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Chongqing
Chongqing
([ʈʂʰʊ̌ŋ.tɕʰîŋ] ( listen)), formerly romanized as Chungking,[a] is a major city in southwest China. Administratively, it is one of China's four direct-controlled municipalities (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Tianjin), and the only such municipality in China
China
located far away from the coast.[7] The municipality was created on 14 March 1997 to help the Three Gorges Dam migration, succeeding the sub-provincial city administration that was part of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province.[8] Chongqing's population as of 2015[update] is just over 30 million with an urban population of 18.38 million. Of these, approximately 8.5 million people live in Chongqing
Chongqing
central urban area; Fuling
Fuling
District, Wanzhou District and Qianjiang District
Qianjiang District
are in fact cities in their own right, and along with the central urban area constitute a metropolitan area[9] housing 17 million people.[3] According to the 2010 census, Chongqing
Chongqing
is the most populous Chinese municipality,[10] and also the largest direct-controlled municipality in China, and comprises 26 districts, 8 counties, and 4 autonomous counties. The official abbreviation of the city, Yu (渝), was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997.[11] This abbreviation is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River
Jialing River
that runs through Chongqing
Chongqing
and feeds into the Yangtze
Yangtze
River. Chongqing
Chongqing
was also a Sichuan
Sichuan
province municipality during the Republic of China
China
(ROC) administration, serving as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). Chongqing
Chongqing
has a significant history and culture and serves as the economic centre of the upstream Yangtze
Yangtze
basin. It is a major manufacturing centre and transportation hub; a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
described it as one of China's "30 emerging megacities".[12]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient history 1.2 Imperial era 1.3 Provisional capital of the Republic of China 1.4 Municipality status 1.5 Organised crime
Organised crime
and the gang trials

2 Geography

2.1 Physical geography and topography 2.2 Climate 2.3 Air quality

3 Administrative divisions 4 Central Chongqing

4.1 Districts 4.2 Landforms 4.3 Bridges 4.4 Aerial tramway

5 Demographics 6 Politics 7 Military 8 Economy

8.1 Economic and technological development zones

9 Transport

9.1 River port 9.2 Railways 9.3 Highways 9.4 Airports 9.5 Public transport

10 Culture

10.1 Language 10.2 Tourism 10.3 Media 10.4 Cuisine 10.5 Sports and recreation

10.5.1 Association football 10.5.2 Basketball 10.5.3 Sport venues

10.6 Religion 10.7 Notable historic figures

11 Education

11.1 Colleges and universities 11.2 Notable high schools 11.3 International schools

12 International relations

12.1 Consulates 12.2 Twin towns – sister cities

13 See also 14 Notes 15 References

15.1 Sources

16 External links

History[edit] Ancient history[edit] Tradition associates Chongqing
Chongqing
with the State of Ba. This new capital was first named Jiangzhou (江州).[13] Imperial era[edit] Jiangzhou subsequently remained under Qin Shi Huang's rule during the Qin dynasty, the successor of the Qin State, and under the control of Han dynasty
Han dynasty
emperors. Jiangzhou was subsequently renamed during the Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties
to Chu Prefecture (楚州), then in 581 AD (Sui dynasty) to Yu Prefecture (渝州), and later in 1102 during Northern Song
Northern Song
to Gong Prefecture (恭州).[14] The name Yu however survives to this day as an abbreviation for Chongqing, and the city centre where the old town stood is also called Yuzhong (Central Yu).[13] It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song dynasty
Southern Song dynasty
described his crowning as king and then Emperor Guangzong as a "double celebration" (simplified Chinese: 双重喜庆; traditional Chinese: 雙重喜慶; pinyin: shuāngchóng xǐqìng, or chongqing in short). In his honour, Yu Prefecture was therefore renamed Chongqing
Chongqing
subprefecture marking the occasion of his enthronement. In 1362, (Yuan dynasty), Ming Yuzhen, a peasant rebelling leader, established the Daxia Kingdom (大夏) at Chongqing
Chongqing
for a short time.[15] In 1621 (Ming dynasty), another short-lived kingdom of Daliang (大梁) was established by She Chongming (奢崇明) with Chongqing
Chongqing
as its capital.[16] In 1644, after the fall of the Ming dynasty to rebel army, Chongqing, together with the rest of Sichuan, was captured by Zhang Xianzhong, who was said to have massacred a large number of people in Sichuan
Sichuan
and depopulated the province with was also partially due to many people fleeing. The Manchus
Manchus
later conquered the province, and during the Qing dynasty, immigration to Chongqing
Chongqing
and Sichuan
Sichuan
took place with the support of Qing emperor.[17] In 1890, the British Consulate General was opened in Chongqing.[18] The following year, the city became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners.[19] The French, German, US and Japanese consulates were opened in Chongqing
Chongqing
in 1896–1904.[20][21][22][23] Provisional capital of the Republic of China[edit]

A street scene in Chongqing, c. 1944

During and after the Second Sino-Japanese War, from Nov 1937 to May 1946, it was Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's provisional capital. After Britain, the United States, and other Allies entered the war in Asia in December 1941, one of the Allies' deputy commanders of operations in South East Asia (South East Asia Command SEAC), Joseph Stilwell, was based in the city. The city was also visited by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the Supreme Commander of SEAC which was itself headquartered in Ceylon, modern day Sri Lanka. Chiang Kai Shek as Supreme Commander in China
China
worked closely with Stilwell.[24] The Japanese Air Force heavily bombed it. Due to its mountainous environment, many people were saved from the bombing. Due to the bravery, contributions and sacrifices made by the local people during World War II, Chongqing
Chongqing
became known as the City of Heroes. Many factories and universities were relocated from eastern China
China
to Chongqing
Chongqing
during the war, transforming this city from inland port to a heavily industrialized city. In late November 1949 the Nationalist KMT government fled the city.[25] Municipality status[edit]

A night view of Chongqing
Chongqing
Central Business District from across the Yangtze
Yangtze
river

On 14 March 1997, the Eighth National People's Congress
National People's Congress
decided to merge the Sub-provincial city
Sub-provincial city
with the neighbouring Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang prefectures that it had governed on behalf of the province since September 1996. The resulting single division became Chongqing
Chongqing
Municipality, containing 30,020,000 people in forty-three former counties (without intermediate political levels). The municipality became the spearhead of China's effort to develop its western regions and to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
project. Its first official ceremony took place on 18 June 1997. On 8 February 2010, Chongqing
Chongqing
became one of the four National Central/Core cities, the other three are Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Tianjin.[26] On 18 June 2010, Liangjiang New Area
Liangjiang New Area
was established in Chongqing, which is the third State-level new areas at the time of its establishment.[27] Organised crime
Organised crime
and the gang trials[edit] See also: Chongqing
Chongqing
gang trials In the first decade of the 21st century, the city became notorious for organised crime and corruption. Gangsters oversaw businesses involving billions of yuan and the corruption reached into the law-enforcement and justice systems. In 2009, city authorities under the auspices of municipal Communist Party secretary Bo Xilai
Bo Xilai
undertook a large-scale crackdown, arresting 4,893 suspected gangsters, "outlaws" and corrupt cadres, leading to optimism that the period of gangsterism was over.[28] However, local media later highlighted the apparent reliance by the authorities on torture to extract confessions upon which convictions were based. In December 2009, one defence lawyer was controversially arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for "coaching his client to make false claims of torture" and in July 2010, another lawyer released videotapes of his client describing the torture in detail.[29] In 2014, four policemen involved in the interrogation were charged with the practice of "opposed illegal interrogation techniques", considered by observers to be torture.[30] The number of security cameras increased significantly in the early 2010s to the highest of any city in the world at around 500,000.[31] Geography[edit] Physical geography and topography[edit]

Geographic coordinates latitude 28° 10' to 32° 13' N, longitude 105° 17' to 110° 11' E.

Places adjacent to Chongqing

Shaanxi

Sichuan

Chongqing

Hubei

Guizhou Hunan

Chongqing
Chongqing
is situated at the transitional area between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
and the plain on the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
in the sub-tropical climate zone often swept by moist monsoons. It often rains at night in late spring and early summer, and thus the city is famous for its "night rain in the Ba Mountains", as described by poems throughout Chinese history including the famous Written on a Rainy Night-A Letter to the North by Li Shangyin.[32] The municipality reaches a maximum width of 470 kilometres (290 mi) from east to west, and a maximum length of 450 km (280 mi) from north to south.[33] It borders the following provinces: Hubei
Hubei
in the east, Hunan
Hunan
in the southeast, Guizhou
Guizhou
in the south, Sichuan
Sichuan
in the west and northwest, and Shaanxi to the north in its northeast corner.[34] Chongqing
Chongqing
covers a large area crisscrossed by rivers and mountains. The Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains
stand in the north, the Wu Mountains
Wu Mountains
in the east, the Wuling Mountains in the southeast, and the Dalou Mountains
Dalou Mountains
in the south. The whole area slopes down from north and south towards the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
valley, with sharp rises and falls. The area is featured by mountain and hills, with large sloping areas at different heights.[35] Typical karst landscape is common in this area, and stone forests, numerous collections of peaks, limestone caves and valleys can be found in many places. The Yangtze River
Yangtze River
runs through the whole area from west to east, covering a course of 665 km (413 mi), cutting through the Wu Mountains
Wu Mountains
at three places and forming the well-known Three Gorges: the Qutang, the Wuxia and the Xiling gorges.[36] Coming from northwest and running through "the Jialing Lesser Three Gorges" of Libi, Wentang and Guanyin, the Jialing River joins the Yangtze
Yangtze
in Chongqing.[37] The central urban area of Chongqing, or Chongqing
Chongqing
proper, is a city of unique features. Built on mountains and partially surrounded by the Yangtze
Yangtze
and Jialing rivers, it is known as a "mountain city" and a "city on rivers".[38] The night scene of the city is very illuminated, with millions of lights and their reflection on the rivers. With its special topographical features, Chongqing
Chongqing
has the unique scenery of mountains, rivers, forests, springs, waterfalls, gorges, and caves. Li Bai, a famous poet of the Tang dynasty, was inspired by the natural scenery and wrote this epigram.[39] Specifically, the central urban area is located on a huge folding area (similar to the landscape of the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
in the United States), and the Yuzhong District, Nan'an District, Shapingba District and Jiangbei District are located right on a big syncline. And the "Southern Mountain of Chongqing" (Tongluo Mountain), along with the Zhongliang Mountain are two anticlines next to the syncline of downtown.[40]

Li Bai's Poem of Chongqing's Baidi Cheng

Leaving at dawn the White Emperor crowned with cloud, I've sailed a thousand li through canyons in a day. With the monkeys' adieus the riverbanks are loud, My skiff has left ten thousand mountains far away.

Climate[edit] All climatic data listed below comes from the central parts of the city.

Annual average  18.39 °C (65.1 °F)[41] January average  7.9 °C (46.2 °F)[41] August average  28.3 °C (82.9 °F)[41] Historical Temperature range  From −1.8 °C (29 °F) on 15 December 1975 to 43.0 °C (109 °F) on 15 August 2006[42][43] Total annual hours of sunshine  955 Annual precipitation  1,108 millimetres (43.6 in)

Chongqing
Chongqing
has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa/Cfa) similar to Shanghai, and for most of the year experiences very wet conditions. Known as one of the "Three Furnaces" of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River, along with Wuhan
Wuhan
and Nanjing, its summers are long and among the hottest in China, with highs of 33 to 34 °C (91 to 93 °F) in July and August in the urban area.[44] Winters are short and somewhat mild, but damp and overcast. The city's location in the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin causes it to have one of the lowest annual sunshine totals nationally, at only 1,055 hours, lower than much of Northern Europe; the monthly percent possible sunshine in the city proper ranges from a mere 8% in December and January to 48% in August. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −1.8 °C (29 °F) on 15 December 1975 (unofficial record of −2.5 °C (27 °F) was set on 8 February 1943) to 43.0 °C (109 °F) on 15 August 2006 (unofficial record of 44.0 °C (111 °F) was set on 8 and 9 August 1933).[42][45] As exemplified by Youyang County
Youyang County
below, conditions are often cooler in the southeast part of the municipality due to the higher elevations there.

Climate data for Chongqing
Chongqing
(Shapingba District, 1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 18.8 (65.8) 24.6 (76.3) 34.0 (93.2) 36.5 (97.7) 38.9 (102) 39.8 (103.6) 42.0 (107.6) 43.0 (109.4) 41.9 (107.4) 35.1 (95.2) 29.2 (84.6) 21.5 (70.7) 43 (109.4)

Average high °C (°F) 10.3 (50.5) 12.9 (55.2) 17.7 (63.9) 23.0 (73.4) 27.2 (81) 29.4 (84.9) 33.0 (91.4) 33.2 (91.8) 28.3 (82.9) 21.7 (71.1) 17.1 (62.8) 11.5 (52.7) 22.1 (71.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 7.9 (46.2) 10.0 (50) 13.8 (56.8) 18.5 (65.3) 22.6 (72.7) 25.1 (77.2) 28.3 (82.9) 28.3 (82.9) 24.1 (75.4) 18.6 (65.5) 14.2 (57.6) 9.3 (48.7) 18.4 (65.1)

Average low °C (°F) 6.2 (43.2) 8.0 (46.4) 11.2 (52.2) 15.4 (59.7) 19.3 (66.7) 22.1 (71.8) 24.8 (76.6) 24.7 (76.5) 21.2 (70.2) 16.5 (61.7) 12.2 (54) 7.7 (45.9) 15.8 (60.4)

Record low °C (°F) −1.8 (28.8) −0.8 (30.6) 1.2 (34.2) 2.8 (37) 10.8 (51.4) 15.5 (59.9) 19.2 (66.6) 17.8 (64) 14.3 (57.7) 6.9 (44.4) 0.7 (33.3) −1.7 (28.9) −1.8 (28.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 19.7 (0.776) 23.4 (0.921) 43.0 (1.693) 96.5 (3.799) 146.7 (5.776) 193.8 (7.63) 186.0 (7.323) 135.1 (5.319) 105.6 (4.157) 85.7 (3.374) 48.2 (1.898) 24.3 (0.957) 1,108 (43.623)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 10.0 9.8 11.9 14.3 15.5 15.7 12.5 11.3 12.7 16.1 11.5 9.8 151.1

Average relative humidity (%) 84 80 77 77 77 81 76 74 79 85 84 85 79.9

Mean monthly sunshine hours 20.6 29.7 64.9 93.6 109.4 97.7 158.6 167.0 106.6 50.4 35.9 20.4 954.8

Percent possible sunshine 8 11 18 25 26 26 42 48 28 18 13 8 24

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration[41]

Climate data for Youyang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County (1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 7.5 (45.5) 8.8 (47.8) 13.0 (55.4) 19.7 (67.5) 23.9 (75) 26.9 (80.4) 30.0 (86) 30.2 (86.4) 25.6 (78.1) 20.3 (68.5) 15.1 (59.2) 10.3 (50.5) 19.3 (66.7)

Average low °C (°F) 1.5 (34.7) 2.8 (37) 6.3 (43.3) 11.5 (52.7) 15.6 (60.1) 19.2 (66.6) 21.5 (70.7) 21.1 (70) 17.5 (63.5) 12.8 (55) 8.0 (46.4) 3.4 (38.1) 11.8 (53.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 29.1 (1.146) 31.6 (1.244) 56.7 (2.232) 128.5 (5.059) 195.1 (7.681) 242.3 (9.539) 178.1 (7.012) 145.0 (5.709) 122.5 (4.823) 109.5 (4.311) 67.9 (2.673) 25.4 (1) 1,331.7 (52.429)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.0 12.2 15.9 16.9 18.1 17.1 15.4 14.4 13.0 15.1 11.6 9.7 171.4

Average relative humidity (%) 77 77 79 80 81 83 82 81 81 82 79 76 79.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 42.5 37.4 47.6 83.3 102.7 101.4 155.9 171.7 112.3 88.7 68.7 64.4 1,076.6

Percent possible sunshine 13 12 13 22 25 24 37 42 31 25 21 20 24.3

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration

Air quality[edit] As one of the most polluted cities in China, Chongqing, with over 100 days of fog per year,[46] is also known as the "Fog City" (雾都), like San Francisco, and a thick layer of fog shrouds it for 68 days per year during the spring and autumn.[47][48] During the Second Sino-Japanese War, this special weather possibly played a role in protecting the city from being overrun by the Imperial Japanese Army. According to the National Environmental Analysis released by Tsinghua University and the Asian Development Bank in January 2013, Chongqing is among one of the ten most air-polluted cities in China. Also according to this report, seven of the ten most air-polluted cities in China
China
including Taiyuan, Beijing, Urumqi, Lanzhou, Xi'an, Jinan
Jinan
and Shijiazhuang.[49] Administrative divisions[edit] See also: List of administrative divisions of Chongqing Chongqing
Chongqing
is the largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the People's Republic of China. The municipality is divided into 38 subdivisions (3 were abolished in 1997, and Wansheng
Wansheng
and Shuangqiao districts were abolished in October 2011[50]), consisting of 26 districts, 8 counties, and 4 autonomous counties. The boundaries of Chongqing
Chongqing
municipality reach much farther into the city's hinterland than the boundaries of the other three provincial level municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Tianjin), and much of its administrative area, which spans over 80,000 square kilometres (30,900 sq mi), is rural.

Administrative divisions of Chongqing

Yuzhong Jiulongpo Nan'an Dadukou Jiangbei Shapingba Banan Yubei Beibei Bishan Changshou Hechuan Jiangjin Yongchuan Dazu Qijiang Rongchang Tongliang Tongnan Fuling Nanchuan Dianjiang County Fengdu County Wulong Qianjiang Pengshui County Shizhu County Xiushan County Youyang County Wanzhou Chengkou County Fengjie County Kaizhou Liangping Wushan County Wuxi County Yunyang County Zhong County

Division code[51] Division Area in km2[52] Population 2010[53] Seat Postal code Subdivisions[54]

Subdistricts Towns Townships [n 1] Ethnic townships Residential communities Villages

500000 Chongqing 82403 28,846,170 Yuzhong 400000 181 567 233 14 2324 5235

500101 Wanzhou 3457 1,563,050 Chenjiaba Subdistrict 404000 11 29 10 2 187 448

500102 Fuling 2946 1,066,714 Lizhi Subdistrict 408000 8 12 6

108 310

500103 Yuzhong 23 630,090 Qixinggang Subdistrict 400000 12

78

500104 Dadukou 102 301,042 Xinshancun Subdistrict 400000 5 2

48 32

500105 Jiangbei 221 738,003 Cuntan Subdistrict 400000 9 3

88 48

500106 Shapingba 396 1,000,013 Qinjiagang Subdistrict 400000 18 8

140 86

500107 Jiulongpo 431 1,084,419 Yangjiaping Subdistrict 400000 7 11

107 105

500108 Nan'an 263 759,570 Tianwen Subdistrict 400000 7 7

85 61

500109 Beibei 754 680,360 Beiwenquan Subdistrict 400700 5 12

63 117

500110 Qijiang 2747 1,056,817 Gunan Subdistrict 400800 5 25

99 365

500111 Dazu 1433 721,359 Tangxiang Subdistrict 400900 3 24

103 197

500112 Yubei 1452 1,345,410 Shuangfengqiao Subdistrict 401100 14 12

155 215

500113 Banan 1834 918,692 Longzhouwan Subdistrict 401300 8 14

87 198

500114 Qianjiang 2397 445,012 Chengxi Subdistrict 409700 6 12 12

80 138

500115 Changshou 1423 770,009 Fengcheng Subdistrict 401200 4 14

31 223

500116 Jiangjin 3200 1,233,149 Jijiang Subdistrict 402200 4 24

85 180

500117 Hechuan 2356 1,293,028 Nanjin Street Subdistrict 401500 7 23

61 327

500118 Yongchuan 1576 1,024,708 Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Road Subdistrict 402100 7 16

52 208

500119 Nanchuan 2602 534,329 Dongcheng Subdistrict 408400 3 15 15

58 185

500120 Bishan 912 586,034 Bicheng Subdistrict 402700 6 9

43 142

500151 Tongliang 1342 600,086 Bachuan Subdistrict 402500 3 25

57 269

500152 Tongnan 1585 639,985 Guilin
Guilin
Subdistrict 402600 2 20

21 281

500153 Rongchang 1079 661,253 Changyuan Subdistrict 402400 6 15

75 92

500154 Kaizhou 3959 1,160,336 Hanfeng Subdistrict 405400 7 26 7

78 435

500155 Liangping 1890 687,525 Liangshan Subdistrict 405200 2 26 7

33 310

500156 Wulong 2872 351,038 Gangkou Town 408500

12 10 4 24 184

500229 Chengkou Co. 3286 192,967 Gecheng Subdistrict 405900 2 6 17

22 184

500230 Fengdu Co. 2896 649,182 Sanhe Subdistrict 408200 2 23 5

53 277

500231 Dianjiang Co. 1518 704,458 Guixi Subdistrict 408300 2 23 2

62 236

500233 Zhong Co. 2184 751,424 Zhongzhou Town 404300

22 5 1 49 317

500235 Yunyang Co. 3634 912,912 Shuangjiang Subdistrict 404500 4 22 15 1 87 391

500236 Fengjie Co. 4087 834,259 Yong'an
Yong'an
Town 404600

19 8 4 54 332

500237 Wushan Co. 2958 495,072 Gaotang Subdistrict 404700

11 12 2 30 308

500238 Wuxi
Wuxi
Co. 4030 414,073 Baichang Subdistrict 405800 2 15 16

38 292

500240 Shizhu Co. 3013 415,050 Nanbin Town 409100

17 15

29 213

500241 Xiushan
Xiushan
Co. 2450 501,590 Zhonghe Subdistrict 409900

14 18

59 208

500242 Youyang Co. 5173 578,058 Taohuayuan Town 409800

15 23

8 270

500243 Pengshui Co. 3903 545,094 Hanjia Subdistrict 409600

11 28

55 241

Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations

English Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Sichuanese Pinyin

Chongqing
Chongqing
Municipality 重庆市 Chóngqìng Shì cong2 qin4 si4

Wanzhou District 万州区 Wànzhōu Qū wan4 zou2 ngou4

Fuling
Fuling
District 涪陵区 Fúlíng Qū

Yuzhong District 渝中区 Yúzhōng Qū yu2 zong1 ngou4

Dadukou District 大渡口区 Dàdùkǒu Qū da4 du4 kou3 ngou4

Jiangbei District 江北区 Jiāngběi Qū

Shapingba District 沙坪坝区 Shāpíngbà Qū

Jiulongpo District 九龙坡区 Jiǔlóngpō Qū

Nan'an District 南岸区 Nán'àn Qū

Beibei District 北碚区 Běibèi Qū

Qijiang
Qijiang
District 綦江区 Qíjiāng Qū

Dazu District 大足区 Dàzú Qū

Yubei District 渝北区 Yúběi Qū

Banan District 巴南区 Bānán Qū

Qianjiang District 黔江区 Qiánjiāng Qū

Changshou District 长寿区 Chángshòu Qū

Jiangjin
Jiangjin
District 江津区 Jiāngjīn Qū

Hechuan District 合川区 Héchuān Qū ho2 cuan1 ngou4

Yongchuan District 永川区 Yǒngchuān Qū yun3 cuan1 ngou4

Nanchuan District 南川区 Nánchuān Qū

Bishan District 璧山区 Bìshān Qū

Tongliang District 铜梁区 Tóngliáng Qū

Tongnan District 潼南区 Tóngnán Qū

Rongchang District 荣昌区 Róngchāng Qū

Kaizhou District 开州区 Kāizhōu Qū

Liangping District 梁平区 Liángpíng Qū

Wulong District 武隆区 Wǔlóng Qū

Chengkou County 城口县 Chéngkǒu Xiàn

Fengdu County 丰都县 Fēngdū Xiàn

Dianjiang County 垫江县 Diànjiāng Xiàn

Zhong County 忠县 Zhōngxiàn

Yunyang County 云阳县 Yúnyáng Xiàn

Fengjie County 奉节县 Fèngjié Xiàn

Wushan County 巫山县 Wūshān Xiàn

Wuxi
Wuxi
County 巫溪县 Wūxī Xiàn

Shizhu Tujia Autonomous County 石柱土家族自治县 Shízhù Tǔjiāzú Zìzhìxiàn

Xiushan
Xiushan
Tujia and Miao Autonomous County 秀山土家族苗族自治县 Xiùshān Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìxiàn

Youyang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County 酉阳土家族苗族自治县 Yǒuyáng Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìxiàn

Pengshui Miao and Tujia Autonomous County 彭水苗族土家族自治县 Péngshuǐ Miáozú Tǔjiāzú Zìzhìxiàn

^ Including other township related subdivisions.

Jiefangbei CBD, Central Chongqing
Chongqing
at night

A close view of Jiefangbei CBD, Central Chongqing
Chongqing
at night

A view of the Jiefangbei CBD skyline in Yuzhong district

Districts

Pinyin
Pinyin
name Previous associationa

Banan Chongqing

Beibei

Bishan

Changshou

Dadukou

Dazu

Fuling Fuling

Hechuan Chongqing

Jiangbei

Jiangjin

Jiulongpo

Kaizhou Wanxian

Liangping

Nan'an Chongqing

Nanchuan Fuling

Qianjiang Qianjiang

Shapingba Chongqing

Tongliang

Tongnan

Qijiang

Rongchang

Wanzhou Wanxian

Wulong Fuling

Yubei Chongqing

Yongchuan

Yuzhong

Counties

Pinyin
Pinyin
name Previous associationa

Chengkou Wanxian

Dianjiang Fuling

Fengdu

Fengjie Wanxian

Wushan

Wuxi

Yunyang

Zhong

Autonomous counties

Pinyin
Pinyin
name Previous associationa

Pengshui Qianjiang

Shizhu

Xiushan

Youyang

a Indicates with which district the division was associated below prior to the merging of Chongqing, Fuling, Wanxian
Wanxian
(now Wanzhou) and Qianjiang in 1997. Central Chongqing[edit] Districts[edit] The urban area of Chongqing
Chongqing
is known as Central Chongqing (重庆主城区). Spanning approximately 5,473 square kilometres (2,113 square miles), it includes the following nine districts:[55][56]

Yuzhong District
Yuzhong District
(渝中区, or "Central Chongqing
Chongqing
District"), the central and most densely populated district, where government and international business offices and the city's best shopping are located in the district's Jeifangbei CBD area. Yuzhong is located on the peninsula surrounded by E-ling Hill, Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and Jialing River. Jiangbei District (江北区, or "River North District"), located to the north of Jialing River. Shapingba District
Shapingba District
(沙坪坝区), roughly located between Jialing River and Zhongliang Mountain. Jiulongpo District
Jiulongpo District
(九龙坡区), roughly located between Yangtze River and Zhongliang Mountain. Nan'an District
Nan'an District
(南岸区, or "Southern Bank District"), located on the south side of Yangtze
Yangtze
River. Dadukou District
Dadukou District
(大渡口区) Banan District (巴南区, or "Southern Chongqing
Chongqing
District"). Previously called Ba County, and changed to the current name in 1994. Its northern area merged into central Chongqing, and its capital town Yudong is a satellite city of Central Chongqing. Yubei District
Yubei District
(渝北区, or "Northern Chongqing
Chongqing
District"). Previously called Jiangbei County, and changed into the current name in 1994. Its southern area merged into Central Chongqing, and the capital town Lianglu Town is a satellite city of Central Chongqing. Beibei District
Beibei District
(北碚区), a satellite city northwest of Central Chongqing.

Panorama of the Chongqing
Chongqing
Skyline, taken from the southeast hills in 2010

Landforms[edit] Central Chongqing
Chongqing
is in the eastern edge of Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin. Yangtze River meets its major tributary stream, Jialing River, in Central Chongqing. The city is located on a big syncline valley. Two tributary ranges of Huaying
Huaying
Mountain (Zhongling Mountain and Tongluo Mountain) roughly forms the eastern and western boundaries of Central Chongqing. The highest point in downtown is the top of E-ling Hill, which is a smaller syncline hill that keeps Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and Jialing River
Jialing River
apart for some more kilometres. The elevation of E-ling Hill is 379 metres (1,243 feet). The lowest point in Central Chongqing
Chongqing
is Chaotian Gate, where the two rivers merge with each other. The altitude there is 160 metres (520 feet). The average height of Central Chongqing
Chongqing
is 259 metres (850 feet). In the near-suburban Chongqing, however, there are several high mountains. The highest one is called Wugong Ling Mountain, with the altitude of 1,709.4 metres (5,608 feet). Bridges[edit]

The first Chongqing
Chongqing
Yangtze
Yangtze
river bridge, built in 1977

Night view of Caiyuanba bridge across Yangtze
Yangtze
river in Chongqing

With many bridges on Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and Jialing River
Jialing River
in urban area, Central Chongqing
Chongqing
is sometimes called the Bridge Capital of China. The first major bridge built in urban Chongqing
Chongqing
is the Niujiaotuo Jialing River Bridge built in 1958. The first bridge on Yangtze River
Yangtze River
is the Shibanpo Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge (or Chongqing
Chongqing
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge) built in 1977. Until 2014, within the range of Central Chongqing, there are 20 bridges on Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and 28 bridges on Jialing River. Bridges in Chongqing
Chongqing
have various structures and shapes, making Chongqing
Chongqing
a museum of bridges. Aerial tramway[edit] Chongqing
Chongqing
is the only Chinese city that keeps public aerial tramways. Historically there were three aerial tramways in Chongqing: the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Tramway, the Jialing River
Jialing River
Tramway and the South Mountain Tramway. Currently, only Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Tramway is still operating. This tramway is 1,160 metres (3,810 feet) long, connecting the southern and northern banks of Yangtze
Yangtze
River. The daily passenger volume is about 10,000. Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1949 1,003,000 —    

1979 6,301,000 +528.2%

1983 13,890,000 +120.4%

1996 15,297,000 +10.1%

1997[57]* 28,753,000 +88.0%

2000[57] 28,488,200 −0.9%

2005[57] 27,980,000 −1.8%

2008[57] 28,390,000 +1.5%

2012[57] 28,846,170 +1.6%

2013[57] 29,700,000 +3.0%

2014[58] 29,914,000 +0.7%

*Population size in 1997 was affected by expansion of administrative divisions.

According to a July 2010 article from the official Xinhua news agency, the municipality has a population of 32.8 million, including 23.3 million farmers. Among them, 8.4 million farmers have become migrant workers, including 3.9 million working and living in urban areas of Chongqing.[59] The metropolitan area encompassing the central urban area was estimated by the OECD
OECD
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010[update], a population of 17 million.[60][3] This would mean that the locally registered farmers who work in other jurisdictions number 4.5 million, reducing the local, year-round population of Chongqing
Chongqing
in 2010 to 28.3 million, plus those who are registered in other jurisdictions but live and work in Chongqing. According to China's 2005 statistical yearbook, of a total population of 30.55 million, those with residence registered in other jurisdictions but residing in the Chongqing
Chongqing
enumeration area numbered 1.4 million, including 46,000 who resided in Chongqing
Chongqing
"for less than half-year". An additional 83,000 had registered in Chongqing, but not yet settled there.[61] The 2005 statistical yearbook also lists 15.22 million (49.82%) males and 15.33 million (50.18%) females.[61] In terms of age distribution in 2004, of the 30.55 million total population, 6.4 million (20.88%) were age 0–14, 20.7 million (67.69%) were 15–64, and 3.5 million (11.46%) were 65 and over.[62] Of a total 10,470,000 households (2004), 1,360,000 consisted of one person, 2,940,000 two-person, 3,190,000 three-person, 1,790,000 four-person, 783,000 five-person, 270,000 six-person, 89,000 seven-person, 28,000 eight-person, 6,000 nine-person, and 10,000 households of 10 or more persons per household.[63] Politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Chongqing
Politics of Chongqing
and List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China

The Great Hall of the People
Great Hall of the People
serves as the venue for major political conferences in Chongqing

Chongqing
Chongqing
has been, since 1997, a direct-controlled municipality in the Chinese administrative structure, making it a provincial-level division with commensurate political importance. The municipality's top leader is the secretary of the municipal committee of the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
("party chief"), which, since 2007, has also held a seat on the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, the country's second highest governing council. Under the Soviet-inspired nomenklatura system of appointments, individuals are appointed to the position by the central leadership of the Communist Party, and bestowed to an official based on seniority and adherence to party orthodoxy, usually given to an individual with prior regional experience elsewhere in China
China
and nearly never a native of Chongqing. Notable individuals who have held the municipal Party Secretary position include He Guoqiang, Wang Yang, Bo Xilai, Zhang Dejiang, and Sun Zhengcai, the latter three were Politburo members during their term as party chief. The party chief heads the municipal party standing committee, the de facto top governing council of the municipality. The standing committee is typically composed of 13 individuals which includes the party chiefs of important subdivisions and other leading figures in the local party and government organization, as well as one military representative. The municipal People's Government serves as the day-to-day administrative authority, and is headed by the mayor, who is assisted by numerous vice mayors and mayoral assistants. Each vice mayor is given jurisdiction over specific municipal departments. The mayor is the second-highest-ranking official in the municipality. The mayor usually represents the city when foreign guests visit.[64] The municipality also has a People's Congress, theoretically elected by lower level People's Congresses. The People's Congress nominally appoints the mayor and approves the nominations of other government officials. The People's Congress, like those of other provincial jurisdictions, is generally seen as a symbolic body. It convenes in full once a year to approve party-sponsored resolutions and local regulations and duly confirm party-approved appointments. On occasion the People's Congress can be venues of discussion on municipal issues, although this is dependent on the actions of individual delegates. The municipal People's Congress is headed by a former municipal official, usually in their late fifties or sixties, with a lengthy prior political career in Chongqing. The municipal Political Consultative Conference (zhengxie) meets at around the same time as the People's Congress. Its role is to advise on political issues. The zhengxie is headed by a leader who is typically a former municipal or regional official with a lengthy career in the party and government bureaucracy. Military[edit] Chongqing
Chongqing
was the wartime capital of China
China
during the Second Sino-Japanese war (i.e., World War II), and from 1938 to 1946,[65] the seat of administration for the Republic of China's government before its departure to Nanjing
Nanjing
and then Taiwan.[66] It also contains a military museum named after the Chinese Korean War
Korean War
hero Qiu Shaoyun.[67] Chongqing
Chongqing
used to be the headquarters of the 13th Group Army
13th Group Army
of the People's Liberation Army, one of the two group armies that formerly comprise the Chengdu
Chengdu
Military Region, which in 2016 was re-organized into the Western Theater Command.[68] Economy[edit]

Commercial skyscrapers and high-rise buildings around the People's Liberation Monument in downtown Jiefangbei

WalMart super market at Nan'an District

Jiefangbei-People's Liberation ( World War II
World War II
victory monument)

The pedestrian mall in downtown Jiefangbei

The pedestrian mall in Nanping
Nanping
CBD

Main article: Economy of Chongqing Chongqing
Chongqing
was separated from Sichuan
Sichuan
province and made into a municipality in its own right in 14 March 1997[69] in order to accelerate its development and subsequently China's relatively poorer western areas (see China Western Development
China Western Development
strategy).[70] An important industrial area in western China,[71] Chongqing
Chongqing
is also rapidly urbanising. For instance, statistics[72] suggest that new construction added approximately 137,000 square metres (1,470,000 square feet) daily of usable floor space to satisfy demands for residential, commercial and factory space. In addition, more than 1,300 people moved into the city daily, adding almost 100 million yuan (US$15 million) to the local economy. Traditionally, due to its geographical remoteness, Chongqing
Chongqing
and neighbouring Sichuan
Sichuan
have been important military bases in weapons research and development.[73] Chongqing's industries have now diversified but unlike eastern China, its export sector is small due to its inland location. Instead, factories producing local-oriented consumer goods such as processed food, cars, chemicals, textiles, machinery and electronics are common. Chongqing
Chongqing
is China's third largest centre for motor vehicle production and the largest for motorcycles. In 2007, it had an annual output capacity of 1 million cars and 8.6 million motorcycles.[74] Leading makers of cars and motor bikes includes China's fourth biggest automaker; Changan Automotive Corp and Lifan Hongda Enterprise, as well as Ford Motor Company, with the US car giant having 3 plants in Chongqing. The municipality is also one of the nine largest iron and steel centres in China
China
and one of the three major aluminium producers. Important manufacturers include Chongqing Iron and Steel Company and South West Aluminium which is Asia's largest aluminium plant.[75] Agriculture remains significant. Rice and fruits, especially oranges, are the area's main produce. Natural resources are also abundant with large deposits of coal, natural gas, and more than 40 kinds of minerals such as strontium and manganese. Coal reserves ≈ 4.8 billion tonnes. Chuandong Natural Gas Field is China's largest inland gas field with deposits of around 270 billion m3 – more than 1/5 of China's total. Has China's largest reserve of strontium ( China
China
has the world's 2nd biggest strontium deposit). Manganese
Manganese
is mined in the Xiushan
Xiushan
area. although the mining sector has been criticised for being wasteful, heavily polluting and unsafe.[76] Chongqing
Chongqing
is also planned to be the site of a 10 million ton capacity refinery operated by CNPC (parent company of PetroChina) to process imported crude oil from the Sino-Burma pipelines. The pipeline itself, though not yet finished, will eventually run from Sittwe
Sittwe
(in Myanmar's western coast) through Kunming
Kunming
in Yunnan
Yunnan
before reaching Chongqing[77] and it will provide China
China
with fuels sourced from Myanmar, the Middle East and Africa. Recently, there has been a drive to move up the value chain by shifting towards high technology and knowledge intensive industries resulting in new development zones such as the Chongqing
Chongqing
New North Zone
New North Zone
(CNNZ).[78] Chongqing's local government is hoping through the promotion of favorable economic policies for the electronics and information technology sectors, that it can create a 400 billion RMB high technology manufacturing hub which will surpass its car industry and account for 25% of its exports.[79] The city has also invested heavily in infrastructure to attract investment.[74][80] The network of roads and railways connecting Chongqing
Chongqing
to the rest of China
China
has been expanded and upgraded reducing logistical costs. Furthermore, the nearby Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
which is the world's largest, will not only supply Chongqing
Chongqing
with power once completed but also allows oceangoing ships to reach Chongqing's Yangtze River
Yangtze River
port.[81] These infrastructure improvements have led to the arrivals of numerous foreign direct investors (FDI) in industries ranging from car to finance and retailing; such as Ford,[82] Mazda,[83] HSBC,[84] Standard Chartered Bank,[85] Citibank,[86] Deutsche Bank,[87] ANZ Bank,[88] Scotiabank,[89] Wal-Mart,[90] Metro AG[91] and Carrefour,[92] among other multinational corporations. Chongqing's nominal GDP in 2011 reached 1001.1 billion yuan (US$158.9 billion) while registering an annual growth of 16.4%. However, its overall economic performance is still lagging behind eastern coastal cities such as Shanghai. For instance, its per capita GDP was 22,909 yuan (US$3,301) which is below the national average. Nevertheless, there is a massive government support to transform Chongqing
Chongqing
into the region's economic, trade, and financial centre and use the municipality as a platform to open up the country's western interior to further development.[93] Chongqing
Chongqing
has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
in the November 2010 Access China
China
White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan
Pingdingshan
and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.[94] Economic and technological development zones[edit] The city includes a number of economic and technological development zones:

Chongqing
Chongqing
Chemical Industrial Park[95] Chongqing
Chongqing
Economic & Technological Development Zone[96] Chongqing
Chongqing
Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone[97] Chongqing
Chongqing
New North Zone
New North Zone
(CNNZ)[98] Chongqing
Chongqing
Export Processing Zone[99] Jianqiao Industrial Park (located in Dadukou District)[100] Liangjiang New Area[101] Liangjiang Cloud Computing Center (the largest of its kind in China)[102]

Chongqing
Chongqing
itself is part of the West Triangle Economic Zone, along with Chengdu
Chengdu
and Xi'an. Transport[edit] Since its elevation to national-level municipality in 1997, the city has dramatically expanded its transportation infrastructure. With the construction of railways and expressways to the east and southeast, Chongqing
Chongqing
is a major transportation hub in southwestern China. As of October 2014, the municipality had 31 bridges across the Yangtze River including over a dozen in the city's urban core.[103] Aside from the city's first two Yangtze River
Yangtze River
bridges, which were built, respectively, in 1960 and 1977, all of the other bridges were completed since 1995. River port[edit]

Hydrofoil
Hydrofoil
on the Yangtze
Yangtze
in the outer reaches of the municipality

The confluence of the Jialing River
Jialing River
and Yangtze
Yangtze
River, as seen from Chongqing

Chongqing
Chongqing
is one of the most important inland ports in China. There are numerous luxury cruise ships that terminate at Chongqing, cruising downstream along the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
to Yichang, Wuhan, Nanjing
Nanjing
or even Shanghai.[104] In the recent past, this provided virtually the only transportation option along the river. However, improved rail, expressways and air travel have seen this ferry traffic reduce or been cancelled altogether, thus most of the river ferry traffic consists of mostly leisure cruises for tourists rather than local needs. Improved access by larger cargo vessels has been made due to the construction of the Three Gorges
Three Gorges
Dam. This allows bulk transport of goods along the Yangtze
Yangtze
River. Coal, raw minerals and containerized goods provide the majority of traffic plying this section of the river. Several port handling facilities exists throughout the city, including many impromptu river bank sites.[105] Railways[edit]

Chongqing
Chongqing
funicular railway

Major train stations in Chongqing:

Chongqing Railway Station
Chongqing Railway Station
in Yuzhong, accessible via Metro Lines 1 & 3 (Lianglukou Metro Station), is the city's oldest railway station and located near the city centre. The station handles mostly long-distance trains. There are plans for a major renovation and overhaul of this station, thus many services have been transferred to Chongqing
Chongqing
North Railway Station. Chongqing North Railway Station
Chongqing North Railway Station
is a station handling many long-distance services and high-speed rail services to Chengdu, Beijing
Beijing
and other cities. It was completed in 2006 and is connected to Metro Line 3. Chongqing
Chongqing
West Railway Station, formerly called Shapingba Railway Station, in Shapingba, handles many local and regional train service. It is undergoing redevelopment.

Chongqing
Chongqing
is a major freight destination for rail with continued development with improved handling facilities. Due to subsidies and incentives, the relocation and construction of many factories in Chongqing
Chongqing
has seen a huge increase in rail traffic. Chongqing
Chongqing
is a major rail hub regionally.

Chengdu–Chongqing Railway
Chengdu–Chongqing Railway
to Chengdu Sichuan- Guizhou
Guizhou
Railway to Guiyang Xiangyang–Chongqing Railway to Hubei Chongqing–Huaihua Railway
Chongqing–Huaihua Railway
to Hunan Chongqing-Suining Railway
Chongqing-Suining Railway
( Sichuan
Sichuan
province) express railway Chongqing-Lichuan Railway
Chongqing-Lichuan Railway
to Hubei Chongqing– Lanzhou
Lanzhou
Railway (Gansu) railway (under construction)

Highways[edit]

Bicycling can be a challenge in Chongqing

Traditionally, the road network in Chongqing
Chongqing
has been narrow, winding and limited to smaller vehicles because of the natural terrain, large rivers and the huge population demands on the area, especially in the Yuzhong District. In other places, such as Jiangbei, large areas of homes and buildings have recently been cleared to improve the road network and create better urban planning. This has seen many tunnels and large bridges needing to be built across the city. Construction of many expressways have connected Chongqing
Chongqing
to neighbouring provinces. Several ring roads have also been constructed. The natural mountainous terrain that Chongqing
Chongqing
is built on makes many road projects difficult to construct, including for example some of the world's highest road bridges.[106] Unlike many other Chinese cities, it is rare for motorbikes, electric scooters or bicycles to be seen on Chongqing
Chongqing
Roads. This is due to the extremely hilly and mountainous nature of Chongqing's roads and streets. However, despite this, Chongqing
Chongqing
is a large manufacturing centre for these types of vehicles.[107]

Chongqing- Chengdu
Chengdu
Expressway Chongqing- Chengdu
Chengdu
2nd Expressway (under construction) Chongqing-Wanzhou- Yichang
Yichang
Highway (Wanzhou- Yichang
Yichang
section under construction) Chongqing- Guiyang
Guiyang
Highway Chongqing- Changsha
Changsha
Expressway (Xiushan- Changsha
Changsha
section under construction) Chongqing-Dazhou-Xi'a Highway (Dazhou- Xi'an
Xi'an
section under construction) Chongqing- Suining
Suining
Expressway Chongqing- Nanchong
Nanchong
Expressway China
China
National Highway 210 China
China
National Highway 212

Airports[edit]

CRT Line 3 in Chongqing
Chongqing
Jiangbei International Airport

The major airport of Chongqing
Chongqing
is Chongqing
Chongqing
Jiangbei International Airport (IATA: CKG, ICAO: ZUCK). It is located in Yubei District. The airport offers a growing network of direct flights to China, South East Asia, the Middle East, North America, and Europe. It is located 21 km (13 mi) north of the city-centre of Chongqing
Chongqing
and serves as an important aviation hub for south-western China.[108] Jiangbei airport is a hub for China
China
Southern Airlines, Chongqing Airlines, Sichuan
Sichuan
Airlines, China
China
Express Airlines, Shandong
Shandong
Airlines and Hainan
Hainan
Airlines's new China
China
West Air. Chongqing
Chongqing
also is a focus city of Air China, therefore it is very well connected with Star Alliance and Skyteam's international network. The airport currently has three parallel runways in operation. It serves domestic routes to most other Chinese cities, as well as international routes to Auckland, New York City, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Doha, Dubai, Seoul, Bangkok, Phuket, Osaka, Singapore, Chiang Mai, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Malé, Bali, Zadar, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Batam, Rome
Rome
and Helsinki. And Chongqing
Chongqing
airport is also a 72-hour transit visa-free airport for foraigners in many countries. Currently, Jiangbei airport has three terminals. Terminal 1 is the old original terminal and is currently not in use. Terminal 2 is a larger building split into Halls A and B serving domestic flights. The first, second and third phase of the airport came into operation in January 1990, December 2004, and December 2010 respectively. This domestic terminal is capable of handling 30 million passengers while its international terminal is able to handle more than 1 million passengers annually. Terminal 3A together with the third runway began operations on August 29,[109] 2017. A fourth terminal and runway are planned to start construction in 2019. Chongqing
Chongqing
airport was the 10th busiest airport nationwide in 2010 measured by passenger traffic, handling 15,802,334 people. By 2015 this number doubled to more than 30,000,000 passengers annually. The airport was also the 11th busiest airport by cargo traffic and by traffic movements in China. During the first half of year 2011, Chongqing
Chongqing
airport handled 8.87 million passengers, and surpassed Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport
Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport
(8.48 million) to become the 9th busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic in mainland China.[110] Freight development has increased, especially in the export of high value electronics, such as laptop computers. It is envisaged that Chongqing
Chongqing
can become the global leading exporter of these products by air, signs of this potential rise being the addition of cargo routes to Frankfurt,[111] Sydney, Chicago, and New York City.[112][113] Currently, Chongqing
Chongqing
Airport is the only facility in central and western China
China
that has metro access (CRT Line 3 and Line 10) to its central city, and two runways in normal use.[114] There are two other airports in Chongqing
Chongqing
Municipality: Qianjiang Wulingshan Airport (IATA: JIQ, ICAO: ZUQJ) and Wanzhou Wuqiao Airport (IATA: WXN, ICAO: ZUWX). They are both class 4C airports and serve passenger flights to some domestic destinations including Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Kunming. Two more airports are being constructed soon: Wulong Xiannüshan Airport and Wushan Shennüfeng Airport. Public transport[edit]

CRT Line 2 in Chongqing
Chongqing
city

Main article: Chongqing
Chongqing
Rail Transit Public transport in Chongqing
Chongqing
consist of metro, intercity railway, a ubiquitous bus system and the world's largest monorail network. According to the Chongqing
Chongqing
Municipal Government's ambitious plan in May 2007, Chongqing
Chongqing
is investing 150 billion RMB over 13 years to finish a system that combines underground metro lines with heavy monorail (erroneously called 'light rail' in China). As of 2017[update], four metro lines, the 14 km (8.7 mi) long CRT Line 1, a conventional subway, and the 19 km (12 mi) long heavy monorail CRT Line 2 (through Phase II), Line 3, a heavy monorail connects the airport and the southern part of downtown.,[115] Line 6, runs between Beibei, a commuter city in the far north to the centre.[116] Line 5 is due to open late 2017. By 2020 CRT will consist of 6 straight lines and 1 circular line resulting in 363.5 km (225.9 mi) of road and railway to the existing transportation infrastructure and 93 new train stations will be added to the 111 stations that are already in place.[117] By 2050, Chongqing
Chongqing
was initially planning to have ten metro lines, totaling 513 km (319 mi), with 270 stations, although more recent reports have now indicated as many as 18 lines are planned to be in operation.[118] Culture[edit] Main article: Bashu culture Language[edit] Main article: Sichuanese Mandarin

Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Ancient Town, Jiangjin, Chongqing

The language native to Chongqing
Chongqing
is Southwestern Mandarin. More precisely, the great majority of the municipality, save for Xiushan, speak Sichuanese, including the primary Chengdu-Chongqing dialect
Chengdu-Chongqing dialect
and Minjiang dialect
Minjiang dialect
spoken in Jiangjin
Jiangjin
and Qijiang.[119] There are also a few speakers of Xiang and Hakka in the municipality, due to the great immigration wave to the Sichuan
Sichuan
region (湖广填四川) during the Ming and Qing dynasties. In addition, in parts of southeastern Chongqing, the Miao and Tujia languages are also used by some Miao and Tujia people.[120] Tourism[edit]

Martyrs' Cemetery

See also: Twelve Views of Bayu As the provisional Capital of China
China
for almost ten years (1937 to 1945), the city was also known as one of the three headquarters of the Allies during World War II, as well as being a strategic center of many other wars throughout China's history. Chongqing
Chongqing
has many historic war-time buildings or sites, some of which have since been destroyed. These sites include the People's Liberation Monument, located in the center of Chongqing
Chongqing
city. It used to be the highest building in the area, but is now surrounded and dwarfed by numerous shopping centres. Originally named the Monument for the Victory over Axis Armies, it is the only building in China
China
for that purpose.[121] Today, the monument serves as a symbol for the city. The General Joseph W. Stilwell Museum, dedicated to General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell, a World War II
World War II
general.[122] the air force cemetery in the Nanshan area, in memory of those air force personnel killed during the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
(1937–1945), and the Red Rock Village Museum, a diplomatic site for the Communist Party in Chongqing
Chongqing
led by Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
during World War II, and Guiyuan, Cassia Garden, where Mao Zedong signed the "Double 10 (10 October) Peace Agreement" with the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
in 1945].[123]

The Baiheliang Underwater Museum, China's first underwater museum,[124] The Memorial of Great Tunnel Massacre, a former air-raid shelter where a major massacre occurred during World War II. The Great Hall of the People
Great Hall of the People
in Chongqing
Chongqing
is based on the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. This is one of the largest public assembly buildings in China
China
which, though built in modern times, emulates traditional architectural styles. It is adjacent to the densely populated and hilly central district, with narrow streets and pedestrian only walkways,[125] The large domed Three Gorges
Three Gorges
Museum presents the history, culture, and environment of the Three Gorges
Three Gorges
area and Chongqing. Chongqing Science and Technology Museum
Chongqing Science and Technology Museum
has an IMAX
IMAX
theatre. Luohan Si, a Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
temple,[126] Huangguan Escalator, the second longest escalator in Asia. Former sites for embassies of major countries during the 1940s. As the capital at that time, Chongqing
Chongqing
had many residential and other buildings for these officials.[127]

The Hongyadong stilted house in Chongqing
Chongqing
city

Baotaoping Wharf in Fengjie County

Wuxi
Wuxi
County, noted as a major tourism area of Chongqing,[128] The Dazu Rock Carvings, in Dazu county, are a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings, dating back as far as the 7th century A.D., depicting and influenced by Buddhist, Confucian and Taoist beliefs. Listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, the Dazu Rock Carvings are made up of 75 protected sites containing some 50,000 statues, with over 100,000 Chinese characters forming inscriptions and epigraphs.,[129] The Three Natural Bridges
Three Natural Bridges
and Furong Cave
Furong Cave
in Wulong Karst
Karst
National Geology Park, Wulong County
Wulong County
are listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site as part of the South China
China
Karst),[130][131] Ciqikou is a 1000-year-old town in the Shapingba District
Shapingba District
of Chongqing. It is also known as "Little Chongqing". The town, located next to the lower reaches of the Jialing River, was at one time an important source of china-ware and used to be a busy commercial dock during the Ming and Qing dynasties,[132]

The steep path up to the front gate of Fishing Town

Ciqikou ancient road in Shapingba District

Fishing Town
Fishing Town
or Fishing City, also called the "Oriental Mecca" and "the Place That Broke God's Whip", is one of the three great ancient battlefields of China. It is noted for its resistance to the Mongol armies during the Southern Song dynasty
Southern Song dynasty
(1127–1279) and the location where the Mongol
Mongol
leader Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
died in 1259,[133] Xueyu Cave
Xueyu Cave
in Fengdu County
Fengdu County
is the only example of a pure-white, jade-like karst cave in China,[134] Fengdu Ghost City
Fengdu Ghost City
in Fengdu County
Fengdu County
is the Gate of the Hell in traditional Chinese literature and culture. Snowy Jade Cave, see Xueyu Cave
Xueyu Cave
(above). Baidi Cheng, a peninsula in Yangtze
Yangtze
River, known due to a famous poem by Li Bai. The Chongqing
Chongqing
Zoo, a zoo that exhibits many rare species including the giant panda, the extremely rare South China
China
tiger, and the African elephant.[135] Chongqing
Chongqing
Amusement Park. Chongqing
Chongqing
Grand Theatre, a performing arts centre. Foreigners' Street
Foreigners' Street
is an amusement park, including the Porcelain Palace, the world's largest toilet. Also the location of the abortive Love Land development in 2009. The Black Mountain Valley (Heishangu).[136] The Jindao Valley (Golden Blade Valley).[citation needed] Mount Jinfo
Mount Jinfo
(Golden Buddha Mountain).[137] Major hot-springs around the city.[citation needed] Gele Mountain and the Red Rocks, a memorial park for the 1949 Chinese revolution.[citation needed] Nanshan (Southern Mountain of Chongqing), or Tongluo Mountain academically. There are tons of places of interests in this mountain, including the Laojun Temple, the Wenfeng Pagoda, the Great Golden Eagle, the Tu Shan Temple, the Huangge Path, the former residential halls of Chiang Kai-shek, etc.[citation needed] Tu Shan (Mount. Tu), a part of Southern Mountain of Chongqing
Southern Mountain of Chongqing
(Tongluo Mountain).[citation needed] It is believed to be the place where Da Yu, the founder of Xia dynasty, met his wife Tushan Shi.

Media[edit] The Chongqing People's Broadcast Station
Chongqing People's Broadcast Station
is Chongqing's largest radio station.[138] The only municipal-level TV network is Chongqing
Chongqing
TV, claimed to be the 4th largest television station in China.[139] Chongqing TV
Chongqing TV
broadcasts many local-oriented channels, and can be viewed on many TV sets throughout China. The Chongqing
Chongqing
Daily is the largest newspaper group, controlling more than 10 newspapers and one news website.[140] Cuisine[edit] Chongqing
Chongqing
food is part of Sichuan
Sichuan
cuisine. Chongqing
Chongqing
is known for its spicy food. Its food is normally considered numbing because of the use of Sichuan
Sichuan
pepper, also known as Sichuan
Sichuan
peppercorn, containing hydroxy alpha sanshool. Chongqing's city centre has many restaurants and food stalls where meals often cost less than RMB10. Local specialties here include dumplings and pickled vegetables and, different from many other Chinese cuisines, Chongqing
Chongqing
dishes are suitable for the solo diner as they are often served in small individual sized portions.[141] Among the delicacies and local specialties are these dishes:

Chongqing hot pot
Chongqing hot pot
– Chongqing's local culinary specialty which was originally from the Northern China. Tables in hot pot restaurants usually have a central vat, or pot, where food ordered by the customers is boiled in a spicy broth. As well as beef, pork, lotus and other vegetables, items such as pig's kidney, brain, duck's bowels and cow's stomach are often consumed.[142] Chongqing noodles
Chongqing noodles
– common noodles dishes in Chongqing Jiangtuan fish – since Chongqing
Chongqing
is located along Jialing River, visitors have a good opportunity to sample varieties of aquatic products. Among them, is a fish local to the region, Jiangtuan fish: Hypophthalmichthys nobilis
Hypophthalmichthys nobilis
although more commonly known as bighead carp.[143] The fish is often served steamed or baked.[144] Pork leg cooked with rock candy – A common household dish of the Chongqing
Chongqing
people, the finished dish, known as red in colour and tender in taste, has been described as having strong and sweet aftertaste.[145] Qianzhang (skimmed soy bean cream) – Qianzhang is the cream skimmed from soybean milk. In order to create, this several steps must be followed very carefully. First, soybeans are soaked in water, ground, strained, boiled, restrained several times and spread over gauze until delicate, snow-white cream is formed. The paste can also be hardened, cut into slivers and seasoned with sesame oil, garlic and chili oil. Another variation is to bake the cream and fry it with bacon, which is described as soft and sweet.[146] Quanshui Chicken (Spring Water Chicken) – Quanshui Chicken is cooked with the natural spring water in the Southern Mountain of Chongqing. Xiao mian (little noodle) – lamian noodles with chili oil and rich mixtures of spices and ingredients.

Sports and recreation[edit] Association football[edit] Professional association football teams in Chongqing
Chongqing
include:

Chongqing Lifan
Chongqing Lifan
(Chinese Super League) Chongqing
Chongqing
F.C., folded

Chongqing Lifan
Chongqing Lifan
is a professional Chinese football club who currently plays in the Chinese Super League. They are owned by the Chongqing-based Lifan Group, which manufactures motorcycles, cars and spare parts.[147] Originally called Qianwei (Vanguard) Wuhan, the club formed in 1995 to take part in the recently developed, fully professional Chinese football league system. They would quickly rise to top tier of the system and experience their greatest achievement in winning the 2000 Chinese FA Cup,[148] and coming in fourth within the league. However, since then they have struggled to replicate the same success, and have twice been relegated from the top tier.[149] Chongqing
Chongqing
FC was an association football club located in the city, and competed in China
China
League One, the country's second-tier football division, before being relegated to the China
China
League Two, and dissolving due to a resultant lack of funds.[150] Chongqing
Chongqing
is also the birthplace of soccer games in southwestern China. Soccer was introduced to this region in as early as 1905 by some British soldiers and missionaries. They founded a varsity soccer team at the predecessor of modern-day Guangyi High School (also known as Chongqing
Chongqing
No.5 High School), and trained them to be a highly skilled team. A professional soccer stadium was constructed on the Guangyi campus in the Southern Mountain. It was the first professional soccer stadium in southwestern China. The Guangyi varsity team beat English and French naval teams and even the Sheffield Wednesday
Sheffield Wednesday
team in friendlies. Basketball[edit] Chongqing Soaring Dragons
Chongqing Soaring Dragons
became the 20th team playing in Chinese Basketball Association in 2013. They play at Datianwan Arena, in the same sporting complex as Datianwan Stadium.[151] Sport venues[edit] Sport venues in Chongqing
Chongqing
include:

The Chongqing Olympic Sports Center
Chongqing Olympic Sports Center
is a multi-purpose stadium. It is currently used mostly for football matches, as it has a grass surface, and can hold 58,680. It was built in 2004.[152] Yanghe Stadium
Yanghe Stadium
is a multi-use stadium that is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 32,000 people, and is the home of Chongqing Lifan
Chongqing Lifan
in the Chinese Super League. The stadium was purchased by the Lifan Group
Lifan Group
in 2001 for RMB80 million and immediately replaced Datianwan Stadium
Datianwan Stadium
as the home of Chongqing Lifan.[153] Datianwan Stadium
Datianwan Stadium
is a multi-purpose stadium that is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium has a capacity 32,000 people, and up until 2001 was the home of Chongqing
Chongqing
Lifan.[154]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Chongqing[155][note 1]    Chinese ancestral religion
Chinese ancestral religion
(26.63%)   Christianity (1.05%)   Other or no religion[note 2] (72.32%)

The predominant religions in Chongqing
Chongqing
are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 26.63% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 1.05% of the population identifies as Christian.[155] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 72.32% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.

The Jade Emperor
Jade Emperor
at the Fengdu Ghost City

Buddhist temple in Jiulongpo

Notable historic figures[edit]

Ba Manzi: a legendary hero of Ba kingdom in Zhou dynasty Qing, the Widow: a legendary woman in Qin dynasty, known as the first entrepreneur in Chinese history Yan Yan: a loyal general during Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period Qin Liangyu: a popular heroine in Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
who fought against Manchus Nie Rongzhen: marshal of the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
of China Liu Bocheng: an early leader of Chinese communist party during Anti-Japanese War Lu Zuofu: a well-known patriot entrepreneur

Education[edit] Colleges and universities[edit]

Entrance to the Nankai School

See also: List of universities and colleges in Chongqing

Chongqing University
Chongqing University
(重庆大学) Southwest University
Southwest University
(西南大学) Southwest University
Southwest University
of Political Science and Law (西南政法大学) Third Military Medical University
Third Military Medical University
(第三军医大学) Chongqing University
Chongqing University
of Posts and Telecommunications (重庆邮电大学) Chongqing University
Chongqing University
of Technology (重庆理工大学) Chongqing Jiaotong University
Chongqing Jiaotong University
(重庆交通大学) Chongqing Medical University
Chongqing Medical University
(重庆医科大学) Chongqing Normal University
Chongqing Normal University
(重庆师范大学) Chongqing Technology and Business University
Chongqing Technology and Business University
(重庆工商大学) Chongqing
Chongqing
Three Gorges
Three Gorges
University (重庆三峡学院) Chongqing Telecommunication Institute (重庆通讯学院) Chongqing University
Chongqing University
of Science and Technology (重庆科技学院) Sichuan
Sichuan
Fine Arts Institute (四川美术学院) Sichuan
Sichuan
International Studies University (四川外国语大学) University of Logistics
Logistics
(后勤工程学院) Chongqing University
Chongqing University
of Arts and Science (重庆文理学院) Yangtze Normal University
Yangtze Normal University
(长江师范学院) Chongqing University
Chongqing University
of Education (重庆第二师范学院)

Notable high schools[edit]

Bashu Secondary School (巴蜀中学) Chongqing No.1 Middle School (重庆第一中学) High School Affiliated to Southwest University (西南大学附属中学) Chongqing Yucai Middle School (重庆市育才中学) Chongqing Nankai Secondary School
Chongqing Nankai Secondary School
(重庆南开中学) Foreign Languages School Attached to Sichuan
Sichuan
International Studies University (重庆一外) Chongqing
Chongqing
No.8 Middle School (重庆第八中学) Tongliang High School (铜梁中学) Verakin High School of Chongqing
Chongqing
/ Chongqing
Chongqing
No.2 Foreign Languages School (重庆二外) Chongqing
Chongqing
Railway High School(重庆铁路中学)

International schools[edit]

Yew Chung International School of Chongqing (重庆耀中国际学校)[156] KL International School of Chongqing
Chongqing
Bashu (重庆市诺林巴蜀外籍人员子女学校)[157]

International relations[edit] Consulates[edit]

Consulate Date Consular District

Canada
Canada
Consulate-General, Chongqing[158] 05.1998 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Consulate-General, Chongqing[158] 03.2000 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan

Cambodia Consulate-General, Chongqing[158] 12.2004 Chongqing, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi

Japan
Japan
Consulate-General, Chongqing[158] 01.2005 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi

Denmark Consulate, Chongqing[158] 07.2005 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan

Philippines
Philippines
Consulate-General, Chongqing[158] 12.2008 Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan

Hungary
Hungary
Consulate-General, Chongqing[158] 02.2010 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu

Ethiopia Consulate-General, Chongqing[158] 11.2011 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan

Italy Consulate-General, Chongqing[159] 12.2013 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan

Netherlands Consulate-General, Chongqing[159] 01.2014 Chongqing, Sichuan, Shaanxi

Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Chongqing
Chongqing
has sister city relationships many cities of the world including:

Toulouse, France
France
(1982) Seattle, United States
United States
(1983) Toronto, Canada
Canada
(1986) Hiroshima, Japan
Japan
(1986) Leicester, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1993) Voronezh, Russia
Russia
(1993) Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine
Ukraine
(2002) Mpumalanga, South Africa
South Africa
(2002) Düsseldorf, Germany
Germany
(2004) Brisbane, Australia
Australia
(2005) Shiraz, Iran
Iran
(2005) Aswan, Egypt
Egypt
(2005) Busan, South Korea
South Korea
(2007) Sør-Trøndelag, Norway
Norway
(2007) Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Province, Thailand
Thailand
(2008) Córdoba, Argentina
Argentina
(2010) Pest, Hungary
Hungary
(2010) Bangkok, Thailand
Thailand
(2005) Antwerp, Belgium
Belgium
(2011) Bahia, Brazil
Brazil
(2011) Detroit, United States
United States
(2011) New York, United States
United States
(2011) Chennai, India
India
(2015)

See also[edit]

Major national historical and cultural sites in Chongqing List of cities in China
China
by population and built-up area List of twin towns and sister cities in China

Portals Access related topics

China
China
portal

Notes[edit]

^ Ch'ungk'ing, Ch'ung K'ing, Chongking, and other renderings are also found in older literature. The Beijing-based Standard Chinese pronunciation is rendered in Wade-Giles as Ch'ung-ch'ing, and in the latter 20th century this form was used officially in Taiwan
Taiwan
and in Western academic literature.

^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[155] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian
Christian
churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China
China
(deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang. ^ This may include:

Buddhists; Confucians; Deity worshippers; Taoists; Members of folk religious sects; Small minorities of Muslims; And people not bounded to, nor practicing any, institutional or diffuse religion.

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Sources[edit]

Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "Chongqing," pp.325–362 in The Three Gorges and the Upper Yangzi. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 981-232-599-9.  Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "Revisiting Chongqing: China's Second World War Temporary National Capital," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Branch, Vol.45. Hong Kong: Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Branch.  Huang, Jiren (1999). Lao Chongqing
Chongqing
(Old Chongqing): Ba Shan Ye Yu (part of the "Lao Cheng Shi" series). Nanjing: Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Meishu Chubanshe ( Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Fine Arts Publishing House).  Kapp, Robert A. (1974). "Chungking as a Center of Warlord Power, 1926–1937," pp.143–170 in The Chinese City Between Two Worlds, ed. by Mark Elvin and G. William Skinner. Stanford: Stanford University Press.  Kapp, Robert A. (1973). Szechwan and the Chinese Republic: Provincial Militarism and Central Power, 1911–1938. New Haven: Yale University Press.  Liao, Qingyu (2005). Chongqing
Chongqing
Ge Le Shan Pei Du Yizhi (The Construction of War-time Capital on the Gele Mountain, Chongqing). Chengdu: Sichuan
Sichuan
University Press.  Long, Juncai (2005). Sui Yue Ya Feng de Jiyi: Chongqing
Chongqing
Kang Zhan Yizhi (Covered Memory of Flowing Years: Site[s] of [the] Anti-Japanese War in Chongqing). Chongqing: Southwest University
Southwest University
Press.  McIsaac, Lee (2000). "The City as Nation: Creating a Wartime Capital in Chongqing," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900–1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.  Xu; Dongsheng Liu; Yuchuan (1998). Chongqing
Chongqing
Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Chongqing). Beijing: People's Fine Arts Publishing House. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Chongqing.

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Chongqing
Chongqing
(category)

Chongqing
Chongqing
Municipal Government website

Preceded by Guangzhou Capital of China Republic of China 21 November 1937 – 5 May 1946 Succeeded by Nanjing

Preceded by Guangzhou Capital of China Republic of China 14 October 1949 – 30 November 1949 Succeeded by Chengdu

v t e

Municipality of Chongqing

History Politics Economy

Districts

Yuzhong Dadukou Jiangbei Shapingba Jiulongpo Nan'an Beibei Bishan Tongliang Qijiang Dazu Yubei Banan Fuling Wanzhou Qianjiang Changshou Hechuan Jiangjin Nanchuan Yongchuan Rongchang Tongnan Kaizhou Liangping Wulong

Counties

Chengkou Dianjiang Fengdu Fengjie Wushan Wuxi Yunyang Zhong

Autonomous counties

Pengshui Shizhu Xiushan Youyang

Defunct divisions

Wansheng Shuangqiao Shizhong

Attractions

Baiheliang Underwater Museum Ciqikou Dazu Rock Carvings Diaoyu Fortress Fengdu Ghost City Foreigners' Street Furong Cave People's Great Hall Red Rock Village Museum Science and Technology Museum Snowy Jade Cave Stilwell Museum Three Gorges
Three Gorges
Museum Three Natural Bridges Wulong Karst Zoo Twelve Views of Chongqing

Sports Venues

Chongqing
Chongqing
Olympic Sports Center Yanghe Stadium Datianwan Stadium

Higher Education

Chongqing
Chongqing
University Southwest University Chongqing University
Chongqing University
of Technology Chongqing
Chongqing
Jiaotong University Chongqing
Chongqing
Normal University Chongqing
Chongqing
Technology and Business University Chongqing
Chongqing
Three Gorges
Three Gorges
University Chongqing University
Chongqing University
of Posts and Telecommunications Yangtze
Yangtze
Normal University Sichuan
Sichuan
Fine Arts Institute Sichuan
Sichuan
International Studies University Southwest University
Southwest University
of Political Science and Law Third Military Medical University Chongqing
Chongqing
Medical University Chongqing University
Chongqing University
of Science and Technology Chongqing
Chongqing
Telecommunication Institute

Culture & Demographics

Ba Sichuan
Sichuan
Mandarin Szechuan cuisine

Transport

Chongqing
Chongqing
Jiangbei International Airport Chongqing
Chongqing
Metro China
China
National Highway 210 China
China
National Highway 212 Qianjiang Wulingshan Airport Wanzhou Wuqiao Airport

See also: List of Township-level divisions of Chongqing

Links to related articles

 Geographic locale

Places adjacent to Chongqing

Shaanxi

Sichuan

Chongqing

Hubei

Guizhou Hunan

Lat. and Long. 29°33′N 106°34′E / 29.550°N 106.567°E / 29.550; 106.567

v t e

Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China

Provinces

Anhui Fujian Gansu Guangdong Guizhou Hainan Hebei Heilongjiang Henan Hubei Hunan Jiangsu Jiangxi Jilin Liaoning Qinghai Shaanxi Shandong Shanxi Sichuan Yunnan Zhejiang

Autonomous regions

Guangxi Inner Mongolia Ningxia Tibet Xinjiang

Municipalities

Beijing Chongqing Shanghai Tianjin

Special
Special
administrative regions

Hong Kong Macau

Other

Taiwan¹

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

v t e

Metropolitan cities of China

Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta (YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Mid-Reaches ( Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Cities along the Yangtze

Province-level

Cities (from upper reaches to lower reaches)

Yunnan

Lijiang (SIchuan see below) Dongchuan

Sichuan

Panzhihua (Yunan see above) Yibin Luzhou

Chongqing

Jiangjin Central Chongqing Fuling Wanzhou

Hubei

Yichang Yidu Zhijiang Songzi Jingzhou Shishou ( Hunan
Hunan
see below) Honghu Chibi Wuhan Ezhou Huangshi Huanggang Wuxue

Hunan

Yueyang Linxiang

Jiangxi

Ruichang Jiujiang

Anhui

Anqing Chizhou Tongling Wuhu Ma'anshan

Jiangsu

Nanjing Yizheng Jurong Zhenjiang Yangzhou Taizhou Yangzhong Taixing Danyang Changzhou Jingjiang Jiangyin Zhangjiagang Rugao Nantong Changshu Taicang Haimen Qidong

Shanghai

Baoshan Pudong

Major cities along the Pearl River · Major cities along the Yellow River

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 247790309 GND: 4315770-1 BNF: cb150860406 (d

.