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Witness
In law, a witness is someone who has knowledge about a matter, whether they have sensed it or are testifying on another witnesses' behalf. In law a witness is someone who, either voluntarily or under compulsion, provides testimonial evidence, either oral or written, of what they know or claim to know. A percipient witness (or eyewitness) is one with knowledge obtained through their own sense A sense is a biological system used by an organism for sensation, the process of gathering information about the world and responding to Stimulus (physiology), stimuli. (For example, in the human body, the brain receives signals from the senses ...s (e.g., visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment (biophysical), environment through photopic vision (daytime vision), color vision, scotopic vision (night vision), and mesopic vision (twilight vision), using light in ..., hearing Schematic diagram of the human ear Hearing, or ...
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Expert Witness
An expert witness, particularly in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most-us ... countries such as the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ..., Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ..., and the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America ...
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Crown Witness
A criminal turns state's evidence by admitting guilt and Testimony, testifying as a witness for the state against their associate(s) or accomplice, accomplice(s), often in exchange for leniency in sentencing or immunity from prosecution.Howard Abadinsky, ''Organized Crime'' (9th ed: Cengage Learning, 2010), p. 368. The testimony of a witness who testifies against Criminal conspiracy, co-conspirator(s) may be important evidence. According to a 2008 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime document, persons who turn state's evidence "are known by a variety of names, including cooperating witnesses, crown witnesses, witness collaborators, justice collaborators, state witnesses, "supergrasses" and ''pentiti'' (Italian for 'those who have repented')." United Kingdom In the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth realms, the term is to turn Queen's or King's evidence, depending on the sex of the reigning monarch. The term "turning approver" or "turn king's approver" was also historically use ...
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United Nations
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the world's largest and most familiar international organization. The UN is headquarters of the United Nations, headquartered on extraterritoriality, international territory in New York City, and has other main offices in United Nations Office at Geneva, Geneva, United Nations Office at Nairobi, Nairobi, United Nations Office at Vienna, Vienna, and International Court of Justice, The Hague. The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future wars, succeeding the rather ineffective League of Nations. On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for United Nations Conference on International Organization, a conference and started drafting the United Nations Charter, UN Ch ...
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Affirmation In Law
In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ..., an affirmation is a solemn declaration allowed to those who conscientiously object to taking an oath Traditionally an oath (from Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British E .... An affirmation has exactly the same legal effect as an oath but is usually taken to avoid the religious implications of an oath; it is thus legally binding but not considered a religious oath. Some religious adherents hold beliefs that allow them to make legally binding promises but forbid them to swear an oath before a deity. Additionally, many decline to make a religious o ...
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Subpoena
A subpoena (; also subpœna, supenna or subpena) or witness summons is a writ In , a writ (Anglo-Saxon ''gewrit'', Latin ''breve'') is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial ; in modern usage, this body is generally a . , s, s, and are common types of writ, but many forms exist and have ... issued by a government agency, most often a court, to compel testimony by a witness or production of evidence under a penalty for failure. There are two common types of subpoenas: # ''subpoena ad testificandum A ''subpoena ad testificandum'' is a court summons to appear and give oral testimony for use at a hearing or trial. The use of a writ for purposes of compelling testimony originated in the ecclesiastical courts of the High Middle Ages, especially ...'' orders a person to testify before the ordering authority or face punishment. The subpoena can also request the testimony to be given by phone or in person. # ''subpoena duces tecum A ''subpoena duces ...
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Secret Witness
A secret witness (or anonymous witness) is a witness which is granted anonymity in a trial by the juridical authority. The identity of the witness is not disclosed to the defendant and the general public except the secret witness agrees to it. It is a juridical procedure currently often used in Turkish law. Prominent examples are the case against Andrew Brunson Andrew Craig Brunson (born January 3, 1968) is an American-Hungarian pastor and a teaching elder of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church (United States), Evangelical Presbyterian Church. Brunson was arrested in Turkey, where he had lived since t ... and the Ergenekon trials The Ergenekon trials (2008-2016) were a series of high-profile trials which took place in Turkey in which 275 people, including military officers, journalists and opposition lawmakers, all alleged members of Ergenekon (organization), Ergenekon, a .... In several trials against politicians of the Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkey), Peoples' Democratic ...
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Character Witness
Character evidence is a term used in the law of evidence (law), evidence to describe any testimony or document submitted for the purpose of proving that a person acted in a particular way on a particular occasion based on the character or disposition of that person. In the United States, Federal_Rules_of_Evidence, Federal Rule of Evidence 404 maps out its permissible and prohibited uses in trials. Three factors typically determine the admissibility of character evidence: # the Character_evidence#Purpose, purpose the character evidence is being used for # the Character_evidence#Form, form in which the character evidence is offered # the Character_evidence#Type_of_proceeding, type of proceeding (Civil_procedure, civil or Criminal_procedure, criminal) in which the character evidence is offered Purpose In the United States, character evidence may be offered at trial to :1. prove character, if character is a substantive issue in the litigation ::admissibility of character evidence t ...
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Testimony
In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. Etymology The words "testimony" and "testify" both derive from the Latin word ''testis'', referring to the notion of a disinterested Third-party source, third-party witness. Law In the law, testimony is a form of evidence (law), evidence that is obtained from a witness who makes a solemn statement or declaration of fact. Testimony may be oral or written, and it is usually made by oath or affirmation in law, affirmation under penalty of perjury. To be admissible in court and for maximum reliability and validity, written testimony is usually witnessed by one or more persons who swear or affirm its authenticity, also under penalty of perjury. Unless a witness is testifying as an expert witness, testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is generally limited to those opinions or inferences that are rationally based on the perceptions of the witness and are helpful to a clear understanding of ...
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Defense Attorney
A criminal defense lawyer is a lawyer (mostly barristers) specializing in the Defense (legal), defense of individuals and companies charged with Criminal law, criminal activity. Some criminal defense lawyers are privately retained, while others are employed by the various jurisdictions with criminal courts for appointment to represent Poverty, indigent persons; the latter are generally called public defenders. The terminology is imprecise because each jurisdiction may have different practices with various levels of input from state and federal law or consent decrees. Some jurisdictions use a rotating system of appointments, with judges appointing a private practice attorney or firm for each case. United States In the Law of the United States, United States, criminal defense lawyers deal with the issues surrounding an arrest, a criminal investigation, criminal charges, Sentence (law), sentencing, appeals, and post-trial issues. Often an attorney will specialize in a niche within ...
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Criminal Procedure
Criminal procedure is the adjudication Adjudication is the legal process by which an arbitration, arbiter or judge reviews evidence (law), evidence and argumentation, including legal reasoning set forth by opposing parties or litigants, to come to a decision which determines rights and ... process of the criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its env .... While criminal procedure differs dramatically by jurisdiction, the process generally begins with a formal criminal charge A criminal charge is a formal accusation made by a governmental authority (usually a public prosecutor A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system The adversarial system or ... with the person on trial either being free ...
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Government Agency
A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government The machinery of government (sometimes abbreviated as MoG) is the interconnected structures and processes of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. ... that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an administration Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; .... There is a notable variety of agency types. Although usage differs, a government agency is normally distinct both from a department or ministry, and other types of public body established by government A government is the sys ...
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Perception
Perception (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ... ''perceptio'', meaning gathering or receiving) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information A sense is a biological system A biological system is a complex biological network, network which connects several biologically relevant entities. Biological organization spans several scales and are determined based different structures dependi ... in order to represent and understand the presented information or environment. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system In biology, the classical doctrine of the nervous system determines that it is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its Behavior, actions an ...
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