HOME
        TheInfoList






Czechs
Češi
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg
Total population
c.10–12 million
(including Moravians and Czech Silesians)
Czech people around the world.svg
Regions with significant populations
 Czech Republic  
6,732,104
[1][nb 1]9,246,784[2]
Significant diasporic populations in:
 United States1,462,000[3]
 Canada294,805[4]
 United Kingdom145,000[5]
 Austria50,000[6]
 Slovakia36,153[7]
Czech: Češi, pronounced [ˈtʃɛʃɪ]; singular masculine: Čech [ˈtʃɛx], singular feminine: Češka [ˈtʃɛʃka]), or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic[19] in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and Czech language.

Ethnic Czechs[20] were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", and formed a principality in the 9th century, which was part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic.

The Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Canada, Israel, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Switzerland, Italy, the United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Argentina and Brazil, among others.

Ethnology

The Czech ethn

Ethnic Czechs[20] were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", and formed a principality in the 9th century, which was part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic.

The Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Canada, Israel, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Switzerland, Italy, the United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Argentina and Brazil, among others.

The Czech ethnic group is part of the West Slavic subgroup of the larger Slavic ethno-linguistical group. The West Slavs have their origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe after East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period.[21] The West Slavic tribe of Czechs settled in the area of Bohemia during the migration period, and assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations.[22] In the 9th century the Duchy of Bohemia, under the Přemyslid dynasty, was formed, which had been part of Great Moravia under Svatopluk I. According to mythology, the founding father of the Czech people was Forefather Čech, who according to legend brought the tribe of Czechs into its land.

The Czech are closely related to the neighbouring Slovaks (with whom they constituted Czechoslovakia 1918–1993). The Czech–Slovak languages form a dialect continuum rather than being two clearly distinct languages.[23] Czech cultural influence in Slovak culture is noted as having been much higher than the other way around.[24] Czech (Slavic) people have a long history of coexistence with the Germanic people. In the 17th century, German replaced Czech in central and local administration; upper classes in Bohemia and Moravia were Germanized, and espoused a political identity (Landespatriotismus), while Czech ethnic identity survived among the lower and lower-middle classes.[25] The Czech National Revival took place in the 18th and 19th centuries aiming to revive Czech language, culture and national identity. The Czech were the initiators of Pan-Slavism.[26]

The Czech ethnonym (archaic Čechové) was the name of a Slavic tribe in central Bohemia that subdued the surrounding tribes in the late 9th century and created the Czech/Bohemian state. The origin of the name of the tribe itself is unknown. According to legend, it comes from their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia. Research regards Čech as a derivative of the root čel- (member of the people, kinsman).[27] The Czech ethnonym was adopted by the Moravians in the 19th century.[28]

Genetics

Distribution of populations in selected nations according to their Haplogroup frequencies, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2007[29]
  Czech samples
  German samples
  Polish samples
  Italian samples
  Balkan samples

The population of the Czech lands has been influenced by different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe over time. In their Y-DNA haplogroups, which are inherited along the male line, Czechs have shown a mix of Eastern and Western European traits. According to a 2007 study, 34.2% of Czech men belong to R1a. Within the Czech Republic, the proportion of R1a seems to gradually increase from west to east [30] According to a 2000 study, 35.6% of Czech men have haplogroup R1b, which is very common in Western Europe among Germanic and Celtic nations, but rare among Slavic nations.[31] A mtDNA study of 179 individuals from Western Bohemia showed that 3% had East Eurasian lineages that perhaps entered the gene pool through admixture with Central Asian nomadic tribes in the early Middle Ages.[32] A group of scientists suggested that the high frequency of a gene mutation causing cystic fibrosis in Central European (including Czech R.) and Celtic populations supports the theory of some Celtic ancestry among the Czech population.[33]

Y-DNA studies
Population n R1b R1a I  E1b1b J G N T Others Reference
Czech R. 257 34.2 18.3 5.8 4.7 5.1 1.6 Luca et al. 2007[29]
Czech R. ? 35.6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Semino et al. 2000[31]
Czech R. 817 29.4 26.7 8.6 4.9 5.6 6.8 3.2 1.0 Czech DNA Project 2001-2018[34]

History

Duchy of Bohemia, the early form of the Czech state pictured in the 11th century within the Holy Roman Empire.

The population of the Czech Republic descends from diverse peoples of Slavic, Celtic and Germanic origin.[35][22][36][37] Presence of West Slavs in t

The Czech are closely related to the neighbouring Slovaks (with whom they constituted Czechoslovakia 1918–1993). The Czech–Slovak languages form a dialect continuum rather than being two clearly distinct languages.[23] Czech cultural influence in Slovak culture is noted as having been much higher than the other way around.[24] Czech (Slavic) people have a long history of coexistence with the Germanic people. In the 17th century, German replaced Czech in central and local administration; upper classes in Bohemia and Moravia were Germanized, and espoused a political identity (Landespatriotismus), while Czech ethnic identity survived among the lower and lower-middle classes.[25] The Czech National Revival took place in the 18th and 19th centuries aiming to revive Czech language, culture and national identity. The Czech were the initiators of Pan-Slavism.[26]

The Czech ethnonym (archaic Čechové) was the name of a Slavic tribe in central Bohemia that subdued the surrounding tribes in the late 9th century and created the Czech/Bohemian state. The origin of the name of the tribe itself is unknown. According to legend, it comes from their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia. Research regards Čech as a derivative of the root čel- (member of the people, kinsman).[27] The Czech ethnonym was adopted by the Moravians in the 19th century.[28]

The population of the Czech lands has been influenced by different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe over time. In their Y-DNA haplogroups, which are inherited along the male line, Czechs have shown a mix of Eastern and Western European traits. According to a 2007 study, 34.2% of Czech men belong to R1a. Within the Czech Republic, the proportion of R1a seems to gradually increase from west to east [30] According to a 2000 study, 35.6% of Czech men have haplogroup R1b, which is very common in Western Europe among Germanic and Celtic nations, but rare among Slavic nations.[31] A mtDNA study of 179 individuals from Western Bohemia showed that 3% had East Eurasian lineages that perhaps entered the gene pool through admixture with Central Asian nomadic tribes in the early Middle Ages.[32] A group of scientists suggested that the high frequency of a gene mutation causing cystic fibrosis in Central European (including Czech R.) and Celtic populations supports the theory of some Celtic ancestry among the Czech population.[33]

Y-DNA studies
Population n R1b R1a I  E1b1b J G N T Others Reference
Czech R. 257 34.2 18.3 5.8 4.7 5.1 1.6 Luca et al. 2007[29]
Czech R. ? 35.6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Semino et al. 2000[31]
Czech R. 817 29.4 26.7 8.6 4.9 5.6 6.8 3.2 1.0 Czech DNA Project 2001-2018[34]

History

Duchy of Bohemia, the early form of the C

The population of the Czech Republic descends from diverse peoples of Slavic, Celtic and Germanic origin.[35][22][36][37] Presence of West Slavs in the 6th century during the Migration Period has been documented on the Czech territory.[22] Slavs settled in Bohemia, Moravia and Austria sometime during the 6th or 7th centuries,[38] and "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations".[22][39] According to a popular myth, the Slavs came with Forefather Čech who settled at the Říp Mountain.

During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, Samo's Empire. The principality Great Moravia, controlled by the Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century and reached its zenith in the 9th (during the reign of Svatopluk I of Moravia) when it held off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia was Christianized, the crucial role played Byzantine mission of Cyril and Methodius. The Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century. In 880, Prague Castle was constructed by Prince Bořivoj, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty and the city of Prague was established. Vratislav II was the first Czech king in 1085 and the duchy was raised to a hereditary kingdom under Ottokar I in 1198.

The second half of the 13th century was a period of advancing German immigration into the Czech lands. The number of Czechs who have at least partly German ancestry today probably runs into hundreds of thousands.[40] The Habsburg Monarchy focused much of its power on religious wars against the Protestants. While these religious wars were taking place, the Czech estates revolted against Habsburg from 1546 to 1547 but were ultimately defeated.[41]

Part of a series on
Czechs
Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svgSamo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, Samo's Empire. The principality Great Moravia, controlled by the Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century and reached its zenith in the 9th (during the reign of Svatopluk I of Moravia) when it held off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia was Christianized, the crucial role played Byzantine mission of Cyril and Methodius. The Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century. In 880, Prague Castle was constructed by Prince Bořivoj, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty and the city of Prague was established. Vratislav II was the first Czech king in 1085 and the duchy was raised to a hereditary kingdom under Ottokar I in 1198.

The second half of the 13th century was a period of advancing German immigration into the Czech lands. The number of Czechs who have at least partly German ancestry today probably runs into hundreds of thousands.[40] The Habsburg Monarchy focused much of its power on religious wars against the Protestants. While these religious wars were taking place, the Czech estates revolted against Habsburg from 1546 to 1547 but were ultimately defeated.[41]

North America

South America

Oceania