Coordinates : 34°09′21″N 108°56′47″E / 34.15583°N
108.94639°E / 34.15583; 108.94639
206 BC – 220 AD
A map of the
Western Han Dynasty in 2 AD: 1) the territory
shaded in dark blue represents the principalities and
centrally-administered commanderies of the Han Empire; 2) the light
blue area shows the extent of the
Tarim Basin protectorate of the
Western Regions .
(206 BC – 9 AD, 190–195 AD)
(25–190 AD, 196 AD)
Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
Battle of Gaixia ; Han rule of
Interruption of Han rule
50 BC est. (
Western Han peak)
6,000,000 km2 (2,300,000 sq mi)
100 AD est. (Eastern Han peak)
6,500,000 km2 (2,500,000 sq mi)
2 AD est.
Ban liang coins and wu zhu coins
TODAY PART OF
"Han" in ancient seal script (top left), Han-era clerical script
(top right), modern Traditional (bottom left), and Simplified (bottom
HISTORY OF CHINA
NEOLITHIC c. 8500 – c. 2070 BC
XIA DYNASTY c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC
SHANG DYNASTY c. 1600 – c. 1046 BC
ZHOU DYNASTY c. 1046 – 256 BC
Spring and Autumn
QIN DYNASTY 221–206 BC
HAN DYNASTY 206 BC – 220 AD
THREE KINGDOMS 220–280
WEI , SHU and WU
JIN DYNASTY 265–420
NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN DYNASTIES
SUI DYNASTY 581–618
TANG DYNASTY 618–907
Zhou dynasty 690–705)
Five Dynasties and
907–960 LIAO DYNASTY
YUAN DYNASTY 1271–1368
MING DYNASTY 1368–1644
QING DYNASTY 1644–1912
REPUBLIC OF CHINA 1912–1949
People's Republic of
Timeline of Chinese history
Timeline of Chinese history
Dynasties in Chinese history
Dynasties in Chinese history
* Linguistic history
* Art history
* Economic history
* Education history
* Science and technology history
* Legal history
* Media history
* Military history
* Naval history
The HAN DYNASTY (Chinese : 漢朝; pinyin : Hàn cháo) was the
second imperial dynasty of
China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the
Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the
Three Kingdoms period
(220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is
considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's
majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han people" and the
Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters ". It was founded by
the rebel leader
Liu Bang , known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han
, and briefly interrupted by the
Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former
Wang Mang . This interregnum separates the
Han dynasty into two
periods: the WESTERN HAN or FORMER HAN (206 BC – 9 AD) and the
EASTERN HAN or LATER HAN (25–220 AD).
The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society . He presided over the
Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed
ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class . The Han
Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central
government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as
commanderies , and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms . These
kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence,
particularly following the
Rebellion of the Seven States
Rebellion of the Seven States . From the
reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court
Confucianism in education and court politics,
synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu
. This policy endured until the fall of the
Qing dynasty in 1911 AD.
Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a
significant growth of the money economy first established during the
Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central
government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of
Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited
institutional innovations. To pay for its military campaigns and the
settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the government
nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these
government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han period.
Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances,
including papermaking , the nautical steering rudder , the use of
negative numbers in mathematics , the raised-relief map , the
hydraulic -powered armillary sphere for astronomy , and a seismometer
employing an inverted pendulum .
Xiongnu , a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in
200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner,
but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched
several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in
these wars eventually forced the
Xiongnu to accept vassal status as
Han tributaries . These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the
Tarim Basin of
Central Asia , divided the
Xiongnu into two separate
confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as
Silk Road , which reached as far as the Mediterranean world . The
territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic
Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military
expeditions in the south , annexing
Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109
BC , and in the
Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang
Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace
eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging
in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the
empresses and empresses dowager , causing the Han's ultimate downfall.
Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist
religious societies which instigated the
Yellow Turban Rebellion
Yellow Turban Rebellion and
the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion . Following the death of Emperor Ling
(r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by
military officers , allowing members of the aristocracy and military
governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When
Cao Pi , King
of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian , the
Han dynasty ceased
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.2 Wang Mang\'s reign and civil war
* 2.3 Eastern Han
End of the Han dynasty
End of the Han dynasty
* 3 Society and culture
* 3.1 Social class
* 3.2 Marriage, gender, and kinship
* 3.3 Education, literature, and philosophy
* 3.4 Law and order
* 3.5 Food
* 3.6 Clothing
* 3.7 Religion, cosmology, and metaphysics
* 4 Government
* 4.1 Central government
* 4.2 Local government
* 4.3 Kingdoms and marquessates
* 4.4 Military
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Variations in currency
* 5.2 Taxation and property
* 5.3 Private manufacture and government monopolies
* 6 Science, technology, and engineering
* 6.1 Writing materials
* 6.2 Metallurgy and agriculture
* 6.3 Structural engineering
* 6.4 Mechanical and hydraulic engineering
* 6.5 Mathematics
* 6.6 Astronomy
* 6.7 Cartography, ships, and vehicles
* 6.8 Medicine
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 8.1 Citations
* 8.2 Sources
* 9 External links
According to the
Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian , after the collapse
Qin dynasty the hegemon
Xiang Yu appointed
Liu Bang as prince
of the small fief of
Hanzhong , named after its location on the Han
River (in modern southwest
Shaanxi ). Following
Liu Bang's victory in
Chu–Han Contention , the resulting
Han dynasty was named after
History of the Han dynasty
History of the Han dynasty See also: List of emperors
Main articles: Han–
Xiongnu War and Southward expansion Further
Loulan Kingdom ,
Shule Kingdom ,
Kingdom of Khotan
Kingdom of Khotan , Saka
China 's first imperial dynasty was the
Qin dynasty (221–206 BC).
The Qin unified the Chinese Warring States by conquest, but their
empire became unstable after the death of the first emperor Qin Shi
Huangdi . Within four years, the dynasty's authority had collapsed in
the face of rebellion. Two former rebel leaders,
Xiang Yu (d. 202 BC)
of Chu and
Liu Bang (d. 195 BC) of Han , engaged in a war to decide
who would become hegemon of China, which had fissured into 18 kingdoms
, each claiming allegiance to either
Xiang Yu or
Liu Bang. Although
Xiang Yu proved to be a capable commander,
Liu Bang defeated him at
Battle of Gaixia (202 BC), in modern-day
Liu Bang assumed the
title "emperor" (huangdi) at the urging of his followers and is known
posthumously as Emperor Gaozu (r. 202–195 BC). Chang\'an was chosen
as the new capital of the reunified empire under Han.
At the beginning of the
Western Han dynasty, thirteen centrally
controlled commanderies —including the capital region—existed in
the western third of the empire, while the eastern two-thirds were
divided into ten semi-autonomous kingdoms . To placate his prominent
commanders from the war with Chu, Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed some of them
as kings. By 157 BC, the Han court had replaced all of these kings
Liu family members, since the loyalty of non-relatives to
the throne was questioned. After several insurrections by Han
kings—the largest being the
Rebellion of the Seven States
Rebellion of the Seven States in 154
BC—the imperial court enacted a series of reforms beginning in 145
BC limiting the size and power of these kingdoms and dividing their
former territories into new centrally controlled commanderies. Kings
were no longer able to appoint their own staff; this duty was assumed
by the imperial court. Kings became nominal heads of their fiefs and
collected a portion of tax revenues as their personal incomes. The
kingdoms were never entirely abolished and existed throughout the
remainder of Western and Eastern Han.
Han dynasty in 100 BC
Provinces controlled by
Han dynasty in 190 AD
To the north of
China proper , the nomadic
Xiongnu chieftain Modu
Chanyu (r. 209–174 BC) conquered various tribes inhabiting the
eastern portion of the
Eurasian Steppe . By the end of his reign, he
Mongolia , and the
Tarim Basin , subjugating
over twenty states east of
Samarkand . Emperor Gaozu was troubled
about the abundant Han-manufactured iron weapons traded to the Xiongnu
along the northern borders, and he established a trade embargo against
the group. Although the embargo was in place, the
traders willing to supply their needs. Chinese forces also mounted
surprise attacks against
Xiongnu who traded at the border markets. In
Xiongnu invaded what is now
Shanxi province, where
they defeated the Han forces at Baideng in 200 BC. After
negotiations, the heqin agreement in 198 BC nominally held the leaders
Xiongnu and the Han as equal partners in a royal marriage
alliance, but the Han were forced to send large amounts of tribute
items such as silk clothes, food, and wine to the Xiongnu. A
silk banner from
Hunan province. It was draped
over the coffin of
Lady Dai (d. 168 BC), wife of the
Marquess Li Cang
(利蒼) (d. 186 BC), chancellor for the Kingdom of
Despite the tribute and a negotiation between
Laoshang Chanyu (r.
174–160 BC) and Emperor Wen (r. 180–157 BC) to reopen border
markets, many of the
Xiongnu subordinates chose not to obey
the treaty and periodically raided Han territories south of the Great
Wall for additional goods. In a court conference assembled by Emperor
Wu (r. 141–87 BC) in 135 BC, the majority consensus of the ministers
was to retain the heqin agreement. Emperor Wu accepted this, despite
Xiongnu raids. However, a court conference the following
year convinced the majority that a limited engagement at Mayi
involving the assassination of the
Chanyu would throw the Xiongnu
realm into chaos and benefit the Han. When this plot failed in 133
BC, Emperor Wu launched a series of massive military invasions into
Xiongnu territory. Chinese armies captured one stronghold after
another and established agricultural colonies to strengthen their
hold. The assault culminated in 119 BC at the
Battle of Mobei , where
the Han commanders
Huo Qubing (d. 117 BC) and
Wei Qing (d. 106 BC)
Xiongnu court to flee north of the
Gobi Desert .
After Wu's reign, Han forces continued to prevail against the
Xiongnu leader Huhanye
Chanyu (呼韓邪) (r. 58–31 BC)
finally submitted to Han as a tributary vassal in 51 BC. His rival
claimant to the throne, Zhizhi
Chanyu (r. 56–36 BC), was killed by
Chen Tang and Gan Yanshou (甘延壽/甘延寿) at the Battle of
Zhizhi , in modern
Kazakhstan . A gilded bronze oil lamp
in the shape of a kneeling female servant, dated 2nd century BC, found
in the tomb of
Dou Wan , wife of the Han prince
Liu Sheng ; its
sliding shutter allows for adjustments in the direction and brightness
in light while it also traps smoke within the body.
In 121 BC, Han forces expelled the
Xiongnu from a vast territory
Hexi Corridor to
Lop Nur . They repelled a joint
Xiongnu-Qiang invasion of this northwestern territory in 111 BC. In
that year, the Han court established four new frontier commanderies in
Dunhuang , and Wuwei . The majority
of people on the frontier were soldiers. On occasion, the court
forcibly moved peasant farmers to new frontier settlements, along with
government-owned slaves and convicts who performed hard labor. The
court also encouraged commoners , such as farmers, merchants,
landowners, and hired laborers, to voluntarily migrate to the
Even before Han's expansion into Central Asia, diplomat
Zhang Qian 's
travels from 139 to 125 BC had established Chinese contacts with many
surrounding civilizations. Zhang encountered
Fergana ), Kangju
Sogdiana ), and
Bactria , formerly the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
); he also gathered information on Shendu (
Indus River valley of North
India ) and Anxi (the
Parthian Empire ). All of these countries
eventually received Han embassies. These connections marked the
beginning of the
Silk Road trade network that extended to the Roman
Empire , bringing Han items like silk to Rome and Roman goods such as
glasswares to China.
From roughly 115 to 60 BC, Han forces fought the
Xiongnu over control
of the oasis city-states in the Tarim Basin. Han was eventually
victorious and established the Protectorate of the
Western Regions in
60 BC, which dealt with the region's defense and foreign affairs. The
Han also expanded southward . The naval conquest of
Nanyue in 111 BC
expanded the Han realm into what are now modern
Yunnan was brought into the Han realm with the
conquest of the
Dian Kingdom in 109 BC, followed by parts of the
Korean Peninsula with the
Wiman Joseon–Han War and colonial
Xuantu Commandery and
Lelang Commandery in 108 BC.
In China's first known nationwide census taken in 2 AD, the population
was registered as having 57,671,400 individuals in 12,366,470
To pay for his military campaigns and colonial expansion, Emperor Wu
nationalized several private industries. He created central government
monopolies administered largely by former merchants . These monopolies
included salt, iron , and liquor production, as well as bronze-coin
currency . The liquor monopoly lasted only from 98 to 81 BC, and the
salt and iron monopolies were eventually abolished in early Eastern
Han. The issuing of coinage remained a central government monopoly
throughout the rest of the Han dynasty. The government monopolies
were eventually repealed when a political faction known as the
Reformists gained greater influence in the court. The Reformists
opposed the Modernist faction that had dominated court politics in
Emperor Wu's reign and during the subsequent regency of
Huo Guang (d.
68 BC). The Modernists argued for an aggressive and expansionary
foreign policy supported by revenues from heavy government
intervention in the private economy. The Reformists, however,
overturned these policies, favoring a cautious, non-expansionary
approach to foreign policy, frugal budget reform, and lower tax-rates
imposed on private entrepreneurs.
WANG MANG\'S REIGN AND CIVIL WAR
Wang Mang and
Xin dynasty LEFT IMAGE: A
Western-Han painted ceramic mounted cavalryman from the tomb of a
military general at
RIGHT IMAGE: A Western or Eastern Han bronze horse statuette with a
Wang Zhengjun (71 BC–13 AD) was first empress, then empress dowager
, and finally grand empress dowager during the reigns of the Emperors
Yuan (r. 49–33 BC), Cheng (r. 33–7 BC), and Ai (r. 7–1 BC),
respectively. During this time, a succession of her male relatives
held the title of regent. Following the death of Ai, Wang Zhengjun's
Wang Mang (45 BC–23 AD) was appointed regent as Marshall of
State on 16 August under Emperor Ping (r. 1 BC – 6 AD).
When Ping died on 3 February 6 AD,
Ruzi Ying (d. 25 AD) was chosen as
the heir and
Wang Mang was appointed to serve as acting emperor for
the child. Wang promised to relinquish his control to
Liu Ying once
he came of age. Despite this promise, and against protest and revolts
from the nobility,
Wang Mang claimed on 10 January that the divine
Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven called for the end of the
Han dynasty and the
beginning of his own: the
Xin dynasty (9–23 AD).
Wang Mang initiated a series of major reforms that were ultimately
unsuccessful. These reforms included outlawing slavery , nationalizing
land to equally distribute between households, and introducing new
currencies, a change which debased the value of coinage. Although
these reforms provoked considerable opposition, Wang's regime met its
ultimate downfall with the massive floods of c. 3 AD and 11 AD.
Gradual silt buildup in the
Yellow River had raised its water level
and overwhelmed the flood control works . The
Yellow River split into
two new branches: one emptying to the north and the other to the south
Shandong Peninsula , though Han engineers managed to dam the
southern branch by 70 AD.
The flood dislodged thousands of peasant farmers, many of whom joined
roving bandit and rebel groups such as the
Red Eyebrows to survive.
Wang Mang's armies were incapable of quelling these enlarged rebel
groups. Eventually, an insurgent mob forced their way into the Weiyang
Palace and killed Wang Mang. A spade-shaped bronze coin issued
Wang Mang 's (r. 9–23 AD) reign
The Gengshi Emperor (r. 23–25 AD), a descendant of Emperor Jing (r.
157–141 BC), attempted to restore the
Han dynasty and occupied
Chang'an as his capital. However, he was overwhelmed by the Red
Eyebrow rebels who deposed, assassinated, and replaced him with the
Liu Penzi . Emperor Gengshi's brother
Liu Xiu, known
posthumously as Emperor Guangwu (r. 25–57 AD), after distinguishing
himself at the
Battle of Kunyang in 23 AD, was urged to succeed
Gengshi as emperor.
Under Guangwu's rule the Han
Empire was restored. Guangwu made
Luoyang his capital in 25 AD, and by 27 AD his officers
Deng Yu and
Feng Yi had forced the
Red Eyebrows to surrender and executed their
leaders for treason . From 26 until 36 AD, Emperor Guangwu had to
wage war against other regional warlords who claimed the title of
emperor; when these warlords were defeated,
China reunified under the
The period between the foundation of the
Han dynasty and Wang Mang's
reign is known as the
Western Han dynasty (simplified Chinese :
西汉; traditional Chinese : 西漢; pinyin : Xī Hàn) or Former Han
dynasty (simplified Chinese : 前汉; traditional Chinese : 前漢;
pinyin : Qiánhàn) (206 BC – 9 AD). During this period the capital
Chang'an (modern Xi\'an ). From the reign of Guangwu the
capital was moved eastward to Luoyang. The era from his reign until
the fall of Han is known as the Eastern
Han dynasty (simplified
Chinese : 东汉; traditional Chinese : 東漢; pinyin : Dōng Hàn)
or the Later
Han dynasty (simplified Chinese : 后汉; traditional
Chinese : 後漢; pinyin : Hòu Hàn) (25–220 AD).
LEFT IMAGE: Western-Han painted ceramic jar decorated with
raised reliefs of dragons , phoenixes , and taotie
RIGHT IMAGE: Reverse side of a Western-Han bronze mirror with painted
designs of a flower motif
The Eastern Han, also known as the Later Han, formally began on 5
August 25, when
Liu Xiu became
Emperor Guangwu of Han . During the
widespread rebellion against Wang Mang, the state of
Goguryeo was free
to raid Han's Korean commanderies ; Han did not reaffirm its control
over the region until AD 30. The
Trưng Sisters of
against Han in AD 40. Their rebellion was crushed by Han general Ma
Yuan (d. AD 49) in a campaign from AD 42–43.
Wang Mang renewed
hostilities against the
Xiongnu , who were estranged from Han until
their leader Bi (比), a rival claimant to the throne against his
cousin Punu (蒲奴), submitted to Han as a tributary vassal in AD 50.
This created two rival
Xiongnu states: the Southern
Xiongnu led by Bi,
an ally of Han, and the Northern
Xiongnu led by Punu, an enemy of Han.
During the turbulent reign of Wang Mang, Han lost control over the
Tarim Basin, which was conquered by the Northern
Xiongnu in AD 63 and
used as a base to invade Han's
Hexi Corridor in
Dou Gu (d. 88
AD) defeated the Northern
Xiongnu at the
Battle of Yiwulu in AD 73,
evicting them from
Turpan and chasing them as far as Lake Barkol
before establishing a garrison at Hami . After the new Protector
General of the
Chen Mu (d. AD 75) was killed by allies
Kucha , the garrison at Hami was
withdrawn. At the
Battle of Ikh Bayan in AD 89,
Dou Xian (d. AD 92)
defeated the Northern
Xiongnu chanyu who then retreated into the Altai
Mountains . After the Northern
Xiongnu fled into the
Ili River valley
in AD 91, the nomadic
Xianbei occupied the area from the borders of
Buyeo Kingdom in
Manchuria to the
Ili River of the
Xianbei reached their apogee under Tanshihuai (檀石槐) (d. AD
180), who consistently defeated Chinese armies. However, Tanshihuai's
confederation disintegrated after his death.
Ban Chao (d. AD 102) enlisted the aid of the
Kushan Empire ,
occupying the area of modern
Afghanistan , and
Tajikistan , to subdue
Kashgar and its ally Sogdiana. When a request
by Kushan ruler
Vima Kadphises (r. c. 90–c. 100 AD) for a marriage
alliance with the Han was rejected in AD 90, he sent his forces to
Wakhan (Afghanistan) to attack Ban Chao. The conflict ended with the
Kushans withdrawing because of lack of supplies. In AD 91, the office
of Protector General of the
Western Regions was reinstated when it was
bestowed on Ban Chao. Eastern Han inscriptions on lead ingot,
using barbarous Greek alphabet in the style of the
Kushans , excavated
Shaanxi , 1st-2nd century CE.
Foreign travelers to Eastern-Han
China include Buddhist monks who
translated works into Chinese , such as
An Shigao from Parthia, and
Lokaksema from Kushan-era
Gandhara , India. In addition to tributary
relations with the Kushans, the Han
Empire received gifts from the
Parthian Empire , from a king in modern
Burma , from a ruler in Japan
, and initiated an unsuccessful mission to
Daqin (Rome ) in AD 97 with
Gan Ying as emissary. A Roman embassy of Emperor
Marcus Aurelius (r.
161–180 AD) is recorded in the
Hou Hanshu to have
reached the court of
Emperor Huan of Han (r. AD 146–168) in AD 166,
Rafe de Crespigny asserts that this was most likely a group of
Roman merchants . In addition to Roman glasswares and coins found in
China, Roman medallions from the reign of
Antoninus Pius and his
Marcus Aurelius have been found at
Óc Eo in
This was near the commandery of
Jiaozhi ) where Chinese
sources claim the Romans first landed, as well as embassies from
Tianzhu (in northern India) in the years 159 and 161.
Óc Eo is also
thought to be the port city "
Cattigara " described by
Ptolemy in his
Geography (c. 150 AD) as lying east of the
Golden Chersonese (Malay
Peninsula ) along the
Magnus Sinus (i.e.
Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand and South
China Sea ), where a Greek sailor had visited. The
Horse , depicted in full gallop, bronze sculpture , h 34,5 cm. Wuwei ,
Gansu , China, AD 25–220
Emperor Zhang\'s (r. 75–88 AD) reign came to be viewed by later
Eastern Han scholars as the high point of the dynastic house.
Subsequent reigns were increasingly marked by eunuch intervention in
court politics and their involvement in the violent power struggles of
the imperial consort clans . With the aid of the eunuch Zheng Zhong
(d. 107 AD), Emperor He (r. 88–105 AD) had Empress Dowager Dou (d.
97 AD) put under house arrest and her clan stripped of power. This was
in revenge for Dou's purging of the clan of his natural
Consort Liang —and then concealing her identity from him.
After Emperor He's death, his wife
Empress Deng Sui (d. 121 AD)
managed state affairs as the regent empress dowager during a turbulent
financial crisis and widespread Qiang rebellion that lasted from 107
to 118 AD.
When Empress Dowager Deng died, Emperor An (r. 106–125 AD) was
convinced by the accusations of the eunuchs Li Run (李閏) and Jiang
Jing (江京) that Deng and her family had planned to depose him. An
dismissed Deng's clan members from office, exiled them and forced many
to commit suicide. After An's death, his wife, Empress Dowager Yan
(d. 126 AD) placed the child
Marquess of Beixiang on the throne in an
attempt to retain power within her family. However, palace eunuch Sun
Cheng (d. 132 AD) masterminded a successful overthrow of her regime to
Emperor Shun of Han (r. 125–144 AD). Yan was placed under
house arrest, her relatives were either killed or exiled, and her
eunuch allies were slaughtered. The regent
Liang Ji (d. 159 AD),
Empress Liang Na (d. 150 AD), had the brother-in-law of
Consort Deng Mengnü (later empress) (d. 165 AD) killed after Deng
Mengnü resisted Liang Ji's attempts to control her. Afterward,
Emperor Huan employed eunuchs to depose Liang Ji, who was then forced
to commit suicide. These rammed earth ruins of a granary in
Hecang Fortress (Chinese: 河仓城； Pinyin: Hécāngchéng),
located ~11 km (7 miles) northeast of the Western-Han-era
Yumen Pass ,
were built during the
Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) and significantly
rebuilt during the
Western Jin (280–316 AD).
Students from the Imperial University organized a widespread student
protest against the eunuchs of Emperor Huan's court. Huan further
alienated the bureaucracy when he initiated grandiose construction
projects and hosted thousands of concubines in his harem at a time of
economic crisis. Palace eunuchs imprisoned the official Li Ying
(李膺) and his associates from the Imperial University on a dubious
charge of treason. In 167 AD, the Grand Commandant
Dou Wu (d. 168 AD)
convinced his son-in-law, Emperor Huan, to release them. However the
emperor permanently barred Li Ying and his associates from serving in
office, marking the beginning of the Partisan Prohibitions .
Following Huan's death,
Dou Wu and the Grand Tutor Chen Fan (陳蕃)
(d. 168 AD) attempted a coup d\'état against the eunuchs
Hou Lan (d.
172 AD), Cao Jie (d. 181 AD), and Wang Fu (王甫). When the plot was
uncovered, the eunuchs arrested Empress Dowager Dou (d. 172 AD) and
Chen Fan. General Zhang Huan (張奐) favored the eunuchs. He and his
Dou Wu and his retainers at the palace gate where
each side shouted accusations of treason against the other. When the
retainers gradually deserted Dou Wu, he was forced to commit suicide.
Under Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD) the eunuchs had the partisan
prohibitions renewed and expanded, while themselves auctioning off top
government offices. Many affairs of state were entrusted to the
Zhao Zhong (d. 189 AD) and
Zhang Rang (d. 189 AD) while
Emperor Ling spent much of his time roleplaying with concubines and
participating in military parades.
END OF THE HAN DYNASTY
End of the Han dynasty
End of the Han dynasty A Chinese crossbow
mechanism with a buttplate from either the late Warring States Period
or the early Han dynasty; made of bronze and inlaid with silver
The Partisan Prohibitions were repealed during the Yellow Turban
Rebellion and Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion in 184 AD, largely because
the court did not want to continue to alienate a significant portion
of the gentry class who might otherwise join the rebellions. The
Yellow Turbans and Five-Pecks-of-Rice adherents belonged to two
Daoist religious societies led by faith healers
Zhang Jue (d. 184 AD) and Zhang Lu (d. 216 AD), respectively. Zhang
Lu's rebellion, in modern northern
Sichuan and southern
Shaanxi , was
not quelled until 215 AD. Zhang Jue's massive rebellion across eight
provinces was annihilated by Han forces within a year, however the
following decades saw much smaller recurrent uprisings. Although the
Yellow Turbans were defeated, many generals appointed during the
crisis never disbanded their assembled militia forces and used these
troops to amass power outside of the collapsing imperial authority.
He Jin (d. 189 AD), half-brother to Empress He (d.
189 AD), plotted with
Yuan Shao (d. 202 AD) to overthrow the eunuchs
by having several generals march to the outskirts of the capital.
There, in a written petition to Empress He, they demanded the eunuchs'
execution. After a period of hesitation, Empress He consented. When
the eunuchs discovered this, however, they had her brother He Miao
(何苗) rescind the order. The eunuchs assassinated
He Jin on
September 22, 189 AD.
Yuan Shao then besieged Luoyang's Northern
Palace while his brother
Yuan Shu (d. 199 AD) besieged the Southern
Palace. On September 25 both palaces were breached and approximately
two thousand eunuchs were killed.
Zhang Rang had previously fled with
Emperor Shao (r. 189 AD) and his brother
Liu Xie—the future Emperor
Xian of Han (r. 189–220 AD). While being pursued by the Yuan
brothers, Zhang committed suicide by jumping into the Yellow River.
LEFT: Animalistic guardian spirits of day and night wearing
Chinese robes ,
Han dynasty paintings on ceramic tile ; Michael Loewe
writes that the hybrid of man and beast in art and religious beliefs
predated the Han and remained popular during the first half of Western
Han and the Eastern Han.
RIGHT: Detail of a mural showing two women wearing
Hanfu silk robes,
from the Dahuting Tomb (Chinese: 打虎亭汉墓, Pinyin: Dahuting Han
mu) of the late
Eastern Han Dynasty
Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD), located in
Henan province, China,
Dong Zhuo (d. 192 AD) found the young emperor and his brother
wandering in the countryside. He escorted them safely back to the
capital and was made Minister of Works , taking control of
Yuan Shao to flee. After
Dong Zhuo demoted Emperor Shao and
promoted his brother
Liu Xie as Emperor Xian,
Yuan Shao led a
coalition of former officials and officers against Dong, who burned
Luoyang to the ground and resettled the court at
Chang'an in May 191
Dong Zhuo later poisoned Emperor Shao.
Dong was killed by his adopted son
Lü Bu (d. 198 AD) in a plot
hatched by Wang Yun (d. 192 AD). Emperor Xian fled from
195 AD to the ruins of Luoyang. Xian was persuaded by Cao Cao
(155–220 AD), then Governor of Yan Province in modern western
Shandong and eastern
Henan , to move the capital to
Xuchang in 196 AD.
Yuan Shao challenged
Cao Cao for control over the emperor. Yuan's
power was greatly diminished after Cao defeated him at the Battle of
Guandu in 200 AD. After Yuan died, Cao killed Yuan Shao's son Yuan Tan
(173–205 AD), who had fought with his brothers over the family
inheritance. His brothers
Yuan Shang and
Yuan Xi were killed in 207
Gongsun Kang (d. 221 AD), who sent their heads to Cao Cao.
After Cao's defeat at the naval
Battle of Red Cliffs
Battle of Red Cliffs in 208 AD, China
was divided into three spheres of influence, with
Cao Cao dominating
Sun Quan (182–252 AD) dominating the south, and
(161–223 AD) dominating the west.
Cao Cao died in March 220 AD. By
December his son
Cao Pi (187–226 AD) had Emperor Xian relinquish the
throne to him and is known posthumously as Emperor Wen of Wei . This
formally ended the
Han dynasty and initiated an age of conflict
between three states :
Cao Wei ,
Eastern Wu , and
Shu Han .
SOCIETY AND CULTURE
Society and culture of the Han dynasty
Chinese nobility and Marquis Baocheng Two
Han-dynasty red-and-black lacquerwares , one a bowl, the other a tray;
usually only wealthy officials, nobles, and merchants could afford
domestic luxury items like lacquerwares, which were common commodities
produced by skilled artisans and craftsmen. LEFT: a late
Eastern Han (25–220 AD) Chinese tomb mural showing lively scenes of
a banquet (yanyin 宴飲), dance and music (wuyue 舞樂), acrobatics
(baixi 百戲), and wrestling (xiangbu 相撲), from the Dahuting Tomb
(Chinese: 打虎亭漢墓, Pinyin: Dahuting Han mu), on the southern
bank of the Siuhe River in
Henan province ,
west of Xi County )
RIGHT: a mural from an Eastern Han tomb at Zhucun 朱村,
Henan province; the two figures in the foreground are playing liubo ,
with the playing mat between them, and the liubo game board to the
side of the mat.
In the hierarchical social order, the emperor was at the apex of Han
society and government. However the emperor was often a minor, ruled
over by a regent such as the empress dowager or one of her male
relatives. Ranked immediately below the emperor were the kings who
were of the same
Liu family clan. The rest of society, including
nobles lower than kings and all commoners excluding slaves belonged to
one of twenty ranks (ershi gongcheng 二十公乘).
Each successive rank gave its holder greater pensions and legal
privileges. The highest rank, of full marquess , came with a state
pension and a territorial fiefdom . Holders of the rank immediately
below, that of ordinary marquess, received a pension, but had no
territorial rule. Officials who served in government belonged to the
wider commoner social class and were ranked just below nobles in
social prestige. The highest government officials could be enfeoffed
as marquesses. By the Eastern Han period, local elites of unattached
scholars, teachers, students, and government officials began to
identify themselves as members of a larger, nationwide gentry class
with shared values and a commitment to mainstream scholarship. When
the government became noticeably corrupt in mid-to-late Eastern Han,
many gentrymen even considered the cultivation of morally grounded
personal relationships more important than serving in public office.
The farmer , or specifically the small landowner-cultivator, was
ranked just below scholars and officials in the social hierarchy.
Other agricultural cultivators were of a lower status, such as tenants
, wage laborers , and in rare cases slaves. Artisans and craftsmen
had a legal and socioeconomic status between that of owner-cultivator
farmers and common merchants . State-registered merchants, who were
forced by law to wear white-colored clothes and pay high commercial
taxes, were considered by the gentry as social parasites with a
contemptible status. These were often petty shopkeepers of urban
marketplaces; merchants such as industrialists and itinerant traders
working between a network of cities could avoid registering as
merchants and were often wealthier and more powerful than the vast
majority of government officials. Wealthy landowners, such as nobles
and officials, often provided lodging for retainers who provided
valuable work or duties, sometimes including fighting bandits or
riding into battle. Unlike slaves, retainers could come and go from
their master's home as they pleased. Medical physicians , pig
breeders, and butchers had a fairly high social status, while
occultist diviners , runners, and messengers had low status.
MARRIAGE, GENDER, AND KINSHIP
See also: Women in Han
The Han-era family was patrilineal and typically had four to five
nuclear family members living in one household. Multiple generations
of extended family members did not occupy the same house, unlike
families of later dynasties. According to Confucian family norms ,
various family members were treated with different levels of respect
and intimacy. For example, there were different accepted time frames
for mourning the death of a father versus a paternal uncle. Arranged
marriages were normal, with the father's input on his offspring's
spouse being considered more important than the mother's. Monogamous
marriages were also normal, although nobles and high officials were
wealthy enough to afford and support concubines as additional lovers.
Under certain conditions dictated by custom, not law, both men and
women were able to divorce their spouses and remarry. LEFT
IMAGE: A Han pottery female servant in silk robes
RIGHT IMAGE: A Han pottery female dancer in silk robes
Apart from the passing of noble titles or ranks, inheritance
practices did not involve primogeniture ; each son received an equal
share of the family property. Unlike the practice in later dynasties,
the father usually sent his adult married sons away with their
portions of the family fortune. Daughters received a portion of the
family fortune through their marriage dowries , though this was
usually much less than the shares of sons. A different distribution
of the remainder could be specified in a will , but it is unclear how
common this was.
Women were expected to obey the will of their father, then their
husband, and then their adult son in old age. However, it is known
from contemporary sources that there were many deviations to this
rule, especially in regard to mothers over their sons, and empresses
who ordered around and openly humiliated their fathers and brothers.
Women were exempt from the annual corvée labor duties, but often
engaged in a range of income-earning occupations aside from their
domestic chores of cooking and cleaning.
The most common occupation for women was weaving clothes for the
family, sale at market or for large textile enterprises that employed
hundreds of women. Other women helped on their brothers' farms or
became singers, dancers, sorceresses , respected medical physicians,
and successful merchants who could afford their own silk clothes.
Some women formed spinning collectives, aggregating the resources of
several different families.
EDUCATION, LITERATURE, AND PHILOSOPHY
A fragment of the 'Stone Classics' (熹平石經); these
Five Classics installed during Emperor Ling\'s reign
along the roadside of the Imperial University (right outside
were made at the instigation of
Cai Yong (132–192 AD), who feared
the Classics housed in the imperial library were being interpolated by
University Academicians. Carved reliefs on stone tomb
doors showing men dressed in
Hanfu , with one holding a shield, the
other a broom,
Eastern Han Dynasty
Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD), from Lanjia Yard, Pi
Sichuan province ,
Sichuan Provincial Museum of
Western Han court simultaneously accepted the philosophical
teachings of Legalism ,
Daoism , and
Confucianism in making
state decisions and shaping government policy. However, the Han court
under Emperor Wu gave
Confucianism exclusive patronage. He abolished
all academic chairs or erudites (bóshì 博士) not dealing with the
Five Classics in 136 BC and encouraged nominees for office
to receive a Confucian-based education at the Imperial University that
he established in 124 BC. Unlike the original ideology espoused by
Confucius , or Kongzi (551–479 BC), Han
Confucianism in Emperor Wu's
reign was the creation of
Dong Zhongshu (179–104 BC). Dong was a
scholar and minor official who aggregated the ethical Confucian ideas
of ritual , filial piety , and harmonious relationships with five
phases and yin-yang cosmologies. Much to the interest of the ruler,
Dong's synthesis justified the imperial system of government within
the natural order of the universe. The Imperial University grew in
importance as the student body grew to over 30,000 by the 2nd century
AD. A Confucian-based education was also made available at
commandery-level schools and private schools opened in small towns,
where teachers earned respectable incomes from tuition payments.
Some important texts were created and studied by scholars.
Philosophical works written by Yang Xiong (53 BC – 18 AD), Huan Tan
(43 BC – 28 AD),
Wang Chong (27–100 AD), and Wang Fu (78–163 AD)
questioned whether human nature was innately good or evil and posed
challenges to Dong's universal order. The Records of the Grand
Sima Tan (d. 110 BC) and his son
Sima Qian (145–86 BC)
established the standard model for all of imperial China's Standard
Histories , such as the
Book of Han
Book of Han written by
Ban Biao (3–54 AD),
Ban Gu (32–92 AD), and his daughter
Ban Zhao (45–116 AD).
There were dictionaries such as the
Shuowen Jiezi by
Xu Shen (c. 58
– c. 147 AD) and the
Fangyan by Yang Xiong. Biographies on
important figures were written by various gentrymen. Han dynasty
poetry was dominated by the fu genre , which achieved its greatest
prominence during the reign of Emperor Wu.
LAW AND ORDER
Han scholars such as
Jia Yi (201–169 BC) portrayed the previous Qin
dynasty as a brutal regime. However, archaeological evidence from
Zhangjiashan and Shuihudi reveal that many of the statutes in the Han
law code compiled by Chancellor
Xiao He (d. 193 BC) were derived from
Various cases for rape , physical abuse and murder were prosecuted in
court. Women, although usually having fewer rights by custom, were
allowed to level civil and criminal charges against men. While
suspects were jailed, convicted criminals were never imprisoned.
Instead, punishments were commonly monetary fines, periods of forced
hard labor for convicts, and the penalty of death by beheading. Early
Han punishments of torturous mutilation were borrowed from Qin law. A
series of reforms abolished mutilation punishments with progressively
less-severe beatings by the bastinado .
Acting as a judge in lawsuits was one of many duties of the county
magistrate and Administrators of commanderies. Complex, high-profile
or unresolved cases were often deferred to the Minister of Justice in
the capital or even the emperor. In each Han county was several
districts, each overseen by a chief of police . Order in the cities
was maintained by government officers in the marketplaces and
constables in the neighborhoods.
The most common staple crops consumed during Han were wheat, barley,
foxtail millet , proso millet , rice, and beans . Commonly eaten
fruits and vegetables included chestnuts, pears, plums, peaches,
melons, apricots, strawberries, red bayberries , jujubes , calabash ,
bamboo shoots , mustard plant and taro . Domesticated animals that
were also eaten included chickens, Mandarin ducks , geese, cows,
sheep, pigs, camels and dogs (various types were bred specifically for
food, while most were used as pets). Turtles and fish were taken from
streams and lakes. Commonly hunted game, such as owl, pheasant,
magpie, sika deer , and
Chinese bamboo partridge
Chinese bamboo partridge were consumed.
Seasonings included sugar, honey, salt and soy sauce . Beer and wine
were regularly consumed.
Woven silk textiles from Tomb No. 1 at
Hunan province, China, 2nd century BC Further
The types of clothing worn and the materials used during the Han
period depended upon social class. Wealthy folk could afford silk
robes, skirts, socks, and mittens, coats made of badger or fox fur ,
duck plumes, and slippers with inlaid leather, pearls , and silk
lining. Peasants commonly wore clothes made of hemp , wool , and
RELIGION, COSMOLOGY, AND METAPHYSICS
An Eastern-Han bronze statuette of a mythical chimera (qilin),
1st century AD
Families throughout Han
China made ritual sacrifices of animals and
food to deities, spirits, and ancestors at temples and shrines , in
the belief that these items could be utilized by those in the
spiritual realm. It was thought that each person had a two-part soul
: the spirit-soul (hun 魂) which journeyed to the afterlife paradise
of immortals (xian ), and the body-soul (po 魄) which remained in its
grave or tomb on earth and was only reunited with the spirit-soul
through a ritual ceremony. These tombs were commonly adorned with
uniquely decorated hollow clay tiles that function also as a doorjamb
to the tomb. Otherwise known as tomb tiles, these artifacts feature
holes in the top and bottom of the tile allowing it to pivot. Similar
tiles have been found in the
Chengdu area of
Sichuan province in
In addition to his many other roles, the emperor acted as the highest
priest in the land who made sacrifices to Heaven , the main deities
known as the Five Powers , and the spirits (shen 神) of mountains and
rivers. It was believed that the three realms of Heaven, Earth, and
Mankind were linked by natural cycles of yin and yang and the five
phases . If the emperor did not behave according to proper ritual,
ethics, and morals, he could disrupt the fine balance of these
cosmological cycles and cause calamities such as earthquakes, floods,
droughts, epidemics, and swarms of locusts. A rubbing of a Han
pictorial stone showing an ancestral worship hall (citang 祠堂)
It was believed that immortality could be achieved if one reached the
lands of the
Queen Mother of the West
Queen Mother of the West or
Mount Penglai . Han-era
Daoists assembled into small groups of hermits who attempted to
achieve immortality through breathing exercises, sexual techniques and
use of medical elixirs . By the 2nd century AD, Daoists formed large
hierarchical religious societies such as the Way of the Five Pecks of
Rice . Its followers believed that the sage-philosopher
Laozi (fl. 6th
century BC) was a holy prophet who would offer salvation and good
health if his devout followers would confess their sins , ban the
worship of unclean gods who accepted meat sacrifices and chant
sections of the Daodejing .
Buddhism first entered
China during the Eastern Han and was first
mentioned in 65 AD.
Liu Ying (d. 71 AD), a half-brother to Emperor
Ming of Han (r. 57–75 AD), was one of its earliest Chinese
adherents, although Chinese
Buddhism at this point was heavily
Daoism . China's first known Buddhist
White Horse Temple , was constructed outside the wall of
Luoyang , during Emperor Ming's reign. Important
Buddhist canons were translated into Chinese during the 2nd century
AD, including the
Sutra of Forty-two Chapters ,
Perfection of Wisdom
Perfection of Wisdom ,
Shurangama Sutra , and
Pratyutpanna Sutra .
Government of the Han dynasty
A pottery model of a palace from a Han-dynasty tomb; the
entrances to the emperor's palaces were strictly guarded by the
Minister of the Guards; if it was found that a commoner, official, or
noble entered without explicit permission via a tally system, the
intruder was subject to execution.
In Han government, the emperor was the supreme judge and lawgiver,
the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and sole designator of
official nominees appointed to the top posts in central and local
administrations; those who earned a 600-bushel salary-rank or higher .
Theoretically, there were no limits to his power. However, state
organs with competing interests and institutions such as the court
conference (tingyi 廷議)—where ministers were convened to reach
majority consensus on an issue—pressured the emperor to accept the
advice of his ministers on policy decisions. If the emperor rejected
a court conference decision, he risked alienating his high ministers.
Nevertheless, emperors sometimes did reject the majority opinion
reached at court conferences.
Below the emperor were his cabinet members known as the Three
Councillors of State (San gong 三公). These were the Chancellor or
Minister over the Masses (Chengxiang 丞相 or Da situ 大司徒), the
Imperial Counselor or Excellency of Works (Yushi dafu 御史大夫 or
Da sikong 大司空), and Grand Commandant or Grand Marshal (Taiwei
太尉 or Da sima 大司馬).
The Chancellor, whose title was changed to 'Minister over the Masses'
in 8 BC, was chiefly responsible for drafting the government budget .
The Chancellor's other duties included managing provincial registers
for land and population, leading court conferences, acting as judge in
lawsuits and recommending nominees for high office. He could appoint
officials below the salary-rank of 600 bushels.
The Imperial Counselor's chief duty was to conduct disciplinary
procedures for officials. He shared similar duties with the
Chancellor, such as receiving annual provincial reports. However, when
his title was changed to Minister of Works in 8 BC, his chief duty
became oversight of public works projects. A scene of historic
paragons of filial piety conversing with one another, Chinese painted
artwork on a lacquered basketwork box, excavated from an Eastern-Han
tomb of what was the Chinese
Lelang Commandery in modern
The Grand Commandant, whose title was changed to Grand Marshal in 119
BC before reverting to Grand Commandant in 51 AD, was the irregularly
posted commander of the military and then regent during the Western
Han period. In the Eastern Han era he was chiefly a civil official who
shared many of the same censorial powers as the other two Councillors
Ranked below the
Three Councillors of State were the Nine Ministers
(Jiu qing 九卿), who each headed a specialized ministry. The
Minister of Ceremonies (Taichang 太常) was the chief official in
charge of religious rites, rituals, prayers and the maintenance of
ancestral temples and altars. The Minister of the Household (Guang lu
xun 光祿勳) was in charge of the emperor's security within the
palace grounds, external imperial parks and wherever the emperor made
an outing by chariot. The Minister of the Guards (Weiwei 衛尉) was
responsible for securing and patrolling the walls, towers, and gates
of the imperial palaces. The Minister Coachman (Taipu 太僕) was
responsible for the maintenance of imperial stables, horses, carriages
and coach-houses for the emperor and his palace attendants, as well as
the supply of horses for the armed forces. The Minister of Justice
(Tingwei 廷尉) was the chief official in charge of upholding,
administering, and interpreting the law. The Minister Herald (Da
honglu 大鴻臚) was the chief official in charge of receiving
honored guests at the imperial court, such as nobles and foreign
ambassadors . The Minister of the Imperial Clan (Zongzheng 宗正)
oversaw the imperial court's interactions with the empire's nobility
and extended imperial family, such as granting fiefs and titles. The
Minister of Finance (Da sinong 大司農) was the treasurer for the
official bureaucracy and the armed forces who handled tax revenues and
set standards for units of measurement . The Minister Steward (Shaofu
少府) served the emperor exclusively, providing him with
entertainment and amusements, proper food and clothing, medicine and
physical care, valuables and equipment.
LEFT: a Chinese ceramic statue of a seated woman holding a
bronze mirror , Eastern Han period (25–220 AD),
RIGHT: a pottery dog found in a Han tomb wearing a decorative dog
collar , indicating their domestication as pets , while it is known
from written sources that the emperor's imperial parks had kennels for
keeping hunting dogs .
The Han Empire, excluding kingdoms and marquessates, was divided, in
descending order of size, into political units of provinces (zhou),
commanderies (jun), and counties (xian). A county was divided into
several districts , the latter composed of a group of hamlets , each
containing about a hundred families.
The heads of provinces, whose official title was changed from
Inspector to Governor and vice versa several times during Han, were
responsible for inspecting several commandery-level and kingdom-level
administrations. On the basis of their reports, the officials in
these local administrations would be promoted, demoted, dismissed or
prosecuted by the imperial court.
A governor could take various actions without permission from the
imperial court. The lower-ranked inspector had executive powers only
during times of crisis, such as raising militias across the
commanderies under his jurisdiction to suppress a rebellion.
A commandery consisted of a group of counties, and was headed by an
Administrator. He was the top civil and military leader of the
commandery and handled defense, lawsuits, seasonal instructions to
farmers and recommendations of nominees for office sent annually to
the capital in a quota system first established by Emperor Wu. The
head of a large county of about 10,000 households was called a
Prefect, while the heads of smaller counties were called Chiefs, and
both could be referred to as Magistrates . A
law and order in his county, registered the populace for taxation,
mobilized commoners for annual corvée duties, repaired schools and
supervised public works.
KINGDOMS AND MARQUESSATES
Kings of the Han dynasty Late Western Han
(202 BC – 9 AD) or
Xin Dynasty (9–25 AD) wall murals showing men
and women dressed in
Hanfu , with the
Queen Mother of the West
Queen Mother of the West dressed
in shenyi , from a tomb in
Dongping County ,
Shandong province , China
Kingdoms—roughly the size of commanderies —were ruled exclusively
by the emperor's male relatives as semi-autonomous fiefdoms . Before
157 BC some kingdoms were ruled by non-relatives, granted to them in
return for their services to Emperor Gaozu. The administration of each
kingdom was very similar to that of the central government. Although
the emperor appointed the Chancellor of each kingdom, kings appointed
all the remaining civil officials in their fiefs.
However, in 145 BC, after several insurrections by the kings, Emperor
Jing removed the kings' rights to appoint officials whose salaries
were higher than 400 bushels . The Imperial Counselors and Nine
Ministers (excluding the Minister Coachman) of every kingdom were
abolished, although the Chancellor was still appointed by the central
With these reforms, kings were reduced to being nominal heads of
their fiefs, gaining a personal income from only a portion of the
taxes collected in their kingdom. Similarly, the officials in the
administrative staff of a full marquess's fief were appointed by the
central government. A marquess's Chancellor was ranked as the
equivalent of a county Prefect. Like a king, the marquess collected a
portion of the tax revenues in his fief as personal income. An
Eastern-Han pottery soldier, with a now-faded coating of paint, is
missing a weapon.
At the beginning of the Han dynasty, every male commoner aged
twenty-three was liable for conscription into the military. The
minimum age for the military draft was reduced to twenty after Emperor
Zhao\'s (r. 87–74 BC) reign. Conscripted soldiers underwent one
year of training and one year of service as non-professional soldiers.
The year of training was served in one of three branches of the armed
forces: infantry , cavalry or navy . The year of active service was
served either on the frontier, in a king's court or under the Minister
of the Guards in the capital. A small professional (paid) standing
army was stationed near the capital.
During the Eastern Han, conscription could be avoided if one paid a
commutable tax. The Eastern Han court favored the recruitment of a
volunteer army . The volunteer army comprised the Southern Army
(Nanjun 南軍), while the standing army stationed in and near the
capital was the Northern Army (Beijun 北軍). Led by Colonels
(Xiaowei 校尉), the Northern Army consisted of five regiments, each
composed of several thousand soldiers. When central authority
collapsed after 189 AD, wealthy landowners, members of the
aristocracy/nobility, and regional military-governors relied upon
their retainers to act as their own personal troops (buqu 部曲).
During times of war, the volunteer army was increased, and a much
larger militia was raised across the country to supplement the
Northern Army. In these circumstances, a General (Jiangjun 將軍) led
a division , which was divided into regiments led by Colonels and
sometimes Majors (Sima 司馬). Regiments were divided into companies
and led by Captains. Platoons were the smallest units of soldiers.
Economy of the Han dynasty
VARIATIONS IN CURRENCY
A wuzhu (五銖) coin issued during the reign of Emperor Wu (r.
141–87 BC), 25.5 mm in diameter
Han dynasty inherited the ban liang coin type from the Qin. In
the beginning of the Han, Emperor Gaozu closed the government mint in
favor of private minting of coins. This decision was reversed in 186
BC by his widow Grand Empress Dowager Lü Zhi (d. 180 BC), who
abolished private minting. In 182 BC, Lü Zhi issued a bronze coin
that was much lighter in weight than previous coins. This caused
widespread inflation that was not reduced until 175 BC when Emperor
Wen allowed private minters to manufacture coins that were precisely
2.6 g (0.09 oz) in weight.
In 144 BC Emperor Jing abolished private minting in favor of
central-government and commandery-level minting; he also introduced a
new coin. Emperor Wu introduced another in 120 BC, but a year later
he abandoned the ban liangs entirely in favor of the wuzhu (五銖)
coin, weighing 3.2 g (0.11 oz). The wuzhu became China's standard
coin until the
Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). Its use was interrupted
briefly by several new currencies introduced during Wang Mang's regime
until it was reinstated in 40 AD by Emperor Guangwu.
Since commandery-issued coins were often of inferior quality and
lighter weight, the central government closed commandery mints and
monopolized the issue of coinage in 113 BC. This Central government
issuance of coinage was overseen by the Superintendent of Waterways
and Parks , this duty being transferred to the Minister of Finance
during Eastern Han.
TAXATION AND PROPERTY
Aside from the landowner's land tax paid in a portion of their crop
yield , the poll tax and property taxes were paid in coin cash. The
annual poll tax rate for adult men and women was 120 coins and 20
coins for minors. Merchants were required to pay a higher rate of 240
coins. The poll tax stimulated a money economy that necessitated the
minting of over 28,000,000,000 coins from 118 BC to 5 AD, an average
of 220,000,000 coins a year. LEFT IMAGE: Eastern-Han tomb
models of towers with dougong brackets supporting balconies, 1st–2nd
Zhang Heng (78–139 AD) described the large imperial park
in the suburbs of
Chang'an as having tall towers where archers would
shoot stringed arrows from the top in order to entertain the Western
RIGHT IMAGE: A painted ceramic architectural model—found in an
Eastern-Han tomb at Jiazuo,
Henan province—depicting a fortified
manor with towers, a courtyard , verandas , tiled rooftops, dougong
support brackets, and a covered bridge extending from the third floor
of the main tower to the smaller watchtower.
The widespread circulation of coin cash allowed successful merchants
to invest money in land, empowering the very social class the
government attempted to suppress through heavy commercial and property
taxes. Emperor Wu even enacted laws which banned registered merchants
from owning land, yet powerful merchants were able to avoid
registration and own large tracts of land.
The small landowner-cultivators formed the majority of the Han tax
base; this revenue was threatened during the latter half of Eastern
Han when many peasants fell into debt and were forced to work as
farming tenants for wealthy landlords . The Han government enacted
reforms in order to keep small landowner-cultivators out of debt and
on their own farms. These reforms included reducing taxes, temporary
remissions of taxes, granting loans and providing landless peasants
temporary lodging and work in agricultural colonies until they could
recover from their debts.
In 168 BC, the land tax rate was reduced from one-fifteenth of a
farming household's crop yield to one-thirtieth, and later to a
one-hundredth of a crop yield for the last decades of the dynasty. The
consequent loss of government revenue was compensated for by
increasing property taxes.
The labor tax took the form of conscripted labor for one month per
year, which was imposed upon male commoners aged fifteen to fifty-six.
This could be avoided in Eastern Han with a commutable tax, since
hired labor became more popular.
PRIVATE MANUFACTURE AND GOVERNMENT MONOPOLIES
A Han-dynasty iron
Ji (halberd) and iron dagger
In the early Western Han, a wealthy salt or iron industrialist,
whether a semi-autonomous king or wealthy merchant, could boast funds
that rivaled the imperial treasury and amass a peasant workforce of
over a thousand. This kept many peasants away from their farms and
denied the government a significant portion of its land tax revenue.
To eliminate the influence of such private entrepreneurs, Emperor Wu
nationalized the salt and iron industries in 117 BC and allowed many
of the former industrialists to become officials administering the
monopolies. By Eastern Han times, the central government monopolies
were repealed in favor of production by commandery and county
administrations, as well as private businessmen.
Liquor was another profitable private industry nationalized by the
central government in 98 BC. However, this was repealed in 81 BC and a
property tax rate of two coins for every 0.2 L (0.05 gallons) was
levied for those who traded it privately. By 110 BC Emperor Wu also
interfered with the profitable trade in grain when he eliminated
speculation by selling government-stored grain at a lower price than
demanded by merchants. Apart from Emperor Ming's creation of a
short-lived Office for Price Adjustment and Stabilization, which was
abolished in 68 AD, central-government price control regulations were
largely absent during the Eastern Han.
SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND ENGINEERING
Science and technology of the Han dynasty
Science and technology of the Han dynasty The
ruins of a Han-dynasty watchtower made of rammed earth at
Gansu province, the eastern edge of the
Han dynasty was a unique period in the development of premodern
Chinese science and technology, comparable to the level of scientific
and technological growth during the
Song dynasty (960–1279).
In the 1st millennium BC, typical ancient Chinese writing materials
were bronzewares , animal bones , and bamboo slips or wooden boards.
By the beginning of the Han dynasty, the chief writing materials were
clay tablets , silk cloth, and rolled scrolls made from bamboo strips
sewn together with hempen string; these were passed through drilled
holes and secured with clay stamps.
The oldest known Chinese piece of hard, hempen wrapping paper dates
to the 2nd century BC. The standard papermaking process was invented
Cai Lun (50–121 AD) in 105 AD. The oldest known surviving piece
of paper with writing on it was found in the ruins of a Han watchtower
that had been abandoned in 110 AD, in Inner
METALLURGY AND AGRICULTURE
Evidence suggests that blast furnaces , that convert raw iron ore
into pig iron , which can be remelted in a cupola furnace to produce
cast iron by means of a cold blast and hot blast , were operational in
China by the late
Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period (722–481 BC). The
bloomery was nonexistent in ancient China; however, the Han-era
Chinese produced wrought iron by injecting excess oxygen into a
furnace and causing decarburization .
Cast iron and pig iron could be
converted into wrought iron and steel using a fining process. A
pair of Eastern-Han iron scissors
The Han-era Chinese used bronze and iron to make a range of weapons,
culinary tools, carpenters' tools and domestic wares. A significant
product of these improved iron-smelting techniques was the manufacture
of new agricultural tools. The three-legged iron seed drill , invented
by the 2nd century BC, enabled farmers to carefully plant crops in
rows instead of casting seeds out by hand . The heavy moldboard iron
plow , also invented during the Han dynasty, required only one man to
control it, two oxen to pull it. It had three plowshares , a seed box
for the drills, a tool which turned down the soil and could sow
roughly 45,730 m2 (11.3 acres) of land in a single day.
To protect crops from wind and drought, the Grain Intendant Zhao Guo
(趙過) created the alternating fields system (daitianfa 代田法)
during Emperor Wu's reign. This system switched the positions of
furrows and ridges between growing seasons. Once experiments with
this system yielded successful results, the government officially
sponsored it and encouraged peasants to use it. Han farmers also used
the pit field system (aotian 凹田) for growing crops, which involved
heavily fertilized pits that did not require plows or oxen and could
be placed on sloping terrain. In southern and small parts of central
Han-era China, paddy fields were chiefly used to grow rice, while
farmers along the
Huai River used transplantation methods of rice
A stone-carved pillar-gate, or que (闕) , 6 m (20 ft) in total
height, located at the tomb of Gao Yi in Ya\'an ,
Timber was the chief building material during the Han dynasty; it was
used to build palace halls, multi-story residential towers and halls
and single-story houses. Because wood decays rapidly, the only
remaining evidence of Han wooden architecture is a collection of
scattered ceramic roof tiles. The oldest surviving wooden halls in
China date to the
Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). Architectural
historian Robert L. Thorp points out the scarcity of Han-era
archaeological remains, and claims that often unreliable Han-era
literary and artistic sources are used by historians for clues about
lost Han architecture.
Though Han wooden structures decayed, some Han-dynasty ruins made of
brick, stone, and rammed earth remain intact. This includes stone
pillar-gates, brick tomb chambers, rammed-earth city walls ,
rammed-earth and brick beacon towers, rammed-earth sections of the
Great Wall , rammed-earth platforms where elevated halls once stood,
and two rammed-earth castles in
Gansu . The ruins of rammed-earth
walls that once surrounded the capitals
stand, along with their drainage systems of brick arches, ditches, and
ceramic water pipes . Monumental stone pillar-gates , twenty-nine of
which survive from the Han period, formed entrances of walled
enclosures at shrine and tomb sites. These pillars feature artistic
imitations of wooden and ceramic building components such as roof
tiles, eaves, and balustrades .
The courtyard house is the most common type of home portrayed in Han
artwork. Ceramic architectural models of buildings , like houses and
towers, were found in Han tombs, perhaps to provide lodging for the
dead in the afterlife. These provide valuable clues about lost wooden
architecture. The artistic designs found on ceramic roof tiles of
tower models are in some cases exact matches to Han roof tiles found
at archaeological sites. An Eastern-Han vaulted tomb chamber at
Luoyang made of small bricks
Over ten Han-era underground tombs have been found, many of them
featuring archways , vaulted chambers, and domed roofs. Underground
vaults and domes did not require buttress supports since they were
held in place by earthen pits. The use of brick vaults and domes in
aboveground Han structures is unknown.
From Han literary sources, it is known that wooden-trestle beam
bridges , arch bridges , simple suspension bridges , and floating
pontoon bridges existed in Han China. However, there are only two
known references to arch bridges in Han literature, and only a single
Han relief sculpture in
Sichuan depicts an arch bridge.
Underground mine shafts , some reaching depths over 100 metres (330
ft), were created for the extraction of metal ores.
and derricks were used to lift brine to iron pans where it was
distilled into salt. The distillation furnaces were heated by natural
gas funneled to the surface through bamboo pipelines . Dangerous
amounts of additional gas were siphoned off via carburetor chambers
and exhaust pipes .
MECHANICAL AND HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
A Han-dynasty pottery model of two men operating a winnowing
machine with a crank handle and a tilt hammer used to pound grain.
Chinese scholars and officials traditionally considered scientific
and engineering pursuits to be the domain of artisans and craftsmen
(gongren 工人), far beneath the ideal Confucian literary gentleman.
Accordingly, evidence of Han-era mechanical engineering comes largely
from the choice observational writings of sometimes disinterested
Confucian scholars. Professional artisan-engineers (jiang 匠) did not
leave behind detailed records of their work. Han scholars, who often
had little or no expertise in mechanical engineering, sometimes
provided insufficient information on the various technologies they
described. Nevertheless, some Han literary sources provide crucial
information. For example, in 15 BC the philosopher Yang Xiong
described the invention of the belt drive for a quilling machine,
which was of great importance to early textile manufacturing. The
inventions of the artisan-engineer Ding Huan (丁緩) are mentioned in
the Miscellaneous Notes on the Western Capital. Around 180 AD, Ding
created a manually operated rotary fan used for air conditioning
within palace buildings. Ding also used gimbals as pivotal supports
for one of his incense burners and invented the world's first known
Modern archaeology has led to the discovery of Han artwork portraying
inventions which were otherwise absent in Han literary sources. As
observed in Han miniature tomb models, but not in literary sources,
the crank handle was used to operate the fans of winnowing machines
that separated grain from chaff . The odometer cart, invented during
Han, measured journey lengths, using mechanical figures banging drums
and gongs to indicate each distance traveled. This invention is
depicted in Han artwork by the 2nd century AD, yet detailed written
descriptions were not offered until the 3rd century AD. Modern
archaeologists have also unearthed specimens of devices used during
the Han dynasty, for example a pair of sliding metal calipers used by
craftsmen for making minute measurements. These calipers contain
inscriptions of the exact day and year they were manufactured. These
tools are not mentioned in any Han literary sources. A modern
Zhang Heng 's seismometer
The waterwheel appeared in Chinese records during the Han. As
Huan Tan in about 20 AD, they were used to turn gears
that lifted iron trip hammers , and were used in pounding, threshing
and polishing grain. However, there is no sufficient evidence for the
China until about the 5th century. The Nanyang
Du Shi (d. 38 AD) created a
waterwheel-powered reciprocator that worked the bellows for the
smelting of iron. Waterwheels were also used to power chain pumps
that lifted water to raised irrigation ditches. The chain pump was
first mentioned in
China by the philosopher
Wang Chong in his
1st-century-AD Balanced Discourse .
The armillary sphere , a three-dimensional representation of the
movements in the celestial sphere , was invented in Han
China by the
1st century BC. Using a water clock , waterwheel and a series of
gears, the Court Astronomer
Zhang Heng (78–139 AD) was able to
mechanically rotate his metal-ringed armillary sphere. To address the
problem of slowed timekeeping in the pressure head of the inflow water
clock, Zhang was the first in
China to install an additional tank
between the reservoir and inflow vessel. Zhang also invented a device
he termed an "earthquake weathervane" (houfeng didong yi
候風地動儀), which the British scientist
Joseph Needham described
as "the ancestor of all seismographs ". This device was able to
detect the exact cardinal or ordinal direction of earthquakes from
hundreds of kilometers away. It employed an inverted pendulum that,
when disturbed by ground tremors, would trigger a set of gears that
dropped a metal ball from one of eight dragon mouths (representing all
eight directions) into a metal toad's mouth. The account of this
device in the
Book of the Later Han
Book of the Later Han (Hou Han shu 後漢書) describes
how, on one occasion, one of the metal balls was triggered without any
of the observers feeling a disturbance. Several days later, a
messenger arrived bearing news that an earthquake had struck in Longxi
Commandery (in modern
Gansu Province ), the direction the device had
indicated, which forced the officials at court to admit the efficacy
of Zhang's device.
Three Han mathematical treatises still exist. These are the Book on
Numbers and Computation (Suan shu shu 算數書) , the Arithmetical
Classic of the Gnomon and the Circular Paths of Heaven (Zhoubi
Suanjing 周髀算經) and the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art
(Jiu zhang suan shu 九章算術) . Han-era mathematical achievements
include solving problems with right-angle triangles , square roots ,
cube roots , and matrix methods , finding more accurate
approximations for pi , providing mathematical proof of the
Pythagorean theorem , use of the decimal fraction , Gaussian
elimination to solve linear equations , and continued fractions to
find the roots of equations .
One of the Han's greatest mathematical advancements was the world's
first use of negative numbers . Negative numbers first appeared in the
Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art as black counting rods , where
positive numbers were represented by red counting rods. Negative
numbers were also used by the Greek mathematician
Diophantus , c 275
AD, on the c7th century AD
Bakhshali manuscript of
Gandhara , South
Asia, but were not widely accepted in Europe until the 16th century
AD. A Han-dynasty era mold for making bronze gear wheels
Shanghai Museum )
The Han applied mathematics to various diverse disciplines. In
musical tuning ,
Jing Fang (78–37 BC) realized that 53 perfect
fifths was approximate to 31 octaves while creating a musical scale of
60 tones, calculating the difference at 177147⁄176776 (the same
53 equal temperament discovered by the German mathematician
Nicholas Mercator , i.e. 353/284).
Mathematics were essential in drafting the astronomical calendar , a
lunisolar calendar that used the Sun and Moon as time-markers
throughout the year. Use of the ancient Sifen calendar
(古四分曆), which measured the tropical year at 3651⁄4 days, was
replaced in 104 BC with the Taichu calendar (太初曆) that measured
the tropical year at 365385⁄1539 days and the lunar month at
2943⁄81 days. However, Emperor Zhang later reinstated the Sifen
Han Chinese astronomers made star catalogues and detailed records of
comets that appeared in the night sky, including recording the 12 BC
appearance of the comet now known as Halley\'s comet .
Han-era astronomers adopted a geocentric model of the universe,
theorizing that it was shaped like a sphere surrounding the earth in
the center. They assumed that the Sun, Moon, and planets were
spherical and not disc-shaped. They also thought that the illumination
of the Moon and planets was caused by sunlight , that lunar eclipses
occurred when the Earth obstructed sunlight falling onto the Moon, and
that a solar eclipse occurred when the Moon obstructed sunlight from
reaching the Earth. Although others disagreed with his model, Wang
Chong accurately described the water cycle of the evaporation of water
CARTOGRAPHY, SHIPS, AND VEHICLES
An early Western-Han silk map found in tomb 3 of
depicting the Kingdom of
Changsha and Kingdom of
Nanyue in southern
China (note: the south direction is oriented at the top). An
Eastern-Han pottery ship model with a steering rudder at the stern and
anchor at the bow
Evidence found in Chinese literature, and archaeological evidence,
show that cartography existed in
China before the Han. Some of the
earliest Han maps discovered were ink-penned silk maps found amongst
Silk Texts in a 2nd-century-BC tomb. The general Ma
Yuan created the world's first known raised-relief map from rice in
the 1st century AD. This date could be revised if the tomb of Qin Shi
Huang is excavated and the account in the Records of the Grand
Historian concerning a model map of the empire is proven to be true.
Although the use of the graduated scale and grid reference for maps
was not thoroughly described until the published work of Pei Xiu
(224–271 AD), there is evidence that in the early 2nd century AD,
Zhang Heng was the first to use scales and grids for
The Han-era Chinese sailed in a variety of ships differing from those
of previous eras, such as the tower ship . The junk design was
developed and realized during Han. Junks featured a square-ended bow
and stern , a flat-bottomed hull or carvel-shaped hull with no keel or
sternpost , and solid transverse bulkheads in the place of structural
ribs found in Western vessels. Moreover, Han ships were the first in
the world to be steered using a rudder at the stern, in contrast to
the simpler steering oar used for riverine transport, allowing them to
sail on the high seas.
Although ox-carts and chariots were previously used in China, the
wheelbarrow was first used in Han
China in the 1st century BC. Han
artwork of horse-drawn chariots shows that the Warring-States-Era
heavy wooden yoke placed around a horse's chest was replaced by the
softer breast strap. Later, during the
Northern Wei (386–534 AD),
the fully developed horse collar was invented.
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine The physical
exercise chart; a painting on silk depicting the practice of Qigong
Taiji; unearthed in 1973 in
Hunan Province, China, from the
Western Han burial site of
Mawangdui , Tomb Number 3.
Han-era medical physicians believed that the human body was subject
to the same forces of nature that governed the greater universe,
namely the cosmological cycles of yin and yang and the five phases .
Each organ of the body was associated with a particular phase. Illness
was viewed as a sign that qi or "vital energy" channels leading to a
certain organ had been disrupted. Thus, Han-era physicians prescribed
medicine that was believed to counteract this imbalance. For example,
since the wood phase was believed to promote the fire phase, medicinal
ingredients associated with the wood phase could be used to heal an
organ associated with the fire phase. Besides dieting, Han physicians
also prescribed moxibustion , acupuncture , and calisthenics as
methods of maintaining one's health. When surgery was performed by
Hua Tuo (d. 208 AD), he used anesthesia to numb his
patients' pain and prescribed a rubbing ointment that allegedly sped
the process of healing surgical wounds. Whereas the physician Zhang
Zhongjing (c. 150–c. 219 AD) is known to have written the Shanghan
lun ("Dissertation on Typhoid Fever"), it is thought that both he and
Hua Tuo collaborated in compiling the
Shennong Ben Cao Jing
Shennong Ben Cao Jing medical
* History of Imperial
List of emperors of the Han dynasty
* Han Emperors family tree
Battle of Jushi
* Campaign against
* Early Imperial
Four Commanderies of Han on the northern Korean Peninsula
First Chinese domination (History of Vietnam)
Southward expansion of the Han dynasty
Comparative studies of the Roman and Han empires
* ^ "MAPPING HISTORY WORLD HISTORY", Dr. Ian Barnes.ISBN
* ^ A B Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires:
Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History.
3 (3/4): 128. doi :10.2307/1170959 . Retrieved 14 September 2016.
* ^ A B Nishijima (1986) , pp. 595–596.
* ^ Zhou (2003) , p. 34.
* ^ Schaefer (2008) , p. 279.
* ^ Bailey (1985) , pp. 25–26.
* ^ Loewe (1986) , p. 116.
* ^ Ebrey (1999) , pp. 60–61.
* ^ Loewe (1986) , pp. 116–122.
* ^ Davis (2001) , pp. 44–46.
* ^ Loewe (1986) , p. 122.
* ^ A B Loewe (1986) , pp. 122–125.
* ^ Loewe (1986) , pp. 139–144.
* ^ A B Bielenstein (1980) , p. 106; Ch\'ü (1972) , p. 76.
* ^ Bielenstein (1980) , p. 105.
* ^ Di Cosmo (2002) , pp. 175–189, 196–198; Torday (1997) , pp.
80–81; Yü (1986) , pp. 387–388.
* ^ Torday (1997) , pp. 75–77.
* ^ A B Jerry Bentley, Old World Encounters: Cross Cultural
Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1993), 37.
* ^ Torday (1997) , pp. 75–77; Di Cosmo (2002) , pp. 190–192.
* ^ Yü (1967) , pp. 9–10; Morton Di Cosmo (2002) , pp.
* ^ Hansen (2000) , pp. 117–119.
* ^ Yü (1986) , pp. 388–389; Torday (1997) , pp. 77, 82–83; Di
Cosmo (2002) , pp. 195–196.
* ^ Torday (1997) , pp. 83–84; Yü (1986) , pp. 389–390.
* ^ Yü (1986) , pp. 389–391; Di Cosmo (2002) , pp. 211–214.
* ^ Torday (1997) , pp. 91–92.
* ^ Yü (1986) , p. 390; Di Cosmo (2002) , pp. 237–240.
* ^ Loewe (1986) , pp. 196–197, 211–213; Yü (1986) , pp.
* ^ Ebrey (1999) , p. 66; Wang (1982) , p. 100.
* ^ Chang (2007) , pp. 5–8; Di Cosmo (2002) , pp. 241–242; Yü
(1986) , p. 391.
* ^ Chang (2007) , pp. 34–35.
* ^ Chang (2007) , pp. 6, 15–16, 44–45.
* ^ Chang (2007) , pp. 15–16, 33–35, 42–43.
* ^ Di Cosmo (2002) , pp. 247–249; Morton Yü (1986) , p. 407;
Ebrey (1999) , p. 69; Torday (1997) , pp. 104–117.
* ^ An (2002) , p. 83; Ebrey (1999) , p. 70.
* ^ Di Cosmo (2002) , pp. 250–251; Yü (1986) , pp. 390–391,
409–411; Chang (2007) , p. 174; Loewe (1986) , p. 198.
* ^ Ebrey (1999) , p. 83; Yü (1986) , pp. 448–453.
* ^ Wagner (2001) , pp. 1–17; Loewe (1986) , pp. 160–161;
Nishijima (1986) , pp. 581–588; Ebrey (1999) , p. 75; Morton see
also Hinsch (2002) , pp. 21–22.
* ^ Loewe (1986) , pp. 162, 185–206; Paludan (1998) , p. 41;
Wagner (2001) , pp. 16–19.
* ^ Bielenstein (1986) , pp. 225–226; Huang (1988) , pp. 46–48.
* ^ A B C Robert Hymes (2000). John Stewart Bowman, ed. Columbia
Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press.
pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4 .
* ^ Bielenstein (1986) , pp. 227–230.
* ^ Hinsch (2002) , pp. 23–24; Bielenstein (1986) , pp.
230–231; Ebrey (1999) , p. 66.
* ^ Hansen (2000) , p. 134; Bielenstein (1986) , pp. 232–234;
Morton Lewis (2007) , p. 23.
* ^ A B Hansen (2000) , p. 135; de Crespigny (2007) , p. 196;
Bielenstein (1986) , pp. 241–244.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 568; Bielenstein (1986) , p. 248.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 197, 560; Bielenstein (1986) , pp.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 558–560; Bielenstein (1986) , pp.
* ^ Bielenstein (1986) , pp. 251–254; de Crespigny (2007) , pp.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 54–55, 269–270, 600–601;
Bielenstein (1986) , pp. 254–255.
* ^ Hinsch (2002) , pp. 24–25.
* ^ Knechtges (2010) , p. 116.
* ^ Yü (1986) , p. 450.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 562, 660; Yü (1986) , p. 454.
* ^ Bielenstein (1986) , pp. 237–238; Yü (1986) , pp. 399–400.
* ^ Yü (1986) , pp. 413–414.
* ^ Yü (1986) , pp. 414–415.
* ^ Yü (1986) , pp. 414–415; de Crespigny (2007) , p. 73.
* ^ Yü (1986) , pp. 414–415; de Crespigny (2007) , p. 171.
* ^ Yü (1986) , pp. 405, 443–444.
* ^ Yü (1986) , pp. 444–446.
* ^ A B Torday (1997) , p. 393; de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 5–6.
* ^ Yü (1986) , pp. 415–416.
* ^ Joe Cribb, 1974, "Chinese lead ingots with barbarous Greek
inscriptions in Coin Hoards" pp.76-8
* ^ Akira (1998) , pp. 248, 251; Zhang (2002) , p. 75.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 239–240, 497, 590; Yü (1986) , pp.
* ^ Chavannes (1907) , p. 185.
* ^ Hill (2009) , p. 27.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 600; Yü (1986) , pp. 460–461.
* ^ An (2002) , pp. 83–84; Ball (2016) , pp. 153
* ^ Ball (2016) , pp. 153; Young (2001) , pp. 83–84
* ^ Yule (1915) , p. 52; Hill (2009) , p. 27
* ^ Young (2001) , p. 29; Mawer (2013) , p. 38; Suárez (1999) , p.
92; O\'Reilly (2007) , p. 97
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 497, 500, 592.
* ^ Hinsch (2002) , p. 25; Hansen (2000) , p. 136.
* ^ Bielenstein (1986) , pp. 280–283; de Crespigny (2007) , pp.
* ^ Bielenstein (1986) , pp. 283–284; de Crespigny (2007) , pp.
* ^ Bielenstein (1986) , p. 284; de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 128,
* ^ Bielenstein (1986) , pp. 284–285; de Crespigny (2007) , pp.
* ^ Bielenstein (1986) , pp. 285–286; de Crespigny (2007) , pp.
* ^ Wang, Li Hansen (2000) , pp. 141–142.
* ^ A B de Crespigny (2007) , p. 602.
* ^ Beck (1986) , pp. 319–322.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 511; Beck (1986) , p. 323.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 513–514.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 511.
* ^ Ebrey (1986) , pp. 628–629.
* ^ Beck (1986) , pp. 339–340.
* ^ Ebrey (1999) , p. 84.
* ^ Beck (1986) , pp. 339–344.
* ^ Beck (1986) , p. 344; Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 59.
* ^ Beck (1986) , pp. 344–345; Morton de Crespigny (2007) , p.
* ^ A B Beck (1986) , pp. 351–352; de Crespigny (2007) , pp.
* ^ Beck (1986) , p. 352; de Crespigny (2007) , p. 37.
* ^ Beck (1986) , pp. 353–357; Hinsch (2002) , p. 206.
* ^ Wang (1982) , pp. 83–85; Nishijima (1986) , pp. 581–583.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 66–72.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , p. 76; Bielenstein (1980) , pp. 105–107.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , pp. 552–553; Ch\'ü (1972) , p. 16.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , p. 84.
* ^ Ebrey (1986) , pp. 631, 643–644; Ebrey (1999) , p. 80.
* ^ Hansen (2000) , pp. 141–142; de Crespigny (2007) , pp.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 104–111; Nishijima (1986) , pp.
556–557; Ebrey (1986) , pp. 621–622; Ebrey (1974) , pp. 173–174.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , p. 112.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 104–105, 119–120; Nishijima (1986) ,
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , pp. 576–577; Ch\'ü (1972) , pp.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 127–128.
* ^ Csikszentmihalyi (2006) , pp. 172–173, 179–180; Ch\'ü
(1972) , pp. 106, 122–127.
* ^ Hinsch (2002) , pp. 46–47; Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 3–9.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 9–10.
* ^ Hinsch (2002) , p. 35; Ch\'ü (1972) , p. 34.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 44–47; Hinsch (2002) , pp. 38–39.
* ^ Hinsch (2002) , pp. 40–45; Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 37–43.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 16–17.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 6–9.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 17–18.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , p. 17.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 49–59.
* ^ Hinsch (2002) , pp. 74–75.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 54–56; Hinsch (2002) , pp. 29, 51, 54,
59–60, 65–68, 70–74, 77–78.
* ^ Hinsch (2002) , p. 29.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 513; Barbieri-Low (2007) , p. 207;
Huang (1988) , p. 57.
* ^ Csikszentmihalyi (2006) , pp. 24–25; Loewe (1994) , pp.
* ^ Kramers (1986) , pp. 754–756; Csikszentmihalyi (2006) , pp.
7–8; Loewe (1994) , pp. 121–125; Ch\'en (1986) , p. 769.
* ^ Kramers (1986) , pp. 753–755; Loewe (1994) , pp. 134–140.
* ^ Kramers (1986) , p. 754.
* ^ Ebrey (1999) , pp. 77–78; Kramers (1986) , p. 757.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , p. 103.
* ^ Ch\'en (1986) , pp. 773–794.
* ^ Hardy (1999) , pp. 14–15; Hansen (2000) , pp. 137–138.
* ^ Norman (1988) , p. 185; Xue (2003) , p. 161.
* ^ Ebrey (1986) , p. 645.
* ^ Hansen (2000) , pp. 137 138; de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1049;
Neinhauser et al. (1986) , p. 212; Lewis (2007) , p. 222; Cutter
(1989) , pp. 25–26.
* ^ Hulsewé (1986) , pp. 525–526; Csikszentmihalyi (2006) , pp.
23–24; Hansen (2000) , pp. 110–112.
* ^ Hulsewé (1986) , pp. 523–530; Hinsch (2002) , p. 82.
* ^ Hulsewé (1986) , pp. 532–535.
* ^ Hulsewé (1986) , pp. 531–533.
* ^ Hulsewé (1986) , pp. 528–529.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , pp. 552–553, 576; Loewe (1968) , pp.
* ^ Wang (1982) , p. 52.
* ^ Wang (1982) , pp. 53, 206.
* ^ Wang (1982) , pp. 57–58.
* ^ Hansen (2000) , pp. 119–121.
* ^ Wang (1982) , p. 206; Hansen (2000) , p. 119.
* ^ Wang (1982) , pp. 53, 59–63, 206; Loewe (1968) , p. 139;
Ch\'ü (1972) , p. 128.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 30–31.
* ^ Hansen (2000) , p. 119; Csikszentmihalyi (2006) , pp.
Birmingham Museum of Art
Birmingham Museum of Art (2010).
Birmingham Museum of Art
Birmingham Museum of Art :
guide to the collection. : Birmingham Museum of Art. p. 21. ISBN
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , p. 71.
* ^ Loewe (1994) , p. 55; Csikszentmihalyi (2006) , p. 167; Sun
Ebrey (1999) , pp. 78 79.
* ^ Ebrey (1999) , pp. 78–79; Loewe (1986) , p. 201; de Crespigny
(2007) , pp. 496, 592.
* ^ Loewe (2005) , pp. 101–102; Csikszentmihalyi (2006) , pp.
* ^ Hansen (2000) , p. 144.
* ^ Hansen (2000) , pp. 144–146.
* ^ Needham (1972) , p. 112; Demiéville (1986) , pp. 821–822.
* ^ Demiéville (1986) , pp. 821–822.
* ^ Demiéville (1986) , p. 823.
* ^ Akira (1998) , pp. 247–251; see also Needham (1972) , p. 112.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 68–69.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1216; Wang (1949) , pp. 141–143.
* ^ Bielenstein (1980) , p. 144; Wang (1949) , pp. 173–177.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 70–71.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1221; Bielenstein (1980) , pp. 7–17.
* ^ Wang (1949) , pp. 143–144, 145–146, 177; Bielenstein (1980)
, pp. 7–8, 14.
* ^ Wang (1949) , pp. 147–148; Bielenstein (1980) , pp. 8–9,
* ^ Wang (1949) , p. 150; Bielenstein (1980) , pp. 10–13.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1222; Wang (1949) , p. 151;
Bielenstein (1980) , pp. 17–23.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1222; Bielenstein (1980) , pp.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1223; Bielenstein (1980) , p. 31.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1223; Bielenstein (1980) , pp.
* ^ Bielenstein (1980) , p. 38; Wang (1949) , p. 154.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 1223–1224; Bielenstein (1980) , pp.
* ^ Wang (1949) , p. 155; Bielenstein (1980) , p. 41.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1224; Bielenstein (1980) , p. 43.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1224; Bielenstein (1980) , p. 47.
* ^ Wang (1982) , pp. 57, 203.
* ^ Bielenstein (1980) , p. 83.
* ^ A B C de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1228.
* ^ Bielenstein (1980) , p. 103.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , pp. 551–552.
* ^ Bielenstein (1980) , pp. 90–92; Wang (1949) , pp. 158–160.
* ^ Bielenstein (1980) , p. 91.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 1230–1231; Bielenstein (1980) , p.
96; Hsu (1965) , pp. 367–368.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1230; Bielenstein (1980) , p. 100.
* ^ Bielenstein (1980) , p. 100.
* ^ Hsu (1965) , p. 360; Bielenstein (1980) , pp. 105–106; Loewe
(1986) , p. 126.
* ^ Hsu (1965) , p. 360; Bielenstein (1980) , pp. 105–106.
* ^ A B Bielenstein (1980) , pp. 105–106.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , p. 76.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1230; Bielenstein (1980) , p. 108.
* ^ Chang (2007) , pp. 70–71.
* ^ A B Nishijima (1986) , p. 599; Bielenstein (1980) , p. 114.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 564–565, 1234.
* ^ Bielenstein (1980) , pp. 114–115.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1234; Bielenstein (1980) , pp.
* ^ Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 132–133.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1234; Bielenstein (1980) , pp. 116,
* ^ A B Nishijima (1986) , p. 586.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , pp. 586–587.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , p. 587.
* ^ Ebrey (1986) , p. 609; Bielenstein (1986) , pp. 232–233;
Nishijima (1986) , pp. 587–588.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , pp. 587–588; Bielenstein (1980) , pp. 47,
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , pp. 600–601.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , p. 598.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , p. 588.
* ^ Bulling (1962) , p. 312.
* ^ Guo (2005) , pp. 46–48.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , p. 601.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , p. 577; Ch\'ü (1972) , pp. 113–114.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , pp. 558–601; Ebrey (1974) , pp. 173 174;
Ebrey (1999) , pp. 74–75.
* ^ Ebrey (1999) , p. 75; Ebrey (1986) , pp. 619–621.
* ^ Loewe (1986) , pp. 149–150; Nishijima (1986) , pp. 596–598.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , pp. 596–598.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , p. 599; de Crespigny (2007) , pp. 564–565.
* ^ Needham (1986c) , p. 22; Nishijima (1986) , pp. 583–584.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , p. 584; Wagner (2001) , pp. 1–2; Hinsch
(2002) , pp. 21–22.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , p. 584; Wagner (2001) , pp. 15–17.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , p. 600; Wagner (2001) , pp. 13–14.
* ^ Ebrey (1999) , p. 75.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 605.
* ^ Jin, Fan Needham (1972) , p. 111.
* ^ Loewe (1968) , pp. 89, 94–95; Tom (1989) , p. 99; Cotterell
(2004) , pp. 11–13.
* ^ Buisseret (1998) , p. 12; Needham Day Pigott (1999) , pp.
* ^ Pigott (1999) , pp. 177, 191.
* ^ Wang (1982) , p. 125; Pigott (1999) , p. 186.
* ^ Wagner (1993) , p. 336; Wang (1982) , pp. 103–105, 122–124.
* ^ Greenberger (2006) , p. 12; Cotterell (2004) , p. 24; Wang
(1982) , pp. 54–55.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , pp. 563–564; Ebrey (1986) , pp. 616–617.
* ^ A B Nishijima (1986) , pp. 561–563.
* ^ Hinsch (2002) , pp. 67–68; Nishijima (1986) , pp. 564–566.
* ^ Nishijima (1986) , pp. 568–572.
Liu (2002) , p. 55.
* ^ A B Ebrey (1999) , p. 76.
* ^ Ebrey (1999) , p. 76; Wang (1982) , pp. 1–40.
* ^ Steinhardt (2004) , pp. 228–238.
* ^ Thorp (1986) , pp. 360–378.
* ^ Wang (1982) , pp. 1, 30, 39–40, 148–149; Chang (2007) , pp.
91–92; Morton see also Ebrey (1999) , p. 76; see Needham (1972) ,
Plate V, Fig. 15, for a photo of a Han-era fortress in Dunhuang, Gansu
province that has rammed earth ramparts with defensive crenallations
at the top.
* ^ Wang (1982) , pp. 1–39.
* ^ Steinhardt (2005a) , p. 279;
Liu (2002) , p. 55.
* ^ Steinhardt (2005a) , pp. 279–280;
Liu (2002) , p. 55.
* ^ Steinhardt (2005b) , pp. 283–284.
* ^ Wang (1982) , pp. 175–178.
* ^ A B Watson (2000) , p. 108.
* ^ Needham (1986d) , pp. 161–188.
* ^ Needham (1986c) , pp. 171–172.
Liu (2002) , p. 56.
* ^ Loewe (1968) , pp. 191–194; Wang (1982) , p. 105.
* ^ Loewe (1968) , pp. 191–194; Tom (1989) , p. 103; Ronan (1994)
, p. 91.
* ^ Loewe (1968) , pp. 191–194
* ^ Fraser (2014) .
* ^ Needham (1986c) , pp. 2, 9; see also Barbieri-Low (2007) , p.
* ^ Needham (1986c) , p. 2.
* ^ Needham (1988) , pp. 207–208.
* ^ Barbieri-Low (2007) , p. 197.
* ^ Needham (1986c) , pp. 99, 134, 151, 233.
* ^ Needham (1986b) , pp. 123, 233–234.
* ^ Needham (1986c) , pp. 116–119, Plate CLVI.
* ^ Needham (1986c) , pp. 281–285.
* ^ Needham (1986c) , pp. 283–285.
* ^ Loewe (1968) , pp. 195–196.
* ^ Needham (1986c) , pp. 183–184, 390–392.
* ^ Needham (1986c) , pp. 396–400.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 184; Needham (1986c) , pp. 370.
* ^ Needham (1986c) , pp. 89, 110, 342–344.
* ^ Needham (1986a) , p. 343.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1050; Needham (1986c) , pp. 30, 479
footnote e; Morton Bowman (2000) , p. 595.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1050; Needham (1986c) , p. 479
* ^ Cited in Fraser (2014) , p. 375.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1050; Fraser (2014) , p. 375; Morton
Liu et al. (2003) , pp. 9–10.
* ^ Needham (1986a) , pp. 99–100; Berggren, Borwein Needham
(1986a) , p. 22.
* ^ Needham (1986a) , pp. 84–86
* ^ Shen, Crossley Straffin (1998) , p. 166; Needham (1986a) , p.
* ^ Needham (1986a) , pp. 65–66
* ^ A B
Liu et al. (2003) , pp. 9–10.
* ^ Teresi (2002) , pp. 65–66.
* ^ McClain Needham (1986b) , pp. 218–219.
* ^ Cullen (2006) , p. 7; Lloyd (1996) , p. 168.
* ^ Deng (2005) , p. 67.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 498.
* ^ Loewe (1994) , pp. 61, 69; Csikszentmihalyi (2006) , pp.
173–175; Sun Balchin (2003) , p. 27.
* ^ Dauben (2007) , p. 214; Sun Huang (1988) , p. 64.
* ^ Needham (1986a) , pp. 227, 414.
* ^ Needham (1986a) , p. 468.
* ^ Hsu (1993) , pp. 90–93; Needham (1986a) , pp. 534–535.
* ^ Hsu (1993) , pp. 90–93; Hansen (2000) , p. 125.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 659
* ^ Needham (1986a) , pp. 580–581.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1050; Hsu (1993) , pp. 90–93;
Needham (1986a) , pp. 538–540; Nelson (1974) , p. 359.
* ^ Turnbull (2002) , p. 14; Needham (1986d) , pp. 390–391.
* ^ Needham (1986d) , pp. 627–628; Chung (2005) , p. 152; Tom
(1989) , pp. 103–104; Adshead (2000) , p. 156; Fairbank Block (2003)
, pp. 93, 123.
* ^ Needham (1986c) , p. 263–267; Greenberger (2006) , p. 13.
* ^ A B Needham (1986c) , pp. 308–312, 319–323.
* ^ Csikszentmihalyi (2006) , pp. 181–182; Sun Hsu (2001) , p.
* ^ Csikszentmihalyi (2006) , pp. 181–182.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 332; Omura (2003) , pp. 15, 19–22;
Loewe (1994) , p. 65; Lo (2001) , p. 23.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 332.
* ^ de Crespigny (2007) , p. 1055.
* Adshead, Samuel Adrian Miles (2000),
China in World History,
London: MacMillan Press, ISBN 0-312-22565-2 .
* Akira, Hirakawa (1998), A History of Indian Buddhism: From
Sakyamani to Early Mahayana, translated by Paul Groner, New Delhi:
Jainendra Prakash Jain At Shri Jainendra Press, ISBN 81-208-0955-6 .
* An, Jiayao (2002), "When glass was treasured in China", in
Juliano, Annette L.; Lerner, Judith A.,
Silk Road Studies VII: Nomads,
Traders, and Holy Men Along China's
Silk Road, Turnhout: Brepols
Publishers, pp. 79–94, ISBN 2-503-52178-9 .
* Bailey, H.W. (1985), Indo-Scythian Studies being Khotanese Texts
Volume VII, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-11992-4 .
* Balchin, Jon (2003), Science: 100 Scientists Who Changed the
World, New York: Enchanted Lion Books, ISBN 1-59270-017-9 .
* Ball, Warwick (2016), Rome in the East: Transformation of an
Empire, London & New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-72078-6 .
* Barbieri-Low, Anthony J. (2007), Artisans in Early Imperial China,
Seattle & London: University of Washington Press, ISBN 0-295-98713-8 .
* Beck, Mansvelt (1986), "The fall of Han", in Twitchett, Denis ;
Loewe, Michael , The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in
and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, pp. 317–376, ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8 .
* Berggren, Lennart; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Borwein, Peter B. (2004),
Pi: A Source Book, New York: Springer, ISBN 0-387-20571-3 .
* Bielenstein, Hans (1980), The Bureaucracy of Han Times, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-22510-8 .
* ——— (1986), "Wang Mang, the Restoration of the Han Dynasty,
and Later Han", in Twitchett, Denis; Loewe, Michael, The Cambridge
History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. –
A.D. 220, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 223–290, ISBN
* Block, Leo (2003), To Harness the Wind: A Short History of the
Development of Sails, Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, ISBN
* Bower, Virginia (2005), "Standing man and woman", in Richard,
Naomi Noble, Recarving China's Past: Art, Archaeology and Architecture
of the 'Wu Family Shrines', New Haven and London: Yale University
Princeton University Art Museum
Princeton University Art Museum , pp. 242–245, ISBN
* Bowman, John S. (2000), Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and
Culture, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-11004-9 .
* Buisseret, David (1998), Envisioning the City: Six Studies in
Urban Cartography, Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, ISBN
* Bulling, A. (1962), "A landscape representation of the Western Han
period", Artibus Asiae, 25 (4): 293–317,
JSTOR 3249129 .
* Chang, Chun-shu (2007), The Rise of the Chinese Empire: Volume II;
Frontier, Immigration, &
Empire in Han China, 130 B.C. – A.D. 157,
Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0-472-11534-0 .
* Chavannes, Édouard (1907), "Les pays d\'Occident d\'après le
Heou Han chou" (PDF), T'oung pao, 8: 149–244.
* Ch'en, Ch'i-Yün (1986), "Confucian, Legalist, and Taoist thought
in Later Han", in Twitchett, Denis; Loewe, Michael, Cambridge History
of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 766–806, ISBN
* Ch'ü, T'ung-tsu (1972), Dull, Jack L., ed., Han Dynasty China:
Volume 1: Han Social Structure, Seattle and London: University of
Washington Press, ISBN 0-295-95068-4 .
* Chung, Chee Kit (2005), "Longyamen is Singapore: The Final
Proof?", Admiral Zheng He & Southeast Asia, Singapore: Institute of
Southeast Asian Studies, ISBN 981-230-329-4 .
* Cotterell, Maurice (2004), The Terracotta Warriors: The Secret
Codes of the Emperor's Army, Rochester: Bear and Company, ISBN
* Csikszentmihalyi, Mark (2006), Readings in
Han Chinese Thought,
Indianapolis and Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, ISBN
* Cullen, Christoper (2006), Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient
China: The Zhou Bi Suan Jing, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
ISBN 0-521-03537-6 .
* Cutter, Robert Joe (1989), The Brush and the Spur: Chinese Culture
and the Cockfight, Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong,
ISBN 962-201-417-8 .
* Dauben, Joseph W. (2007), "Chinese Mathematics", in Katz, Victor
J., The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: A
Sourcebook, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 187–384, ISBN
* Davis, Paul K. (2001), 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to
the Present, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-514366-3 .
* Day, Lance; McNeil, Ian (1996), Biographical Dictionary of the
History of Technology, New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-06042-7 .
* de Crespigny, Rafe (2007), A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han
Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD), Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, ISBN
* Demiéville, Paul (1986), "Philosophy and religion from Han to
Sui", in Twitchett, Denis; Loewe, Michael, Cambridge History of China:
Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, pp. 808–872, ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8 .
* Deng, Yingke (2005), Ancient Chinese Inventions, translated by
Wang Pingxing, Beijing:
China Intercontinental Press
(五洲传播出版社), ISBN 7-5085-0837-8 .
* Di Cosmo, Nicola (2002), Ancient
China and Its Enemies: The Rise
of Nomadic Power in East Asian History, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, ISBN 0-521-77064-5 .
* Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (1974), "Estate and family management in
the Later Han as seen in the Monthly Instructions for the Four Classes
of People", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient,
17 (2): 173–205,
JSTOR 3596331 .
* ——— (1986), "The Economic and Social History of Later Han",
in Twitchett, Denis; Loewe, Michael, Cambridge History of China:
Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, pp. 608–648, ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8 .
* ——— (1999), The Cambridge Illustrated History of China,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-66991-X .
* Fairbank, John K. ; Goldman, Merle (1998), China: A New History,
Enlarged Edition, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, ISBN
* Fraser, Ian W. (2014), "
Zhang Heng 张衡", in Brown, Kerry, The
Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography, Great Barrington: Berkshire
Publishing, ISBN 1-933782-66-8 .
* Greenberger, Robert (2006), The Technology of Ancient China, New
York: Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 1-4042-0558-6 .
* Guo, Qinghua (2005), Chinese Architecture and Planning: Ideas,
Methods, and Techniques, Stuttgart and London: Edition Axel Menges,
ISBN 3-932565-54-1 .
* Hansen, Valerie (2000), The Open Empire: A History of
1600, New York & London: W.W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-97374-3 .
* Hardy, Grant (1999), Worlds of
Bronze and Bamboo: Sima Qian's
Conquest of History, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN
* Hill, John E. (2009), Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of
Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries AD,
Charleston, South Carolina: BookSurge, ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1 .
* Hinsch, Bret (2002), Women in Imperial China, Lanham: Rowman &
Littlefield Publishers, ISBN 0-7425-1872-8 .
* Hsu, Cho-Yun (1965), "The changing relationship between local
society and the central political power in Former Han: 206 B.C. – 8
A.D.", Comparative Studies in Society and History, 7 (4): 358–370,
doi :10.1017/S0010417500003777 .
* Hsu, Elisabeth (2001), "Pulse diagnostics in the Western Han: how
mai and qi determine bing", in Hsu, Elisabeth, Innovations in Chinese
Medicine, Cambridge, New York, Oakleigh, Madrid, and Cape Town:
Cambridge University Press, pp. 51–92, ISBN 0-521-80068-4 .
* Hsu, Mei-ling (1993), "The Qin maps: a clue to later Chinese
cartographic development", Imago Mundi, 45: 90–100, doi
* Huang, Ray (1988), China: A Macro History, Armonk & London: M.E.
Sharpe Inc., an East Gate Book, ISBN 0-87332-452-8 .
* Hulsewé, A.F.P. (1986), "Ch'in and Han law", in Twitchett, Denis;
Loewe, Michael, The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in
and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, pp. 520–544, ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8 .
* Jin, Guantao; Fan, Hongye; Liu, Qingfeng (1996), "Historical
Changes in the Structure of Science and Technology (Part Two, a
Commentary)", in Dainian, Fan; Cohen, Robert S., Chinese Studies in
the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, translated by
Kathleen Dugan and Jiang Mingshan, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, pp. 165–184, ISBN 0-7923-3463-9 .
* Knechtges, David R. (2010), "From the Eastern Han through the
Western Jin (AD 25–317)", in Owen, Stephen , The Cambridge History
of Chinese Literature, volume 1, Cambridge University Press, pp.
116–198, ISBN 978-0-521-85558-7 .
* ——— (2014), "
Zhang Heng 張衡", in Knechtges, David R.;
Chang, Taiping, Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature: A
Reference Guide, Part Four, Leiden: Brill, pp. 2141–55, ISBN
* Kramers, Robert P. (1986), "The development of the Confucian
schools", in Twitchett, Denis; Loewe, Michael, Cambridge History of
China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 747–756, ISBN
* Lewis, Mark Edward (2007), The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han,
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-02477-X .
* Liu, Xujie (2002), "The Qin and Han dynasties", in Steinhardt,
Nancy S., Chinese Architecture, New Haven: Yale University Press, pp.
33–60, ISBN 0-300-09559-7 .
* Liu, Guilin; Feng, Lisheng; Jiang, Airong; Zheng, Xiaohui (2003),
"The Development of E-Mathematics Resources at Tsinghua University
Library (THUL)", in Bai, Fengshan; Wegner, Bern, Electronic
Information and Communication in Mathematics, Berlin, Heidelberg and
New York: Springer Verlag, pp. 1–13, ISBN 3-540-40689-1 .
* Lloyd, Geoffrey Ernest Richard (1996), Adversaries and
Authorities: Investigations into Ancient Greek and Chinese Science,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55695-3 .
* Lo, Vivienne (2001), "The influence of nurturing life culture on
the development of
Western Han acumoxa therapy", in Hsu, Elisabeth,
Innovation in Chinese Medicine, Cambridge, New York, Oakleigh, Madrid
and Cape Town: Cambridge University Press, pp. 19–50, ISBN
* Loewe, Michael (1968), Everyday Life in Early Imperial China
during the Han Period 202 BC–AD 220, London: B.T. Batsford, ISBN
* ——— (1986), "The Former Han Dynasty", in Twitchett, Denis;
Loewe, Michael, The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in
and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, pp. 103–222, ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8 .
* ——— (1994), Divination, Mythology and
Monarchy in Han China,
Cambridge, New York and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, ISBN
* ——— (2005), "Funerary Practice in Han Times", in Richard,
Naomi Noble, Recarving China's Past: Art, Archaeology, and
Architecture of the 'Wu Family Shrines', New Haven and London: Yale
University Press and Princeton University Art Museum, pp. 23–74,
ISBN 0-300-10797-8 .
* Mawer, Granville Allen (2013), "The Riddle of Cattigara", in
Robert Nichols and Martin Woods, Mapping Our World: Terra Incognita to
Australia, Canberra: National Library of Australia, pp. 38–39, ISBN
* McClain, Ernest G.; Ming, Shui Hung (1979), "Chinese cyclic
tunings in late antiquity", Ethnomusicology, 23 (2): 205–224, JSTOR
* Morton, William Scott; Lewis, Charlton M. (2005), China: Its
History and Culture (Fourth ed.), New York City: McGraw-Hill, ISBN
* Needham, Joseph (1972), Science and Civilization in China: Volume
1, Introductory Orientations, London: Syndics of the Cambridge
University Press, ISBN 0-521-05799-X .
* ——— (1986a), Science and Civilization in China: Volume 3;
Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth, Taipei:
Caves Books, ISBN 0-521-05801-5 .
* ——— (1986b), Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4,
Physics and Physical Technology; Part 1, Physics, Taipei: Caves Books,
ISBN 0-521-05802-3 .
* ——— (1986c), Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 4,
Physics and Physical Technology; Part 2, Mechanical Engineering,
Taipei: Caves Books, ISBN 0-521-05803-1 .
* ——— (1986d), Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4,
Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3, Civil Engineering and
Nautics, Taipei: Caves Books, ISBN 0-521-07060-0 .
* Needham, Joseph ; Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1986), Science and
Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology,
Paper and Printing, Taipei: Caves Books, ISBN 0-521-08690-6 .
* Needham, Joseph (1988), Science and Civilization in China: Volume
5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 9, Textile Technology:
Spinning and Reeling, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
* Neinhauser, William H.; Hartman, Charles; Ma, Y.W.; West, Stephen
H. (1986), The Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature:
Volume 1, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-32983-3 .
* Nelson, Howard (1974), "Chinese maps: an exhibition at the British
China Quarterly, 58: 357–362, doi
* Nishijima, Sadao (1986), "The economic and social history of
Former Han", in Twitchett, Denis; Loewe, Michael, Cambridge History of
China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 545–607, ISBN
* Norman, Jerry (1988), Chinese, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge
University Press, ISBN 0-521-29653-6 .
* Omura, Yoshiaki (2003),
Acupuncture Medicine: Its Historical and
Clinical Background, Mineola: Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-42850-8 .
* O'Reilly, Dougald J.W. (2007), Early Civilizations of Southeast
Asia, Lanham, New York, Toronto, Plymouth: AltaMira Press, Division of
Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, ISBN 0-7591-0279-1 .
* Paludan, Ann (1998), Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors: the
Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial China, London: Thames
& Hudson, ISBN 0-500-05090-2 .
* Pigott, Vincent C. (1999), The Archaeometallurgy of the Asian Old
World, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology
and Anthropology, ISBN 0-924171-34-0 .
* Ronan, Colin A (1994), The Shorter Science and Civilization in
China: 4, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-32995-7 .
(an abridgement of Joseph Needham's work)
* Schaefer, Richard T. (2008), Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and
Society: Volume 3, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc, ISBN
* Shen, Kangshen; Crossley, John N. ; Lun, Anthony W.C. (1999), The
Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art: Companion and Commentary,
Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-853936-3 .
* Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman (2004), "The Tang architectural icon
and the politics of Chinese architectural history", The Art Bulletin,
86 (2): 228–254,
JSTOR 3177416 , doi :10.1080/00043079.2004.10786192
* ——— (2005a), "Pleasure tower model", in Richard, Naomi
Noble, Recarving China's Past: Art, Archaeology, and Architecture of
the 'Wu Family Shrines', New Haven and London: Yale University Press
and Princeton University Art Museum, pp. 275–281, ISBN 0-300-10797-8
* ——— (2005b), "Tower model", in Richard, Naomi Noble,
Recarving China's Past: Art, Archaeology, and Architecture of the 'Wu
Family Shrines', New Haven and London:
Yale University Press
Yale University Press and
Princeton University Art Museum, pp. 283–285, ISBN 0-300-10797-8 .
* Straffin, Philip D., Jr (1998), "
Liu Hui and the first Golden Age
of Chinese mathematics", Mathematics Magazine, 71 (3): 163–181,
JSTOR 2691200 .
* Suárez, Thomas (1999), Early Mapping of Southeast Asia,
Singapore: Periplus Editions, ISBN 962-593-470-7 .
* Sun, Xiaochun; Kistemaker, Jacob (1997), The Chinese Sky During
the Han: Constellating Stars and Society, Leiden, New York, Köln:
Koninklijke Brill, ISBN 90-04-10737-1 .
* Teresi, Dick (2002), Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern
Science–from the Babylonians to the Mayas, New York: Simon and
Schuster, ISBN 0-684-83718-8 .
* Thorp, Robert L. (1986), "Architectural principles in early
Imperial China: structural problems and their solution", The Art
Bulletin, 68 (3): 360–378,
JSTOR 3050972 .
* Tom, K.S. (1989), Echoes from Old China: Life, Legends, and Lore
of the Middle Kingdom, Honolulu: The Hawaii Chinese History Center of
the University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-8248-1285-9 .
* Torday, Laszlo (1997), Mounted Archers: The Beginnings of Central
Asian History, Durham: The Durham Academic Press, ISBN 1-900838-03-6 .
* Turnbull, Stephen R. (2002), Fighting Ships of the Far East: China
and Southeast Asia 202 BC–AD 1419, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, ISBN
* Wagner, Donald B. (1993), Iron and
Steel in Ancient China, Brill,
ISBN 978-90-04-09632-5 .
* ——— (2001), The State and the Iron Industry in Han China,
Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Publishing, ISBN
* Wang, Yu-ch'uan (1949), "An outline of The central government of
the Former Han dynasty", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 12 (1/2):
JSTOR 2718206 .
* Wang, Zhongshu (1982), Han Civilization, translated by K.C. Chang
and Collaborators, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, ISBN
* Wang, Xudang; Li, Zuixiong; Zhang, Lu (2010), "Condition,
Conservation, and Reinforcement of the
Yumen Pass and Hecang Earthen
Ruins Near Dunhuang", in Neville Agnew, Conservation of Ancient Sites
Silk Road: Proceedings of the Second International Conference
on the Conservation of Grotto Sites, Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang,
People's Republic of China, June 28 – July 3, 2004, pp. 351–352 ,
ISBN 978-1-60606-013-1 .
* Watson, William (2000), The Arts of
China to AD 900, New Haven:
Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-08284-3 .
* Xue, Shiqi (2003), "Chinese lexicography past and present", in
Hartmann, R.R.K., Lexicography: Critical Concepts, London and New
York: Routledge, pp. 158–173, ISBN 0-415-25365-9 .
* Young, Gary K. (2001), Rome's Eastern Trade: International
Commerce and Imperial Policy, 31 BC – AD 305, London & New York:
Routledge, ISBN 0-415-24219-3 .
* Yü, Ying-shih (1967), Trade and Expansion in Han China: A Study
in the Structure of Sino-Barbarian Economic Relations, Berkeley:
University of California Press.
* ——— (1986), "Han foreign relations", in Twitchett, Denis;
Loewe, Michael, The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in
and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, pp. 377–462, ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8 .
* Yule, Henry (1915), Henri Cordier, ed., Cathay and the Way
Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, Vol I:
Preliminary Essay on the Intercourse Between
China and the Western
Nations Previous to the Discovery of the Cape Route, 1, London:
* Zhang, Guangda (2002), "The role of the Sogdians as translators of
Buddhist texts", in Juliano, Annette L.; Lerner, Judith A.,
Studies VII: Nomads, Traders, and Holy Men Along China's
Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, pp. 75–78, ISBN 2-503-52178-9 .
* Zhou, Jinghao (2003), Remaking China's Public Philosophy for the
Twenty-First Century, Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN
LISTEN TO THIS ARTICLE (info/dl )
This audio file was created from a revision of the "Han dynasty"
article dated 2016-04-27, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the
article. (Audio help ) MORE SPOKEN ARTICLES
Wikimedia Commons has media related to HAN DYNASTY .
The Wikibook Saylor.org\'s Ancient Civilizations of the World has a
page on the topic of: THE HAN DYNASTY
Library resources about
* Online books
* Resources in your library
* Resources in other libraries
Han dynasty by Minnesota State University
Han dynasty art with video commentary, Minneapolis Institute of
* Early Imperial China: A Working Collection of Resources
* "Han Culture," Hanyangling Museum Website
Qin dynasty DYNASTIES IN CHINESE HISTORY
206 BC – AD 220 Succeeded by
Han dynasty topics
Chu–Han Contention (
Feast at Hong Gate
Feast at Hong Gate )
Lü Clan Disturbance
Lü Clan Disturbance
Rebellion of the Seven States
Rebellion of the Seven States
Han conquest of Gojoseon
Han conquest of Gojoseon
* Southward expansion (Han–Minyue War
* Han conquest of
Han conquest of Dian
* First Chinese domination of
* Trung sisters\' rebellion
* Second Chinese domination of
Red Eyebrows and
* Goguryeo–Han War
Disasters of the Partisan Prohibitions
Disasters of the Partisan Prohibitions
Way of the Five Pecks of Rice
Yellow Turban Rebellion
Yellow Turban Rebellion
End of the Han dynasty
End of the Han dynasty
SOCIETY AND CULTURE
Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian
Book of Han
Book of Han