The demoscene is an international computer art subculture that
specializes in producing demos: small, self-contained computer
programs that produce audio-visual presentations. The main goal of a
demo is to show off programming, artistic, and musical skills.
The demoscene's roots are in the home computer revolution of the late
1970s, and the subsequent advent of software cracking. Crackers
illegally distributed video games, adding introductions of their own
making ("cracktros"), and soon started competing for the best
presentation. The making of intros and stand-alone demos eventually
evolved into a new subculture, independent of the gaming:29–30
and software file sharing scenes.
4.3 Common properties
4.4 List of demoparties
5 Demo types
Video games industry
7 See also
7.1 Specific platforms
9 Further reading
10 External links
Screen shot from Second Reality, a famous demo by Future Crew.
Prior to the popularity of
IBM PC compatibles, most home computers of
a given line had relatively little variance in their basic hardware,
which made their capabilities practically identical. Therefore, the
variations among demos created for one computer line were attributed
to programming alone, rather than one computer having better hardware.
This created a competitive environment in which demoscene groups would
try to outperform each other in creating outstanding effects, and
often to demonstrate why they felt one machine was better than another
Commodore 64 or
Atari 800 or ST).
Demo writers went to great lengths to get every last bit of
performance out of their target machine. Where games and application
writers were concerned with the stability and functionality of their
software, the demo writer was typically interested in how many CPU
cycles a routine would consume and, more generally, how best to
squeeze great activity onto the screen. Writers went so far as to
exploit known hardware errors to produce effects that the manufacturer
of the computer had not intended. The perception that the demo scene
was going to extremes and charting new territory added to its draw.
Recent computer hardware advancements include faster processors, more
memory, faster video graphics processors, and hardware 3D
acceleration. With many of the past's challenges removed, the focus in
making demos has moved from squeezing as much out of the computer as
possible to making stylish, beautiful, well-designed real time artwork
– a directional shift that many "old school demosceners" seem to
disapprove of. This can be explained by the break introduced by the PC
world, where the platform varies and most of the programming work that
used to be hand-programmed is now done by the graphics card. This
gives demo-groups a lot more artistic freedom, but can frustrate some
of the old-schoolers for lack of a programming challenge. The old
tradition still lives on, though. Demo parties have competitions with
varying limitations in program size or platform (different series are
called compos). On a modern computer the executable size may be
limited to 64 kB or 4 kB. Programs of limited size are
usually called intros. In other compos the choice of platform is
restricted; only old computers, like the 8-bit
Atari 800 or Commodore
64, or the 16-bit
Atari ST, or mobile devices like handheld
phones or PDAs are allowed. Such restrictions provide a challenge for
coders, musicians and graphics artists and bring back the old motive
of making a device do more than was intended in its original design.
The earliest computer programs that have some resemblance to demos and
demo effects can be found among the so-called display hacks. Display
hacks predate the demoscene by several decades, with the earliest
examples dating back to the early 1950s.
Demos in the demoscene sense began as software crackers' "signatures",
that is, crack screens and crack intros attached to software whose
copy protection was removed. The first crack screens appeared on the
Apple II computers in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and they were
often nothing but plain text screens crediting the cracker or their
group. Gradually, these static screens evolved into increasingly
impressive-looking introductions containing animated effects and
music. Eventually, many cracker groups started to release intro-like
programs separately, without being attached to unlicensed software.
These programs were initially known by various names, such as letters
or messages, but they later came to be known as demos.
Simple demo-like music collections were put together on the C64 in
1985 by Charles Deenen, inspired by crack intros, using music taken
from games and adding some homemade color graphics. In the following
year the movement now known as the demoscene was born. The Dutch
groups 1001 Crew and The Judges, both Commodore 64-based, are often
mentioned as the earliest demo groups. Whilst competing with each
other in 1986, they both produced pure demos with original graphics
and music involving more than just casual work, and used extensive
hardware trickery. At the same time demos from others, such as Antony
Crowther (Ratt), had started circulating on
Compunet in the United
Kingdom. On the ZX Spectrum,
Castor Cracking Group
Castor Cracking Group released their
first demo called Castor Intro in 1986. The
ZX Spectrum demo scene was
slow to start, but it started to rise in the late 1980s, most
noticeably in Eastern Europe.
The demoscene is mainly a European phenomenon, and is predominantly
male. It is a competition-oriented subculture, with groups and
individual artists competing against each other in technical and
artistic excellence. Those who achieve excellence are dubbed "elite",
while those who do not follow the demoscene's implicit rules are
called "lamers"; such rules emphasize creativity over "ripping" (or
else licensing) the works of others, having good contacts within the
scene, and showing effort rather than asking for help. Both this
competitiveness and the sense of cooperation among demosceners have
led to comparisons with the earlier hacker culture in academic
computing.:159 The demoscene is a closed subculture, which seeks
and receives little mainstream public interest.:4 As of
2010[update], the size of the scene was estimated at some 10,000.
In the early days, competition came in the form of setting records,
like the number of "bobs" (blitter objects) on the screen per frame,
or the number of DYCP (Different Y Character Position) scrollers on a
C64. These days, there are organized competitions, or
compos, held at demoparties, although there have been some online
competitions as well. It has also been common for diskmags to have
voting-based charts which provide ranking lists for the best coders,
graphicians, musicians, demos and other things. However, the respect
for charts has diminished since the 1990s.
Party-based competitions usually require the artist or a group member
to be present at the event. The winners are selected by a public
voting amongst the visitors and awarded at a prizegiving ceremony at
the end of the party. Competitions at a typical demo event include a
demo compo, an intro compo (usually 4 kB and 64 kB), a
graphics compo and a music compo. Most parties also split some
categories by platform, format or style.
There are no criteria or rules the voters should be bound by, and a
visitor typically just votes for those entries that made the biggest
impression on them. In the old demos, the impression was often
attempted with programming techniques introducing new effects and
breaking performance records in old effects; the emphasis has moved
from technical excellence to more artistic values such as overall
design, audiovisual impact and mood.
In recent years, an initiative to award demos in an alternative way
arose by the name of the
Scene.org Awards. The essential concept of
the awards was to avoid the subjectivity of mass-voting at parties,
and select a well-renowned jury to handle the task of selecting the
given year's best productions on several aspects, such as Best
Graphics or Best 64k Intro. This award was canceled in 2012.
PC-Demo: Interceptor by Black Maiden.
Main article: Demogroup
Demosceners typically organize in small, tightly-knit groups, centered
around a coder (programmer), a musician and a graphician (graphics
designer). Various other supporting roles exist and groups can grow to
dozens of people, but most demos are actually created by a small
number of people.:32–33
Groups always have names, and similarly the individual members pick a
handle by which they will be addressed in the large community. While
the practice of using handles rather than real names is a borrowing
from the cracker/warez culture, where it serves to hide the identity
of the cracker from law enforcement, in the demoscene (oriented toward
legal activities) it mostly serves as a manner of self-expression.
Group members tend to self-identify with the group, often extending
their handle with their group's name, following the patterns "Handle
of Group" or "Handle/Group".:31–32
Assembly 2004 – a combination of a demoparty and a
A demoparty is an event that gathers demosceners and other computer
enthusiasts to partake in competitions called
Demoscene compos of
demos (short audio-visual presentations of computer art). A typical
demoparty is a non-stop event spanning a weekend, providing the
visitors a lot of time to socialize. The competing works, at least
those in the most important competitions, are usually shown at night,
using a video projector and loudspeakers. The most important
competition is usually the demo compo.
The visitors of a demoparty often bring their own computers to compete
and show off their works. To this end, most parties provide a large
hall with tables, electricity and usually a local area network
connected to the Internet. In this respect, many demoparties resemble
LAN parties, and many of the largest events also gather gamers and
other computer enthusiasts in addition to demosceners. A major
difference between a real demoparty and a
LAN party is that
demosceners typically spend more time socializing (often outside the
actual party hall) than in front of their computers.
Large parties have often tried to come up with alternative terms to
describe the concept to the general public. While the events have
always been known as "demoparties", "copyparties" or just "parties" by
the subculture itself, they are often referred to as "computer
conferences", "computer fairs", "computer festivals", "computer art
festivals", "youngsters' computer events" or even "geek gatherings" or
"nerd festivals" by the mass media and the general public.
Demoscene events are most frequent in continental Europe, with around
fifty parties every year—in comparison, the
United States only has
two or three each year. Most events are local, gathering demomakers
mostly from a single country, while the largest international parties
(such as Breakpoint and Assembly) attract visitors from all over the
Most demoparties are relatively small in size, with the number of
visitors varying from dozens to a few hundred. The largest events
typically gather thousands of visitors, although most of them have
little or no connection to the demoscene. In that aspect, the scene
separates "pure" parties (which abandons non-scene related activities
and promotion) from "crossover" parties.
Demoparties started to appear in the 1980s in the form of copyparties,
where software pirates and demomakers gathered to meet each other and
share their software. Competitions did not become a major aspect of
the events until the early 1990s.
Copyparties mainly pertained to the
Amiga and C64 scene. As the PC
compatibles started to take over the market, the difficulties in
easily making nice demos and intros increased. Along with increased
police crackdowns on copying of copyrighted software, the
"underground" copyparties were gradually replaced by slightly
higher-profile events that came to be known as demoparties. However,
some of the "old-school" demosceners still prefer to use the word
copyparty even for today's demoparties.
During the 1990s, the focus of the events shifted away from illegal
activities into demomaking and competitions. The copying of
copyrighted material was often explicitly prohibited by the
organizers, and many events also forbade the consumption of alcohol.
However, illegal copying and "boozing" still continued to take place,
although in a less public form.
Three well-known and appreciated large-scale demoparties were
established in the early 1990s: The Party in Denmark, Assembly in
Finland and The Gathering in Norway. Taking place every year and
gathering thousands of visitors, these parties used to be the leading
demoscene events in this period. Assembly still retains this status
today. The Gathering continues to be organized yearly as a generic
"computer party", but most of the demosceners now prefer Revision in
Germany, which takes place at the same time.
The emergence of high-profile demoparties gave rise to phenomena that
were not always well welcomed by the scene. The events started to
attract unaffiliated computer enthusiasts who were often generally
referred to as "lamers" by the original attendants. A particularly
visible group in the large gatherings since the mid-1990s have been
LAN gamers, who often have very little interest in the demoscene
and mainly use the party facilities for playing multi-player computer
games. However, many of today's demosceners received their first
interest for demos and demomaking from a visit to a large demoparty.
Evoke 2002: Spectators at one of the demoshow rooms watch computer
animations in 3D.
Parties usually last from two to four days, most often from Friday to
Sunday to ensure that sceners who work or study are also able to
attend. Small parties (under 100 attendants) usually take place in
cultural centers or schools, whereas larger parties (over 400–500
people) typically take place in sports halls or concert halls.
Entrance fees are usually between €10 and €40, given the size and
location of the party. During the 90s it was common practice in many
countries to allow females to enter the party for free (mostly due to
the low concentration of female attendees, which is usually under
20%), albeit most parties still enforced an "only vote with ticket"
rule, which means that an attendee who got in free was only able to
vote with a paid ticket. This practice was largely abandoned in the
Attendees are allowed to bring their desktop computer along, but this
is by no means a necessity and is usually omitted by most sceners,
especially those who travel long distance. Those who have
computer-related jobs may even regard a demoparty as a well-deserved
break from sitting in front of a computer. For those who do bring a
computer, it is becoming increasingly common to bring a laptop or some
sort of handheld device rather than a complete desktop PC.
Partygoers often bring various senseless gadgets to parties to make
their desk space look unique; this can be anything from a disco ball
or a plasma lamp to a large LED display panel complete with a
scrolling message about how "elite" its owner is. Many visitors also
bring large loudspeakers for playing music. This kind of activity is
particularly common among new partygoers, while the more experienced
attendees tend to prefer a more quiet and relaxed atmosphere.
Those who need housing during the party are often offered a separate
"sleeping room", usually an isolated empty room with some sort of
carpet or mats, where the attendees are able to sleep, separated from
the noise. Most sceners prefer bringing sleeping bags for this, as
well as air mattresses or sleeping pads. Parties that do not offer a
sleeping room generally allow sceners to sleep under the tables.
Partyplaces often become decorated by visitors with flyers and
banners. These all serve promotional reasons, in most cases to
advertise a certain group, but sometimes to create promotion for a
given demoscene product, such as a demo or a diskmag, possibly to be
released later at the party.
A major portion of the events at a demoparty often takes place
outdoors. Demosceners usually spend considerable time outside to have
a beer and talk, or engage into some sort of open-air activity such as
barbecueing or sport, such as hardware throwing or soccer. It is also
a common tradition to gather around a bonfire during the night,
usually after the compos.
In recent years, many parties were available for spectators through
the Internet: This tradition was first started by the live team of
demoscene.tv, who broadcast from the event live or created footage for
a postmortem video-report. This has since been ostensibly replaced by
the SceneSat radio crew, who provide live streaming radio shows from
parties, and larger parties now offer their own dedicated streaming
List of demoparties
(Note: Year ranges might include years when the party wasn't
organized, but was organized both before and after.)
7DX is an annual demoparty that has been held since 2002 in Turkey. It
is Turkey's first demo party that consists of demo-oriented
An alternative party visited mostly by demo scene veterans.
8-bit party, held each summer.
São Paulo, Brazil
The second Brazilian demoparty ever organized.
One of the longest-running demo parties in the world. Associated with
LAN Party of
Sweden with a Demoscene
First PC demo party in The Netherlands. 1994 in Nijmegen, rest in
Cleveland, Ohio, USA
During its run, the largest stand-alone demo party in the United
Formerly the world's largest "scene-only" demoparty, successor of the
Mekka & Symposium party series. Followed by Revision.
Saint Petersburg, Russia
The largest demoparty in ex-Soviet countries, successor of the Enlight
Started at Adelaide Uni then later changed venues to Ngapartji
Multimedia Centre. Organised by local groups POP and FTS.
Amiga/C64 copy party.
The biggest multiplatform party in Slovakia. Ressurected after 20
years in 2017.
The only demoparty strictly focused on open web technologies.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Hosted by the
Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University Computer Club.
Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Second largest demoparty in
Russia (after Chaos Constructions).
World's largest LAN-party, which later became more of Gaming party /
Demoparty organized by Digitale Kultur
Horná Súča, Slovakia
8-bit party, C64, Spectrum and Atari
First demoparty in Greece.
Norway's largest demoparty, which later became more of a
Organized by the youth club ComUn (Computer Union).
A result of a split from the computer event Codex Alpe Adria to focus
on demo scene only. It currently is the only 100% pure demo scene
event in Italy.
2007, 2008, 2012–
Demoparty and a festival of electronic art.
Used to be the oldest pure demoparty in the world, hasn't been held
Mekka & Symposium
One of the most respected demoparties. Part of the organizing staff
went on to create Breakpoint.
The yearly demo party of the demoscene in Israel.
Longueuil, Quebec, Canada
The first, and to date, largest demoparty in North America.
First pure demoscene party in
Bremen since the Siliconvention in 1997.
San Jose, California, USA
2008, 2014, 2015
Held in conjunction with
Nvision (an nVidia conference) in 2008.
Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Runs concurrently with Notacon.
On the first weekend after 10th May in each year.
The world's largest "scene-only" demoparty, successor of the
Breakpoint party series.
The only annual demoparty in Belgium.
Somewhere in Holland
Demoparty in The Netherlands.
The first UK-based party since 1999.
Melbourne's biggest and (currently) only demoparty.
One of the oldest and largest parties; abandoned by the demoscene in
its final years due to lack of support.
The Ultimate Meeting
One of the biggest German demoparties, initially thought as a warm-up
meeting for The Party. It finally moved to the same date as The Party
when it was clear that The Party became obsolete.
Organized by PoPsY TeAm, this is the only pure demoscene party still
ongoing in France.
Commodore 64 party, currently held every second year. Last one was on
October 24–26, 2014.
Main article: Demo (computer programming)
The demoscene still exists on many platforms, including the PC, C64,
MSX, ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC, Amiga, Atari,
Dreamcast and Game Boy
Advance. The large variety of platforms makes their respective demos
hard to compare. Some 3D benchmark programs also have a demo or
showcase mode, which derives its roots from the days of the 16-bit
There are several categories demos are informally classified into, the
most important being the division between the "full-size" demos and
the size-restricted intros, a difference visible in the competitions
of nearly any demo party. The most typical competition categories for
intros are the 64K intro and the 4K intro, where the size of the
executable file is restricted to 65536 and 4096 bytes, respectively.
Although demos are still a more or less obscure form of art even in
the traditionally active demoscene countries, the scene has influenced
areas such as computer games industry and new media art.[citation
A great deal of European game programmers, artists and musicians have
come from the demoscene, often cultivating the learned techniques,
practices and philosophies in their work. For example, the Finnish
company Remedy Entertainment, known for the
Max Payne series of games,
was founded by the PC group Future Crew, and most of its employees are
former or active Finnish demosceners. Sometimes demos even
provide direct influence even to game developers that have no
demoscene affiliation: for instance, Will Wright names demoscene as a
major influence on the
Maxis game Spore, which is largely based on
procedural content generation. Similarly, at
QuakeCon in 2011,
John Carmack noted that he "thinks highly" of people who do 64k
intros, as an example of artificial limitations encouraging creative
Jerry Holkins from
Penny Arcade claimed to have an
"abiding love" for the demoscene, and noted that it is "stuff worth
Certain forms of computer art have a strong affiliation with the
demoscene. Tracker music, for example, originated in the
industry but was soon heavily dominated by demoscene musicians;
producer Adam Fielding claims to have tracker/demoscene roots.
Currently, there is a major tracking scene separate from the actual
demoscene. A form of static computer graphics where demosceners have
traditionally excelled is pixel art; see artscene for more information
on the related subculture.
Over the years, desktop computer hardware capabilities have improved
by orders of magnitude, and so for most programmers, tight hardware
restrictions are no longer a common issue. Nevertheless, demosceners
continue to study and experiment with creating impressive effects on
limited hardware. Since handheld consoles and cellular phones have
comparable processing power or capabilities to the desktop platforms
of old (such as low resolution screens which require pixel-art, or
very limited storage and memory for music replay), many demosceners
have been able to apply their niche skills to develop games for these
platforms, and earn a living doing so. One particular
example is Angry Birds, whose lead designer Jaakko Iisalo was an
active and well-known demoscener in the 90s.
Some attempts have been made to increase the familiarity of demos as
an art form. For example, there have been demo shows, demo galleries
and demoscene-related books, sometimes even TV programs introducing
the subculture and its works.[original research?]
The museum IT-ceum in Linköping, Sweden, has an exhibition about the
Sometimes a demoscene-based production may become very famous in
technical contexts. For example, the 96-kilobyte FPS game
Farbrausch uses procedural content generation algorithms that are
quite common on today's 64K intros but largely unknown to the computer
games enthusiasts and the US-based game development
Video games industry
4players.de reported that "numerous" demo and intro programmers,
artists, and musicians were employed in the games industry by 2007.
Video game companies with demoscene members on staff included Digital
Illusions, Starbreeze, Ascaron, 49Games, Remedy Entertainment,
Techland, Lionhead Studios, Bugbear Entertainment, Digital
Guerrilla Games and Akella.
Computer art scene
Commodore 64 demos
ZX Spectrum demos
Aliquis Game Archive
^ Reunanen, Markku (15 April 2014). "How Those Crackers Became Us
Demosceners". WiderScreen. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
^ a b c d Markku Reunanen (2010). Computer Demos—What Makes Them
Tick? (Lic.). Aalto University.
^ "Slashdot's "Top 10 Hacks of All Time"". slashdot.org. 13 December
1999. Retrieved 25 December 2010.
Second Reality by
Future Crew –
Awesome, Mindblowing, Unbelievable, Impossible. Some of the words used
to describe what this piece of code from demoscene gods Future Crew
did on 1993-era PC hardware. Even by today's standards, what this
program can do without relying on any kind of 3D graphics acceleration
is impressive. As if the graphics weren't impressive enough, it can
even playback in Dolby Surround Sound.
^ Raymond, Eric S. "display hacks". The Jargon File. Retrieved 18
^ Green, Dave (1 July 1995). "Demo or Die!". Wired. Retrieved 18 March
^ a b c Reunanen, Markku; Silvast, Antti (2009).
A Case Study on the Adoption of Home Computers. History of Nordic
Computing. pp. 289–301. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-03757-3_30.
^ Turner-Rahman, Gregory (2013). "the demoscene". In Chris, Cynthia;
Gerstner, David A. Media Authorship. Routledge.
^ Hartmann, Doreen (2010). Computer Demos and the Demoscene: Artistic
Subcultural Innovation in Real-Time (PDF). 16th International
Symposium of Electronic Art.
^ Scheib, Vince. "The Hacker Demo Scene And It's Cultural Artifacts by
George Borzyskowski - Vince Scheib". scheib.net.
^ "Demoparty". catb.org.
^ Williams, Jeremy (2002). "Demographics: Behind the Scene".
archive.org. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
^ Scheib, Vince. "Demos Explained; What are Demos? What is a Demo? -
Vince Scheib". scheib.net.
^ "Breakpoint 2010 - Like There's No Tomorrow // Bingen am Rhein,
Germany, Easter Weekend 2010".
Demoscene - the portal on the demoscene". demoscene.info.
^ Bobic (18 January 2007). "Sceners in the Games Industry".
4players.de. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
^ "Jaakko Lehtinen appointed as a Professor in the School of Science".
2012-09-28. The so-called demoscene has laid a foundation for the
active and internationally astonishingly successful Finnish games
^ Dave 'Fargo' Kosak (2005-03-14). "Will Wright Presents Spore... and
a New Way to Think About Games". GameSpy.
QuakeCon 2011 –
John Carmack Keynote". YouTube. 2011-08-05.
^ "Lickr". 2012-04-13.
^ Artist Feature:
Adam Fielding on YouTubelink=class=ytta-embed-icon
^ "Edge Magazine – GamesRadar+". edge-online.com.
^ "scene.org file archive :: browsing /resources/media/".
^ "Linköping – Do & See – Datamuseet It-ceum". and visitors
can also learn more about today’s demo scene
^ Bobic (18 January 2007). "Spielkultur
4players.de. p. 1. Archived from the original on 21 September
2014. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
^ Bobic (18 January 2007). "Spielkultur
4players.de. p. 2. Archived from the original on 21 September
2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
^ Bobic (18 January 2007). "Spielkultur
4players.de. p. 3. Archived from the original on 21 September
2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
Polgár, Tamás ("Tomcat") (2005). FREAX: Volume 1. CSW-Verlag.
Vigh, David and Polgár, Tamás ("Tomcat"): FREAX Art Album.
Tasajärvi, Lassi (2004). DEMOSCENE: the Art of Real-Time. Evenlake
Studios. ISBN 952-91-7022-X.
DEMOing: Art or Craft? 1984–2002 (PDF), Write-up by Shirley Shor
about the demoscene
Green, Dave (July 1995). "Demo or Die!". Wired magazine. Retrieved 31
Demoscene Research – bibliography of scientific publications about
Demoscene (PDF), Flyer by Digitale Kultur e. V. about the
Vigh, David: Pixelstorm (PDF), – selected artworks of demoscene
graphicians 2003, bugfixed 2007
Paris art scene  –
Special issue of
mustekala.info webzine focused on demoscene with several articles,
some only on Finnish though.
Reunanen, Markku (2010). Computer Demos – What Makes Them Tick?
Aalto University School of Science and Technology.
Demoscene Documentary's channel on YouTube. A 7 part documentary
series about the Finnish demoscene.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Demoscene.
demoscene.info, A webportal providing information on the demoscene
demozoo.org, An extensive database of demos, demoscene music,
graphics, demosceners and demoparties
slengpung.com, Pictures from parties and demoscene related events
demoparty.net, Database of past and future demoparties, location and
Demoscene community and information portal
, What Is Demoscene? an introductory movie by demoscene.tv.
Pouet.net Database of demos, with download links
"demoscene.us – Party List". demoscene.us.
Media related to Demoparties at Wikimedia Commons
Demoparty.net - collective demoscene party database
Slengpung - demoscene party pictures, videos and party reports
Assembly07 TV report
breakpoint05 report on German TV (English subtitles)
faq about demoscene
Amateur press association
Tracker (MOD) music
Experimental musical instrument
Cinema of Transgression
No budget film
No Wave Cinema
Open-source video game
Independent soft drink
Independent circuit (wrestling)
Independent TV station
Do it yourself
Do it yourself (DIY ethic)