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Dionysus
Dionysus
(/daɪ.əˈnaɪsəs/; Greek: Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility,[2][3] theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine
Wine
played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus
Dionysus
was the main religious focus for its unrestrained consumption.[4] His worship became firmly established in the seventh century BC.[5] He may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks;[6][7] traces of Dionysian-type cult have also been found in ancient Minoan Crete.[8] His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms; some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, others as Greek.[9][10][11] In some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner; in others, from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in the South. He is a god of epiphany, "the god that comes", and his "foreignness" as an arriving outsider-god may be inherent and essential to his cults. He is a major, popular figure of Greek mythology and religion, becoming increasingly important over time, and included in some lists of the twelve Olympians, as the last of their number, and the only god born from a mortal mother.[12] His festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre.[13] The earliest cult images of Dionysus
Dionysus
show a mature male, bearded and robed. He holds a fennel staff, tipped with a pine-cone and known as a thyrsus. Later images show him as a beardless, sensuous, naked or half-naked androgynous youth: the literature describes him as womanly or "man-womanish".[14] In its fully developed form, his central cult imagery shows his triumphant, disorderly arrival or return, as if from some place beyond the borders of the known and civilized. His procession (thiasus) is made up of wild female followers (maenads) and bearded satyrs with erect penises; some are armed with the thyrsus, some dance or play music. The god himself is drawn in a chariot, usually by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers, and is sometimes attended by a bearded, drunken Silenus. This procession is presumed to be the cult model for the followers of his Dionysian Mysteries. Dionysus
Dionysus
is represented by city religions as the protector of those who do not belong to conventional society and he thus symbolizes the chaotic, dangerous and unexpected, everything which escapes human reason and which can only be attributed to the unforeseeable action of the gods.[15] He is also known as Bacchus
Bacchus
(/ˈbækəs/ or /ˈbɑːkəs/; Greek: Βάκχος, Bakkhos), the name adopted by the Romans[16] and the frenzy he induces is bakkheia. His thyrsus, sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey, is both a beneficent wand and a weapon used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. As Eleutherios ("the liberator"), his wine, music and ecstatic dance free his followers from self-conscious fear and care, and subvert the oppressive restraints of the powerful. Those who partake of his mysteries are possessed and empowered by the god himself.[17] The cult of Dionysus
Dionysus
is also a "cult of the souls"; his maenads feed the dead through blood-offerings, and he acts as a divine communicant between the living and the dead.[18] He is sometimes categorised as a dying-and-rising god.[13] In Greek mythology, he is presented as a son of Zeus
Zeus
and the mortal Semele, thus semi-divine or heroic: and as son of Zeus
Zeus
and Persephone or Demeter, thus both fully divine, part-chthonic and possibly identical with Iacchus of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Some scholars believe that Dionysus
Dionysus
is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity and a more powerful god from Thrace
Thrace
or Phrygia
Phrygia
such as Sabazios
Sabazios
or Zalmoxis.

Contents

1 Mythology

1.1 Birth, infant death and rebirth 1.2 Infancy at Mount Nysa 1.3 Childhood 1.4 Other myths

1.4.1 Midas 1.4.2 Pentheus 1.4.3 Lycurgus 1.4.4 Prosymnus 1.4.5 Ampelus 1.4.6 Chiron 1.4.7 Secondary myths

1.5 Consorts and children

2 Symbolism 3 Bacchus
Bacchus
and the Bacchanalia 4 In the arts

4.1 Classical art 4.2 Art from the Renaissance on 4.3 Modern literature and philosophy 4.4 Modern film and performance art

5 Worship after Christianization of Europe 6 Parallels with Christianity

6.1 Death and Resurrection 6.2 The Trial 6.3 Sacred Food and Drink 6.4 Other parallels

7 Names

7.1 Etymology 7.2 Epithets

8 Genealogy 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Mythology[edit] Birth, infant death and rebirth[edit] Dionysus's mother was a mortal woman, Semele, the daughter of king Cadmus
Cadmus
of Thebes, and his father was Zeus, the king of the gods. Zeus's wife, Hera, discovered the affair while Semele
Semele
was pregnant. Appearing as an old crone (in other stories a nurse), Hera
Hera
befriended Semele, who confided in her that Zeus
Zeus
was the actual father of the baby in her womb. Hera
Hera
pretended not to believe her, and planted seeds of doubt in Semele's mind. Curious, Semele
Semele
demanded of Zeus
Zeus
that he reveal himself in all his glory as proof of his godhood. Though Zeus
Zeus
begged her not to ask this, she persisted and he agreed. Therefore, he came to her wreathed in bolts of lightning; mortals, however, could not look upon an undisguised god without dying, and she perished in the ensuing blaze. Zeus
Zeus
rescued the unborn Dionysus
Dionysus
by sewing him into his thigh. A few months later, Dionysus
Dionysus
was born on Mount Pramnos in the island of Ikaria, where Zeus
Zeus
went to release the now-fully-grown baby from his thigh. In this version, Dionysus
Dionysus
is born by two "mothers" ( Semele
Semele
and Zeus) before his birth, hence the epithet dimētōr (of two mothers) associated with his being "twice-born". In the Cretan version of the same story, which Diodorus Siculus follows,[19] Dionysus
Dionysus
was the son of Zeus
Zeus
and Persephone, the queen of the Greek underworld, while another of Diodorus' sources identified the mother as Demeter.[20] A jealous Hera
Hera
again attempted to kill the child, this time by sending Titans to rip Dionysus
Dionysus
to pieces after luring the baby with toys. It is said that he was mocked by the Titans who gave him a thyrsus (a fennel stalk) in place of his rightful sceptre.[21] Zeus
Zeus
turned the Titans into dust with his thunderbolts, but only after the Titans ate everything but the heart, which was saved, variously, by Athena, Rhea, or Demeter. Zeus
Zeus
used the heart to recreate him in his thigh, hence he was again "the twice-born". Other versions claim that Zeus
Zeus
recreated him in Semele's womb or that he impregnated Semele
Semele
by giving her the heart to eat. His rebirth is the primary reason for the worship of Dionysus
Dionysus
in several mystery religions. Variants of the narrative are found in Callimachus
Callimachus
and Nonnus, who refer to this Dionysus
Dionysus
with the title Zagreus, and also in several fragmentary poems attributed to Orpheus.[citation needed] The myth of the dismemberment of Dionysus
Dionysus
by the Titans, is alluded to by Plato
Plato
in his Phaedo
Phaedo
(69d) in which Socrates claims that the initiations of the Dionysian Mysteries
Dionysian Mysteries
are similar to those of the philosophic path. Late Neo-Platonists such as Damascius explore the implications of this at length.[22]

Dionysus
Dionysus
extending a drinking cup (kantharos), late 6th century BC

Dionysos
Dionysos
riding a cheetah, Macedonian mosaic from Pella, Greece, 4th century BC

Birth of Dionysus, on a small sarcophagus that may have been made for a child (Walters Art Museum)[23]

Infancy at Mount Nysa[edit]

Hermes
Hermes
and the Infant Dionysus
Dionysus
by Praxiteles, (Archaeological Museum of Olympia).

According to the myth, Zeus
Zeus
gave the infant Dionysus
Dionysus
to the care of Hermes. One version of the story is that Hermes
Hermes
took the boy to King Athamas
Athamas
and his wife Ino, Dionysus' aunt. Hermes
Hermes
bade the couple to raise the boy as a girl, to hide him from Hera's wrath.[24] Another version is that Dionysus
Dionysus
was taken to the rain-nymphs of Nysa, who nourished his infancy and childhood, and for their care Zeus
Zeus
rewarded them by placing them as the Hyades among the stars (see Hyades star cluster). Other versions have Zeus
Zeus
giving him to Rhea, or to Persephone
Persephone
to raise in the Underworld, away from Hera. Alternatively, he was raised by Maro.[citation needed] Dionysus
Dionysus
in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
is a god of foreign origin, and while Mount Nysa is a mythological location, it is invariably set far away to the east or to the south. The Homeric hymn to Dionysus
Dionysus
places it "far from Phoenicia, near to the Egyptian stream". Others placed it in Anatolia, or in Libya ("away in the west beside a great ocean"), in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(Herodotus), or Arabia
Arabia
(Diodorus Siculus).[citation needed] According to Herodotus:

As it is, the Greek story has it that no sooner was Dionysus
Dionysus
born than Zeus
Zeus
sewed him up in his thigh and carried him away to Nysa in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
beyond Egypt; and as for Pan, the Greeks do not know what became of him after his birth. It is therefore plain to me that the Greeks learned the names of these two gods later than the names of all the others, and trace the birth of both to the time when they gained the knowledge. — Herodotus, Histories 2.146

The Bibliotheca seems to be following Pherecydes, who relates how the infant Dionysus, god of the grapevine, was nursed by the rain-nymphs, the Hyades at Nysa. Childhood[edit]

The Dionysus
Dionysus
Cup, a 6th-century BC kylix with Dionysus
Dionysus
sailing with the pirates he transformed to dolphins

Bacchus/ Dionysus
Dionysus
returning from India.

Triumph of Dionysus.

When Dionysus
Dionysus
grew up, he discovered the culture of the vine and the mode of extracting its precious juice, being the first to do so;[25] but Hera
Hera
struck him with madness, and drove him forth a wanderer through various parts of the earth. In Phrygia
Phrygia
the goddess Cybele, better known to the Greeks as Rhea, cured him and taught him her religious rites, and he set out on a progress through Asia teaching the people the cultivation of the vine. The most famous part of his wanderings is his expedition to India, which is said to have lasted several years. According to a legend, when Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
reached a city called Nysa near the Indus river, the locals said that their city was founded by Dionysus
Dionysus
in the distant past and their city was dedicated to the god Dionysus.[26] These travels took something of the form of military conquests; according to Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
he conquered the whole world except for Britain and Ethiopia.[27] Returning in triumph (he was considered the founder of the triumphal procession) he undertook to introduce his worship into Greece, but was opposed by some princes who dreaded its introduction on account of the disorders and madness it brought with it (e.g. Pentheus
Pentheus
or Lycurgus).

North African Roman mosaic: Panther- Dionysus
Dionysus
scatters the pirates, who are changed to dolphins, except for Acoetes, the helmsman; 2nd century AD (Bardo National Museum)

Dionysus
Dionysus
was exceptionally attractive. One of the Homeric hymns recounts how, while disguised as a mortal sitting beside the seashore, a few sailors spotted him, believing he was a prince. They attempted to kidnap him and sail him far away to sell for ransom or into slavery. They tried to bind him with ropes, but no type of rope could hold him. Dionysus
Dionysus
turned into a fierce lion and unleashed a bear on board, killing those he came into contact with. Those who jumped off the ship were mercifully turned into dolphins. The only survivor was the helmsman, Acoetes, who recognized the god and tried to stop his sailors from the start.[28] In a similar story, Dionysus
Dionysus
desired to sail from Icaria
Icaria
to Naxos. He then hired a Tyrrhenian pirate ship. However, when the god was on board, they sailed not to Naxos but to Asia, intending to sell him as a slave. So Dionysus
Dionysus
turned the mast and oars into snakes, and filled the vessel with ivy and the sound of flutes so that the sailors went mad and, leaping into the sea, were turned into dolphins. In Ovid's Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
Bacchus
Bacchus
begins this story as a young child, found by the pirates, but transforms to a divine adult when on board. Malcolm Bull notes that "It is a measure of Bacchus's ambiguous position in classical mythology that he, unlike the other Olympians, had to use a boat to travel to and from the islands with which he is associated".[29] Other myths[edit] Midas[edit] Dionysus
Dionysus
discovered that his old school master and foster father, Silenus, had gone missing. The old man had been drinking, and had wandered away drunk, and was found by some peasants, who carried him to their king (alternatively, he passed out in Midas' rose garden). Midas
Midas
recognized him, and treated him hospitably, entertaining him for ten days and nights with politeness, while Silenus
Silenus
entertained Midas and his friends with stories and songs. On the eleventh day, he brought Silenus
Silenus
back to Dionysus. Dionysus
Dionysus
offered Midas
Midas
his choice of whatever reward he wanted. Midas
Midas
asked that whatever he might touch should be changed into gold. Dionysus
Dionysus
consented, though was sorry that he had not made a better choice. Midas
Midas
rejoiced in his new power, which he hastened to put to the test. He touched and turned to gold an oak twig and a stone. Overjoyed, as soon as he got home, he ordered the servants to set a feast on the table. Then he found that his bread, meat, and wine turned to gold. Later, when his daughter embraced him, she too turned to gold. Upset, Midas
Midas
strove to divest himself of his power (the Midas
Midas
Touch); he hated the gift he had coveted. He prayed to Dionysus, begging to be delivered from starvation. Dionysus
Dionysus
heard and consented; he told Midas to wash in the river Pactolus. He did so, and when he touched the waters the power passed into them, and the river sands changed into gold. This was an etiological myth that explained why the sands of the Pactolus
Pactolus
were rich in gold. Pentheus[edit]

Pentheus
Pentheus
torn apart by Agave and Ino. Attic red-figure lekanis (cosmetics bowl) lid, c. 450-425 BC (Louvre)

In the play The Bacchae
The Bacchae
by Euripides, Dionysus
Dionysus
returns to his birthplace, Thebes, which is ruled by his cousin Pentheus. Pentheus, his mother Agave, and his aunts Ino and Autonoe
Autonoe
do not believe that Dionysus
Dionysus
is a son of Zeus. Despite the warnings of the blind prophet Tiresias, they deny him worship; instead, they arraign him for causing madness among the women of Thebes. Dionysus
Dionysus
uses his divine powers to drive Pentheus
Pentheus
insane, then invites him to spy on the ecstatic rituals of the Maenads, in the woods of Mount Cithaeron. Pentheus, hoping to witness a sexual orgy, hides himself in a tree. The Maenads
Maenads
spot him; maddened by Dionysus, they take him to be a mountain lion, and attack him with their bare hands. Pentheus' aunts, and his mother, Agave, are among them; they rip him limb from limb. Agave mounts his head on a pike, and takes the trophy to her father, Cadmus. The madness passes. Dionysus
Dionysus
arrives in his true, divine form, banishes Agave and her sisters, and transforms Cadmus
Cadmus
and his wife Harmonia into serpents. Only Tiresias
Tiresias
is spared.[30] Lycurgus[edit]

Lycurgus trapped by the vine, on the Lycurgus Cup

When King Lycurgus of Thrace
Thrace
heard that Dionysus
Dionysus
was in his kingdom, he imprisoned Dionysus' followers, the Maenads. Dionysus
Dionysus
fled and took refuge with Thetis, and sent a drought which stirred the people into revolt. Dionysus
Dionysus
then drove King Lycurgus insane and had him slice his own son into pieces with an axe in the belief that he was a patch of ivy, a plant holy to Dionysus. An oracle then claimed that the land would stay dry and barren as long as Lycurgus was alive. His people had him drawn and quartered. Following the death of the king, Dionysus lifted the curse. This story is told in Homer's epic, Iliad
Iliad
6.136-7. In an alternative version, sometimes shown in art, Lycurgus tries to kill Ambrosia, a follower of Dionysus, who was transformed into a vine that twined around the enraged king and restrained him, eventually killing him.[31] Prosymnus[edit]

Badakshan
Badakshan
patera, "Triumph of Bacchus", British Museum.

Dionysus
Dionysus
was of the few Olympians with the power to remove deceased mortals from the underworld, and thus restore them to life.[citation needed] He descended to the underworld (Hades) to rescue his mother Semele, whom he had not seen since his birth, making the descent by way of a reputedly bottomless pool on the coast of the Argolid
Argolid
near the prehistoric site of Lerna, and bypassing Thanatos, the god of death. According to Clement of Alexandria, Dionysus
Dionysus
was guided by Prosymnus or Polymnus, who requested, as his reward, to be Dionysus' lover. Dionysus
Dionysus
returned Semele
Semele
to Mount Olympus; but Prosymnus died before Dionysus
Dionysus
could honor his pledge, so in order to satisfy Prosymnus' shade, Dionysus
Dionysus
fashioned a phallus from an olive branch and sat on it at Prosymnus' tomb.[32] This story survives in full only in Christian sources whose aim was to discredit pagan mythology. It appears to have served to explain the secret objects of the Dionysian Mysteries.[33] Ampelus[edit] Another myth according to Nonnus
Nonnus
involves Ampelus, a satyr, who was loved by Dionysus. As related by Ovid, Ampelus became the constellation Vindemitor, or the "grape-gatherer":

...not so will the Grape-gatherer escape thee. The origin of that constellation also can be briefly told. 'Tis said that the unshorn Ampelus, son of a nymph and a satyr, was loved by Bacchus
Bacchus
on the Ismarian hills. Upon him the god bestowed a vine that trailed from an elm’s leafy boughs, and still the vine takes from the boy its name. While he rashly culled the gaudy grapes upon a branch, he tumbled down; Liber
Liber
bore the lost youth to the stars."[34]

Another story of Ampelus was related by Nonnus: in an accident foreseen by Dionysus, the youth was killed while riding a bull maddened by the sting of a gadfly sent by Atë, the Goddess of Folly. The Fates granted Ampelus a second life as a vine, from which Dionysus squeezed the first wine.[35] Chiron[edit]

The winged daimon Dionysus
Dionysus
riding a tiger, from the House of Dionysus in Delos, Greece, Hellenistic mosaic from the 2nd century BC

Young Dionysus
Dionysus
was also said to have been one of the many famous pupils of the centaur Chiron. According to Ptolemy Chennus in the Library of Photius, " Dionysus
Dionysus
was loved by Chiron, from whom he learned chants and dances, the bacchic rites and initiations."[36] Secondary myths[edit]

Bacchus
Bacchus
and Ariadne
Ariadne
by Titian, at the National Gallery in London.

When Hephaestus
Hephaestus
bound Hera
Hera
to a magical chair, Dionysus
Dionysus
got him drunk and brought him back to Olympus after he passed out. A third descent by Dionysus
Dionysus
to Hades
Hades
is invented by Aristophanes
Aristophanes
in his comedy The Frogs. Dionysus, as patron of the Athenian dramatic festival, the Dionysia, wants to bring back to life one of the great tragedians. After a competition Aeschylus
Aeschylus
is chosen in preference to Euripides. When Theseus
Theseus
abandoned Ariadne
Ariadne
sleeping on Naxos, Dionysus
Dionysus
found and married her. She bore him a son named Oenopion, but he committed suicide or was killed by Perseus. In some variants, he had her crown put into the heavens as the constellation Corona; in others, he descended into Hades
Hades
to restore her to the gods on Olympus. Another different account claims Dionysus
Dionysus
ordered Theseus
Theseus
to abandon Ariadne on the island of Naxos for he had seen her as Theseus
Theseus
carried her onto the ship and had decided to marry her. Psalacantha, a nymph, failed at winning the love of Dionysus
Dionysus
as his main love interest at the moment was Ariadne, and ended up being changed into a plant. Callirrhoe was a Calydonian woman who scorned Coresus, a priest of Dionysus, who threatened to afflict all the women of Calydon
Calydon
with insanity (see Maenad). The priest was ordered to sacrifice Callirhoe but he killed himself instead. Callirhoe threw herself into a well which was later named after her. Consorts and children[edit]

Aphrodite

Charites
Charites
(Graces)

Pasithea Euphrosyne Thalia

Priapus Hymenaios

Ariadne

Oenopion Staphylus Thoas Peparethus Phanus Eurymedon Euanthes Latramys Tauropolis Ceramus

Circe

Comus

Aura

Iacchus twin of Iacchus, killed by Aura instantly upon birth

Nicaea

Telete

Araethyrea or Chthonophyle (or again Ariadne)

Phlias

Physcoa

Narcaeus

Pallene Carya Percote

Priapus
Priapus
(possibly)[37]

Chione, Naiad
Naiad
nymph

Priapus
Priapus
(possibly)[38]

Alexirrhoe

Carmanor

Alphesiboea

Medus

Phthonus

Althaea

Deianira

unnamed

Thysa[39]

Symbolism[edit]

Satyr
Satyr
giving a grapevine to Bacchus
Bacchus
as a child; cameo glass, first half of the 1st century AD; from Italy

The bull, serpent, tiger, ivy, and wine are characteristic of Dionysian iconography. Dionysus
Dionysus
is also strongly associated with satyrs, centaurs, and sileni. He is often shown riding a leopard, wearing a leopard skin, or in a chariot drawn by panthers, and may also be recognized by the thyrsus he carries. Besides the grapevine and its wild barren alter-ego, the toxic ivy plant, both sacred to him, the fig was also his symbol. The pinecone that tipped his thyrsus linked him to Cybele. The Dionysia
Dionysia
and Lenaia festivals in Athens
Athens
were dedicated to Dionysus. On numerous vases (referred to as Lenaia vases), the god is shown participating in the ritual sacrifice as a masked and clothed pillar (sometimes a pole, or tree is used), while his worshipers eat bread and drink wine. Initiates worshipped him in the Dionysian Mysteries, which were comparable to and linked with the Orphic Mysteries, and may have influenced Gnosticism[citation needed]. Orpheus
Orpheus
was said to have invented the Mysteries of Dionysus.[40]

A sculpted phallus at the entrance of the temple of Dionysus
Dionysus
in Delos, Greece.

Dionysus
Dionysus
was a god of resurrection and he was strongly linked to the bull. In a cult hymn from Olympia, at a festival for Hera, Dionysus
Dionysus
is invited to come as a bull; "with bull-foot raging". Walter Burkert relates, "Quite frequently [Dionysus] is portrayed with bull horns, and in Kyzikos
Kyzikos
he has a tauromorphic image", and refers also to an archaic myth in which Dionysus
Dionysus
is slaughtered as a bull calf and impiously eaten by the Titans.[13] In the Classical period of Greece, the bull and other animals identified with deities were separated from them as their agalma, a kind of heraldic show-piece that concretely signified their numinous presence.[13] The snake and phallus were symbols of Dionysus
Dionysus
in ancient Greece, and of Bacchus
Bacchus
in Greece and Rome.[41][42][43] He typically wears a panther or leopard skin and carries a Thyrsus
Thyrsus
– a long stick or wand topped with a pine cone. His iconography sometimes include maenads, who wear wreaths of ivy and serpents around their hair or neck.[44][45][46] In the Orphic
Orphic
tradition of ancient Greece, Dionysus
Dionysus
Zagreus served as its patron god connected to death and immortality, and symbolized the one who guides reincarnation.[47] Bacchus
Bacchus
and the Bacchanalia[edit] Main article: Bacchanalia

Bacchus
Bacchus
by Caravaggio

Bronze head of Dionysus, 50 BC -50 AD, in the British Museum[48]

A mystery cult to Bacchus
Bacchus
was brought to Rome
Rome
from the Greek culture of southern Italy or by way of Greek-influenced Etruria. It was established c.200 BC in the Aventine grove of Stimula by a priestess from Campania, near the temple where Liber
Liber
Pater ("The Free Father") had a State-sanctioned, popular cult. Liber
Liber
was a native Roman god of wine, fertility, and prophecy, patron of Rome's plebeians (citizen-commoners) and a close equivalent to Bacchus-Dionysus Eleutherios. The Bacchic rituals contained omophagic practices such as pulling live animals apart and eating the whole of them raw. This practice served not only as a reenactment of the infant death and rebirth of Bacchus, but also as a means by which Bacchic practitioners produced "enthusiasm": etymologically, to let a god enter the practitioner's body or to have her become one with Bacchus.[49][50] In Livy's account, the Bacchic mysteries were a novelty at Rome; originally restricted to women and held only three times a year, they were corrupted by an Etruscan-Greek version, and thereafter drunken, disinhibited men and women of all ages and social classes cavorted in a sexual free-for-all five times a month. Livy
Livy
relates their various outrages against Rome's civil and religious laws and traditional morality (mos maiorum); a secretive, subversive and potentially revolutionary counter-culture. Livy's sources, and his own account of the cult, probably drew heavily on the Roman dramatic genre known as " Satyr
Satyr
plays", based on Greek originals.[51][52] The cult was suppressed by the State with great ferocity; of the 7,000 arrested, most were executed. Modern scholarship treats much of Livy's account with skepticism; more certainly, a Senatorial edict, the Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus was distributed throughout Roman and allied Italy. It banned the former Bacchic cult organisations. Each meeting must seek prior senatorial approval through a praetor. No more than three women and two men were allowed at any one meeting, Those who defied the edict risked the death penalty. Bacchus
Bacchus
was conscripted into the official Roman pantheon as an aspect of Liber, and his festival was inserted into the Liberalia. In Roman culture, Liber, Bacchus
Bacchus
and Dionysus
Dionysus
became virtually interchangeable equivalents. Bacchus
Bacchus
was euhemerised as a wandering hero, conqueror and founder of cities. He was a patron deity and founding hero at Leptis Magna, birthplace of the emperor Septimius Severus, who promoted his cult. In some Roman sources, the ritual procession of Bacchus
Bacchus
in a tiger-drawn chariot, surrounded by maenads, satyrs and drunks, commemorates the god's triumphant return from the conquest of India. Pliny believed this to be the historical prototype for the Roman Triumph.[53] In the arts[edit] Classical art[edit]

Marble table support adorned by a group including Dionysos, Pan and a Satyr; Dionysos
Dionysos
holds a rhyton (drinking vessel) in the shape of a panther; traces of red and yellow colour are preserved on the hair of the figures and the branches; from an Asia Minor
Asia Minor
workshop, 170-180 AD, National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece

The god, and still more often his followers, were commonly depicted in the painted pottery of Ancient Greece, much of which was vessels for wine. But, apart from some reliefs of maenads, Dionysian subjects rarely appeared in large sculpture before the Hellenistic period, when they became common.[54] In these, the treatment of the god himself ranged from severe archaising or Neo Attic
Neo Attic
types such as the Dionysus Sardanapalus to types showing him as an indolent and androgynous young man, often nude.[55] Hermes
Hermes
and the Infant Dionysus
Dionysus
is probably a Greek original in marble, and the Ludovisi Dionysus
Ludovisi Dionysus
group is probably a Roman original of the 2nd century AD. Well-known Hellenistic sculptures of Dionysian subjects, surviving in Roman copies, include the Barberini Faun, the Belvedere Torso, the Resting Satyr. The Furietti Centaurs
Furietti Centaurs
and Sleeping Hermaphroditus
Sleeping Hermaphroditus
reflect related subjects, which had by this time become drawn into the Dionysian orbit.[56] The marble Dancer of Pergamon
Dancer of Pergamon
is an original, as is the bronze Dancing Satyr
Satyr
of Mazara del Vallo, a recent recovery from the sea. The Dionysian world by the Hellenistic period is a hedonistic but safe pastoral into which other semi-divine creatures of the countryside such as centaurs, nymphs, and the god Pan and Hermaphrodite have been co-opted.[57] Nymphs by this stage "means simply an ideal female of the Dionysian outdoors, a non-wild bacchant".[58] Hellenistic sculpture also includes for the first time large genre subjects of children and peasant, many of whom carry Dionysian attributes such as ivy wreaths, and "most should be seen as part of his realm. They have in common with satyrs and nymphs that they are creatures of the outdoors and are without true personal identity."[59] The 4th-century BC Derveni Krater, the unique survival of a very large scale Classical or Hellenistic metal vessel of top quality, depicts Dionysus
Dionysus
and his followers. Dionysus
Dionysus
appealed to the Hellenistic monarchies for a number of reasons, apart from merely being a god of pleasure: He was a human who became divine, he came from, and had conquered, the East, exemplified a lifestyle of display and magnificence with his mortal followers, and was often regarded as an ancestor.[60] He continued to appeal to the rich of Imperial Rome, who populated their gardens with Dionysian sculpture, and by the 2nd century AD were often buried in sarcophagi carved with crowded scenes of Bacchus
Bacchus
and his entourage.[61] The 4th-century AD Lycurgus Cup
Lycurgus Cup
in the British Museum
British Museum
is a spectacular cage cup which changes colour when light comes through the glass; it shows the bound King Lycurgus being taunted by the god and attacked by a satyr; this may have been used for celebration of Dionysian mysteries. Elizabeth Kessler has theorized that a mosaic appearing on the triclinium floor of the House of Aion in Nea Paphos, Cyprus, details a monotheistic worship of Dionysus.[62] In the mosaic, other gods appear but may only be lesser representations of the centrally imposed Dionysus. The mid-Byzantine Veroli Casket
Veroli Casket
shows the tradition lingering in Constantinople
Constantinople
around 1000 AD, but probably not very well understood. Art from the Renaissance on[edit]

Bacchus
Bacchus
by Michelangelo
Michelangelo
(1497)

The Triumph of Bacchus, Diego Velázquez, c. 1629

The triumph of Bacchus
Bacchus
by Cornelis de Vos.

Bacchic subjects in art resumed in the Italian Renaissance, and soon became almost as popular as in antiquity, but his "strong association with feminine spirituality and power almost disappeared", as did "the idea that the destructive and creative powers of the god were indissolubly linked".[63] In Michelangelo's statue (1496–97) "madness has become merriment". The statue aspires to suggest both drunken incapacity and an elevated consciousness, but this was perhaps lost on later viewers, and typically the two aspects were thereafter split, with a clearly drunk Silenus
Silenus
representing the former, and a youthful Bacchus
Bacchus
often shown with wings, because he carries the mind to higher places.[64] Titian's Bacchus
Bacchus
and Ariadne
Ariadne
(1522–23) and The Bacchanal of the Andrians (1523-26), both painted for the same room, offer an influential heroic pastoral,[65] while Diego Velázquez
Diego Velázquez
in The Triumph of Bacchus
Bacchus
(or Los borrachos - "the drinkers", c. 1629) and Jusepe de Ribera in his Drunken Silenus
Silenus
choose a genre realism. Flemish Baroque painting frequently painted the Bacchic followers, as in Van Dyck's Drunken Silenus
Silenus
and many works by Rubens; Poussin
Poussin
was another regular painter of Bacchic scenes.[66] Depictions of the proverb Sine Cerere et Baccho friget Venus
Venus
were a particular feature of Northern Mannerism, but the subject was also painted several times by Rubens. Because of his association with the vine harvest, Bacchus
Bacchus
became the god of autumn, and he and his followers were often shown in sets depicting the seasons.[67] Modern literature and philosophy[edit]

Bacchus
Bacchus
by Paulus Bor.

Dionysus
Dionysus
has remained an inspiration to artists, philosophers and writers into the modern era. In The Birth of Tragedy
The Birth of Tragedy
(1872), the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
proposed that a tension between Apollonian and Dionysian
Apollonian and Dionysian
aesthetic principles underlay the development of Greek tragedy; Dionysus
Dionysus
represented what was unrestrained chaotic and irrational, while Apollo
Apollo
represented the rational and ordered. Nietzsche claimed that the oldest forms of Greek Tragedy
Tragedy
were entirely based on suffering of Dionysus. In Nietzsche's 1886 work Beyond Good and Evil, and later works The Twilight of the Idols, The Antichrist and Ecce Homo, Dionysus
Dionysus
is conceived as the embodiment of the unrestrained will to power. In The Hellenic Religion of the Suffering God (1904), and Dionysus
Dionysus
and Early Dionysianism
Dionysianism
(1921), the poet Vyacheslav Ivanov elaborates the theory of Dionysianism, tracing the origins of literature, and tragedy in particular, to ancient Dionysian mysteries. Károly Kerényi characterizes Dionysus
Dionysus
as representative of the psychological life force (Greek Zoê).[68] Other psychological interpretations place Dionysus' emotionality in the foreground, focusing on the joy, terror or hysteria associated with the god.[69][70][71][72][73] Sigmund Freud specified that his ashes should be kept in an Ancient Greek vase painted with Dionysian scenes from his collection, which remains on display at Golders Green Crematorium
Golders Green Crematorium
in London. In CS Lewis' Prince Caspian
Prince Caspian
(part of The Chronicles of Narnia), Bacchus
Bacchus
is a dangerous-looking, androgynous young boy who helps Aslan awaken the spirits of the Narnian trees and rivers.[citation needed] Rick Riordan's series of books Percy Jackson & The Olympians presents Dionysus
Dionysus
as an uncaring, childish and spoiled god.[citation needed] In the novel Household Gods by Harry Turtledove
Harry Turtledove
and Judith Tarr, Nicole Gunther-Perrin is a lawyer in the 20th century. She makes a libation to Liber
Liber
and Libera, Roman equivalents of Dionysus
Dionysus
and Persephone, and is transported back in time to ancient Rome.[74][75] In The Secret History
The Secret History
by Donna Tartt, a group of classics students reflect on reviving the worship of Dionysus
Dionysus
during their time in college.[76] Modern film and performance art[edit]

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Walt Disney
Walt Disney
uses a modernised version of Silenus, Dionysus
Dionysus
or Bacchus in the "Pastoral" segment of the animated film Fantasia. In 1969, an adaption of The Bacchae
The Bacchae
was performed, called Dionysus
Dionysus
in '69. A film was made of the same performance. The production was notable for involving audience participation, nudity, and theatrical innovations.[77] In 1974, Stephen Sondheim and Burt Shevelove adapted Aristophanes' comedy The Frogs
The Frogs
into a modern musical, which hit broadway in 2004 and was revived in London in 2017. The musical keeps the descent of Dionysus
Dionysus
into Hades
Hades
to bring back a playwright, however the playwrights are updated to modern times, and Dionysus
Dionysus
is forced to choose between George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw
and William Shakespeare.[78] Worship after Christianization of Europe[edit] Though the last known worshippers of Greek gods were converted before 1000 AD, there were instances of revived worship of Dionysus afterwards, and finally with the rise of neopaganism, worship of the god has once again been revived. During Easter
Easter
in 1282 in Scotland, the parish priest of Inverkeithing led young women in a dance in honor of Dionysus. He danced and sang at the front, carrying a representation of the phallus on a pole. He was killed by a Christian mob later that year.[79] The late medieval Byzantine scholar Gemistus Pletho
Gemistus Pletho
secretly advocated in favor of a return to paganism in medieval Greece.[80] In the 18th century, Hellfire Clubs
Hellfire Clubs
sprung up in Britain and Ireland. Though activities varied between the clubs, some of them were very pagan, and included shrines and sacrifices. Dionysus
Dionysus
was one of the most popular deities, alongside deities like Venus
Venus
and Flora. Today one can still see the statue of Dionysus
Dionysus
left behind in the Hellfire Caves.[81] In 1820, Ephraim Lyon founded the Church of Bacchus
Bacchus
in Eastford, Connecticut. He declared himself High Priest, and added local drunks to the list of membership. He maintained that those who died as members would go to a Bacchanalia
Bacchanalia
for their afterlife.[82] Modern followers of Dionysus
Dionysus
may offer the god wine, grapes, ivy, and various forms of incense. They may also celebrate Roman festivals such as the Liberalia (March 17, close to the Spring Equinox) or Bacchanalia
Bacchanalia
(Various dates), and various Greek festivals such as the Anthesteria, Lenaia, and the Greater and Lesser Dionysias, calculated by lunar calendar.[83] Parallels with Christianity[edit]

Sculpture excavated at the Villa of the Papyri
Villa of the Papyri
depicting Dionysus, Plato, or possibly Poseidon

Main article: Jesus Christ in comparative mythology Numerous scholars have compared narratives surrounding the Christian figure of Jesus with those associated with Dionysus. Death and Resurrection[edit] Some scholars of comparative mythology identify both Dionysus
Dionysus
and Jesus with the dying-and-returning god mythological archetype.[13] On the other hand, it has been noted that the details of Dionysus' death and rebirth are starkly different both in content and symbolism from Jesus. The two stories take place in very different historical and geographic contexts. Also, the manner of death is different; in the most common myth, Dionysus
Dionysus
was torn to pieces and eaten by the titans, but "eventually restored to a new life" from the heart that was left over.[84][85] The Trial[edit] Another parallel can be seen in The Bacchae
The Bacchae
where Dionysus
Dionysus
appears before King Pentheus
Pentheus
on charges of claiming divinity, which is compared to the New Testament scene of Jesus being interrogated by Pontius Pilate.[86][87][88] However, a number of scholars dispute this parallel, since the confrontation between Dionysus
Dionysus
and Pentheus
Pentheus
ends with Pentheus
Pentheus
dying, torn into pieces by the mad women, whereas the trial of Jesus ends with him being sentenced to death. The discrepancies between the two stories, including their resolutions, have led many scholars to regard the Dionysus
Dionysus
story as radically different from the one about Jesus, except for the parallel of the arrest, which is a detail that appears in many biographies as well.[89] Sacred Food and Drink[edit] Other elements, such as the celebration by a ritual meal of bread and wine, also have parallels.[87] The omophagia was the Dionysian act of eating raw flesh and drinking wine to consume the god. Within Orphism, it was believed that consuming the meat and wine was symbolic of the Titans eating the flesh (meat) and blood (wine) of Dionysus
Dionysus
and that, by participating in the omophagia, Dionysus' followers could achieve communion with the god. Powell, in particular, argues that precursors to the Catholic notion of transubstantiation can be found in Dionysian religion.[87] Other parallels[edit] E. Kessler has argued that the Dionysian cult developed into strict monotheism by the 4th century AD; together with Mithraism
Mithraism
and other sects, the cult formed an instance of "pagan monotheism" in direct competition with Early Christianity
Early Christianity
during Late Antiquity.[90] Scholars from the 16th century onwards, especially Gerard Vossius, also discussed the parallels between the biographies of Dionysus/ Bacchus
Bacchus
and Moses
Moses
(Vossius named his sons Dionysius and Isaac). Such comparisons surface in details of paintings by Poussin.[91] Names[edit] Etymology[edit]

Terracotta
Terracotta
vase in the shape of Dionysus' head, ca. 410 BC; on display in the Ancient Agora Museum
Ancient Agora Museum
in Athens, housed in the Stoa of Attalus

The over-life size 2nd-century AD Ludovisi Dionysus, with panther, satyr and grapes on a vine, Palazzo Altemps, Rome

Epiphany of Dionysus
Dionysus
mosaic, from the Villa of Dionysus
Dionysus
(2nd century AD) in Dion, Greece, Archeological Museum of Dion

A Roman fresco depicting Bacchus
Bacchus
with red hair, Boscoreale, c. 30 BC

The dio- element has been associated since antiquity with Zeus (genitive Dios). The earliest attested form of the name is Mycenaean Greek 𐀇𐀺𐀝𐀰, di-wo-nu-so, written in Linear B
Linear B
syllabic script, presumably for /Diwo(h)nūsoio/. This is attested on two tablets that had been found at Mycenaean Pylos
Pylos
and dated to the 12th or 13th century BC, but at the time, there could be no certainty on whether this was indeed a theonym.[92][93] But the 1989–90 Greek-Swedish Excavations at Kastelli Hill, Chania, unearthed, inter alia, four artefacts bearing Linear B
Linear B
inscriptions; among them, the inscription on item KH Gq 5 is thought to confirm Dionysus's early worship.[7] Later variants include Dionūsos and Diōnūsos in Boeotia; Dien(n)ūsos in Thessaly; Deonūsos and Deunūsos in Ionia; and Dinnūsos in Aeolia, besides other variants. A Dio- prefix is found in other names, such as that of the Dioscures, and may derive from Dios, the genitive of the name of Zeus.[94] The second element -nūsos is associated with Mount Nysa, the birthplace of the god in Greek mythology, where he was nursed by nymphs (the Nysiads),[95] but according to Pherecydes of Syros, nũsa was an archaic word for "tree".[96] Nonnus, in his Dionysiaca, writes that the name Dionysus
Dionysus
means "Zeus-limp" and that Hermes
Hermes
named the new born Dionysus
Dionysus
this, "because Zeus
Zeus
while he carried his burden lifted one foot with a limp from the weight of his thigh, and nysos in Syracusan langugage means limping".[97] In his note to these lines, W. H. D. Rouse writes "It need hardly be said that these etymologies are wrong".[97] The Suda, a Byzantine encyclopedia based on classical sources, states that Dionysus
Dionysus
was so named "from accomplishing [διανύειν ] for each of those who live the wild life. Or from providing [διανοεῖν ] everything for those who live the wild life.”[98] R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name.[99] The cult of Dionysus
Dionysus
was closely associated with trees, specifically the fig tree, and some of his bynames exhibit this, such as Endendros "he in the tree" or Dendritēs, "he of the tree". Peters suggests the original meaning as "he who runs among the trees", or that of a "runner in the woods". Janda (2010) accepts the etymology but proposes the more cosmological interpretation of "he who impels the (world-)tree". This interpretation explains how Nysa could have been re-interpreted from a meaning of "tree" to the name of a mountain: the axis mundi of Indo-European mythology
Indo-European mythology
is represented both as a world-tree and as a world-mountain.[100] Epithets[edit] Dionysus
Dionysus
was variably known with the following epithets: Acratophorus, ("giver of unmixed wine"), at Phigaleia in Arcadia.[101] Acroreites at Sicyon.[102] Adoneus, a rare archaism in Roman literature, a Latinised form of Adonis, used as epithet for Bacchus.[103] Aegobolus ("goat killer") at Potniae, in Boeotia.[104] Aesymnetes ("ruler" or "lord") at Aroë and Patrae in Achaea. Agrios ("wild"), in Macedonia. Briseus ("he who prevails") in Smyrna.[105][106] Bromios ("Roaring" as of the wind, primarily relating to the central death/resurrection element of the myth,[107] but also the god's transformations into lion and bull,[108] and the boisterousness of those who drink alcohol. Also cognate with the "roar of thunder", which refers to Dionysus' father, Zeus
Zeus
"the thunderer".)[citation needed] Choiropsalas χοιροψάλας ("pig-plucker": Greek χοῖρος = "pig," also used as a slang term for the female genitalia). A reference to Dionysus's role as a fertility deity.[109][110] Chthonios ("the subterranean")[111] Dendrites ("he of the trees"), as a fertility god. Dithyrambos, used at his festivals, referring to his premature birth. Eleutherios ("the liberator"), an epithet shared with Eros. Endendros ("he in the tree").[112] Enorches ("with balls,"[113] with reference to his fertility, or "in the testicles" in reference to Zeus' sewing the baby Dionysus
Dionysus
"into his thigh", understood to mean his testicles).[114] used in Samos
Samos
and Lesbos. Erikryptos ("completely hidden"), in Macedonia. Euius (Euios), in Euripides' play, The Bacchae. Iacchus, a possible epithet of Dionysus, associated with the Eleusinian Mysteries. In Eleusis, he is known as a son of Zeus
Zeus
and Demeter. The name "Iacchus" may come from the Ιακχος (Iakchos), a hymn sung in honor of Dionysus. Liknites ("he of the winnowing fan"), as a fertility god connected with mystery religions. A winnowing fan was used to separate the chaff from the grain. Lyaeus, or Lyaios (Λυαῖος, "deliverer", literally "loosener"), one who releases from care and anxiety.[115] Melanaigis ("of the black goatskin") at the Apaturia
Apaturia
festival. Morychus (Μόρυχος, "smeared") in Sicily, because his icon was smeared with wine lees at the vintage.[116][117] Oeneus, as god of the wine press. Pseudanor (literally "false man", referring to his feminine qualities), in Macedonia. In the Greek pantheon, Dionysus
Dionysus
(along with Zeus) absorbs the role of Sabazios, a Thracian/Phrygian deity. In the Roman pantheon, Sabazius became an alternative name for Bacchus.[118] Genealogy[edit]

Dionysus' family tree

Uranus

Gaia

Cronus

Rhea

Zeus

Hera

Poseidon

Hades

Demeter

Hestia

Dione

     a[119]

    a[120]

Uranus' genitals

Metis

Athena[121]

    b[122]

     b[123]

Aphrodite

Ares

Hephaestus

Leto

Harmonia

Cadmus

Apollo

Artemis

Semele

Maia

Dionysus

Hermes

Gallery[edit]

Bacchus
Bacchus
and the Choir of Nymphs (1888) by John Reinhard Weguelin

Statue of Dionysus
Dionysus
(Sardanapalus) (Museo Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme, Rome)

Drinking Bacchus
Bacchus
(1623) Guido Reni

Statue of Dionysus
Dionysus
in Remich
Remich
Luxembourg

A Bacchus
Bacchus
themed table. The top was made in Florence (c. 1736) and the gilded wood base in Britain or Ireland, c. 1736–1740.

Bacchus
Bacchus
- Hendrick Goltzius
Hendrick Goltzius
(1592).

Dionysian amphora

Dionysian jug

See also[edit]

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
portal Hellenismos portal

Apollonian and Dionysian Ascolia Bacchanalia Dionysian Mysteries Orgia Theatre of Dionysus

Notes[edit]

^ Another variant, from the Spanish royal collection, is at the Museo del Prado, Madrid: illustration. ^ Hedreen, Guy Michael. Silens in Attic Black-figure Vase-painting: Myth and Performance. University of Michigan Press. 1992. ISBN 9780472102952. page 1 ^ James, Edwin Oliver. The Tree of Life: An Archaeological Study. Brill Publications. 1966. page 234. ISBN 9789004016125 ^ Gately, Iain (2008). Drink. Gotham Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-592-40464-3.  ^ Ferguson, Everett (2003). Backgrounds of Early Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780802822215.  ^ He appears as a likely theonym (divine name) in Linear B
Linear B
tablets as di-wo-nu-so (KH Gq 5 inscription) ^ a b Raymoure, K.A. (November 2, 2012). "Khania Linear B Transliterations". Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B. Deaditerranean.  "Possible evidence of human sacrifice at Minoan Chania". Archaeology News Network. 2014.  Raymoure, K.A. "Khania KH Gq Linear B
Linear B
Series". Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B. Deaditerranean.  "KH 5 Gq (1)". DĀMOS: Database of Mycenaean at Oslo. University of Oslo.  ^ Kerenyi 1976. ^ Thomas McEvilley, The Shape of Ancient Thought, Allsworth press, 2002, pp. 118–121. Google Books preview ^ Reginald Pepys Winnington-Ingram, Sophocles: an interpretation, Cambridge University Press, 1980, p.109 Google Books preview ^ Zofia H. Archibald, in Gocha R. Tsetskhladze (Ed.) Ancient Greeks west and east, Brill, 1999, p.429 ff.Google Books preview ^ Sacks, David; Murray, Oswyn; Brody, Lisa R. (2009-01-01). Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9781438110202. Retrieved 20 April 2013.  ^ a b c d e Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion, 1985 pp. 64, 132 ^ Otto, Walter F. (1995). Dionysus
Dionysus
Myth and Cult. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20891-2.  ^ Gods of Love and Ecstasy, Alain Danielou p.15 ^ In Greek "both votary and god are called Bacchus". Burkert, Greek Religion 1985:162. For the initiate as Bacchus, see Euripides, Bacchantes 491. For the god, who alone is Dionysus, see Sophocles, Oedipus
Oedipus
Rex 211 and Euripides, Hippolytus 560. ^ Sutton, p.2, mentions Dionysus
Dionysus
as The Liberator in relation to the city Dionysia
Dionysia
festivals. In Euripides, Bacchae 379–385: "He holds this office, to join in dances, [380] to laugh with the flute, and to bring an end to cares, whenever the delight of the grape comes at the feasts of the gods, and in ivy-bearing banquets the goblet sheds sleep over men." [1] ^ Xavier Riu, Dionysism and Comedy, Rowman and Littlefield, 1999, p.105 ^ Diorodus V 75.4, noted by Karl Kerényi, Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life (Princeton University Press) 1976, "The Cretan core of the Dionysos
Dionysos
myth" p 110 note 213 and pp 110-114. ^ Diodorus III 64.1, also noted by Kerény (110 note 214). ^ Damascius, Commentary on the Phaedo, I, 170, see in translation Westerink, The Greek Commentaries on Plato's Phaedo, vol. II (The Prometheus
Prometheus
Trust, Westbury) 2009 ^ Damascius, Commentary on the Phaedo, I, 1-13 and 165-172, see in translation Westerink, The Greek Commentaries on Plato's Phaedo, vol. II, The Prometheus
Prometheus
Trust, Westbury, 2009 ^ "Sarcophagus Depicting the Birth of Dionysus". The Walters Art Museum.  ^ Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Includes Frazer's notes. ISBN 0-674-99135-4, ISBN 0-674-99136-2 ^ Bull, 255 ^ Arrian, Anabasis, 5.1.1-2.2 ^ Bull, 253 ^ "Theoi.com" Homeric Hymn to Dionysus". Theoi.com. Retrieved 2014-06-29.  ^ Bull, 245-247, 247 quoted ^ Euripides. The Bacchae. https://records.viu.ca/~johnstoi/euripides/euripides.htm. (original Greek text available at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0091) ^ " British Museum
British Museum
- The Lycurgus Cup". britishmuseum.org.  ^ Clement of Alexandria, Protreptikos, II-30 3-5 ^ Arnobius, Against the Gentiles 5.28 (Dalby 2005, pp. 108–117) ^ Ovid, Fasti, iii. 407 ff. (James G. Frazer, translator). ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca, x. 175–430; xi, xii. 1–117 (Dalby 2005, pp. 55–62). ^ Photius, Library; "Ptolemy Chennus, New History" ^ Hesychius of Alexandria
Hesychius of Alexandria
s. v. Priēpidos ^ Scholia on Theocritus, Idyll 1. 21 ^ Strabo, Geography, 10.3.13, quotes the non-extant play Palamedes which seems to refer to Thysa, a daughter of Dionysus, and her (?) mother as participants of the Bacchic rites on Mount Ida, but the quoted passage is corrupt. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca Library and Epitome, 1.3.2. "Orpheus also invented the mysteries of Dionysus, and having been torn in pieces by the Maenads
Maenads
he is buried in Pieria." ^ James Charlesworth (2010). The Good And Evil Serpent: How a Universal Symbol Became Christianized. Yale University Press. pp. 222–223. ISBN 978-0-300-14273-0.  ^ Walter Friedrich Otto; Robert B. Palmer (1965). Dionysus: Myth and Cult. Indiana University Press. pp. 164–166. ISBN 0-253-20891-2.  ^ Leo Steinberg (2014). The Sexuality of Christ in Renaissance Art and in Modern Oblivion. University of Chicago Press. pp. 47, 83 with footnotes. ISBN 978-0-226-22631-6.  ^ Jennifer R. March (2014). Dictionary of Classical Mythology. Oxbow. pp. 164, 296. ISBN 978-1-78297-635-6.  ^ Csapo, Eric (1997). "Riding the Phallus
Phallus
for Dionysus: Iconology, Ritual, and Gender-Role De/Construction". Phoenix. 51 (3/4): 256–257, 253–295. doi:10.2307/1192539.  ^ Dietrich, B. C. (1958). " Dionysus
Dionysus
Liknites". The Classical Quarterly. Cambridge University Press. 8 (3-4): 244–248. Retrieved 2016-09-27.  ^ Norman C. McClelland (2010). Encyclopedia of Reincarnation
Reincarnation
and Karma. McFarland. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-0-7864-5675-8.  ^ " British Museum
British Museum
- statue". British Museum.  ^ Russell, Bertrand. History of Western Philosophy.Routledge, 1996, p. 25 ^ Kraemer, Ross S. "Ecstasy and Possession: The Attraction of Women to the Cult of Dionysus." The Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 72 60 Jan.-Apr. 1979. ^ ..."the Bacchic passages in the Roman drama, taken over from their Greek models, presented a pejorative image of the Bacchic cult which predisposed the Romans towards persecution before the consul denounced the cult in 186." Robert Rouselle, Liber- Dionysus
Dionysus
in Early Roman Drama, The Classical Journal, 82, 3 (1987), p. 193. ^ "Certainly it is hard to imagine anything less consistent with Roman mos maiorum than the anarchic hedonism of satyrs. It was precisely libido, that morally subversive aspect of the Bacchic cult, that led to its brutal suppression..." Wiseman, T.P., " Satyrs
Satyrs
in Rome? The Background to Horace's Ars Poetica," Journal of Roman Studies, 1988, p. 1. [2] (accessed November 19, 2017) ^ Pliny attributes the invention of the triumph to "Father Liber" (who by Pliny's time was identified with Bacchus
Bacchus
and Dionysus): see Pliny, Historia Naturalis, 7.57 (ed. Bostock) at Perseus: Tufts.edu ^ Smith, 127–129 ^ as in the Dionysus
Dionysus
and Eros, Naples Archeological Museum ^ Smith, 127–154 ^ Smith, 127, 131, 133 ^ Smith, 130 ^ Smith, 136 ^ Smith, 127 ^ Smith, 128 ^ Kessler, E., Dionysian Monotheism
Monotheism
in Nea Paphos, Cyprus, ^ Bull, 227-228, both quoted ^ Bull, 228-232, 228 quoted ^ Bull, 235-238, 242, 247-250 ^ Bull, 233-235 ^ Bull, 255-256 ^ Kerenyi, K., Dionysus: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life (Princeton/Bollingen, 1976). ^ Jeanmaire, H. Dionysus: histoire du culte de Bacchus, (p.106ff) Payot, (1951) ^ Johnson, R. A. 'Ecstasy; Understanding the Psychology of Joy' HarperColling (1987) ^ Hillman, J. ' Dionysus
Dionysus
Reimagined' in The Myth of Analysis (pp.271-281) HarperCollins (1972); Hillman, J. ' Dionysus
Dionysus
in Jung's Writings' in Facing The Gods, Spring Publications (1980) ^ Thompson, J. 'Emotional Intelligence/Imaginal Intelligence' in Mythopoetry Scholar Journal, Vol 1, 2010 ^ Lopez-Pedraza, R. ' Dionysus
Dionysus
in Exile: On the Repression of the Body and Emotion', Chiron
Chiron
Publications (2000) ^ Johnson, Sarah. "Household Gods". Historical Novel Society. Historical Novel Society. Retrieved 2 August 2017.  ^ Horton, Rich. "Household Gods". SF Site. SF Site. Retrieved 2 August 2017.  ^ Kakutani, Michiko. "Books of The Times; Students Indulging In Course of Destruction". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 3 November 2017.  ^ Greenspun, Roger (March 23, 1970). "Screen::De Palma's ' Dionysus
Dionysus
in 69'". New York Times. Retrieved 1 August 2017.  ^ Murray, Matthew. "The Frogs". Talkin' Broadway. Talkin' Broadway. Retrieved 2 August 2017.  ^ Maxwell, Herbert (1913). The Chronicle of Lanercost, 1272-1346. Glasgow, Scotland: Glasgow : J. Maclehose. pp. 29–30.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Clogg, Richard (Jan 2005). "Woodhouse, Christopher Montague, fifth Baron Terrington (1917–2001)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199671540.  ^ Ashe, Geoffrey (2000). The Hell-Fire Clubs: A History of Anti-Morality. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. p. 114.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Bayles, Richard (1889). History of Windham County, Connecticut.  ^ "Dionysus". Neokoroi.org. Neokoroi. Retrieved 3 August 2017.  ^ Detienne, Marcel. Dionysus
Dionysus
Slain. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1979. ^ Evans, Arthur. The God of Ecstasy. New York: St. Martins' Press, 1989 ^ Wick, Peter (2004). "Jesus gegen Dionysos? Ein Beitrag zur Kontextualisierung des Johannesevangeliums". Biblica. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute. 85 (2): 179–198. Retrieved 2007-10-10.  ^ a b c Powell, Barry B., Classical Myth. Second ed. With new translations of ancient texts by Herbert M. Howe. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998. ^ Studies in Early Christology, by Martin Hengel, 2005, p. 331 (ISBN 0567042804). ^ Dalby, Andrew (2005). The Story of Bacchus. London: British Museum Press. ^ E. Kessler, Dionysian Monotheism
Monotheism
in Nea Paphos, Cyprus. Symposium on Pagan Monotheism
Monotheism
in the Roman Empire, Exeter, 17–20 July 2006 Abstract Archived 2008-04-21 at the Wayback Machine.) ^ Bull, 240-241 ^ John Chadwick, The Mycenaean World, Cambridge University Press, 1976, 99ff: "But Dionysos
Dionysos
surprisingly appears twice at Pylos, in the form Diwonusos, both times irritatingly enough on fragments, so that we have no means of verifying his divinity." ^ "The Linear B
Linear B
word di-wo-nu-so". Palaeolexicon. Word study tool of ancient languages.  ^ This is the view of Garcia Ramon (1987) and Peters (1989), summarised and endorsed in Janda (2010:20). ^ Fox, p. 217, "The word Dionysos
Dionysos
is divisible into two parts, the first originally Διος (cf. Ζευς), while the second is of an unknown signification, although perhaps connected with the name of the Mount Nysa which figures in the story of Lykourgos: (...) when Dionysos
Dionysos
had been reborn from the thigh of Zeus, Hermes
Hermes
entrusted him to the nymphs of Mount Nysa, who fed him on the food of the gods, and made him immortal." ^ Testimonia of Pherecydes in an early 5th-century BC fragment, FGrH 3, 178, in the context of a discussion on the name of Dionysus: "Nũsas (acc. pl.), he [Pherecydes] said, was what they called the trees." ^ a b Nonnus, Dionysiaca
Dionysiaca
9.20–24. ^ Suda
Suda
s.v. Διόνυσος . ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 337. ^ see Janda (2010), 16-44 for a detailed account. ^ Pausanias, 8.39.6. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Ακρωρεία ^ Used thus by Ausonius, Epigrams, 29, 6, and in Catullus, 29; see Lee M. Fratantuono, NIVALES SOCII: CAESAR, MAMURRA, AND THE SNOW OF CATULLUS C. 57, Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica, New Series, Vol. 96, No. 3 (2010), p. 107, Note 2. ^ Aego'bolus entry in William Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, London, John Murray, 1848, citing Pausanias, ix. 8. § 1. Online at perseus.tufts.edu (accessed 15 February 2017) ^ Aristid.Or.41 ^ Macr.Sat.I.18.9 ^ For a parallel see pneuma/psuche/anima The core meaning is wind as "breath/spirit" ^ Bulls in antiquity were said to roar. ^ McKeown, J.C. A Cabinet of Greek Curiosities: Strange Tales and Surprising Facts from the Cradle of Western Civilization, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013, p. 210) ^ Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation to the Greeks, 92: 82-83, Loeb Classical Library (registration required: accessed 17 December 2016) ^ Kerenyi, C. (1967). Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01915-0; Kerenyi 1976). Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life. Princeton University Press. ^ Janda (2010), 16-44. ^ Kerenyi 1976:286. ^ Jameson 1993, 53. Cf.n16 for suggestions of Devereux on "Enorkhes," ^ http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/morph?l=%CE%BB%CF%85%CE%B1%CE%B9%CE%BF%CF%82&la=greek#lexicon Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek-English Lexicon ^ Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek-English Lexicon ^ Mentioned by Erasmus
Erasmus
in The Praise of Folly ^ Rosemarie Taylor-Perry, The God Who Comes: Dionysian Mysteries Revisited. Algora Press 2003, p.89, cf. Sabazius. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
( Iliad
Iliad
3.374, 20.105; Odyssey
Odyssey
8.308, 320) and Dione ( Iliad
Iliad
5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100. ^ According to Homer, Iliad
Iliad
1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey
Odyssey
8.312, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was apparently the son of Hera
Hera
and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74. ^ According to Hesiod's Theogony
Theogony
886–890, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena
Athena
was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus
Zeus
impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus
Zeus
himself gave birth to Athena
Athena
"from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
183–200, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
927–929, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was produced by Hera
Hera
alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.

References[edit]

Bull, Malcolm, The Mirror of the Gods, How Renaissance Artists Rediscovered the Pagan Gods, Oxford UP, 2005, ISBN 9780195219234 Dalby, Andrew (2005). The Story of Bacchus. London: British Museum Press. ISBN 0-7141-2255-6.  Farnell, Lewis Richard, The Cults of the Greek States, 1896. Volume V, cf. Chapter IV, "Cults of Dionysos"; Chapter V, "Dionysiac Ritual"; Chapter VI, "Cult-Monuments of Dionysos"; Chapter VII, "Ideal Dionysiac Types". Fox, William Sherwood, The Mythology
Mythology
of All Races, v.1, Greek and Roman, 1916, General editor, Louis Herbert Gray. Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2). Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Homer, The Iliad
Iliad
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Homer; The Odyssey
Odyssey
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Janda, Michael, Die Musik nach dem Chaos, Innsbruck 2010. Jameson, Michael. "The Asexuality of Dionysus." Masks of Dionysus. Ed. Thomas H. Carpenter and Christopher A. Faraone. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1993. ISBN 0-8014-8062-0. 44-64. Kerényi, Karl, Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life, (Princeton: Bollingen) 1976. Nonnus, Dionysiaca; translated by Rouse, W H D, I Books I–XV. Loeb Classical Library No. 344, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1940. Internet Archive Sara Peterson, An account of the Dionysiac presence in Indian art and culture. Academia, 2016 Pickard-Cambridge, Arthur, The Theatre of Dionysus
Theatre of Dionysus
at Athens, 1946. Powell, Barry B., Classical Myth, 5th edition, 2007. Ridgeway, William, Origin of Tragedy, 1910. Kessinger Publishing (June 2003). ISBN 0-7661-6221-4. Ridgeway, William, The Dramas and Dramatic Dances of non-European Races in special reference to the origin of Greek Tragedy, with an appendix on the origin of Greek Comedy, 1915. Riu, Xavier, Dionysism and Comedy, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers (1999). ISBN 0-8476-9442-9. Seaford, Richard. "Dionysos", Routledge (2006). ISBN 0-415-32488-2. Smith, R.R.R., Hellenistic Sculpture, a handbook, Thames & Hudson, 1991, ISBN 0500202494 Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1870, article on Dionysus Sutton, Dana F., Ancient Comedy, Twayne Publishers (August 1993). ISBN 0-8057-0957-6.

Library resources about Dionysus

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Livy, History of Rome, Book 39:13, Description of banned Bacchanalia in Rome
Rome
and Italy Detienne, Marcel, Dionysos
Dionysos
at Large, tr. by Arthur Goldhammer, Harvard University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-674-20773-4. (Originally in French as Dionysos
Dionysos
à ciel ouvert, 1986) Albert Henrichs, Between City and Country: Cultic Dimensions of Dionysus
Dionysus
in Athens
Athens
and Attica, (April 1, 1990). Department of Classics, UCB. Cabinet of the Muses: Rosenmeyer Festschrift. Paper festschrift18. Sara Peterson, An account of the Dionysiac presence in Indian art and culture. Academia, 2016 Seaford, Richard. Dionysos
Dionysos
(Gods and Heroes of the Ancient World). Oxford: Routledge, 2006 ISBN 0-415-32487-4. Taylor-Perry, Rosemarie The God Who Comes: Dionysian Mysteries Revisited. New York: Algora Press, 2003 ISBN 0-87586-214-4. Frazer, James "The Golden Bough"

External links[edit]

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