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Consensus Decision-making
Consensus decision-making or consensus process (often abbreviated to ''consensus'') are group decision-making processes in which participants develop and decide on proposals with the aim, or requirement, of acceptance by all. The focus on establishing agreement of at least the majority or the supermajority and avoiding unproductive opinion differentiates consensus from unanimity, which requires all participants to support a decision. Origin and meaning of terms The word ''consensus'' is Latin meaning "agreement, accord", derived from ''consentire'' meaning "feel together". Broadly, ''consensus'' relates to a generally accepted opinion, but in the context of this article refers to the process ''and'' the outcome of consensus decision-making (e.g. "to decide ''by'' consensus" and "''a'' consensus was reached"). History Consensus decision-making, as a self-described practice, originates from several nonviolent, direct action groups that were active in the Civil rights, Peace ...
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Occupy Wall Street Washington Square Park 2011 Shankbone
Occupy may refer to: * ''Occupy'' (book), a 2012 short study of the Occupy movement by Noam Chomsky * Occupy movement, an international protest that began in New York See also * * Occupancy Within the context of building construction and building codes, "occupancy" refers to the use, or intended use, of a building, or portion of a building, for the shelter or support of persons, animals or property. A closely related meaning is th ..., a piece of property used to shelter something * Occupation (other), various meanings {{Disambiguation ...
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Affinity Group
An affinity group is a group formed around a shared interest or common goal, to which individuals formally or informally belong. Affinity groups are generally precluded from being under the aegis of any governmental agency, and their purposes must be primarily non-commercial. Examples of affinity groups include private social clubs, fraternities, writing or reading circles, hobby clubs, and groups engaged in political activism. Some affinity groups are organized in a non-hierarchical manner, often using consensus decision making, and are frequently made up of trusted friends. They provide a method of organization that is flexible and decentralized. Other affinity groups may have a hierarchy to provide management of the group's long-term interests, or if the group is large enough to require the delegation of responsibilities to other members or staff. Affinity groups can be based on a common social identity or ideology (e.g., anarchism, conservatism), a shared concern for a ...
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Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, often pronounced ) was the principal channel of student commitment in the United States to the civil rights movement during the 1960s. Emerging in 1960 from the student-led sit-ins at segregated lunch counters in Greensboro, North Carolina, and Nashville, Tennessee, the Committee sought to coordinate and assist direct-action challenges to the civic segregation and political exclusion of African Americans. From 1962, with the support of the Voter Education Project, SNCC committed to the registration and mobilization of black voters in the Deep South. Affiliates such as the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and the Lowndes County Freedom Organization in Alabama also worked to increase the pressure on federal and state government to enforce constitutional protections. By the mid-1960s the measured nature of the gains made, and the violence with which they were resisted, were generating dissent from the group's principles ...
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Abalone Alliance
The Abalone Alliance (1977–1985) was a nonviolent civil disobedience group formed to shut down the Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant near San Luis Obispo on the central California coast in the United States. They modeled their affinity group-based organizational structure after the Clamshell Alliance which was then protesting the Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant in coastal New Hampshire. The group of activists took the name "Abalone Alliance" referring to the tens of thousands of wild California Red Abalone that were killed in 1974 in Diablo Cove when the unit's plumbing had its first hot flush. The Abalone Alliance staged blockades and occupations at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant site between 1977 and 1984. Nearly two thousand people were arrested during a two-week blockade in 1981, exceeding Seabrook as the largest number arrested at an anti-nuclear protest in the United States.Daniel PopeConservation Fallout (book review) ''H-Net Reviews'', August 2007. ...
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Clamshell Alliance
The Clamshell Alliance is an anti-nuclear organization founded in 1976 to oppose the Seabrook Station nuclear power plant in the U.S. state of New Hampshire. The alliance has been dormant for many years. The group was co-founded by Paul Gunter, Howie Hawkins, Howard Morland, Harvey Wasserman, Guy Chichester, Robert "Renny" Cushing, Jeff Brummer, Anna Gyorgy, Kristie Conrad, Kate Walker, Robin Read, and other activists in 1976. The Granite State Alliance, a social-change organization, had launched PEP, the People's Energy Project, several years earlier, in opposition to the proposed Seabrook nuclear power plant. The Clamshell Alliance's coalescence began in 1975 as New England activists and organizations began to respond to U.S. President Richard Nixon's "Project Independence", which sought to build 1,000 nuclear power plants by 2000. In 2007, veterans of the Clamshell Alliance marked the 30th anniversary of its founding with the creation of a website called "To the Village ...
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Quaker Decision-making
The Quaker business method or Quaker decision-making is a form of group decision-making and discernment used by Quakers (members of the Religious Society of Friends). It is primarily carried out in meetings for worship for business, which are regular gatherings where minutes are drafted, to record collective decisions. The practice is based upon the core Quaker belief that there is "that of God in every one", and therefore every person has unmediated opportunity to experience the will of God. Subsequently, the practice aims to collectively discern the will of God through silent reflection, inspired statements (vocal ministry) and a capturing of the resultant "sense of the meeting". The strong spiritual basis marks the Quaker business method as a mystical form of decision-making, in contrast to purely rational practices such as parliamentary procedure. Quakers describe their practice as one of "unity", in comparison to majority, unanimity or consensus. Although minor difference ...
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A Quaker Action Group
A Quaker Action Group (AQAG) was founded in Philadelphia during the summer of 1966 to "apply nonviolent direct action as a witness against the war in Vietnam". History Founding member Lawrence Scott was a Quaker and radical pacifist who had worked for the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) in the 1950s, but resigned in protest at what he saw as the AFSC's preference for words over action. AQAG, which was based in the peace committees of the Religious Society of Friends' New York and Philadelphia Yearly meetings, aimed to renew the Society of Friends commitment to its historic peace testimony. In 1966, AQAG attempted to mail relief packages to North Vietnam, only to have the US Postal Service refuse the delivery. When they collected money for the North and South Vietnamese Red Cross Societies, the Treasury seized the donated funds. In March 1967, members of AQAG sailed to North Vietnam in the yacht ''Phoenix'', carrying medical supplies for North Vietnamese wounded by Ameri ...
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Lawrence Scott (Quaker)
Lawrence Scott FRSL (born in Trinidad, 1943) is a novelist and short-story writer from Trinidad and Tobago, who divides his time between London and Port of Spain. He has also worked as a teacher of English and Drama at schools in London and in Trinidad. Scott's novels have been awarded (1998) and short-listed (1992, 2004) for the Commonwealth Writers' Prize and thrice nominated for the International Dublin Literary Award (for ''Aelred's Sin'' in 2000, ''Night Calypso'' in 2006 and ''Light Falling on Bamboo'' in 2014). His stories have been much anthologised and he won the Tom-Gallon Short-Story Award in 1986. Life and career Born in Trinidad on a sugarcane estate where his father was the manager for Tate & Lyle, Lawrence Scott is a descendant of Trinidad's French and German creoles. "His father's side came from Germany in the 1830s and were called Schoener. His mother's family, the Lange dynasty, were French-descended and part of an established white Creole community." Scott ...
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Vietnam War
The Vietnam War (also known by other names) was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The north was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist states, while the south was supported by the United States and other anti-communist allies. The war is widely considered to be a Cold War-era proxy war. It lasted almost 20 years, with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973. The conflict also spilled over into neighboring states, exacerbating the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, which ended with all three countries becoming communist states by 1975. After the French military withdrawal from Indochina in 1954 – following their defeat in the First Indochina War – the Viet Minh took control of North Vietnam, and the U.S. assumed financial and military support for the South Vietnamese ...
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Religious Society Of Freinds
Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian set of denominations known formally as the Religious Society of Friends. Members of these movements ("theFriends") are generally united by a belief in each human's ability to experience the light within or see "that of God in every one". Some profess a priesthood of all believers inspired by the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are also Nontheist Quakers, whose spiritual practice does not rely on the existence of God. To differing extents, the Friends avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2017, there were an estimated 377,557 adult Quakers, 49% of them in Africa. Some 89% of Quakers worldwide belong to ''evangelical'' and ''programmed'' branches that hold services with singing and a prepared Bible message coordinated by a pastor. Some 11% practice ''waiting worship'' or ''unprogrammed wo ...
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Movement For A New Society
The Movement for a New Society (MNS) was a U.S.-based network of social activist collectives, committed to the principles of nonviolence, who played a key role in social movements of the 1970s and 1980s. According to a description from the MNS publication, ''Building Social Change Communities'' (1979), :Movement for a New Society (MNS) is a nationwide network of groups working for fundamental social change through nonviolent action. Together we are developing an analysis of present-day society; a vision of a decentralized, democratic and caring social order; a nonviolent revolutionary strategy; and a program based on changed values and changed lives. History The precursor to the MNS was A Quaker Action Group (AQAG), founded by Lawrence Scott (Quaker) in 1966. Dissatisfied with the response of the mainstream Quaker church to the United States involvement in the Vietnam War, Scott founded AQAG with the intention of sparking a renewed commitment to the Quaker Peace Testimony. Frus ...
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Clamshell Oct77
Clamshell may denote anything resembling the bivalve shell of a clam: * Scoop stretcher, another name for this patient transport device * Clamshell design, a form factor used for electronic devices, also known as a "flip" or "flip phone". * Clamshell (container), a design used for storage and food packaging, usually made of plastic or paperboard. * Clamshell case, a type of box for storing paper items in archives (may also refer to either of the two uses above - electronics or packaging) * Gallet Clamshell, the world's first water resistant chronograph wristwatch * Bucket (machine part)#Clamshell bucket, or clamshell bucket * Clamshell Alliance, an anti-nuclear organization * Clamshell Falls The Clamshell Falls is a cascade waterfall on the Behana Creek, located in Wooroonooran, Cairns Region, Queensland, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the ...
, a waterfall in Australia {{Disa ...
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