t e

Prophets in the Quran

آدم إدريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط إسماعيل

Adam Adam

Idris Enoch (?)

Nuh Noah

Hud Eber
Eber
(?)

Saleh Salah (?)

Ibrahim Abraham

Lut Lot

Ismail Ishmael

إسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب شُعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود

Is'haq Isaac

Yaqub Jacob

Yusuf Joseph

Ayyub Job

Shuayb Jethro (?)

Musa Moses

Harun Aaron

Dhul-Kifl Ezekiel
Ezekiel
(?)

Daud David

سليمان إلياس إليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى مُحمد

Sulaiman Solomon

Ilyas Elijah

Al-Yasa Elisha

Yunus Jonah

Zakaria Zechariah

Yahya John

Isa Jesus

Muhammad Muhammad

Note: Muslims believe that there were many prophets sent by God
God
to mankind. The Islamic
Islamic
prophets above are only the ones mentioned by name in the Quran.

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron
Aaron
and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic
Islamic
name / Biblical
Biblical
name (title or relationship)

v t e

Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

Mother of God
God
(Theotokos) Immaculate Conception Perpetual virginity Assumption Marian apparition

Guadalupe Laus Miraculous Medal Lourdes Fatima

Titles of Mary

Apostles

Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Archangels

Gabriel Michael Raphael

Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph
Joseph
(father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 50535071 LCCN: n80144

.