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Doctor Who
Doctor Who
is a British science-fiction television programme produced by the BBC
BBC
since 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord called "the Doctor", an extraterrestrial being from the planet Gallifrey. The Doctor explores the universe in a time-travelling space ship called the TARDIS. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, which was a common sight in Britain in 1963 when the series first aired. Accompanied by a number of companions, the Doctor combats a variety of foes, while working to save civilisations and help people in need. The show is a significant part of British popular culture,[1][2] and elsewhere it has gained a cult following. It has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series.[3] The programme originally ran from 1963 to 1989. There was an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot, in the form of a television film titled Doctor Who. The programme was relaunched in 2005, and since then has been produced in-house by BBC
BBC
Wales in Cardiff. Doctor Who
Doctor Who
has also spawned numerous spin-offs, including comic books, films, novels, audio dramas, and the television series Torchwood
Torchwood
(2006–2011), The Sarah Jane Adventures (2007–2011), K-9 (2009–2010), and Class (2016), and has been the subject of many parodies and references in popular culture. Twelve actors have headlined the series as the Doctor. The transition from one actor to another is written into the plot of the show with the concept of regeneration into a new incarnation – a plot device where a Time Lord
Time Lord
whose body is too badly harmed to heal normally, can instead recover by transforming into a "new" body. Each actor's portrayal differs, but all represent stages in the life of the same character and form a single lifetime with a single narrative. The time-travelling feature of the plot means that different incarnations of the Doctor occasionally meet. The Doctor is currently portrayed by Jodie Whittaker, who took on the role after Peter Capaldi's exit in the 2017 Christmas special "Twice Upon a Time".

Contents

1 Premise 2 History

2.1 Public consciousness

3 Episodes

3.1 Missing episodes

4 Characters

4.1 The Doctor

4.1.1 Changes of appearance 4.1.2 Meetings of different incarnations 4.1.3 Revelations about the Doctor

4.2 Companions 4.3 Adversaries

4.3.1 Daleks 4.3.2 Cybermen 4.3.3 The Master

5 Music

5.1 Theme music 5.2 Incidental music

6 Viewership

6.1 United Kingdom 6.2 International

6.2.1 Oceania 6.2.2 Americas

6.3 DVD, Blu-ray
Blu-ray
and video

7 Adaptations and other appearances

7.1 Doctor Who
Doctor Who
films 7.2 Spin-offs 7.3 Aftershows 7.4 Charity episodes 7.5 Spoofs and cultural references 7.6 Museums and exhibitions 7.7 Merchandise 7.8 Audios 7.9 Books 7.10 Video games

8 Chronology and canonicity 9 Awards 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Cited texts

13 Further reading 14 External links

14.1 Official websites 14.2 Past official BBC
BBC
websites 14.3 Reference websites

Premise Doctor Who
Doctor Who
follows the adventures of the primary character, a rogue Time Lord
Time Lord
from the planet Gallifrey, who goes by the name "the Doctor". He fled Gallifrey
Gallifrey
in a stolen TARDIS – "Time and Relative Dimension in Space" – a time machine that travels by materialising into and dematerialising out of the time vortex. The TARDIS
TARDIS
has a vast interior but appears smaller on the outside, and is equipped with a "chameleon circuit" intended to make the machine take on the appearance of local objects as a disguise; due to a malfunction, the Doctor's TARDIS
TARDIS
remains fixed as a blue British police box. The Doctor often finds events that pique his curiosity as he tries to prevent evil forces from harming innocent people or changing history, using only his ingenuity and minimal resources, such as his versatile sonic screwdriver. He rarely travels alone and often brings one or more companions to share these adventures. His companions are usually humans, as he has found a fascination with planet Earth, and he frequently collaborates with the international military task force UNIT
UNIT
when the Earth itself is threatened. As a Time Lord, the Doctor is centuries-old and has the ability to regenerate when his body is mortally damaged, taking on a new appearance and personality. The Doctor has gained numerous reoccurring enemies during his travels, including the Daleks, the Cybermen, and the Master, another renegade Time Lord. History Main article: History of Doctor Who Doctor Who
Doctor Who
first appeared on BBC
BBC
TV at 17:16:20 GMT on Saturday, 23 November 1963; this was eighty seconds later than the scheduled programme time, due to the assassination of John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
the previous day.[4][5] It was to be a regular weekly programme, each episode 25 minutes of transmission length. Discussions and plans for the programme had been in progress for a year. The head of drama Sydney Newman
Sydney Newman
was mainly responsible for developing the programme, with the first format document for the series being written by Newman along with the head of the script department (later head of serials) Donald Wilson and staff writer C. E. Webber. Writer Anthony Coburn, story editor David Whitaker and initial producer Verity Lambert
Verity Lambert
also heavily contributed to the development of the series.[6][note 1] The programme was originally intended to appeal to a family audience,[7] as an educational programme using time travel as a means to explore scientific ideas and famous moments in history. On 31 July 1963 Whitaker commissioned Terry Nation
Terry Nation
to write a story under the title The Mutants. As originally written, the Daleks and Thals were the victims of an alien neutron bomb attack but Nation later dropped the aliens and made the Daleks the aggressors. When the script was presented to Newman and Wilson it was immediately rejected as the programme was not permitted to contain any "bug-eyed monsters". According to producer Verity Lambert; "We didn't have a lot of choice — we only had the Dalek
Dalek
serial to go ... We had a bit of a crisis of confidence because Donald [Wilson] was so adamant that we shouldn't make it. Had we had anything else ready we would have made that." Nation's script became the second Doctor Who serial – The Daleks
The Daleks
(a.k.a. The Mutants). The serial introduced the eponymous aliens that would become the series' most popular monsters, and was responsible for the BBC's first merchandising boom.[8] The BBC
BBC
drama department's serials division produced the programme for 26 seasons, broadcast on BBC
BBC
1. Falling viewing numbers, a decline in the public perception of the show and a less-prominent transmission slot saw production suspended in 1989 by Jonathan Powell, controller of BBC
BBC
1.[9] Although it was effectively cancelled with the decision not to commission a planned 27th series of the show for transmission in 1990, the BBC
BBC
repeatedly affirmed that the series would return.[10] While in-house production had ceased, the BBC
BBC
hoped to find an independent production company to relaunch the show. Philip Segal, a British expatriate who worked for Columbia Pictures' television arm in the United States, had approached the BBC
BBC
about such a venture as early as July 1989, while the 26th series was still in production.[10] Segal's negotiations eventually led to a Doctor Who
Doctor Who
television film, broadcast on the Fox Network in 1996 as an international co-production between Fox, Universal Pictures, the BBC
BBC
and BBC
BBC
Worldwide. Although the film was successful in the UK (with 9.1 million viewers), it was less so in the United States and did not lead to a series.[10] Licensed media such as novels and audio plays provided new stories, but as a television programme Doctor Who
Doctor Who
remained dormant until 2003. In September of that year,[11] BBC
BBC
Television announced the in-house production of a new series after several years of attempts by BBC Worldwide to find backing for a feature film version. The executive producers of the new incarnation of the series were writer Russell T Davies and BBC
BBC
Cymru Wales head of drama Julie Gardner. Doctor Who
Doctor Who
finally returned with the episode "Rose" on BBC One
BBC One
on 26 March 2005.[12] There have since been nine further series in 2006–2008 and 2010–2015, and Christmas Day specials every year since 2005. No full series was broadcast in 2009,[13] although four additional specials starring David Tennant
David Tennant
were made. In January 2016, Moffat announced that he would step down after the 2017 finale, to be replaced by Chris Chibnall
Chris Chibnall
in 2018.[14] The tenth series debuted in April 2017, with a Christmas special preceding it in 2016.[15] The 2005 version of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
is a direct plot continuation of the original 1963–1989 series[note 2] and the 1996 telefilm. This is similar to the 1988 continuation of Mission
Mission
Impossible,[16] but differs from most other series relaunches which have either been reboots (for example, Battlestar Galactica[17] and Bionic Woman) or set in the same universe as the original but in a different time period and with different characters (for example, Star Trek: The Next Generation and spin-offs). The programme has been sold to many other countries worldwide (see Viewership). Public consciousness It has been claimed that the transmission of the first episode was delayed by ten minutes due to extended news coverage of the assassination of US President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
the previous day; in fact it went out after a delay of eighty seconds.[18] The BBC
BBC
believed that many viewers had missed this introduction to a new series due to the coverage of the assassination, as well as a series of power blackouts across the country, and they broadcast it again on 30 November 1963, just before episode two.[19][20] The programme soon became a national institution in the United Kingdom, with a large following among the general viewing audience.[21][22] Many renowned actors asked for or were offered guest-starring roles in various stories.[23][24][25][26] With popularity came controversy over the show's suitability for children. Morality campaigner Mary Whitehouse
Mary Whitehouse
repeatedly complained to the BBC
BBC
in the 1970s over what she saw as the show's frightening and gory content.[27] John Nathan-Turner
John Nathan-Turner
produced the series during the 1980s and was heard to say that he looked forward to Whitehouse's comments, as the show's ratings would increase soon after she had made them.[28] The phrase "Hiding behind (or 'watching from behind') the sofa" entered British pop culture, signifying in humour the stereotypical early-series behaviour of children who wanted to avoid seeing frightening parts of a television programme while remaining in the room to watch the remainder of it.[29] The phrase retains this association with Doctor Who, to the point that in 1991 the Museum of the Moving Image in London
London
named their exhibition celebrating the programme "Behind the Sofa". The electronic theme music too was perceived as eerie, novel, and frightening, at the time. A 2012 article placed this childhood juxtaposition of fear and thrill "at the center of many people's relationship with the show",[30] and a 2011 online vote at Digital Spy
Digital Spy
deemed the series the "scariest TV show of all time".[31] During Jon Pertwee's second series as the Doctor, in the serial Terror of the Autons (1971), images of murderous plastic dolls, daffodils killing unsuspecting victims, and blank-featured policemen marked the apex of the show's ability to frighten children.[32] Other notable moments in that decade include a disembodied brain falling to the floor in The Brain of Morbius[33] and the Doctor apparently being drowned by a villain in The Deadly Assassin
The Deadly Assassin
(both 1976).[34]

The current TARDIS
TARDIS
prop used since 2010.

A BBC
BBC
audience research survey conducted in 1972 found that, by their own definition of violence ("any act[s] which may cause physical and/or psychological injury, hurt or death to persons, animals or property, whether intentional or accidental") Doctor Who
Doctor Who
was the most violent of the drama programmes the corporation produced at the time.[35] The same report found that 3% of the surveyed audience regarded the show as "very unsuitable" for family viewing.[36] Responding to the findings of the survey in The Times
The Times
newspaper, journalist Philip Howard maintained that, "to compare the violence of Dr Who, sired by a horse-laugh out of a nightmare, with the more realistic violence of other television series, where actors who look like human beings bleed paint that looks like blood, is like comparing Monopoly with the property market in London: both are fantasies, but one is meant to be taken seriously."[35] The image of the TARDIS
TARDIS
has become firmly linked to the show in the public's consciousness; BBC
BBC
scriptwriter Anthony Coburn, who lived in the resort of Herne Bay, Kent, was one of the people who conceived the idea of a police box as a time machine.[37] In 1996, the BBC
BBC
applied for a trade mark to use the TARDIS' blue police box design in merchandising associated with Doctor Who.[38] In 1998, the Metropolitan Police Authority filed an objection to the trade mark claim; but in 2002, the Patent Office ruled in favour of the BBC.[39] The programme's broad appeal attracts audiences of children and families as well as science fiction fans.[40] The 21st century revival of the programme has become the centrepiece of BBC
BBC
One's Saturday schedule, and has "defined the channel".[41] Since its return, Doctor Who
Doctor Who
has consistently received high ratings, both in number of viewers and as measured by the Appreciation Index.[42] In 2007, Caitlin Moran, television reviewer for The Times, wrote that Doctor Who
Doctor Who
is, "quintessential to being British".[2] Director Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
has commented that, "the world would be a poorer place without Doctor Who".[43] On 4 August 2013, a live programme titled Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Live: The Next Doctor[44] was broadcast on BBC
BBC
One, during which the actor who was going to play the Twelfth Doctor
Twelfth Doctor
was revealed.[45] The live show was watched by an average of 6.27 million in the UK, and was also simulcast in the United States, Canada and Australia.[46][47] Episodes Further information: List of Doctor Who episodes (1963–1989) and List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
episodes (2005–present) Doctor Who
Doctor Who
originally ran for 26 seasons on BBC
BBC
One, from 23 November 1963 until 6 December 1989. During the original run, each weekly episode formed part of a story (or "serial") — usually of four to six parts in earlier years and three to four in later years. Some notable exceptions were: The Daleks' Master Plan, which aired twelve episodes (plus an earlier one-episode teaser,[48] " Mission
Mission
to the Unknown", featuring none of the regular cast[49]); almost an entire season of seven-episode serials (season 7); the ten-episode serial The War Games;[50] and The Trial of a Time Lord, which ran for fourteen episodes (albeit divided into three production codes and four narrative segments) during season 23.[51] Occasionally serials were loosely connected by a story-line, such as season 8 focusing on the Doctor battling a rogue Time Lord
Time Lord
called the Master,[52][53] season 16's quest for the Key to Time,[54] season 18's journey through E-Space and the theme of entropy,[55] and season 20's Black Guardian trilogy.[56] The programme was intended to be educational and for family viewing on the early Saturday evening schedule.[57] It initially alternated stories set in the past, which taught younger audience members about history, and with those in the future or outer space, focusing on science.[57] This was also reflected in the Doctor's original companions, one of whom was a science teacher and another a history teacher.[57] However, science fiction stories came to dominate the programme, and the history-orientated episodes, which were not popular with the production team,[57] were dropped after The Highlanders (1967). While the show continued to use historical settings, they were generally used as a backdrop for science fiction tales, with one exception: Black Orchid, set in 1920s England.[58] The early stories were serialised in nature, with the narrative of one story flowing into the next, and each episode having its own title, although produced as distinct stories with their own production codes.[59] Following The Gunfighters
The Gunfighters
(1966), however, each serial was given its own title, and the individual parts were simply assigned episode numbers.[59] Of the programme's many writers, Robert Holmes was the most prolific,[60] while Douglas Adams
Douglas Adams
became the most well-known outside Doctor Who
Doctor Who
itself, due to the popularity of his Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy works.[61][62] The serial format changed for the 2005 revival, with a series usually consisting of thirteen 45-minute, self-contained episodes (60 minutes with adverts, on overseas commercial channels), and an extended 60-minute episode broadcast on Christmas Day. This system was shortened to twelve episodes and one Christmas special following the revival's eighth series. Each series includes both standalone and multiple episodic stories, linked with a loose story arc that is resolved in the series finale. As in the early "classic" era, each episode, whether standalone or part of a larger story, has its own title. Occasionally, regular-series episodes will exceed the 45-minute run time; notably, the episodes "Journey's End" from 2008 and "The Eleventh Hour" from 2010 exceeded an hour in length. 840 Doctor Who
Doctor Who
instalments have been televised since 1963, ranging between 25-minute episodes (the most common format for the classic era), 45-minute episodes (for Resurrection of the Daleks
Resurrection of the Daleks
in the 1984 series, a single season in 1985, and the most common format for the revival era since 2005), two feature-length productions (1983's The Five Doctors and the 1996 television film), twelve Christmas specials (most of 60 minutes' duration, one of 72 minutes), and four additional specials ranging from 60 to 75 minutes in 2009, 2010 and 2013. Four mini-episodes, running about eight minutes each, were also produced for the 1993, 2005 and 2007 Children in Need
Children in Need
charity appeals, while another mini-episode was produced in 2008 for a Doctor Who-themed edition of The Proms. The 1993 2-part story, entitled Dimensions in Time, was made in collaboration with the cast of the BBC
BBC
soap-opera EastEnders
EastEnders
and was filmed partly on the EastEnders
EastEnders
set. A two-part mini-episode was also produced for the 2011 edition of Comic Relief. Starting with the 2009 special "Planet of the Dead", the series was filmed in 1080i
1080i
for HDTV,[63] and broadcast simultaneously on BBC
BBC
One and BBC
BBC
HD. To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the show, a special 3D episode, "The Day of the Doctor", was broadcast in 2013.[64] In March 2013, it was announced that Tennant and Piper would be returning,[65] and that the episode would have a limited cinematic release worldwide.[66] In April 2015, Steven Moffat
Steven Moffat
confirmed that Doctor Who
Doctor Who
would run for at least another five years, extending the show until 2020.[67] Missing episodes Main article: Doctor Who
Doctor Who
missing episodes Between about 1967 and 1978, large amounts of older material stored in the BBC's various video tape and film libraries were either destroyed,[note 3] wiped, or suffered from poor storage which led to severe deterioration from broadcast quality. This included many old episodes of Doctor Who, mostly stories featuring the first two Doctors: William Hartnell
William Hartnell
and Patrick Troughton. In all, 97 of 253 episodes produced during the first six years of the programme are not held in the BBC's archives (most notably seasons 3, 4, & 5, from which 79 episodes are missing). In 1972, almost all episodes then made were known to exist at the BBC,[68] while by 1978 the practice of wiping tapes and destroying "spare" film copies had been brought to a stop.[69] No 1960s episodes exist on their original videotapes (all surviving prints being film transfers), though some were transferred to film for editing before transmission, and exist in their broadcast form.[70] Some episodes have been returned to the BBC
BBC
from the archives of other countries who bought prints for broadcast, or by private individuals who acquired them by various means. Early colour videotape recordings made off-air by fans have also been retrieved, as well as excerpts filmed from the television screen onto 8 mm cine film and clips that were shown on other programmes. Audio versions of all of the lost episodes exist from home viewers who made tape recordings of the show. Short clips from every story with the exception of Marco Polo, " Mission
Mission
to the Unknown" and The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve
The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve
also exist. In addition to these, there are off-screen photographs made by photographer John Cura, who was hired by various production personnel to document many of their programmes during the 1950s and 1960s, including Doctor Who. These have been used in fan reconstructions of the serials. These amateur reconstructions have been tolerated by the BBC, provided they are not sold for profit and are distributed as low-quality VHS copies.[71] One of the most sought-after lost episodes is part four of the last William Hartnell
William Hartnell
serial, The Tenth Planet
The Tenth Planet
(1966), which ends with the First Doctor
First Doctor
transforming into the Second. The only portion of this in existence, barring a few poor-quality silent 8 mm clips, is the few seconds of the regeneration scene, as it was shown on the children's magazine show Blue Peter.[72] With the approval of the BBC, efforts are now under way to restore as many of the episodes as possible from the extant material. "Official" reconstructions have also been released by the BBC
BBC
on VHS, on MP3 CD-ROM, and as special features on DVD. The BBC, in conjunction with animation studio Cosgrove Hall, reconstructed the missing episodes 1 and 4 of The Invasion (1968), using remastered audio tracks and the comprehensive stage notes for the original filming, for the serial's DVD
DVD
release in November 2006. The missing episodes of The Reign of Terror were animated by animation company Theta-Sigma, in collaboration with Big Finish, and became available for purchase in May 2013 through Amazon.com.[73] Subsequent animations made in 2013 include The Tenth Planet, The Ice Warriors
The Ice Warriors
and The Moonbase. In April 2006, Blue Peter
Blue Peter
launched a challenge to find missing Doctor Who episodes with the promise of a full-scale Dalek
Dalek
model as a reward.[74] In December 2011, it was announced that part 3 of Galaxy 4
Galaxy 4
and part 2 of The Underwater Menace
The Underwater Menace
had been returned to the BBC
BBC
by a fan who had purchased them in the mid-1980s without realising that the BBC
BBC
did not hold copies of them.[75] On 10 October 2013, the BBC
BBC
announced that films of eleven episodes, including nine missing episodes, had been found in a Nigerian television relay station in Jos.[76] Six of the eleven films discovered were the six-part serial The Enemy of the World, from which all but the third episode had been missing.[77] The remaining films were from another six-part serial, The Web of Fear, and included the previously missing episodes 2, 4, 5, and 6. Episode 3 of The Web of Fear is still missing.[78] Characters See also: List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
cast members The Doctor Main article: The Doctor (Doctor Who)

The Doctor portrayed by series leads in chronological order. Left to right from top row; William Hartnell, Patrick Troughton, Jon Pertwee, Tom Baker, Peter Davison, Colin Baker, Sylvester McCoy, Paul McGann, Christopher Eccleston, David Tennant, Matt Smith, Peter Capaldi
Peter Capaldi
and Jodie Whittaker.

The character of the Doctor was initially shrouded in mystery. All that was known about him in the programme's early days was that he was an eccentric alien traveller of great intelligence who battled injustice while exploring time and space in an unreliable time machine, the "TARDIS" (an acronym for Time and Relative Dimension in Space), which notably appears much larger on the inside than on the outside (a quality referred to as "dimensional transcendentality").[note 4][79] The initially irascible and slightly sinister Doctor quickly mellowed into a more compassionate figure. It was eventually revealed that he had been on the run from his own people, the Time Lords of the planet Gallifrey. Changes of appearance Producers introduced the concept of regeneration to permit the recasting of the main character. This was prompted by the poor health of the original star, William Hartnell. The term "regeneration" was not conceived until the Doctor's third on-screen regeneration; Hartnell's Doctor merely described undergoing a "renewal", and the Second Doctor
Second Doctor
underwent a "change of appearance".[80][81] The device has allowed for the recasting of the actor various times in the show's history, as well as the depiction of alternative Doctors either from the Doctor's relative past or future.[citation needed] The serials The Deadly Assassin
The Deadly Assassin
and Mawdryn Undead
Mawdryn Undead
established that a Time Lord
Time Lord
can only regenerate 12 times, for a total of 13 incarnations. This line became stuck in the public consciousness despite not often being repeated, and was recognised by producers of the show as a plot obstacle for when the show finally had to regenerate the Doctor a thirteenth time.[82][83] The episode "The Time of the Doctor" depicted the Doctor acquiring a new cycle of regenerations, starting from the Twelfth Doctor, due to the Eleventh Doctor being the product of the Doctor's twelfth regeneration from his original set.[84][85] Although the idea of casting a woman as the Doctor had been suggested by the show's writers several times, including by Newman in 1986 and Davies in 2008, until 2017, all official depictions were played by men.[86][87] Jodie Whittaker
Jodie Whittaker
took over the role as the Thirteenth Doctor at the end of the 2017 Christmas special, and is the first woman to be cast as the character. Whittaker had previously starred in television series such as Return to Cranford, Broadchurch
Broadchurch
alongside David Tennant
David Tennant
(Tenth Doctor) and the dystopian anthology Black Mirror.[88] The show introduced the Time Lords' ability to change sexes on regeneration in earlier episodes, first in dialogue, then with Michelle Gomez's version of The Master.

Series lead Incarnation Tenure[note 5]

William Hartnell First Doctor 1963–66

Patrick Troughton Second Doctor 1966–69

Jon Pertwee Third Doctor 1970–74

Tom Baker Fourth Doctor 1974–81

Peter Davison Fifth Doctor 1982–84

Colin Baker Sixth Doctor 1984–86

Sylvester McCoy Seventh Doctor 1987–89[89][90][91]

Paul McGann Eighth Doctor 1996

Christopher Eccleston Ninth Doctor 2005

David Tennant Tenth Doctor 2005–10

Matt Smith Eleventh Doctor 2010–13

Peter Capaldi Twelfth Doctor 2014–17

Jodie Whittaker Thirteenth Doctor

In addition to those actors who have headlined the series, others have portrayed versions of the Doctor in guest roles. Notably, in 2013, John Hurt
John Hurt
guest-starred as a hitherto unknown incarnation of the Doctor known as the War Doctor
War Doctor
in the run-up to the show's 50th anniversary special "The Day of the Doctor".[92] He is shown in mini-episode "The Night of the Doctor" retroactively inserted into the show's fictional chronology between McGann and Eccleston's Doctors, although his introduction was written so as not to disturb the established numerical naming of the Doctors.[93] Another example is from the 1986 serial The Trial of a Time Lord, where Michael Jayston portrayed the Valeyard, who is described as an amalgamation of the darker sides of the Doctor's nature, somewhere between his twelfth and final incarnation. On rare occasions, other actors have stood in for the lead. In The Five Doctors, Richard Hurndall
Richard Hurndall
played the First Doctor
First Doctor
due to William Hartnell's death in 1975; 34 years later David Bradley similarly replaced Hartnell in Twice Upon a Time. In Time and the Rani, Sylvester McCoy
Sylvester McCoy
briefly played the Sixth Doctor
Sixth Doctor
during the regeneration sequence, carrying on as the Seventh. For more information, see the list of actors who have played the Doctor. In other media, the Doctor has been played by various other actors, including Peter Cushing
Peter Cushing
in two films. The casting of a new Doctor has often inspired debate and speculation. Common topics of focus include the Doctor's sex (prior to the casting of Whittaker, all official incarnations were male), race (all Doctors to date have been white) and age (the youngest actor to be cast is Smith at 26, and the oldest are Capaldi and Hartnell, both 55).[94][95][96] Meetings of different incarnations There have been instances of actors returning at later dates to reprise the role of their specific Doctor. In 1973's The Three Doctors, William Hartnell
William Hartnell
and Patrick Troughton
Patrick Troughton
returned alongside Jon Pertwee. For 1983's The Five Doctors, Troughton and Pertwee returned to star with Peter Davison, and Tom Baker
Tom Baker
appeared in previously unseen footage from the uncompleted Shada
Shada
episode. For this episode, Richard Hurndall
Richard Hurndall
replaced William Hartnell. Patrick Troughton
Patrick Troughton
again returned in 1985's The Two Doctors
The Two Doctors
with Colin Baker. In 2007, Peter Davison returned in the Children in Need
Children in Need
short "Time Crash" alongside David Tennant, and in 2013's 50th anniversary special episode, "The Day of the Doctor", David Tennant's Tenth Doctor
Tenth Doctor
appeared alongside Matt Smith as the Eleventh Doctor
Eleventh Doctor
and John Hurt
John Hurt
as the War Doctor, as well as brief footage from all of the previous actors.[97] In 2017, the First Doctor
First Doctor
(this time portrayed by David Bradley) returned alongside Peter Capaldi
Peter Capaldi
in "The Doctor Falls" and "Twice Upon a Time". In "The Name of the Doctor", the Eleventh Doctor
Eleventh Doctor
meets a previously unseen incarnation of himself, subsequently revealed to be the War Doctor.[92] Additionally, multiple incarnations of the Doctor have met in various audio dramas and novels based on the television show. Revelations about the Doctor See also: The Doctor: Inconsistencies Throughout the programme's long history, there have been revelations about the Doctor that have raised additional questions. In The Brain of Morbius (1976), it was hinted that the First Doctor
First Doctor
might not have been the first incarnation (although the other faces depicted might have been incarnations of the Time Lord
Time Lord
Morbius). In subsequent stories the First Doctor
First Doctor
was depicted as the earliest incarnation of the Doctor. In Mawdryn Undead
Mawdryn Undead
(1983), the Fifth Doctor
Fifth Doctor
explicitly confirmed that he was then currently in his fifth incarnation. Later that same year, during 1983's 20th Anniversary special The Five Doctors, the First Doctor
First Doctor
enquires as to the Fifth Doctor's regeneration; when the Fifth Doctor
Fifth Doctor
confirms "Fourth", the First Doctor excitedly replies "Goodness me. So there are five of me now." In 2010, the Eleventh Doctor
Eleventh Doctor
similarly calls himself "the Eleventh" in "The Lodger". In the 2013 episode "The Time of the Doctor," the Eleventh Doctor
Eleventh Doctor
clarified he was the product of the twelfth regeneration, due to a previous incarnation which he chose not to count and one other aborted regeneration. The name Eleventh is still used for this incarnation; the same episode depicts the prophesied "Fall of the Eleventh" which had been trailed throughout the series. During the Seventh Doctor's era, it was hinted that the Doctor was more than just an ordinary Time Lord. In the 1996 television film, the Eighth Doctor
Eighth Doctor
describes himself as being "half human".[98] The BBC's FAQ for the programme notes that "purists tend to disregard this",[99] instead focusing on his Gallifreyan heritage. The programme's first serial, An Unearthly Child, shows that the Doctor has a granddaughter, Susan Foreman. In the 1967 serial, Tomb of the Cybermen, when Victoria Waterfield
Victoria Waterfield
doubts the Doctor can remember his family because of, "being so ancient", the Doctor says that he can when he really wants to—"The rest of the time they sleep in my mind". The 2005 series reveals that the Ninth Doctor
Ninth Doctor
thought he was the last surviving Time Lord, and that his home planet had been destroyed; in "The Empty Child" (2005), Dr. Constantine states that, "Before the war even began, I was a father and a grandfather. Now I am neither." The Doctor remarks in response, "Yeah, I know the feeling." In "Smith and Jones" (2007), when asked if he had a brother, he replied, "No, not any more." In both "Fear Her" (2006) and "The Doctor's Daughter" (2008), he states that he had, in the past, been a father. In "The Wedding of River Song" (2011), it is implied that the Doctor's true name is a secret that must never be revealed; this is explored further in "The Name of the Doctor" (2013), when River Song speaking his name allows the Great Intelligence
Great Intelligence
to enter his tomb, and in "The Time of the Doctor" (2013) where speaking his true name becomes the signal by which the Time Lords would know they can safely return to the universe. Companions Main article: Companion (Doctor Who) The companion figure – generally a human – has been a constant feature in Doctor Who
Doctor Who
since the programme's inception in 1963. One of the roles of the companion is to remind the Doctor of his "moral duty".[100] The Doctor's first companions seen on screen were his granddaughter Susan Foreman
Susan Foreman
(Carole Ann Ford) and her teachers Barbara Wright (Jacqueline Hill) and Ian Chesterton
Ian Chesterton
(William Russell). These characters were intended to act as audience surrogates, through which the audience would discover information about the Doctor who was to act as a mysterious father figure.[100] The only story from the original series in which the Doctor travels alone is The Deadly Assassin. Notable companions from the earlier series included Romana ( Mary Tamm
Mary Tamm
and Lalla Ward), a Time Lady; Sarah Jane Smith
Sarah Jane Smith
(Elisabeth Sladen); and Jo Grant
Jo Grant
(Katy Manning). Dramatically, these characters provide a figure with whom the audience can identify, and serve to further the story by requesting exposition from the Doctor and manufacturing peril for the Doctor to resolve. The Doctor regularly gains new companions and loses old ones; sometimes they return home or find new causes — or loves — on worlds they have visited. Some have died during the course of the series. Companions are usually human, or humanoid aliens. Since the 2005 revival, the Doctor generally travels with a primary female companion, who occupies a larger narrative role. Steven Moffat described the companion as the main character of the show, as the story begins anew with each companion and she undergoes more change than the Doctor.[101][102] The primary companions of the Ninth and Tenth Doctors were Rose Tyler
Rose Tyler
(Billie Piper), Martha Jones
Martha Jones
(Freema Agyeman), and Donna Noble
Donna Noble
(Catherine Tate) with Mickey Smith
Mickey Smith
(Noel Clarke) and Jack Harkness
Jack Harkness
(John Barrowman) recurring as secondary companion figures.[103] The Eleventh Doctor
Eleventh Doctor
became the first to travel with a married couple, Amy Pond
Amy Pond
(Karen Gillan) and Rory Williams (Arthur Darvill), whilst out-of-sync meetings with River Song (Alex Kingston) and Clara Oswald
Clara Oswald
(Jenna Coleman) provided ongoing story arcs. The tenth series introduced Pearl Mackie
Pearl Mackie
as Bill Potts, the Doctor's newest traveling companion.[104] Bill Potts is the Doctor's first openly gay companion. Pearl Mackie
Pearl Mackie
said that the increased representation for LGBTQ people is important on a mainstream show.[105] Some companions have gone on to re-appear, either in the main series or in spin-offs. Sarah Jane Smith
Sarah Jane Smith
became the central character in The Sarah Jane Adventures (2007–11) following a return to Doctor Who
Doctor Who
in 2006. Guest stars in the series included former companions Jo Grant, K9, and Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart
Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart
(Nicholas Courtney). The character of Jack Harkness
Jack Harkness
also served to launch a spin-off, Torchwood, (2006–2011) in which Martha Jones
Martha Jones
also appeared. Adversaries See also: List of Doctor Who universe creatures and aliens and List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
villains When Sydney Newman
Sydney Newman
commissioned the series, he specifically did not want to perpetuate the cliché of the "bug-eyed monster" of science fiction.[106] However, monsters were popular with audiences and so became a staple of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
almost from the beginning. With the show's 2005 revival, executive producer Russell T Davies stated his intention to reintroduce classic icons of Doctor Who.[107] The Autons with the Nestene Consciousness and Daleks returned in series 1, Cybermen
Cybermen
in series 2, the Macra and the Master in series 3, the Sontarans and Davros
Davros
in series 4, and the Time Lords including Rassilon
Rassilon
in the 2009–10 Specials. Davies' successor, Steven Moffat, has continued the trend by reviving the Silurians in series 5, Cybermats in series 6, the Great Intelligence
Great Intelligence
and the Ice Warriors in Series 7, and Zygons in the 50th Anniversary Special.[108] Since its 2005 return, the series has also introduced new recurring aliens: Slitheen
Slitheen
(Raxacoricofallapatorian), Ood, Judoon, Weeping Angels and the Silence. Besides infrequent appearances by the Ice Warriors, Ogrons, the Rani, and Black Guardian, three adversaries have become particularly iconic: the Daleks, the Cybermen, and the Master. Daleks Main article: Dalek

A Dalek
Dalek
at the Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Experience, Cardiff

The Dalek
Dalek
race, which first appeared in the show's second serial in 1963,[109] are Doctor Who's oldest villains. The Daleks
The Daleks
are Kaleds from the planet Skaro, mutated by the scientist Davros
Davros
and housed in mechanical armour shells for mobility. The actual creatures resemble octopuses with large, pronounced brains. Their armour shells have a single eye-stalk, a sink-plunger-like device that serves the purpose of a hand, and a directed-energy weapon. Their main weakness is their eyestalk; attacks upon them using various weapons can blind a Dalek, making it go mad. Their chief role in the series plot, as they frequently remark in their instantly recognisable metallic voices, is to "exterminate" all non- Dalek
Dalek
beings. They even attack the Time Lords in the Time War, as shown during the 50th Anniversary of the show. They continue to be a recurring 'monster' within the Doctor Who franchise, their most recent appearances being in the 2015 episodes "The Witch's Familiar" and "Hell Bent". Davros
Davros
has also been a recurring figure since his debut in Genesis of the Daleks, although played by several different actors. The Daleks
The Daleks
were created by writer Terry Nation
Terry Nation
(who intended them to be an allegory of the Nazis)[110] and BBC
BBC
designer Raymond Cusick.[111] The Daleks' début in the programme's second serial, The Daleks (1963–64), made both the Daleks and Doctor Who
Doctor Who
very popular. A Dalek
Dalek
appeared on a postage stamp celebrating British popular culture in 1999, photographed by Lord Snowdon. In "Victory of the Daleks" a new set of Daleks were introduced that come in a range of colours; the colour denoting its role within the species.[112] Cybermen Main article: Cyberman

A 2006 Cyberman

Cybermen
Cybermen
were originally a wholly organic species of humanoids originating on Earth's twin planet Mondas that began to implant more and more artificial parts into their bodies. This led to the race becoming coldly logical and calculating cyborgs, with emotions usually only shown when naked aggression was called for. With the demise of Mondas, they acquired Telos as their new home planet. They continue to be a recurring 'monster' within the Doctor Who
Doctor Who
franchise. The 2006 series introduced a totally new variation of Cybermen. These Cybus Cybermen
Cybermen
were created in a parallel universe by the mad inventor John Lumic; he was attempting to preserve the humans by transplanting their brains into powerful metal bodies, sending them orders using a mobile phone network and inhibiting their emotions with an electronic chip. The Master Main article: Master (Doctor Who) The Master is the Doctor's archenemy, a renegade Time Lord
Time Lord
who desires to rule the universe. Conceived as " Professor Moriarty
Professor Moriarty
to the Doctor's Sherlock Holmes",[113] the character first appeared in 1971. As with the Doctor, the role has been portrayed by several actors, since the Master is a Time Lord
Time Lord
as well and able to regenerate; the first of these actors was Roger Delgado, who continued in the role until his death in 1973. The Master was briefly played by Peter Pratt
Peter Pratt
and Geoffrey Beevers until Anthony Ainley
Anthony Ainley
took over and continued to play the character until Doctor Who's hiatus in 1989. The Master returned in the 1996 television movie of Doctor Who, and was played by American actor Eric Roberts. Following the series revival in 2005, Derek Jacobi
Derek Jacobi
provided the character's re-introduction in the 2007 episode "Utopia". During that story, the role was then assumed by John Simm
John Simm
who returned to the role multiple times through the Tenth Doctor's tenure.[114] As of the 2014 episode "Dark Water," it was revealed that the Master had become a female incarnation or "Time Lady," going by the name of "Missy" (short for Mistress, the feminine equivalent of "Master"). This incarnation is played by Michelle Gomez. John Simm
John Simm
returned in his role as the Master in the tenth series.[115] Music See also: List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
composers Theme music Main article: Doctor Who
Doctor Who
theme music

Doctor Who
Doctor Who
theme excerpt

An excerpt from the original (1963) classic theme music to Doctor Who

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The Doctor Who theme music was one of the first electronic music signature tunes for television, and after five decades remains one of the most easily recognised. The original theme was composed by Ron Grainer and realised by Delia Derbyshire of the BBC
BBC
Radiophonic Workshop, with assistance from Dick Mills
Dick Mills
and was released as a single on Decca F 11837 in 1964. The various parts were built up using musique concrète techniques, by creating tape loops of an individually struck piano string and individual test oscillators and filters. The Derbyshire arrangement served, with minor edits, as the theme tune up to the end of season 17 (1979–80). It is regarded as a significant and innovative piece of electronic music, recorded well before the availability of commercial synthesisers or multitrack mixers. Each note was individually created by cutting, splicing, speeding up and slowing down segments of analogue tape containing recordings of a single plucked string, white noise, and the simple harmonic waveforms of test-tone oscillators, intended for calibrating equipment and rooms, not creating music. New techniques were invented to allow mixing of the music, as this was before the era of multitrack tape machines. On hearing the finished result, Grainer asked, "Jeez, Delia, did I write that?"[116] Although Grainer was willing to give Derbyshire the co-composer credit, it was against BBC
BBC
policy at the time.[117][118] A different arrangement was recorded by Peter Howell for season 18 (1980), which was in turn replaced by Dominic Glynn's arrangement for the season-long serial The Trial of a Time Lord
Time Lord
in season 23 (1986). Keff McCulloch provided the new arrangement for the Seventh Doctor's era which lasted from season 24 (1987) until the series' suspension in 1989. American composer John Debney
John Debney
created a new arrangement of Ron Grainer's original theme for Doctor Who
Doctor Who
in 1996. For the return of the series in 2005, Murray Gold
Murray Gold
provided a new arrangement which featured samples from the 1963 original with further elements added; in the 2005 Christmas episode "The Christmas Invasion", Gold introduced a modified closing credits arrangement that was used up until the conclusion of the 2007 series.[citation needed] A new arrangement of the theme, once again by Gold, was introduced in the 2007 Christmas special episode, "Voyage of the Damned"; Gold returned as composer for the 2010 series.[119] He was responsible for a new version of the theme which was reported to have had a hostile reception from some viewers.[120] In 2011, the theme tune charted at number 228 of radio station Classic FM's Hall of Fame, a survey of classical music tastes. A revised version of Gold's 2010 arrangement had its debut over the opening titles of the 2012 Christmas special "The Snowmen", and a further revision of the arrangement was made for the 50th Anniversary special "The Day of the Doctor" in November 2013.[121] Versions of the " Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Theme" have also been released as pop music over the years. In the early 1970s, Jon Pertwee, who had played the Third Doctor, recorded a version of the Doctor Who
Doctor Who
theme with spoken lyrics, titled, "Who Is the Doctor".[note 6] In 1978 a disco version of the theme was released in the UK, Denmark and Australia
Australia
by the group Mankind, which reached number 24 in the UK charts. In 1988 the band The Justified Ancients of Mu Mu (later known as The KLF) released the single "Doctorin' the Tardis" under the name The Timelords, which reached No. 1 in the UK and No. 2 in Australia; this version incorporated several other songs, including "Rock and Roll Part 2" by Gary Glitter
Gary Glitter
(who recorded vocals for some of the CD-single remix versions of "Doctorin' the Tardis").[122] Others who have covered or reinterpreted the theme include Orbital,[122] Pink Floyd,[122] the Australian string ensemble Fourplay, New Zealand
New Zealand
punk band Blam Blam Blam, The Pogues, Thin Lizzy, Dub Syndicate, and the comedians Bill Bailey
Bill Bailey
and Mitch Benn. Both the theme and obsessive fans were satirised on The Chaser's War on Everything. The theme tune has also appeared on many compilation CDs, and has made its way into mobile-phone ringtones. Fans have also produced and distributed their own remixes of the theme. In January 2011 the Mankind version was released as a digital download on the album Gallifrey
Gallifrey
And Beyond. Incidental music Main article: List of music featured on Doctor Who See also: List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
music releases Most of the innovative incidental music for Doctor Who
Doctor Who
has been specially commissioned from freelance composers, although in the early years some episodes also used stock music, as well as occasional excerpts from original recordings or cover versions of songs by popular music acts such as The Beatles
The Beatles
and The Beach Boys. Since its 2005 return, the series has featured occasional use of excerpts of pop music from the 1970s to the 2000s. The incidental music for the first Doctor Who
Doctor Who
adventure, An Unearthly Child, was written by Norman Kay. Many of the stories of the William Hartnell period were scored by electronic music pioneer Tristram Cary, whose Doctor Who
Doctor Who
credits include The Daleks, Marco Polo, The Daleks' Master Plan, The Gunfighters
The Gunfighters
and The Mutants. Other composers in this early period included Richard Rodney Bennett, Carey Blyton and Geoffrey Burgon. The most frequent musical contributor during the first 15 years was Dudley Simpson, who is also well known for his theme and incidental music for Blake's 7, and for his haunting theme music and score for the original 1970s version of The Tomorrow People. Simpson's first Doctor Who
Doctor Who
score was Planet of Giants
Planet of Giants
(1964) and he went on to write music for many adventures of the 1960s and 1970s, including most of the stories of the Jon Pertwee/ Tom Baker
Tom Baker
periods, ending with The Horns of Nimon (1979). He also made a cameo appearance in The Talons of Weng-Chiang (as a Music hall
Music hall
conductor). In 1980 starting with the serial The Leisure Hive
The Leisure Hive
the task of creating incidental music was assigned to the Radiophonic Workshop. Paddy Kingsland and Peter Howell contributed many scores in this period and other contributors included Roger Limb, Malcolm Clarke and Jonathan Gibbs. The Radiophonic Workshop was dropped after 1986's The Trial of a Time Lord series, and Keff McCulloch took over as the series' main composer until the end of its run, with Dominic Glynn and Mark Ayres also contributing scores. All the incidental music for the 2005 revived series has been composed by Murray Gold
Murray Gold
and Ben Foster and has been performed by the BBC National Orchestra of Wales from the 2005 Christmas episode "The Christmas Invasion" onwards. A concert featuring the orchestra performing music from the first two series took place on 19 November 2006 to raise money for Children in Need. David Tennant
David Tennant
hosted the event, introducing the different sections of the concert. Murray Gold and Russell T Davies
Russell T Davies
answered questions during the interval and Daleks and Cybermen
Cybermen
appeared whilst music from their stories was played. The concert aired on BBCi on Christmas Day 2006. A Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Prom was celebrated on 27 July 2008 in the Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
as part of the annual BBC
BBC
Proms. The BBC
BBC
Philharmonic and the London
London
Philharmonic Choir performed Murray Gold's compositions for the series, conducted by Ben Foster, as well as a selection of classics based on the theme of space and time. The event was presented by Freema Agyeman
Freema Agyeman
and guest-presented by various other stars of the show with numerous monsters participating in the proceedings. It also featured the specially filmed mini-episode "Music of the Spheres", written by Russell T Davies
Russell T Davies
and starring David Tennant.[123] Six soundtrack releases have been released since 2005. The first featured tracks from the first two series,[124] the second and third featured music from the third and fourth series respectively. The fourth was released on 4 October 2010 as a two disc special edition and contained music from the 2008–2010 specials ( The Next Doctor
The Next Doctor
to End of Time Part 2).[125][126] The soundtrack for Series 5 was released on 8 November 2010.[127] In February 2011, a soundtrack was released for the 2010 Christmas special: "A Christmas Carol",[128] and in December 2011 the soundtrack for Series 6 was released, both by Silva Screen Records.[129] In 2013, a 50th-anniversary boxed set of audio CDs was released featuring music and sound effects from Doctor Who’s 50-year history. The celebration continued in 2016 with the release of Doctor Who: The 50th Anniversary Collection Four LP Box Set by New York City-based Spacelab9. The company pressed 1,000 copies of the set on "Metallic Silver" vinyl, dubbed the " Cyberman
Cyberman
Edition".[130] Viewership Main article: Doctor Who
Doctor Who
fandom United Kingdom

The image of the TARDIS
TARDIS
is iconic in British popular culture.

Premiering the day after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the first episode of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
was repeated with the second episode the following week. Doctor Who
Doctor Who
has always appeared initially on the BBC's mainstream BBC One
BBC One
channel, where it is regarded as a family show, drawing audiences of many millions of viewers; episodes were also repeated on BBC
BBC
Three, before its transition to an online-only channel . The programme's popularity has waxed and waned over the decades, with three notable periods of high ratings.[131] The first of these was the "Dalekmania" period (circa 1964–1965), when the popularity of the Daleks regularly brought Doctor Who
Doctor Who
ratings of between 9 and 14 million, even for stories which did not feature them.[131][132] The second was the mid to late 1970s, when Tom Baker occasionally drew audiences of over 12 million.[131] An audience survey during the 1970s revealed that at the time 60% of the viewership were adults.[citation needed] During the ITV network strike of 1979, viewership peaked at 16 million.[citation needed] Figures remained respectable into the 1980s, but fell noticeably after the programme's 23rd series was postponed in 1985 and the show was off the air for 18 months. At the time of Season 19's broadcast in 1982 the show was being watched by a global audience of 98 million, 88 million in 38 foreign countries, and an average of ten million in the United Kingdom.[citation needed] Its late 1980s performance of three to five million viewers was seen as poor at the time and was, according to the BBC
BBC
Board of Control, a leading cause of the programme's 1989 suspension. Some fans considered this disingenuous, since the programme was scheduled against the soap opera Coronation Street, the most popular show at the time.[citation needed] During Tennant's run (the third notable period of high ratings), the show had consistently high viewership; with the Christmas specials regularly attracting over 10 million.[131] The BBC One
BBC One
broadcast of "Rose", the first episode of the 2005 revival, drew an average audience of 10.81 million, third highest for BBC One
BBC One
that week and seventh across all channels.[131][133][134] The current revival also garners the highest audience Appreciation Index of any drama on television.[135] International

Map of countries that have or currently broadcast Doctor Who
Doctor Who
in either its current or classic incarnation (map correct as of October 2014)

Doctor Who
Doctor Who
has been broadcast internationally outside of the United Kingdom since 1964, a year after the show first aired. As of 1 January 2013, the modern series has been or is currently broadcast weekly in more than 50 countries.[citation needed] Doctor Who
Doctor Who
is one of the five top grossing titles for BBC
BBC
Worldwide, the BBC's commercial arm.[136] BBC
BBC
Worldwide CEO John Smith has said that Doctor Who
Doctor Who
is one of a small number of "Superbrands" which Worldwide will promote heavily.[137] Only four episodes have ever had their premiere showings on channels other than BBC
BBC
One. The 1983 20th anniversary special The Five Doctors had its début on 23 November (the actual date of the anniversary) on a number of PBS
PBS
stations two days prior to its BBC One
BBC One
broadcast. The 1988 story Silver Nemesis
Silver Nemesis
was broadcast with all three episodes airing back to back on TVNZ in New Zealand
New Zealand
in November, after the first episode had been shown in the UK but before the final two instalments had aired there. Finally, the 1996 television film premiered on 12 May 1996 on CITV in Edmonton, Canada, 15 days before the BBC One
BBC One
showing, and two days before it aired on Fox in the United States.[citation needed] Oceania New Zealand
New Zealand
was the first country outside the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to screen Doctor Who, beginning in September 1964, and continued to screen the series for many years, including the new series from 2005.[citation needed] In Australia, the show has had a strong fan base since its inception, having been exclusively first run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) since January 1965. (See Doctor Who
Doctor Who
in Australia) The ABC has periodically repeated episodes; of note were the weekly screenings of all available classic episodes starting in 2003, for the show's 40th anniversary, and the weekdaily screenings of all available revived episodes in 2013 for the show's 50th anniversary. The ABC broadcasts the modern series first run on ABC1
ABC1
and ABC ME, with repeats on ABC2. The ABC also provided partial funding for the 20th anniversary special The Five Doctors
The Five Doctors
in 1983.[citation needed] Americas Main article: Doctor Who
Doctor Who
in Canada and the United States The series also has a fan base in the United States, where it was shown in syndication from the 1970s to the 1990s, particularly on PBS stations.[citation needed] TVOntario
TVOntario
picked up the show in 1976 beginning with The Three Doctors and aired each series (several years late) through to series 24 in 1991. From 1979 to 1981, TVO airings were bookended by science-fiction writer Judith Merril
Judith Merril
who would introduce the episode and then, after the episode concluded, try to place it in an educational context in keeping with TVO's status as an educational channel. Its airing of The Talons of Weng-Chiang was cancelled as a result of accusations that the story was racist; the story was later broadcast in the 1990s on cable station YTV. CBC began showing the series again in 2005. The series moved to the Canadian cable channel Space in 2009.[citation needed] For the Canadian broadcast, Christopher Eccleston
Christopher Eccleston
recorded special video introductions for each episode (including a trivia question as part of a viewer contest) and excerpts from the Doctor Who Confidential documentary were played over the closing credits; for the broadcast of "The Christmas Invasion" on 26 December 2005, Billie Piper recorded a special video introduction. CBC began airing series two on 9 October 2006 at 20:00 E/P (20:30 in Newfoundland and Labrador), shortly after that day's CFL double header on Thanksgiving in most of the country.[citation needed] Series three began broadcasting on CBC on 18 June 2007 followed by the second Christmas special, "The Runaway Bride" at midnight,[138] and the Sci Fi Channel began on 6 July 2007 starting with the second Christmas special at 8:00 pm E/P followed by the first episode.[139] Series four aired in the United States on the Sci Fi Channel (now known as Syfy), beginning in April 2008.[140] It aired on CBC beginning 19 September 2008, although the CBC did not air the Voyage of the Damned special.[141] The Canadian cable network Space broadcast "The Next Doctor" (in March 2009) and all subsequent series and specials.[142] DVD, Blu-ray
Blu-ray
and video Main article: List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
DVD
DVD
releases A wide selection of serials are available from BBC
BBC
Video on DVD, on sale in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and the United States. Every fully extant serial has been released on VHS, and BBC
BBC
Worldwide continues to regularly release serials on DVD. The 2005 series is also available in its entirety on UMD for the PlayStation Portable. Eight original series serials have been released on Laserdisc[143] and many have also been released on Betamax
Betamax
tape and Video 2000. One episode of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
(The Infinite Quest) was released on VCD. Only the series from 2005 onwards are also available on Blu-ray, except for the 1970 story Spearhead from Space, released in July 2013 and the 1996 TV film Doctor Who
Doctor Who
released in September 2016.[144] Many early releases have been re-released as special editions, with more bonus features.[citation needed] Adaptations and other appearances Doctor Who
Doctor Who
films Main article: Dr. Who ( Dalek
Dalek
films) There are two Doctor Who
Doctor Who
feature films: Dr. Who and the Daleks, released in 1965 and Daleks – Invasion Earth: 2150 A.D. in 1966. Both are retellings of existing television stories (specifically, the first two Dalek
Dalek
serials, The Daleks
The Daleks
and The Dalek Invasion of Earth respectively) with a larger budget and alterations to the series concept. In these films, Peter Cushing
Peter Cushing
plays a human scientist[145] named "Dr. Who", who travels with his granddaughter and niece and other companions in a time machine he has invented. The Cushing version of the character reappears in both comic strips and a short story, the latter attempting to reconcile the film continuity with that of the series. In addition, several planned films were proposed, including a sequel, The Chase, loosely based on the original series story, for the Cushing Doctor, plus many attempted television movie and big screen productions to revive the original Doctor Who, after the original series was cancelled. Paul McGann
Paul McGann
starred in the only television film as the eighth incarnation of the Doctor. After the film, he continued the role in audio books and was confirmed as the eighth incarnation through flashback footage and a mini episode in the 2005 revival, effectively linking the two series and the television movie. In 2011, David Yates
David Yates
announced that he had started work with the BBC on a Doctor Who
Doctor Who
film, a project that would take three or more years to complete. Yates indicated that the film would take a different approach to Doctor Who,[146] although the current Doctor Who showrunner Steven Moffat
Steven Moffat
stated later that any such film would not be a reboot of the series and a film should be made by the BBC
BBC
team and star the current TV Doctor.[147][148] Spin-offs Main article: Doctor Who
Doctor Who
spin-offs Doctor Who
Doctor Who
has appeared on stage numerous times. In the early 1970s, Trevor Martin played the role in Doctor Who
Doctor Who
and the Daleks in the Seven Keys to Doomsday. In the late 1980s, Jon Pertwee
Jon Pertwee
and Colin Baker both played the Doctor at different times during the run of a play titled Doctor Who – The Ultimate Adventure. For two performances, while Pertwee was ill, David Banks (better known for playing Cybermen) played the Doctor. Other original plays have been staged as amateur productions, with other actors playing the Doctor, while Terry Nation
Terry Nation
wrote The Curse of the Daleks, a stage play mounted in the late 1960s, but without the Doctor. A pilot episode ("A Girl's Best Friend") for a potential spinoff series, K-9 and Company, was aired in 1981 with Elisabeth Sladen reprising her role as companion Sarah Jane Smith
Sarah Jane Smith
and John Leeson
John Leeson
as the voice of K9, but was not picked up as a regular series. Concept art for an animated Doctor Who
Doctor Who
series was produced by animation company Nelvana
Nelvana
in the 1980s, but the series was not produced.[149] Following the success of the 2005 series produced by Russell T Davies, the BBC
BBC
commissioned Davies to produce a 13-part spin-off series titled Torchwood
Torchwood
(an anagram of "Doctor Who"), set in modern-day Cardiff
Cardiff
and investigating alien activities and crime. The series debuted on BBC
BBC
Three on 22 October 2006.[150] John Barrowman
John Barrowman
reprised his role of Jack Harkness
Jack Harkness
from the 2005 series of Doctor Who.[151] Two other actresses who appeared in Doctor Who
Doctor Who
also star in the series; Eve Myles
Eve Myles
as Gwen Cooper, who also played the similarly named servant girl Gwyneth in the 2005 Doctor Who
Doctor Who
episode "The Unquiet Dead",[152] and Naoko Mori
Naoko Mori
who reprised her role as Toshiko Sato
Toshiko Sato
first seen in "Aliens of London". A second series of Torchwood
Torchwood
aired in 2008; for three episodes, the cast was joined by Freema Agyeman
Freema Agyeman
reprising her Doctor Who
Doctor Who
role of Martha Jones. A third series was broadcast from 6 to 10 July 2009, and consisted of a single five-part story called Children of Earth which was set largely in London. A fourth series, Torchwood: Miracle Day jointly produced by BBC
BBC
Wales, BBC
BBC
Worldwide and the American entertainment company Starz debuted in 2011. The series was predominantly set in the United States, though Wales remained part of the show's setting. The Sarah Jane Adventures, starring Elisabeth Sladen
Elisabeth Sladen
who reprised her role as investigative journalist Sarah Jane Smith, was developed by CBBC; a special aired on New Year's Day 2007 and a full series began on 24 September 2007.[153] A second series followed in 2008, notable for (as noted above) featuring the return of Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart. A third in 2009 featured a crossover appearance from the main show by David Tennant
David Tennant
as the Tenth Doctor. In 2010, a further such appearance featured Matt Smith as the Eleventh Doctor alongside former companion actress Katy Manning
Katy Manning
reprising her role as Jo Grant. A final, three-story fifth series was transmitted in autumn 2011 – uncompleted due to the death of Elisabeth Sladen
Elisabeth Sladen
in early 2011. An animated serial, The Infinite Quest, aired alongside the 2007 series of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
as part of the children's television series Totally Doctor Who. The serial featured the voices of series regulars David Tennant
David Tennant
and Freema Agyeman
Freema Agyeman
but is not considered part of the 2007 series.[154] A second animated serial, Dreamland, aired in six parts on the BBC
BBC
Red Button service, and the official Doctor Who website in 2009.[155] Class, featuring students of Coal Hill School, was first aired on-line on BBC
BBC
Three from 22 October 2016, as a series of eight 45 minute episodes, written by Patrick Ness.[156][157] Peter Capaldi
Peter Capaldi
as the Twelfth Doctor
Twelfth Doctor
appears in the show's first episode.[158] The series was picked up by BBC
BBC
America on 8 January 2016 and by BBC One
BBC One
a day later.[159] On 7 September 2017, BBC
BBC
Three controller Damian Kavanagh confirmed that the series had officially been cancelled.[160] Numerous other spin-off series have been created not by the BBC
BBC
but by the respective owners of the characters and concepts. Such spin-offs include the novel and audio drama series Faction Paradox, Iris Wildthyme and Bernice Summerfield; as well as the made-for-video series P.R.O.B.E.; the Australian-produced television series K-9, which aired a 26-episode first season on Disney XD;[161] and the audio spin-off Counter-Measures.[162] Aftershows When the revived series of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
was brought back, an aftershow series was created by the BBC, titled Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Confidential. There have been three aftershow series created, with the latest one titled Doctor Who: The Fan Show, which began airing from the tenth series. Each series follows behind-the-scenes footage on the making of Doctor Who through clips and interviews with the cast, production crew and other people, including those who have participated in the television series in some manner. Each episode deals with a different topic, and in most cases refers to the Doctor Who
Doctor Who
episode that preceded it.

Series Episodes First aired Last aired Narrator / Presenter

Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Confidential 87 26 March 2005 1 October 2011 David Tennant
David Tennant
(2005) Simon Pegg (2005) Mark Gatiss (2005–06) Anthony Head (2006–10) Noel Clarke
Noel Clarke
(2009) Alex Price (2010) Russell Tovey (2010–11)

Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Extra 90 23 August 2014 5 December 2015 Matt Botten Rufus Hound Matt Lucas Charity Wakefield

Doctor Who: The Fan Show 12 15 April 2017 present Christel Dee (Main host) Luke Spillane (co-host)

Charity episodes In 1983, coinciding with the series' 20th anniversary, The Five Doctors was shown as part of the annual BBC
BBC
Children in Need
Children in Need
Appeal, however it was not a charity based production, simply scheduled within the line-up of Friday 25 November 1983. This was the programme's very first co-production with Australian broadcaster ABC.[163] Featuring three of the first five Doctors, a new actor to replace the deceased William Hartnell, and unused footage to represent Tom Baker.[164] This was a full-length, 90-minute film, the longest single episode of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
produced to date (the television movie ran slightly longer on broadcast where it included commercial breaks).[165][166] In 1993, for the franchise's 30th anniversary, another charity special, titled Dimensions in Time was produced for Children in Need, featuring all of the surviving actors who played the Doctor and a number of previous companions. It also featured a crossover with the soap opera EastEnders, the action taking place in the latter's Albert Square location and around Greenwich. The special was one of several special 3D programmes the BBC
BBC
produced at the time, using a 3D system that made use of the Pulfrich effect
Pulfrich effect
requiring glasses with one darkened lens; the picture would look normal to those viewers who watched without the glasses. In 1999, another special, Doctor Who
Doctor Who
and the Curse of Fatal Death, was made for Comic Relief and later released on VHS. An affectionate parody of the television series, it was split into four segments, mimicking the traditional serial format, complete with cliffhangers, and running down the same corridor several times when being chased (the version released on video was split into only two episodes). In the story, the Doctor (Rowan Atkinson) encounters both the Master (Jonathan Pryce) and the Daleks. During the special the Doctor is forced to regenerate several times, with his subsequent incarnations played by, in order, Richard E. Grant, Jim Broadbent, Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
and Joanna Lumley. The script was written by Steven Moffat, later to be head writer and executive producer to the revived series.[167] Since the return of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
in 2005, the franchise has produced two original "mini-episodes" to support Children in Need. The first, aired in November 2005, was an untitled seven-minute scene which introduced David Tennant
David Tennant
as the Tenth Doctor. It was followed in November 2007 by "Time Crash", a 7-minute scene which featured the Tenth Doctor
Tenth Doctor
meeting the Fifth Doctor
Fifth Doctor
(played once again by Peter Davison). A set of two mini-episodes, titled "Space" and "Time" respectively, were produced to support Comic Relief. They were aired during the Comic Relief 2011 event.[168] During 2011 Children in Need, an exclusively-filmed segment showed the Doctor addressing the viewer, attempting to persuade them to purchase items of his clothing, which were going up for auction for Children in Need. The 2012 edition of CiN featured the mini-episode The Great Detective. Spoofs and cultural references Main article: Doctor Who
Doctor Who
spoofs Doctor Who
Doctor Who
has been satirised and spoofed on many occasions by comedians including Spike Milligan
Spike Milligan
(a Dalek
Dalek
invades his bathroom — Milligan, naked, hurls a soap sponge at it) and Lenny Henry. Jon Culshaw
Jon Culshaw
frequently impersonates the Fourth Doctor
Fourth Doctor
in the BBC
BBC
Dead Ringers series.[169] Doctor Who
Doctor Who
fandom has also been lampooned on programs such as Saturday Night Live, The Chaser's War on Everything, Mystery Science Theater 3000, Family Guy, American Dad!, Futurama, South Park, Community as Inspector Spacetime, The Simpsons and The Big Bang Theory. As part of the 50th anniversary programmes, former Fifth Doctor
Fifth Doctor
Peter Davison
Peter Davison
directed, wrote and co-starred in the parody The Five(ish) Doctors Reboot, which also starred two other former Doctors, Colin Baker
Colin Baker
and Sylvester McCoy, and cameo appearances from cast and crew involved in the programme, including showrunner Steven Moffat
Steven Moffat
and Doctors Paul McGann, David Tennant
David Tennant
and Matt Smith.[170] The Doctor in his fourth incarnation has been represented on several episodes of The Simpsons[171] and Matt Groening's other animated series Futurama.[172][173] There have also been many references to Doctor Who
Doctor Who
in popular culture and other science fiction, including Star Trek: The Next Generation ("The Neutral Zone")[174] and Leverage. In the Channel 4
Channel 4
series Queer as Folk (created by later Doctor Who
Doctor Who
executive producer Russell T. Davies), the character of Vince was portrayed as an avid Doctor Who fan, with references appearing many times throughout in the form of clips from the programme. In a similar manner, the character of Oliver on Coupling
Coupling
(created and written by current show runner Steven Moffat) is portrayed as a Doctor Who
Doctor Who
collector and enthusiast. References to Doctor Who
Doctor Who
have also appeared in the young adult fantasy novels Brisingr[175] and High Wizardry,[176] the video game Rock Band,[177] the soap opera EastEnders,[178] the Adult Swim
Adult Swim
comedy show Robot Chicken, the Family Guy
Family Guy
episodes "Blue Harvest" and "420", and the game RuneScape. It has also be referenced in Destroy All Humans! 2, by civilians in the game's variation of England,[179] and in Apollo Justice: Ace Attorney.[180] Doctor Who
Doctor Who
has been a reference in several political cartoons, from a 1964 cartoon in the Daily Mail
Daily Mail
depicting Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
as a Dalek[181] to a 2008 edition of This Modern World
This Modern World
by Tom Tomorrow in which the Tenth Doctor
Tenth Doctor
informs an incredulous character from 2003 that the Democratic Party will nominate an African-American as its presidential candidate.[182] The word "TARDIS" is an entry in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary[183] and the iOS dictionary. Museums and exhibitions Main article: Doctor Who
Doctor Who
exhibitions There have been various exhibitions of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
in the United Kingdom, including the now closed exhibitions at:

Land's End
Land's End
(Cornwall) Blackpool Llangollen Kelvingrove Museum, Glasgow Coventry
Coventry
Transport Museum, Coventry Centre for Life, Newcastle upon Tyne Melbourne, Australia
Australia
(only international DW concert to be performed) Kensington Olympia Two, London Longleat, which ran for 30 years.[184] Cardiff
Cardiff
(the city where the series is filmed).[185]

The exhibition closed down on the 9th of September 2017 Merchandise Main article: Doctor Who
Doctor Who
merchandise Since its beginnings, Doctor Who
Doctor Who
has generated hundreds of products related to the show, from toys and games to collectible picture cards and postage stamps. These include board games, card games, gamebooks, computer games, roleplaying games, action figures and a pinball game. Many games have been released that feature the Daleks, including Dalek computer games. Audios See also: List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
audio releases, List of Doctor Who audiobooks, and List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
audio plays by Big Finish The earliest Doctor Who-related audio release was a 21-minute narrated abridgement of the First Doctor
First Doctor
television story The Chase released in 1966. Ten years later, the first original Doctor Who
Doctor Who
audio was released on LP record; Doctor Who
Doctor Who
and the Pescatons featuring the Fourth Doctor. The first commercially available audiobook was an abridged reading of the Fourth Doctor
Fourth Doctor
story State of Decay
State of Decay
in 1981. In 1988, during a hiatus in the television show, Slipback, the first radio drama, was transmitted. Since 1999, Big Finish Productions
Big Finish Productions
has released several different series of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
audios on CD. The earliest of these featured the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Doctors, with Paul McGann's Eight Doctor joining the line in 2001. Tom Baker's Fourth Doctor
Fourth Doctor
began appearing for Big Finish in 2012. Along with the main range, adventures of the First, Second and Third Doctors have been produced in both limited cast and full cast formats, as well as audiobooks. The 2013 series Destiny of the Doctor, produced as part of the series' 50th Anniversary celebrations, marked the first time Big Finish created stories (in this case audiobooks) featuring the Doctors from the revived show. Along with this, in May 2016 the Tenth Doctor, David Tennant, appeared alongside Cathrine Tate in a collection of three audio adventures. In addition to these main lines, both the BBC
BBC
and Big Finish have produced original audio dramas and audiobooks based on spin-off material, such as Torchwood
Torchwood
and The Sarah Jane Adventures
The Sarah Jane Adventures
series. Books See also: List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
novelists Doctor Who
Doctor Who
books have been published from the mid-sixties through to the present day. From 1965 to 1991 the books published were primarily novelised adaptations of broadcast episodes; beginning in 1991 an extensive line of original fiction was launched, the Virgin New Adventures and Virgin Missing Adventures. Since the relaunch of the programme in 2005, a new range of novels have been published by BBC Books. Numerous non-fiction books about the series, including guidebooks and critical studies, have also been published, and a dedicated Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Magazine with newsstand circulation has been published regularly since 1979. This is published by Panini, as is the Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Adventures magazine for younger fans. See also:

List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
novelisations Eighth Doctor
Eighth Doctor
Adventures Past Doctor Adventures New Series Adventures

Video games See also: Category: Video games
Video games
based on Doctor Who Numerous Doctor Who
Doctor Who
video games have been created from the mid-80s through to the present day. One of the recent ones is a match-3 game released in November 2013 for iOS, Android, Amazon App Store and Facebook
Facebook
called Doctor Who: Legacy. It has been constantly updated since its release and features all of the Doctors as playable characters as well as over 100 companions.[186] Another video game instalment is LEGO Dimensions – in which Doctor Who
Doctor Who
is one of the many "Level Packs" in the game. At the moment, the pack contains the Twelfth Doctor
Twelfth Doctor
(who can reincarnate into the others), K9, the TARDIS
TARDIS
and a Victorian London
London
adventure level area. The game and pack released in November 2015. Chronology and canonicity Since the creation of the Doctor Who
Doctor Who
character by BBC
BBC
Television in the early 1960s, a myriad of stories have been published about Doctor Who, in different media: apart from the actual television episodes that continue to be produced by the BBC, there have also been novels, comics, short stories, audio books, radio plays, interactive video games, game books, webcasts, DVD
DVD
extras, and even stage performances. In this respect it is noteworthy that the BBC
BBC
takes no position on the canonicity of any of such stories, and producers of the show have expressed distaste for the idea.[187] Awards Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Doctor Who The show has received recognition as one of Britain's finest television programmes, winning the 2006 British Academy Television Award for Best Drama
Drama
Series and five consecutive (2005–2010) awards at the National Television Awards
National Television Awards
during Russell T Davies' tenure as executive producer.[188][189] In 2011, Matt Smith became the first Doctor to be nominated for a BAFTA Television Award for Best Actor and in 2016, Michelle Gomez
Michelle Gomez
became the first female to receive a BAFTA nomination for the series, getting a Best Supporting Actress nomination for her work as Missy.

Matt Smith, Jenna Louise Coleman and Steven Moffat
Steven Moffat
accepting an award for Doctor Who

In 2013, the Peabody Awards honoured Doctor Who
Doctor Who
with an Institutional Peabody "for evolving with technology and the times like nothing else in the known television universe."[190] The programme is listed in Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records
as the longest-running science fiction television show in the world,[191] the "most successful" science fiction series of all time—based on its over-all broadcast ratings, DVD
DVD
and book sales, and iTunes traffic—[192] and for the largest ever simulcast of a TV drama with its 50th anniversary special.[193] During its original run, it was recognised for its imaginative stories, creative low-budget special effects, and pioneering use of electronic music (originally produced by the BBC
BBC
Radiophonic Workshop). In 1975, Season 11 of the series won a Writers' Guild of Great Britain award for Best Writing in a Children's Serial. In 1996, BBC
BBC
television held the "Auntie Awards" as the culmination of their "TV60" series, celebrating 60 years of BBC
BBC
television broadcasting, where Doctor Who was voted as the "Best Popular Drama" the corporation had ever produced, ahead of such ratings heavyweights as EastEnders
EastEnders
and Casualty.[194] In 2000, Doctor Who
Doctor Who
was ranked third in a list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes
100 Greatest British Television Programmes
of the 20th century, produced by the British Film Institute
British Film Institute
and voted on by industry professionals.[195] In 2005, the series came first in a survey by SFX magazine of "The Greatest UK Science Fiction and Fantasy Television Series Ever". Also, in the 100 Greatest Kids' TV shows (a Channel 4 countdown in 2001), the 1963–1989 run was placed at number eight. The revived series has received recognition from critics and the public, across various awards ceremonies. It won five BAFTA TV Awards, including Best Drama
Drama
Series, the highest-profile and most prestigious British television award for which the series has ever been nominated.[196] It was very popular at the BAFTA Cymru
BAFTA Cymru
Awards, with 25 wins overall including Best Drama
Drama
Series (twice), Best Screenplay/Screenwriter (thrice) and Best Actor.[197] It was also nominated for 7 Saturn Awards, winning the only Best International Series in the ceremony's history. In 2009, Doctor Who
Doctor Who
was voted the 3rd greatest show of the 2000s by Channel 4, behind Top Gear and The Apprentice. The episode "Vincent and the Doctor" was shortlisted for a Mind Award at the 2010 Mind Mental Health Media Awards for its "touching" portrayal of Vincent van Gogh.[198] It has won the Short Form of the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, the oldest science fiction/fantasy award for films and series, six times since 2006. The winning episodes were "The Empty Child"/"The Doctor Dances" (2006), "The Girl in the Fireplace" (2007), "Blink" (2008), "The Waters of Mars" (2010), "The Pandorica Opens"/"The Big Bang" (2011), and "The Doctor's Wife" (2012).[199][200][201][202] The 2016 Christmas special "The Return of Doctor Mysterio" is also a finalists for the 2017 Hugo Awards.[203] Doctor Who
Doctor Who
star Matt Smith won Best Actor in the 2012 National Television awards alongside Karen Gillan
Karen Gillan
who won Best Actress. Doctor Who has been nominated for over 200 awards and has won over a hundred of them. As a British series, the majority of its nominations and awards have been for national competitions such as the BAFTAs, but it has occasionally received nominations in mainstream American awards, most notably a nomination for "Favorite Sci-Fi Show" in the 2008 People's Choice Awards and the series has been nominated multiple times in the Spike Scream Awards, with Smith winning Best Science Fiction Actor in 2011. The Canadian Constellation Awards have also recognised the series. See also

Doctor Who
Doctor Who
portal BBC
BBC
portal Science fiction
Science fiction
portal Television in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

Book: Doctor Who

Time travel
Time travel
in fiction Doctor Who
Doctor Who
in Australia List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
episodes (1963–1989) List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
episodes (2005–present) List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Christmas specials List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
universe creatures and aliens List of Doctor Who
Doctor Who
vehicles Doctor Who
Doctor Who
in popular culture

Notes

^ Newman is often given sole creator credit for the series. Some reference works such as The Complete Encyclopedia of Television Programs 1947–1979 by Vincent Terrace erroneously credit Terry Nation with creating Doctor Who, because of the way his name is credited in the two Peter Cushing
Peter Cushing
films.[citation needed] Newman and Lambert's role in originating the series was recognised in the 2007 episode "Human Nature", in which the Doctor, in disguise as a human named John Smith, gives his parents' names as Sydney and Verity.[citation needed] ^ This is often emphasised in the accompanying making-of documentaries in the series Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Confidential, as well as in occasional flashbacks to images of earlier versions of the Doctor. ^ The tapes, based on a 405-line broadcast standard, were rendered obsolete when UK television changed to a 625-line signal in preparation for the soon-to-begin colour transmissions. ^ When it became an entry in the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "TARDIS" often came to be used to describe anything that appeared larger on the inside than its exterior implied. ^ Earlier incarnations of the Doctor have occasionally appeared with the then current incarnation in later plots. The First and Second Doctors appeared in the 1973 Third Doctor
Third Doctor
story, The Three Doctors; the First, Second, Third and Fourth appeared in the 1983 Fifth Doctor story, The Five Doctors; the Second appeared with the Sixth in the 1985 story, The Two Doctors; the Fifth appeared with the Tenth in the 2007 mini-episode, "Time Crash"; the Eighth Doctor
Eighth Doctor
returned in the 2013 mini-episode "The Night of the Doctor"; the Tenth appeared with the Eleventh in the 2013 episode "The Day of the Doctor"; and the First appeared with the Twelfth in the 2017 episodes "The Doctor Falls" and "Twice Upon a Time". ^ Often mistitled "I am the Doctor" on YouTube uploads. Originally released as a 7" vinyl single, plain sleeve, December 1972 on label Purple PUR III

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Malcolm Hulke
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CD release date". silvascreen.co.uk. 1 November 2006. Archived from the original on 12 December 2006. Retrieved 4 December 2006.  ^ "DOCTOR WHO – SERIES 4 Murray Gold". Silva Screen Music. Retrieved 6 September 2013.  ^ "DOCTOR WHO: SERIES 4-THE SPECIALS Murray Gold". Silva Screen Music. Retrieved 6 September 2013.  ^ " Doctor Who
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Cited texts

Howe, David J.; Mark Stammers; Stephen James Walker (1992). Doctor Who: The Sixties (paperback ed.). London: Virgin Books. ISBN 0-86369-707-0.  Howe, David J.; Mark Stammers; Stephen James Walker (1994). The Handbook: The First Doctor — The William Hartnell
William Hartnell
Years 1963–1966. London: Virgin Books. ISBN 0-426-20430-1.  Howe, David J & Walker, Stephen James (1998). Doctor Who: The Television Companion (1st ed.). London: BBC
BBC
Books. ISBN 978-0-563-40588-7. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Howe, David J; Walker, Stephen James (2003). The Television Companion: The Unofficial and Unauthorised Guide to DOCTOR WHO (2nd ed.). Surrey, UK: Telos Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-903889-51-0.  Richards, Justin (2003). Doctor Who — The Legend (1st ed.). London: BBC
BBC
Books. ISBN 0-563-48602-3. 

Further reading

Matt Hills. Triumph of a Time Lord: Regenerating "Doctor Who" in the Twenty-First Century (I.B. Tauris, 2010) 261 pages. Discusses the revival of the BBC's Doctor Who
Doctor Who
in 2005 after it had been off the air as a regular series for more than 15 years; topics include the role of "fandom" in the sci-fi programme's return, and notions of "cult" and "mainstream" in television. Tabloid Bintang Indonesia, Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Pengganti Chalkzone Majalah GADIS, Kenalan Bareng Doctor Who, Ketemu Bareng 1st–11th Doctor

External links

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Season 1

An Unearthly Child The Daleks The Edge of Destruction Marco Polo The Keys of Marinus The Aztecs The Sensorites The Reign of Terror

Season 2

Planet of Giants The Dalek
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Season 3

Galaxy 4 " Mission
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Season 4

The Smugglers The Tenth Planet The Power of the Daleks The Highlanders The Underwater Menace The Moonbase The Macra Terror The Faceless Ones The Evil of the Daleks

Season 5

The Tomb of the Cybermen The Abominable Snowmen The Ice Warriors The Enemy of the World The Web of Fear Fury from the Deep The Wheel in Space

Season 6

The Dominators The Mind Robber The Invasion The Krotons The Seeds of Death The Space Pirates The War Games

Season 7

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Season 8

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Season 9

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Season 10

The Three Doctors Carnival of Monsters Frontier in Space Planet of the Daleks The Green Death

Season 11

The Time Warrior Invasion of the Dinosaurs Death to the Daleks The Monster
Monster
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Season 12

Robot The Ark in Space The Sontaran
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Season 13

Terror of the Zygons Planet of Evil Pyramids of Mars The Android Invasion The Brain of Morbius The Seeds of Doom

Season 14

The Masque of Mandragora The Hand of Fear The Deadly Assassin The Face of Evil The Robots of Death The Talons of Weng-Chiang

Season 15

Horror of Fang Rock The Invisible Enemy Image of the Fendahl The Sun Makers Underworld The Invasion of Time

Season 16

The Ribos Operation The Pirate Planet The Stones of Blood The Androids of Tara The Power of Kroll The Armageddon Factor

Season 17

Destiny of the Daleks City of Death The Creature from the Pit Nightmare of Eden The Horns of Nimon Shada
Shada
(unaired)

Season 18

The Leisure Hive Meglos Full Circle State of Decay Warriors' Gate The Keeper of Traken Logopolis

Season 19

Castrovalva Four to Doomsday Kinda The Visitation Black Orchid Earthshock Time-Flight

Season 20

Season

Arc of Infinity Snakedance Mawdryn Undead Terminus Enlightenment The King's Demons

Special

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Season 21

Warriors of the Deep The Awakening Frontios Resurrection of the Daleks Planet of Fire The Caves of Androzani The Twin Dilemma

Season 22

Season

Attack of the Cybermen Vengeance on Varos The Mark of the Rani The Two Doctors Timelash Revelation of the Daleks

Supp.

"A Fix with Sontarans"

Season 23

The Mysterious Planet Mindwarp Terror of the Vervoids The Ultimate Foe

Season 24

Time and the Rani Paradise Towers Delta and the Bannermen Dragonfire

Season 25

Remembrance of the Daleks The Happiness Patrol Silver Nemesis The Greatest Show in the Galaxy

Season 26

Battlefield Ghost Light The Curse of Fenric Survival

Series 1

"Rose" "The End of the World" "The Unquiet Dead" "Aliens of London" / "World War Three" "Dalek" "The Long Game" "Father's Day" "The Empty Child" / "The Doctor Dances" "Boom Town" "Bad Wolf" / "The Parting of the Ways"

Series 2

Christmas

"The Christmas Invasion"

Series

"New Earth" "Tooth and Claw" "School Reunion" "The Girl in the Fireplace" "Rise of the Cybermen" / "The Age of Steel" "The Idiot's Lantern" "The Impossible Planet" / "The Satan Pit" "Love & Monsters" "Fear Her" "Army of Ghosts" / "Doomsday"

Supp.

"Doctor Who: Children in Need" "Attack of the Graske" Tardisodes

Series 3

Christmas

"The Runaway Bride"

Series

"Smith and Jones" "The Shakespeare Code" "Gridlock" "Daleks in Manhattan" / "Evolution of the Daleks" "The Lazarus Experiment" "42" "Human Nature" / "The Family of Blood" "Blink" "Utopia" / "The Sound of Drums" / "Last of the Time Lords"

Supp.

The Infinite Quest

Series 4

Christmas

"Voyage of the Damned"

Series

"Partners in Crime" "The Fires of Pompeii" "Planet of the Ood" "The Sontaran
Sontaran
Stratagem" / "The Poison Sky" "The Doctor's Daughter" "The Unicorn and the Wasp" "Silence in the Library" / "Forest of the Dead" "Midnight" "Turn Left" "The Stolen Earth" / "Journey's End"

Supp.

"Time Crash"

2008–2010 specials

Specials

"The Next Doctor" "Planet of the Dead" "The Waters of Mars" The End of Time

Supp.

Dreamland "Music of the Spheres"

Series 5

Series

"The Eleventh Hour" "The Beast Below" "Victory of the Daleks" "The Time of Angels" / "Flesh and Stone" "The Vampires of Venice" "Amy's Choice" "The Hungry Earth" / "Cold Blood" "Vincent and the Doctor" "The Lodger" "The Pandorica Opens" / "The Big Bang"

Supp.

Meanwhile in the TARDIS

Series 6

Christmas

"A Christmas Carol"

Series

"The Impossible Astronaut" / "Day of the Moon" "The Curse of the Black Spot" "The Doctor's Wife" "The Rebel Flesh" / "The Almost People" "A Good Man Goes to War" "Let's Kill Hitler" "Night Terrors" "The Girl Who Waited" "The God Complex" "Closing Time" "The Wedding of River Song"

Supp.

"Space" / "Time" "Death Is the Only Answer" Night and the Doctor

Series 7

Christmas

"The Doctor, the Widow and the Wardrobe" "The Snowmen"

Series

"Asylum of the Daleks" "Dinosaurs on a Spaceship" "A Town Called Mercy" "The Power of Three" "The Angels Take Manhattan" "The Bells of Saint John" "The Rings of Akhaten" "Cold War" "Hide" "Journey to the Centre of the TARDIS" "The Crimson Horror" "Nightmare in Silver" "The Name of the Doctor"

Supp.

"Good as Gold" Pond Life "P.S."

2013 specials

Specials

"The Day of the Doctor" "The Time of the Doctor"

Supp.

"The Night of the Doctor" "The Last Day"

Series 8

"Deep Breath" "Into the Dalek" "Robot of Sherwood" "Listen" "Time Heist" "The Caretaker" "Kill the Moon" "Mummy on the Orient Express" "Flatline" "In the Forest of the Night" "Dark Water" / "Death in Heaven"

Series 9

Christmas

"Last Christmas" "The Husbands of River Song"

Series

"The Magician's Apprentice" / "The Witch's Familiar" "Under the Lake" / "Before the Flood" "The Girl Who Died" "The Woman Who Lived" "The Zygon
Zygon
Invasion" / "The Zygon
Zygon
Inversion" "Sleep No More" "Face the Raven" "Heaven Sent" "Hell Bent"

Series 10

Christmas

"The Return of Doctor Mysterio" "Twice Upon a Time"

Series

"The Pilot" "Smile" "Thin Ice" "Knock Knock" "Oxygen" "Extremis" "The Pyramid at the End of the World" "The Lie of the Land" "Empress of Mars" "The Eaters of Light" "World Enough and Time" / "The Doctor Falls"

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Media in Cardiff

Television and film production

Aspect Television Bay TV Swansea BBC
BBC
Wales ITV Wales S4C Made in Cardiff Broadcasting House, Cardiff BBC
BBC
Roath Lock BAFTA Cymru Hartswood Films Calon Cardiff
Cardiff
Film Festival

Television series

Drama

Doctor Who Torchwood The Sarah Jane Adventures Class Caerdydd Being Human Crash Merlin Sherlock Upstairs Downstairs Casualty Pobol y Cwm Atlantis Wizards vs Aliens Alys

Comedy

Gavin & Stacey Satellite City High Hopes

Factual

BBC
BBC
Wales Today Hospital 24/7 Newyddion ITV News: Wales at Six #CardiffNews CF99

Reality

The Valleys

Quiz shows

Only Connect

Children's

SuperTed Fireman Sam The Story of Tracy Beaker Wil Cwac Cwac

Film

Tiger Bay Human Traffic The Contractor Flick Skellig Patagonia The Big I Am Panic Button Killer Elite

Press

Western Mail South Wales Echo Echo Extra Y Dinesydd gair rhydd Buzz Metro

Radio

BBC
BBC
Radio Wales BBC
BBC
Radio Cymru Capital FM South Wales Nation Radio Gold Heart South Wales Xpress Radio Radio Cardiff

Online

WalesOnline CardiffOnline Pizzaman

category

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Russell T Davies

TV series created

Dark Season (1991) Century Falls (1993) Revelations (1994–96) The Grand (1997–98) Queer as Folk (1999–2000) Bob & Rose (2001) The Second Coming (2003) Mine All Mine (2004) Casanova (2005) Doctor Who
Doctor Who
(2005–10) Torchwood
Torchwood
(2006–11) The Sarah Jane Adventures
The Sarah Jane Adventures
(2007–11) Wizards vs Aliens
Wizards vs Aliens
(2012–13) Cucumber (2015) Banana (2015) Tofu (2015) A Very English Scandal (2018)

Novel

Damaged Goods

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Steven Moffat

Series written and produced

Press Gang
Press Gang
(1989–93) Joking Apart
Joking Apart
(1993–95) Chalk (1997) Coupling
Coupling
(2000–04) Jekyll (2007) Doctor Who
Doctor Who
(2010–17) Sherlock (2010–present)

Films written

The Adventures of Tintin (2011)

Awards for Doctor Who

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BAFTA TV Award
BAFTA TV Award
for Best Drama
Drama
Series

Inspector Morse (1992) Inspector Morse (1993) Between the Lines (1994) Cracker (1995) Cracker (1996) EastEnders
EastEnders
(1997) Jonathan Creek
Jonathan Creek
(1998) The Cops (1999) The Cops (2000) Clocking Off
Clocking Off
(2001) Cold Feet
Cold Feet
(2002) Spooks (2003) Buried (2004) Shameless (2005) Doctor Who
Doctor Who
(2006) The Street (2007) The Street (2008) Wallander (2009) Misfits (2010) Sherlock (2011) The Fades (2012) Last Tango in Halifax
Last Tango in Halifax
(2013) Broadchurch
Broadchurch
(2014) Happy Valley (2015) Wolf Hall (2016) Happy Valley (2017)

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Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form

"Conversations with Dead People" (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) (2003) Gollum's Acceptance Speech at the 2003 MTV Movie Awards (2004) "33" (Battlestar Galactica) (2005) "The Empty Child" / "The Doctor Dances" (Doctor Who) (2006) "The Girl in the Fireplace" (Doctor Who) (2007) "Blink" (Doctor Who) (2008) Dr. Horrible's Sing-Along Blog
Dr. Horrible's Sing-Along Blog
(2009) "The Waters of Mars" (Doctor Who) (2010) "The Pandorica Opens" / "The Big Bang" (Doctor Who) (2011) "The Doctor's Wife" (Doctor Who) (2012) "Blackwater" (Game of Thrones) (2013) "The Rains of Castamere" (Game of Thrones) (2014) "By Means Which Have Never Yet Been Tried" (Orphan Black) (2015) "AKA Smile" (Jessica Jones) (2016) "Leviathan Wakes" (The Expanse) (2017)

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Nebula Award for Best Script/Ray Bradbury Award

Nebula Award for Best Script

Soylent Green
Soylent Green
– Stanley R. Greenberg (1973) Sleeper – Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1974) Young Frankenstein
Young Frankenstein
Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
and Gene Wilder
Gene Wilder
(1975) Star Wars – George Lucas
George Lucas
(1977) The Sixth Sense M. Night Shyamalan
M. Night Shyamalan
(1999) Galaxy Quest
Galaxy Quest
– David Howard and Robert Gordon (2000) Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
James Schamus, Kuo Jung Tsai, and Hui-Ling Wang (2001) The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring – Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens, and Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2002) The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers – Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens, Stephen Sinclair, and Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2003) The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King – Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens, and Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2004) Serenity – Joss Whedon
Joss Whedon
(2005) Howl's Moving Castle – Hayao Miyazaki, Cindy Davis Hewitt, and Donald H. Hewitt (2006) Pan's Labyrinth
Pan's Labyrinth
Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
(2007) WALL-E
WALL-E
– Andrew Stanton, Jim Reardon, and Pete Docter
Pete Docter
(2008)

Ray Bradbury Award for Outstanding Dramatic Presentation

Terminator 2: Judgment Day – James Cameron
James Cameron
(1992) Babylon 5 J. Michael Straczynski
J. Michael Straczynski
(1999) 2000X
2000X
– Tales of the Next Millennia – Yuri Rasovsky and Harlan Ellison (2001) Joss Whedon
Joss Whedon
(2008) District 9
District 9
Neill Blomkamp
Neill Blomkamp
and Terri Tatchell
Terri Tatchell
(2009) Inception
Inception
Christopher Nolan
Christopher Nolan
(2010) Doctor Who: "The Doctor's Wife" – Richard Clark and Neil Gaiman (2011) Beasts of the Southern Wild – Benh Zeitlin, Lucy Alibar (2012) Gravity – Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
and Jonás Cuarón (2013) Guardians of the Galaxy – James Gunn
James Gunn
and Nicole Perlman (2014) Mad Max: Fury Road – George Miller, Brendan McCarthy, and Nico Lathouris (2015) Arrival – Eric Heisserer (2016)

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Saturn Award
Saturn Award
for Best Television Presentation

Alien Nation: Millennium (1994) Alien Nation: Dark Horizon (1995) Doctor Who
Doctor Who
(1996) The Shining (1997) Storm of the Century
Storm of the Century
(1999) Fail Safe (2000) Jack and the Beanstalk: The Real Story (2001) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
Presents Taken (2002) Battlestar Galactica (2003) Farscape: The Peacekeeper Wars (2004) Masters of Horror / The Triangle (2005) The Librarian: Return to King Solomon's Mines (2006) Family Guy
Family Guy
("Blue Harvest") (2007) The Librarian: Curse of the Judas Chalice (2008) Torchwood: Children of Earth (2009) The Walking Dead (2010) The Walking Dead (2011) Breaking Bad
Breaking Bad
(2012) Breaking Bad
Breaking Bad
(2013) Game of Thrones
Game of Thrones
(2014) Doctor Who: "The Husbands of River Song'" (201

.