HOME
The Info List - Chongqing



--- Advertisement ---


CHONGQING (Chinese : 重庆), formerly transliterated as CHUNGKING , is a major city in southwest China . Administratively, it is one of China's four direct-controlled municipalities (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin ), and the only such municipality in China located far away from the coast.

The municipality was created on 14 March 1997 to help the Three Gorges Dam migration, succeeding the sub-provincial city administration that was part of Sichuan Province . Chongqing's population as of 2015 is just over 30 million with an urban population of 18.38 million. Of these, approximately 8.5 million people live in Chongqing city proper; Fuling District , Wanzhou District and Qianjiang District are in fact cities in their own right, and along with the city proper constitute a metropolitan area . According to the 2010 census, Chongqing is the most populous Chinese municipality, and also the largest and poorest direct-controlled municipality in China, and comprises 26 districts, 8 counties , and 4 autonomous counties.

The official abbreviation of the city, Yu (渝), was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997. This abbreviation is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds into the Yangtze River . Chongqing was also a Sichuan province municipality during the Republic of China (ROC) administration, serving as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).

Chongqing has a significant history and culture and serves as the economic centre of the upstream Yangtze basin. It is a major manufacturing centre and transportation hub; a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit described it as one of China's "30 emerging megacities ".

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Ancient history * 1.2 Imperial era * 1.3 Provisional capital of the Republic of China * 1.4 Municipality status * 1.5 Organised crime and the gang trials

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Physical geography and topography * 2.2 Climate * 2.3 Air quality

* 3 Administrative divisions

* 4 Central Chongqing

* 4.1 Districts * 4.2 Landforms * 4.3 Bridges * 4.4 Aerial tramway

* 5 Demographics * 6 Politics * 7 Military

* 8 Economy

* 8.1 Economic and technological development zones

* 9 Transport

* 9.1 River port * 9.2 Railways * 9.3 Highways * 9.4 Airports * 9.5 Public transport

* 10 Culture

* 10.1 Language * 10.2 Tourism * 10.3 Media * 10.4 Cuisine

* 10.5 Sports and recreation

* 10.5.1 Association football * 10.5.2 Basketball * 10.5.3 Sport venues

* 10.6 Religion * 10.7 Notable historic figures

* 11 Education

* 11.1 Colleges and universities * 11.2 Notable high schools * 11.3 International schools

* 12 International relations

* 12.1 Consulates * 12.2 Twin towns – Sister cities

* 13 See also * 14 Notes

* 15 References

* 15.1 Sources

* 16 External links

HISTORY

ANCIENT HISTORY

Tradition associates Chongqing with the State of Ba which is only in myth without any solid proof that Ba actually existed. The Ba people supposedly established Chongqing during the Spring and Autumn period after moving from their capital Yicheng (夷城) in Hubei under pressure from Chu . This new capital was first named Jiangzhou (江州).

IMPERIAL ERA

Jiangzhou subsequently remained under Qin Shi Huang 's rule during the Qin Dynasty , the successor of the Qin State, and under the control of Han Dynasty emperors. Jiangzhou was subsequently renamed during the Southern and Northern Dynasties to Chu Prefecture (楚州), then in 581 AD ( Sui Dynasty ) to Yu Prefecture (渝州), and later in 1102 during Northern Song to Gong Prefecture (恭州). The name Yu however survives to this day as an abbreviation for Chongqing, and the city centre where the old town stood is also called Yuzhong (Central Yu). It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song Dynasty described his crowning as king and then Emperor Guangzong as a "double celebration" (simplified Chinese : 双重喜庆; traditional Chinese : 雙重喜慶; pinyin : _shuāngchóng xǐqìng_, or _chongqing_ in short). In his honour, Yu Prefecture was therefore renamed Chongqing subprefecture marking the occasion of his enthronement.

In 1362, ( Yuan Dynasty ), Ming Yuzhen , a peasant rebelling leader, established the Daxia Kingdom (大夏) at Chongqing for a short time. In 1621 ( Ming Dynasty ), another short-lived kingdom of Daliang (大梁) was established by She Chongming (奢崇明) with Chongqing as its capital. In 1644, after the fall of the Ming Dynasty to rebel army, Chongqing, together with the rest of Sichuan , was captured by Zhang Xianzhong , who was said to have massacred a large number of people in Sichuan and depopulated the province with was also partially due to many people fleeing. The Manchus later conquered the province, and during the Qing Dynasty , immigration to Chongqing and Sichuan took place with the support of Qing emperor.

In 1890, the British Consulate General was opened in Chongqing. The following year, the city became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners. The French, German, US and Japanese consulates were opened in Chongqing in 1896–1904.

PROVISIONAL CAPITAL OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA

A street scene in Chongqing, c. 1944

During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), it was Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek 's provisional capital. After Britain, the United States, and other Allies entered the war in Asia in December 1941, one of the Allies' deputy commanders of operations in South East Asia (South East Asia Command SEAC), Joseph Stilwell , was based in the city. The city was also visited by Lord Louis Mountbatten , the Supreme Commander of SEAC which was itself headquartered in Ceylon, modern day Sri Lanka. Chiang Kai Shek as Supreme Commander in China worked closely with Stilwell. The Japanese Air Force heavily bombed it . Due to its mountainous environment, many people were saved from the bombing. Due to the bravery, contributions and sacrifices made by the local people during World War II , Chongqing became known as the City of Heroes. Many factories and universities were relocated from eastern China to Chongqing during the war, transforming this city from inland port to a heavily industrialized city. In late November 1949 the Nationalist KMT government fled the city.

MUNICIPALITY STATUS

A night view of Chongqing Central Business District from across the Yangtze river

On 14 March 1997, the Eighth National People\'s Congress decided to merge the Sub-provincial city with the neighbouring Fuling , Wanxian , and Qianjiang prefectures that it had governed on behalf of the province since September 1996. The resulting single division became Chongqing Municipality, containing 30,020,000 people in forty-three former counties (without intermediate political levels). The municipality became the spearhead of China's effort to develop its western regions and to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam project. Its first official ceremony took place on 18 June 1997. On 8 February 2010, Chongqing became one of the four National Central/Core cities , the other three are Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. On 18 June 2010, Liangjiang New Area was established in Chongqing, which is the third State-level new areas at the time of its establishment.

ORGANISED CRIME AND THE GANG TRIALS

See also: Chongqing gang trials

In the first decade of the 21st century, the city became notorious for organised crime and corruption and it is still the most dangerous city in China. Gangsters oversaw businesses involving billions of yuan and the corruption reached into the law-enforcement and justice systems. In 2009, city authorities under the auspices of municipal Communist Party secretary Bo Xilai undertook a large-scale crackdown , arresting 4,893 suspected gangsters, "outlaws" and corrupt cadres , leading to optimism that the period of gangsterism was over. However, local media later highlighted the apparent reliance by the authorities on torture to extract confessions upon which convictions were based. In December 2009, one defence lawyer was controversially arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for "coaching his client to make false claims of torture" and in July 2010, another lawyer released videotapes of his client describing the torture in detail. In 2014, four policemen involved in the interrogation were charged with the practice of "opposed illegal interrogation techniques", considered by observers to be torture. The number of security cameras increased significantly in the early 2010s to the highest of any city in the world at around 500,000.

GEOGRAPHY

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY

Geographic coordinates latitude 28° 10' to 32° 13' N, longitude 105° 17' to 110° 11' E. ‹ The template below (_Geographic location _) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

Shaanxi

Sichuan

Hubei

CHONGQING

Guizhou Hunan

Chongqing is situated at the transitional area between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the plain on the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the sub-tropical climate zone often swept by moist monsoons . It often rains at night in late spring and early summer, and thus the city is famous for its "night rain in the Ba Mountains", as described by poems throughout Chinese history including the famous _Written on a Rainy Night-A Letter to the North_ by Li Shangyin . The municipality reaches a maximum width of 470 kilometres (290 mi) from east to west, and a maximum length of 450 km (280 mi) from north to south. It borders the following provinces: Hubei in the east, Hunan in the southeast, Guizhou in the south, Sichuan in the west and northwest, and Shaanxi to the north in its northeast corner.

Chongqing covers a large area crisscrossed by rivers and mountains. The Daba Mountains stand in the north, the Wu Mountains in the east, the Wuling Mountains in the southeast, and the Dalou Mountains in the south. The whole area slopes down from north and south towards the Yangtze River valley , with sharp rises and falls. The area is featured by mountain and hills, with large sloping areas at different heights. Typical karst landscape is common in this area, and stone forests, numerous collections of peaks, limestone caves and valleys can be found in many places. The Yangtze River runs through the whole area from west to east, covering a course of 665 km (413 mi), cutting through the Wu Mountains at three places and forming the well-known Three Gorges : the Qutang, the Wuxia and the Xiling gorges. Coming from northwest and running through "the Jialing Lesser Three Gorges" of Libi, Wentang and Guanyin, the Jialing River joins the Yangtze in Chongqing.

The central urban area of Chongqing, or Chongqing proper, is a city of unique features. Built on mountains and partially surrounded by the Yangtze and Jialing rivers, it is known as a "mountain city" and a "city on rivers". The night scene of the city is very illuminated, with millions of lights and their reflection on the rivers. With its special topographical features, Chongqing has the unique scenery of mountains, rivers, forests, springs, waterfalls, gorges, and caves. Li Bai , a famous poet of the Tang Dynasty , was inspired by the natural scenery and wrote this epigram .

Specifically, the central urban area is located on a huge folding area (similar to the landscape of the Appalachian Mountains in the United States), and the Yuzhong District , Nan\'an District , Shapingba District and Jiangbei District are located right on a big syncline . And the "Southern Mountain of Chongqing" (Tongluo Mountain ), along with the Zhongliang Mountain are two anticlines next to the syncline of downtown. Li Bai's Poem of Chongqing's Baidi Cheng Leaving at dawn the White Emperor crowned with cloud,

I've sailed a thousand li through canyons in a day. With the monkeys' adieus the riverbanks are loud, My skiff has left ten thousand mountains far away.

CLIMATE

All climatic data listed below comes from the central parts of the city. Annual average 18.39 °C (65.1 °F) January average 7.9 °C (46.2 °F) August average 28.3 °C (82.9 °F) Historical Temperature range From −1.8 °C (29 °F) on 15 December 1975 to 43.0 °C (109 °F) on 15 August 2006 Total annual hours of sunshine 955 Annual precipitation 1,108 millimetres (43.6 in)

CHONGQING

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

20 10 6 21 13 8 36 17 11 105 23 15 152 27 19 171 29 22 175 33 25 134 34 25 128 28 21 92 22 16 46 17 12 25 12 8

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

0.8 51 43 0.8 55 46 1.4 63 52 4.1 73 60 6 80 66 6.7 85 72 6.9 91 76 5.3 92 76 5 82 69 3.6 71 62 1.8 62 54 1 53 46

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Chongqing has a monsoon -influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cwa/Cfa_) similar to Shanghai, and for most of the year experiences very wet conditions. Known as one of the " Three Furnaces " of the Yangtze River, along with Wuhan and Nanjing , its summers are long and among the hottest in China, with highs of 33 to 34 °C (91 to 93 °F) in July and August in the urban area. Winters are short and somewhat mild, but damp and overcast. The city's location in the Sichuan Basin causes it to have one of the lowest annual sunshine totals nationally, at only 1,055 hours, lower than much of Northern Europe; the monthly percent possible sunshine in the city proper ranges from a mere 8% in December and January to 48% in August. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −1.8 °C (29 °F) on 15 December 1975 (unofficial record of −2.5 °C (27 °F) was set on 8 February 1943) to 43.0 °C (109 °F) on 15 August 2006 (unofficial record of 44.0 °C (111 °F) was set on 8 and 9 August 1933).

As exemplified by Youyang County below, conditions are often cooler in the southeast part of the municipality due to the higher elevations there.

CLIMATE DATA FOR CHONGQING (SHAPINGBA DISTRICT, 1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 18.8 (65.8) 24.6 (76.3) 34.0 (93.2) 36.5 (97.7) 38.9 (102) 39.8 (103.6) 40.9 (105.6) 43.0 (109.4) 41.9 (107.4) 35.1 (95.2) 29.2 (84.6) 21.5 (70.7) 43 (109.4)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 10.3 (50.5) 12.9 (55.2) 17.7 (63.9) 23.0 (73.4) 27.2 (81) 29.4 (84.9) 33.0 (91.4) 33.2 (91.8) 28.3 (82.9) 21.7 (71.1) 17.1 (62.8) 11.5 (52.7) 22.1 (71.8)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 7.9 (46.2) 10.0 (50) 13.8 (56.8) 18.5 (65.3) 22.6 (72.7) 25.1 (77.2) 28.3 (82.9) 28.3 (82.9) 24.1 (75.4) 18.6 (65.5) 14.2 (57.6) 9.3 (48.7) 18.4 (65.1)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 6.2 (43.2) 8.0 (46.4) 11.2 (52.2) 15.4 (59.7) 19.3 (66.7) 22.1 (71.8) 24.8 (76.6) 24.7 (76.5) 21.2 (70.2) 16.5 (61.7) 12.2 (54) 7.7 (45.9) 15.8 (60.4)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −1.8 (28.8) −0.8 (30.6) 1.2 (34.2) 2.8 (37) 10.8 (51.4) 15.5 (59.9) 19.2 (66.6) 17.8 (64) 14.3 (57.7) 6.9 (44.4) 0.7 (33.3) −1.7 (28.9) −1.8 (28.8)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 19.7 (0.776) 23.4 (0.921) 43.0 (1.693) 96.5 (3.799) 146.7 (5.776) 193.8 (7.63) 186.0 (7.323) 135.1 (5.319) 105.6 (4.157) 85.7 (3.374) 48.2 (1.898) 24.3 (0.957) 1,108 (43.623)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 10.0 9.8 11.9 14.3 15.5 15.7 12.5 11.3 12.7 16.1 11.5 9.8 151.1

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 84 80 77 77 77 81 76 74 79 85 84 85 79.9

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 20.6 29.7 64.9 93.6 109.4 97.7 158.6 167.0 106.6 50.4 35.9 20.4 954.8

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 8 11 18 25 26 26 42 48 28 18 13 8 24

Source: China Meteorological Administration

CLIMATE DATA FOR YOUYANG TUJIA AND MIAO AUTONOMOUS COUNTY (1971–2000)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 7.5 (45.5) 8.8 (47.8) 13.0 (55.4) 19.7 (67.5) 23.9 (75) 26.9 (80.4) 30.0 (86) 30.2 (86.4) 25.6 (78.1) 20.3 (68.5) 15.1 (59.2) 10.3 (50.5) 19.3 (66.7)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 1.5 (34.7) 2.8 (37) 6.3 (43.3) 11.5 (52.7) 15.6 (60.1) 19.2 (66.6) 21.5 (70.7) 21.1 (70) 17.5 (63.5) 12.8 (55) 8.0 (46.4) 3.4 (38.1) 11.8 (53.2)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 29.1 (1.146) 31.6 (1.244) 56.7 (2.232) 128.5 (5.059) 195.1 (7.681) 242.3 (9.539) 178.1 (7.012) 145.0 (5.709) 122.5 (4.823) 109.5 (4.311) 67.9 (2.673) 25.4 (1) 1,331.7 (52.429)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 12.0 12.2 15.9 16.9 18.1 17.1 15.4 14.4 13.0 15.1 11.6 9.7 171.4

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 77 77 79 80 81 83 82 81 81 82 79 76 79.8

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 42.5 37.4 47.6 83.3 102.7 101.4 155.9 171.7 112.3 88.7 68.7 64.4 1,076.6

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 13 12 13 22 25 24 37 42 31 25 21 20 24.3

Source: China Meteorological Administration

AIR QUALITY

As one of the most polluted cities in China, Chongqing, with over 100 days of fog per year, is also known as the "Fog City" (雾都), and a thick layer of fog shrouds it for 68 days per year during the spring and autumn. "There is an old saying in China, probably two thousand years old, that 'a Szechuen dog barks at a sun,' because the sun so seldom appears," During the Second Sino-Japanese War , this special weather possibly played a role in protecting the city from being overrun by the Imperial Japanese Army .

According to the National Environmental Analysis released by Tsinghua University and the Asian Development Bank in January 2013, Chongqing is among one of the ten most air-polluted cities in the world. Also according to this report, seven of the ten most air-polluted cities are in China, including Taiyuan , Beijing, Urumqi , Lanzhou , Chongqing, Jinan and Shijiazhuang .

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

See also: List of administrative divisions of Chongqing

Chongqing is the largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the People's Republic of China. The municipality is divided into 38 subdivisions (3 were abolished in 1997, and Wansheng and Shuangqiao districts were abolished in October 2011 ), consisting of 26 districts, 8 counties, and 4 autonomous counties. The boundaries of Chongqing municipality reach much farther into the city's hinterland than the boundaries of the other three provincial level municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin ), and much of its administrative area, which spans over 80,000 square kilometres (30,900 sq mi), is rural.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF CHONGQING

YUZHONG JIULONGPO NAN\\'AN DADUKOU JIANGBEI SHAPINGBA BANAN YUBEI BEIBEI BISHAN CHANGSHOU HECHUAN JIANGJIN YONGCHUAN DAZU QIJIANG RONGCHANG TONGLIANG TONGNAN FULING NANCHUAN Dianjiang County Fengdu County WULONG QIANJIANG Pengshui County Shizhu County Xiushan County Youyang County WANZHOU Chengkou County Fengjie County KAIZHOU LIANGPING Wushan County Wuxi County Yunyang County Zhong County

DIVISION CODE DIVISION AREA IN KM2 POPULATION 2010 SEAT POSTAL CODE SUBDIVISIONS

SUBDISTRICTS TOWNS Townships ETHNIC TOWNSHIPS RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITIES VILLAGES

500000 CHONGQING 82403 28,846,170 Yuzhong 400000 181 567 233 14 2324 5235

500101 WANZHOU 3457 1,563,050 Chenjiaba Subdistrict 404000 11 29 10 2 187 448

500102 FULING 2946 1,066,714 Lizhi Subdistrict 408000 8 12 6

108 310

500103 YUZHONG 23 630,090 Qixinggang Subdistrict 400000 12

78

500104 DADUKOU 102 301,042 Xinshancun Subdistrict 400000 5 2

48 32

500105 JIANGBEI 221 738,003 Cuntan Subdistrict 400000 9 3

88 48

500106 SHAPINGBA 396 1,000,013 Qinjiagang Subdistrict 400000 18 8

140 86

500107 JIULONGPO 431 1,084,419 Yangjiaping Subdistrict 400000 7 11

107 105

500108 NAN\\'AN 263 759,570 Tianwen Subdistrict 400000 7 7

85 61

500109 BEIBEI 754 680,360 Beiwenquan Subdistrict 400700 5 12

63 117

500110 QIJIANG 2747 1,056,817 Gunan Subdistrict 400800 5 25

99 365

500111 DAZU 1433 721,359 Tangxiang Subdistrict 400900 3 24

103 197

500112 YUBEI 1452 1,345,410 Shuangfengqiao Subdistrict 401100 14 12

155 215

500113 BANAN 1834 918,692 Longzhouwan Subdistrict 401300 8 14

87 198

500114 QIANJIANG 2397 445,012 Chengxi Subdistrict 409700 6 12 12

80 138

500115 CHANGSHOU 1423 770,009 Fengcheng Subdistrict 401200 4 14

31 223

500116 JIANGJIN 3200 1,233,149 Jijiang Subdistrict 402200 4 24

85 180

500117 HECHUAN 2356 1,293,028 Nanjin Street Subdistrict 401500 7 23

61 327

500118 YONGCHUAN 1576 1,024,708 Zhongshan Road Subdistrict 402100 7 16

52 208

500119 NANCHUAN 2602 534,329 Dongcheng Subdistrict 408400 3 15 15

58 185

500120 BISHAN 912 586,034 Bicheng Subdistrict 402700 6 9

43 142

500151 TONGLIANG 1342 600,086 Bachuan Subdistrict 402500 3 25

57 269

500152 TONGNAN 1585 639,985 Guilin Subdistrict 402600 2 20

21 281

500153 RONGCHANG 1079 661,253 Changyuan Subdistrict 402400 6 15

75 92

500154 KAIZHOU 3959 1,160,336 Hanfeng Subdistrict 405400 7 26 7

78 435

500155 LIANGPING 1890 687,525 Liangshan Subdistrict 405200 2 26 7

33 310

500156 WULONG 2872 351,038 Gangkou Town 408500

12 10 4 24 184

500229 CHENGKOU CO. 3286 192,967 Gecheng Subdistrict 405900 2 6 17

22 184

500230 FENGDU CO. 2896 649,182 Sanhe Subdistrict 408200 2 23 5

53 277

500231 DIANJIANG CO. 1518 704,458 Guixi Subdistrict 408300 2 23 2

62 236

500233 ZHONG CO. 2184 751,424 Zhongzhou Town 404300

22 5 1 49 317

500235 YUNYANG CO. 3634 912,912 Shuangjiang Subdistrict 404500 4 22 15 1 87 391

500236 FENGJIE CO. 4087 834,259 Yong\'an Town 404600

19 8 4 54 332

500237 WUSHAN CO. 2958 495,072 Gaotang Subdistrict 404700

11 12 2 30 308

500238 WUXI CO. 4030 414,073 Baichang Subdistrict 405800 2 15 16

38 292

500240 SHIZHU CO. 3013 415,050 Nanbin Town 409100

17 15

29 213

500241 XIUSHAN CO. 2450 501,590 Zhonghe Subdistrict 409900

14 18

59 208

500242 YOUYANG CO. 5173 578,058 Taohuayuan Town 409800

15 23

8 270

500243 PENGSHUI CO. 3903 545,094 Hanjia Subdistrict 409600

11 28

55 241

DIVISIONS IN CHINESE AND VARIETIES OF ROMANIZATIONS

ENGLISH CHINESE HANYU PINYIN SICHUANESE PINYIN

CHONGQING MUNICIPALITY 重庆市 Chóngqìng Shì cong2 qin4 si4

WANZHOU DISTRICT 万州区 Wànzhōu Qū wan4 zou2 ngou4

FULING DISTRICT 涪陵区 Fúlíng Qū

YUZHONG DISTRICT 渝中区 Yúzhōng Qū yu2 zong1 ngou4

DADUKOU DISTRICT 大渡口区 Dàdùkǒu Qū da4 du4 kou3 ngou4

JIANGBEI DISTRICT 江北区 Jiāngběi Qū

SHAPINGBA DISTRICT 沙坪坝区 Shāpíngbà Qū

JIULONGPO DISTRICT 九龙坡区 Jiǔlóngpō Qū

NAN\\'AN DISTRICT 南岸区 Nán'àn Qū

BEIBEI DISTRICT 北碚区 Běibèi Qū

QIJIANG DISTRICT 綦江区 Qíjiāng Qū

DAZU DISTRICT 大足区 Dàzú Qū

YUBEI DISTRICT 渝北区 Yúběi Qū

BANAN DISTRICT 巴南区 Bānán Qū

QIANJIANG DISTRICT 黔江区 Qiánjiāng Qū

CHANGSHOU DISTRICT 长寿区 Chángshòu Qū

JIANGJIN DISTRICT 江津区 Jiāngjīn Qū

HECHUAN DISTRICT 合川区 Héchuān Qū ho2 cuan1 ngou4

YONGCHUAN DISTRICT 永川区 Yǒngchuān Qū yun3 cuan1 ngou4

NANCHUAN DISTRICT 南川区 Nánchuān Qū

BISHAN DISTRICT 璧山区 Bìshān Qū

TONGLIANG DISTRICT 铜梁区 Tóngliáng Qū

TONGNAN DISTRICT 潼南区 Tóngnán Qū

RONGCHANG DISTRICT 荣昌区 Róngchāng Qū

KAIZHOU DISTRICT 开州区 Kāizhōu Qū

LIANGPING DISTRICT 梁平区 Liángpíng Qū

WULONG DISTRICT 武隆区 Wǔlóng Qū

CHENGKOU COUNTY 城口县 Chéngkǒu Xiàn

FENGDU COUNTY 丰都县 Fēngdū Xiàn

DIANJIANG COUNTY 垫江县 Diànjiāng Xiàn

ZHONG COUNTY 忠县 Zhōngxiàn

YUNYANG COUNTY 云阳县 Yúnyáng Xiàn

FENGJIE COUNTY 奉节县 Fèngjié Xiàn

WUSHAN COUNTY 巫山县 Wūshān Xiàn

WUXI COUNTY 巫溪县 Wūxī Xiàn

SHIZHU TUJIA AUTONOMOUS COUNTY 石柱土家族自治县 Shízhù Tǔjiāzú Zìzhìxiàn

XIUSHAN TUJIA AND MIAO AUTONOMOUS COUNTY 秀山土家族苗族自治县 Xiùshān Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìxiàn

YOUYANG TUJIA AND MIAO AUTONOMOUS COUNTY 酉阳土家族苗族自治县 Yǒuyáng Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìxiàn

PENGSHUI MIAO AND TUJIA AUTONOMOUS COUNTY 彭水苗族土家族自治县 Péngshuǐ Miáozú Tǔjiāzú Zìzhìxiàn

* ^ Including other township related subdivisions.

Jiefangbei CBD, Central Chongqing at night A close view of Jiefangbei CBD, Central Chongqing at night A view of the Jiefangbei CBD skyline in Yuzhong district

DISTRICTS PINYIN NAME Previous associationa

Banan Chongqing

Beibei

Bishan

Changshou

Dadukou

Dazu

Fuling Fuling

Hechuan Chongqing

Jiangbei

Jiangjin

Jiulongpo

Kaizhou Wanxian

Liangping

Nan\'an Chongqing

Nanchuan Fuling

Qianjiang Qianjiang

Shapingba Chongqing

Tongliang

Tongnan

Qijiang

Rongchang

Wanzhou Wanxin

Wulong Fuling

Yubei Chongqing

Yongchuan

Yuzhong

COUNTIES PINYIN NAME Previous associationa

Chengkou Wanxian

Dianjiang Fuling

Fengdu

Fengjie Wanxian

Wushan

Wuxi

Yunyang

Zhong

AUTONOMOUS COUNTIES PINYIN NAME Previous associationa

Pengshui Qianjiang

Shizhu

Xiushan

Youyang

a Indicates with which district the division was associated below prior to the merging of Chongqing, Fuling, Wanxian (now Wanzhou) and Qianjiang in 1997.

CENTRAL CHONGQING

DISTRICTS

The urban area of Chongqing is known as Central Chongqing (重庆主城区). Spanning approximately 5,473 square kilometres (2,113 square miles), it includes the following nine districts:

* Yuzhong District (渝中区, or "Central Chongqing District"), the central and most densely populated district, where government and international business offices and the city's best shopping are located in the district's Jeifangbei CBD area. Yuzhong is located on the peninsula surrounded by E-ling Hill, Yangtze River and Jialing River. * Jiangbei District (江北区), located in the north of Jialing River. * Shapingba District (沙坪坝区), roughly located between Jialing River and Zhongliang Mountain. * Jiulongpo District (九龙坡区), roughly located between Yangtze River and Zhongliang Mountain. * Nan\'an District (南岸区, or "Southern Bank District"), located in the south side of Yangtze River. * Dadukou District (大渡口区) * Banan District (巴南区, or "Southern Chongqing District"). Previously called Ba County, and changed to the current name in 1994. Its northern area merged into central Chongqing, and its capital town Yudong is a satellite city of Central Chongqing. * Yubei District (渝北区, or "Northern Chongqing District"). Previously called Jiangbei County, and changed into the current name in 1994. Its southern area merged into Central Chongqing, and the capital town Lianglu Town is a satellite city of Central Chongqing. * Beibei District (北碚区), a satellite city northwest of Central Chongqing.

Panorama of the Chongqing Skyline, taken from the southeast hills in 2010

LANDFORMS

Central Chongqing is in the eastern edge of Sichuan Basin . Yangtze River meets its major tributary stream, Jialing River, in Central Chongqing. The city is located on a big syncline valley. Two tributary ranges of Huaying Mountain (Zhongling Mountain and Tongluo Mountain) roughly forms the eastern and western boundaries of Central Chongqing. The highest point in downtown is the top of E-ling Hill, which is a smaller syncline hill that keeps Yangtze River and Jialing River apart for some more kilometres. The elevation of E-ling Hill is 379 metres (1,243 feet). The lowest point in Central Chongqing is Chaotian Gate , where the two rivers merge with each other. The altitude there is 160 metres (520 feet). The average height of Central Chongqing is 259 metres (850 feet). In the near-suburban Chongqing, however, there are several high mountains. The highest one is called Wugong Ling Mountain, with the altitude of 1,709.4 metres (5,608 feet).

BRIDGES

The first Chongqing Yangtze river bridge built in 1977. The night view of Caiyuanba bridge across Yangtze river in Chongqing.

With many bridges on Yangtze River and Jialing River in urban area, Central Chongqing is sometimes called the Capital of Bridge of China. The first major bridge built in urban Chongqing is the Niujiaotuo Jialing River Bridge built in 1958. The first bridge on Yangtze River is the Shibanpo Yangtze River Bridge (or Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge) built in 1977.

Until 2014, within the range of Central Chongqing, there are 20 bridges on Yangtze River and 28 bridges on Jialing River . Bridges in Chongqing have various structures and shapes, making Chongqing a museum of bridges.

AERIAL TRAMWAY

Chongqing is the only Chinese city that keeps public aerial tramways . Historically there were three aerial tramways in Chongqing: the Yangtze River Tramway, the Jialing River Tramway and the South Mountain Tramway. Currently, only Yangtze River Tramway is still operating. This tramway is 1,160 metres (3,810 feet) long, connecting the southern and northern banks of Yangtze River. The daily passenger volume is about 10,000.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1949 1,003,000 —

1979 6,301,000 +528.2%

1983 13,890,000 +120.4%

1996 15,297,000 +10.1%

1997 * 28,753,000 +88.0%

2000 28,488,200 −0.9%

2005 27,980,000 −1.8%

2008 28,390,000 +1.5%

2012 28,846,170 +1.6%

2013 29,700,000 +3.0%

2014 29,914,000 +0.7%

*Population size in 1997 was affected by expansion of administrative divisions.

According to a July 2010 article from the official Xinhua news agency, the municipality has a population of 32.8 million, including 23.3 million farmers. Among them, 8.4 million farmers have become migrant workers, including 3.9 million working and living in urban areas of Chongqing.

This would mean that the locally registered farmers who work in other jurisdictions number 4.5 million, reducing the local, year-round population of Chongqing in 2010 to 28.3 million, plus those who are registered in other jurisdictions but live and work in Chongqing. According to China's 2005 statistical yearbook, of a total population of 30.55 million, those with residence registered in other jurisdictions but residing in the Chongqing enumeration area numbered 1.4 million, including 46,000 who resided in Chongqing "for less than half-year". An additional 83,000 had registered in Chongqing, but not yet settled there.

The 2005 statistical yearbook also lists 15.22 million (49.82%) males and 15.33 million (50.18%) females.

In terms of age distribution in 2004, of the 30.55 million total population, 6.4 million (20.88%) were age 0–14, 20.7 million (67.69%) were 15–64, and 3.5 million (11.46%) were 65 and over.

Of a total 10,470,000 households (2004), 1,360,000 consisted of one person, 2,940,000 two-person, 3,190,000 three-person, 1,790,000 four-person, 783,000 five-person, 270,000 six-person, 89,000 seven-person, 28,000 eight-person, 6,000 nine-person, and 10,000 households of 10 or more persons per household.

POLITICS

Main articles: Politics of Chongqing and List of provincial leaders of the People\'s Republic of China The Great Hall of the People serves as the venue for major political conferences in Chongqing

Chongqing has been, since 1997, a direct-controlled municipality in the Chinese administrative structure, making it a provincial-level division with commensurate political importance. The municipality's top leader is the secretary of the municipal committee of the Communist Party of China ("party chief"), which, since 2007, has also held a seat on the Politburo of the Communist Party of China , the country's second highest governing council. Under the Soviet-inspired nomenklatura system of appointments, individuals are appointed to the position by the central leadership of the Communist Party, and bestowed to an official based on seniority and adherence to party orthodoxy, usually given to an individual with prior regional experience elsewhere in China and nearly never a native of Chongqing. Notable individuals who have held the municipal Party Secretary position include He Guoqiang , Wang Yang , Bo Xilai , Zhang Dejiang , and Sun Zhengcai , the latter three were Politburo members during their term as party chief. The party chief heads the municipal party standing committee , the _de facto_ top governing council of the municipality. The standing committee is typically composed of 13 individuals which includes the party chiefs of important subdivisions and other leading figures in the local party and government organization, as well as one military representative.

The municipal People's Government serves as the day-to-day administrative authority, and is headed by the mayor, who is assisted by numerous vice mayors and mayoral assistants. Each vice mayor is given jurisdiction over specific municipal departments. The mayor is the second-highest-ranking official in the municipality. The mayor usually represents the city when foreign guests visit.

The municipality also has a People's Congress, theoretically elected by lower level People's Congresses. The People's Congress nominally appoints the mayor and approves the nominations of other government officials. The People's Congress, like those of other provincial jurisdictions, is generally seen as a symbolic body. It convenes in full once a year to approve party-sponsored resolutions and local regulations and duly confirm party-approved appointments. On occasion the People's Congress can be venues of discussion on municipal issues, although this is dependent on the actions of individual delegates. The municipal People's Congress is headed by a former municipal official, usually in their late fifties or sixties, with a lengthy prior political career in Chongqing. The municipal Political Consultative Conference (_zhengxie_) meets at around the same time as the People's Congress. Its role is to advise on political issues. The _zhengxie_ is headed by a leader who is typically a former municipal or regional official with a lengthy career in the party and government bureaucracy.

MILITARY

Chongqing was the wartime capital of China during the Second Sino-Japanese war (i.e., World War II), and from 1938 to 1946, the seat of administration for the Republic of China's government before its departure to Nanjing and then Taiwan . It also contains a military museum named after the Chinese Korean War hero Qiu Shaoyun .

Chongqing used to be the headquarters of the 13th Group Army of the People\'s Liberation Army , one of the two group armies that formerly comprise the Chengdu Military Region , which in 2016 was re-organized into the Western Theater Command .

ECONOMY

Commercial skyscrapers and high-rise buildings around the People's Liberation Monument in downtown Jiefangbei WalMart super market at Nan'an District Jiefangbei -People's Liberation ( World War II victory monument) The pedestrian mall in downtown Jiefangbei The pedestrian mall in Nanping CBD Main article: Economy of Chongqing

Chongqing was separated from Sichuan province and made into a municipality in its own right in 14 March 1997 in order to accelerate its development and subsequently China's relatively poorer western areas (see China Western Development strategy). An important industrial area in western China, Chongqing is also rapidly urbanising . For instance, statistics suggest that new construction added approximately 137,000 square metres (1,470,000 square feet) daily of usable floor space to satisfy demands for residential, commercial and factory space. In addition, more than 1,300 people moved into the city daily, adding almost 100 million yuan (US$15 million) to the local economy.

Traditionally, due to its geographical remoteness, Chongqing and neighbouring Sichuan have been important military bases in weapons research and development. Chongqing's industries have now diversified but unlike eastern China, its export sector is small due to its inland location. Instead, factories producing local-oriented consumer goods such as processed food, cars, chemicals, textiles, machinery and electronics are common.

Chongqing is China's third largest centre for motor vehicle production and the largest for motorcycles. In 2007, it had an annual output capacity of 1 million cars and 8.6 million motorcycles. Leading makers of cars and motor bikes includes China's fourth biggest automaker; Changan Automotive Corp and Lifan Hongda Enterprise , as well as Ford Motor Company , with the US car giant having 3 plants in Chongqing. The municipality is also one of the nine largest iron and steel centres in China and one of the three major aluminium producers. Important manufacturers include Chongqing Iron and Steel Company and South West Aluminium which is Asia's largest aluminium plant. Agriculture remains significant. Rice and fruits, especially oranges, are the area's main produce. Natural resources are also abundant with large deposits of coal, natural gas, and more than 40 kinds of minerals such as strontium and manganese . Coal reserves ≈ 4.8 billion tonnes. Chuandong Natural Gas Field is China's largest inland gas field with deposits of around 270 billion m3 – more than 1/5 of China's total. Has China's largest reserve of strontium ( China has the world's 2nd biggest strontium deposit). Manganese is mined in the Xiushan area. although the mining sector has been criticised for being wasteful, heavily polluting and unsafe. Chongqing is also planned to be the site of a 10 million ton capacity refinery operated by CNPC (parent company of PetroChina ) to process imported crude oil from the Sino-Burma pipelines . The pipeline itself, though not yet finished, will eventually run from Sittwe (in Myanmar's western coast) through Kunming in Yunnan before reaching Chongqing and it will provide China with fuels sourced from Myanmar, the Middle East and Africa. Recently, there has been a drive to move up the value chain by shifting towards high technology and knowledge intensive industries resulting in new development zones such as the Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ). Chongqing's local government is hoping through the promotion of favorable economic policies for the electronics and information technology sectors, that it can create a 400 billion RMB high technology manufacturing hub which will surpass its car industry and account for 25% of its exports.

The city has also invested heavily in infrastructure to attract investment. The network of roads and railways connecting Chongqing to the rest of China has been expanded and upgraded reducing logistical costs. Furthermore, the nearby Three Gorges Dam which is the world's largest, will not only supply Chongqing with power once completed but also allows oceangoing ships to reach Chongqing's Yangtze River port. These infrastructure improvements have led to the arrivals of numerous foreign direct investors (FDI) in industries ranging from car to finance and retailing; such as Ford , Mazda , HSBC , Standard Chartered Bank , Citibank , Deutsche Bank , ANZ Bank , Scotiabank , Wal-Mart , Metro AG and Carrefour , among other multinational corporations.

Chongqing's nominal GDP in 2011 reached 1001.1 billion yuan (US$158.9 billion) while registering an annual growth of 16.4%. However, its overall economic performance is still lagging behind eastern coastal cities such as Shanghai. For instance, its per capita GDP was 22,909 yuan (US$3,301) which is below the national average. Nevertheless, there is a massive government support to transform Chongqing into the region's economic, trade, and financial centre and use the municipality as a platform to open up the country's western interior to further development.

Chongqing has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei , Anshan , Maanshan , Pingdingshan and Shenyang ), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.

ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ZONES

The city includes a number of economic and technological development zones:

* Chongqing Chemical Industrial Park * Chongqing Economic "> Hydrofoil on the Yangtze in the outer reaches of the municipality The confluence of the Jialing River and Yangtze River, as seen from Chongqing

Chongqing is one of the most important inland ports in China. There are numerous luxury cruise ships that terminate at Chongqing, cruising downstream along the Yangtze River to Yichang , Wuhan , Nanjing or even Shanghai. In the recent past, this provided virtually the only transportation option along the river. However, improved rail, expressways and air travel have seen this ferry traffic reduce or been cancelled altogether, thus most of the river ferry traffic consists of mostly leisure cruises for tourists rather than local needs. Improved access by larger cargo vessels has been made due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam . This allows bulk transport of goods along the Yangtze River. Coal, raw minerals and containerized goods provide the majority of traffic plying this section of the river. Several port handling facilities exists throughout the city, including many impromptu river bank sites.

RAILWAYS

Chongqing funicular railway

Major train stations in Chongqing:

* Chongqing Railway Station in Yuzhong, accessible via Metro Lines 1 "> Bicycling can be a challenge in Chongqing

Traditionally, the road network in Chongqing has been narrow, winding and limited to smaller vehicles because of the natural terrain, large rivers and the huge population demands on the area, especially in the Yuzhong District . In other places, such as Jiangbei , large areas of homes and buildings have recently been cleared to improve the road network and create better urban planning. This has seen many tunnels and large bridges needing to be built across the city. Construction of many expressways have connected Chongqing to neighbouring provinces. Several ring roads have also been constructed. The natural mountainous terrain that Chongqing is built on makes many road projects difficult to construct, including for example some of the world's highest road bridges.

Unlike many other Chinese cities, it is rare for motorbikes, electric scooters or bicycles to be seen on Chongqing Roads. This is due to the extremely hilly and mountainous nature of Chongqing's roads and streets. However, despite this, Chongqing is a large manufacturing centre for these types of vehicles.

* Chongqing- Chengdu Expressway * Chongqing- Chengdu 2nd Expressway (under construction) * Chongqing-Wanzhou- Yichang Highway (Wanzhou- Yichang section under construction) * Chongqing- Guiyang Highway * Chongqing- Changsha Expressway (Xiushan- Changsha section under construction) * Chongqing-Dazhou-Xi'a Highway (Dazhou- Xi'an section under construction) * Chongqing- Suining Expressway * Chongqing- Nanchong Expressway * China National Highway 210 * China National Highway 212

AIRPORTS

CRT Line 3 in Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport

The major airport of Chongqing is Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport (IATA: CKG, ICAO: ZUCK). It is located in Yubei District . The airport offers a growing network of direct flights to China, South East Asia, the Middle East and Europe. It is located 21 km (13 mi) north of the city-centre of Chongqing and serves as an important aviation hub for south-western China. Jiangbei airport is a hub for China Southern Airlines , Chongqing Airlines , Sichuan Airlines and Hainan Airlines 's new China West Air . Chongqing also is a focus city of Air China , therefore it is very well connected with Star Alliance and Skyteam 's international network. The airport currently has two parallel runways in operation. It serves domestic routes to most other Chinese cities, as well as international routes to Seoul , Bangkok , Phuket , Osaka , Singapore, Chiang Mai , Phnom Penh , Siem Reap , Malé , Bali , Zadar , Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Batam , Rome and Helsinki .

Currently, Jiangbei airport has two terminals: Terminal 1 (old original terminal) serving international flights; Terminal 2, larger building split into Halls A and B serving domestic flights. The first, second and third phase of the airport came into operation in January 1990, December 2004, and December 2010 respectively. The domestic terminal is capable of handling 30 million passengers while its international terminal is able to handle more than 1 million passengers annually. A third terminal that will more than double capacity of the airport is currently under construction along with a third runway, which are set to open in Spring 2018. A fourth terminal and runway are planned to start construction in 2019.

Chongqing airport was the 10th busiest airport nationwide in 2010 measured by passenger traffic, handling 15,802,334 people. By 2015 this number doubled to more than 30,000,000 passengers annually. The airport was also the 11th busiest airport by cargo traffic and by traffic movements in China. During the first half of year 2011, Chongqing airport handled 8.87 million passengers, and surpassed Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport (8.48 million) to become the 9th busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic in mainland China .

Freight development has increased, especially in the export of high value electronics, such as laptop computers. It is envisaged that Chongqing can become the global leading exporter of these products by air, signs of this potential rise being the addition of cargo routes to Frankfurt , Sydney, Chicago, and New York City.

Currently, Chongqing Airport is the only facility in central and western China that has metro access (CRT Line 3 ) to its central city, and two runways in normal use.

There are two other airports in Chongqing Municipality: Qianjiang Wulingshan Airport (IATA: JIQ, ICAO: ZUQJ) and Wanzhou Wuqiao Airport (IATA: WXN, ICAO: ZUWX). They are both class 4C airports and serve passenger flights to some domestic destinations including Beijing, Shanghai and Kunming . Two more airports are being constructed soon: Wulong Xiannüshan Airport and Wushan Shennüfeng Airport .

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

CRT Line 2 in Chongqing city Main article: Chongqing Rail Transit

The three main forms of public transport in Chongqing are CRT metro , intercity railway, and the ubiquitous bus system.

According to the Chongqing Municipal Government's ambitious plan in May 2007, Chongqing is investing 150 billion RMB over 13 years to finish a system that combines underground metro lines with heavy monorail (erroneously called 'light rail' in China).

As of 2012 , three metro lines, the 14 km (8.7 mi) long CRT LINE 1 , a conventional subway , and the 19 km (12 mi) long heavy monorail CRT LINE 2 (through Phase II), LINE 3 , a heavy monorail connects the airport and the southern part of downtown. A new subway, LINE 6 , is currently in trials and is expected to open later in 2012.

By 2020 CRT will consist of 6 straight lines and 1 circular line resulting in 363.5 km (225.9 mi) of road and railway to the existing transportation infrastructure and 93 new train stations will be added to the 111 stations that are already in place.

By 2050, Chongqing was initially planning to have ten metro lines, totaling 513 km (319 mi), with 270 stations, although more recent reports have now indicated as many as 18 lines are planned to be in operation.

CULTURE

LANGUAGE

Main article: Sichuanese Mandarin Zhongshan Ancient Town, Jiangjin , Chongqing

The language native to Chongqing is Southwestern Mandarin . More precisely, the great majority of the municipality, save for Xiushan , speak Sichuanese , including the primary Chengdu-Chongqing dialect and Minjiang dialect spoken in Jiangjin and Qijiang . There are also a few speakers of Xiang and Hakka in the municipality, due to the great immigration wave to the Sichuan region (湖广填四川) during the Ming and Qing Dynasties . In addition, in parts of southeastern Chongqing, the Miao and Tujia languages are also used by some Miao and Tujia people .

TOURISM

Martyrs' Cemetery

See: Twelve Views of Bayu As the provisional Capital of China for almost ten years (1937 to 1945), the city was also known as one of the three headquarters of the Allies during World War II , as well as being a strategic center of many other wars throughout China's history. Chongqing has many historic war-time buildings or sites, some of which have since been destroyed. These sites include the People\'s Liberation Monument , located in the center of Chongqing city. It used to be the highest building in the area, but is now surrounded and dwarfed by numerous shopping centres. Originally named the _Monument for the Victory over Axis Armies_, it is the only building in China for that purpose. Today, the monument serves as a symbol for the city. The General Joseph W. Stilwell Museum , dedicated to General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell , a World War II general, the air force cemetery in the Nanshan area, in memory of those air force personnel killed during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) , and the Red Rock Village Museum , a diplomatic site for the Communist Party in Chongqing led by Zhou Enlai during World War II , and Guiyuan, Cassia Garden, where Mao Zedong signed the "Double 10 (10 October) Peace Agreement" with the Kuomintang in 1945].

* The Baiheliang Underwater Museum , China's first underwater museum, * The Memorial of Great Tunnel Massacre , a former air-raid shelter where a major massacre occurred during World War II. * The Great Hall of the People in Chongqing is based on the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. This is one of the largest public assembly buildings in China which, though built in modern times, emulates traditional architectural styles. It is adjacent to the densely populated and hilly central district, with narrow streets and pedestrian only walkways, * The large domed Three Gorges Museum presents the history, culture, and environment of the Three Gorges area and Chongqing. * Chongqing Science and Technology Museum has an IMAX theatre. * Luohan Si , a Ming Dynasty temple, * Huangguan Escalator , the second longest escalator in Asia. * Former sites for embassies of major countries during the 1940s. As the capital at that time, Chongqing had many residential and other buildings for these officials.

_ The Hongyadong stilted house in Chongqing city Baotaoping Wharf in Fengjie County

* Wuxi County , noted as a major tourism area of Chongqing, * The Dazu Rock Carvings , in Dazu county, are a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings, dating back as far as the 7th century A.D., depicting and influenced by Buddhist , Confucian and Taoist beliefs. Listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site , the Dazu Rock Carvings are made up of 75 protected sites containing some 50,000 statues, with over 100,000 Chinese characters forming inscriptions and epigraphs., * The Three Natural Bridges and Furong Cave in Wulong Karst National Geology Park , Wulong County are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the South China Karst ), * Ciqikou is a 1000-year-old town in the Shapingba District of Chongqing. It is also known as "Little Chongqing". The town, located next to the lower reaches of the Jialing River , was at one time an important source of china-ware and used to be a busy commercial dock during the Ming and Qing Dynasties ,

The steep path up to the front gate of Fishing Town . Ciqikou ancient road in Shapingba District.

* Fishing Town or Fishing City, also called the "Oriental Mecca" and "the Place That Broke God's Whip", is one of the three great ancient battlefields of China. It is noted for its resistance to the Mongol armies during the Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279) and the location where the Mongol leader Möngke Khan died in 1259, * Xueyu Cave in Fengdu County is the only example of a pure-white, jade-like karst cave in China, * Fengdu Ghost City in Fengdu County is the Gate of the Hell in traditional Chinese literature and culture. * Snowy Jade Cave , a cave in Fengdu County. * Baidi Cheng , a peninsula in Yangtze River, known due to a famous poem by Li Bai . * The Chongqing Zoo , a zoo that exhibits many rare species including the giant panda , the extremely rare South China tiger , and the African elephant . * Chongqing Amusement Park . * Chongqing Grand Theatre , a performing arts centre. * Foreigners\' Street is an amusement park, including the Porcelain Palace , the world's largest toilet. Also the location of the abortive Love Land development in 2009. * The Black Mountain Valley (Heishangu_). * The Jindao Valley (Golden Blade Valley). * The Jinfo Mountain (Golden Buddha Mountain). * Major hot-springs around the city. * Gele Mountain and the Red Rocks , a memorial park for the 1949 Chinese revolution. * Nanshan ( Southern Mountain of Chongqing ), or Tongluo Mountain academically. There are tons of places of interests in this mountain, including the Laojun Temple, the Wenfeng Pagoda, the Great Golden Eagle, the Tu Shan Temple, the Huangge Path, the former residential halls of Chiang Kai-shek , etc. * Tu Shan (Mount. Tu), a part of Southern Mountain of Chongqing (Tongluo Mountain). It is believed to be the place where Da Yu , the founder of Xia Dynasty , met his wife Tushan Shi .

MEDIA

The Chongqing People\'s Broadcast Station is Chongqing's largest radio station. The only municipal-level TV network is Chongqing TV , claimed to be the 4th largest television station in China. Chongqing TV broadcasts many local-oriented channels, and can be viewed on many TV sets throughout China. The Chongqing Daily is the largest newspaper group, controlling more than 10 newspapers and one news website.

CUISINE

Chongqing food is part of Sichuan cuisine. Chongqing is known for its spicy food. Its food is normally considered numbing because of the use of Sichuan pepper , also known as Sichuan peppercorn, containing hydroxy alpha sanshool . Chongqing's city centre has many restaurants and food stalls where meals often cost less than RMB 10. Local specialties here include dumplings and pickled vegetables and, different from many other Chinese cuisines, Chongqing dishes are suitable for the solo diner as they are often served in small individual sized portions. Among the delicacies and local specialties are these dishes:

* HOT POT – Chongqing's local culinary specialty which was originally from the Northern China. Tables in hot pot restaurants usually have a central vat , or pot, where food ordered by the customers is boiled in a spicy broth. As well as beef, pork, lotus and other vegetables, items such as pig's kidney , brain, duck's bowels and cow's stomach are often consumed. * JIANGTUAN FISH – since Chongqing is located along Jialing River , visitors have a good opportunity to sample varieties of aquatic products. Among them, is a fish local to the region, Jiangtuan fish: Hypophthalmichthys nobilis although more commonly known as bighead carp . The fish is often served steamed or baked. * PORK LEG COOKED WITH ROCK CANDY – A common household dish of the Chongqing people, the finished dish, known as red in colour and tender in taste, has been described as having strong and sweet aftertaste. * QIANZHANG (skimmed soy bean cream) – Qianzhang is the cream skimmed from soybean milk. In order to create, this several steps must be followed very carefully. First, soybeans are soaked in water, ground, strained, boiled, restrained several times and spread over gauze until delicate, snow-white cream is formed. The paste can also be hardened, cut into slivers and seasoned with sesame oil , garlic and chili oil . Another variation is to bake the cream and fry it with bacon , which is described as soft and sweet. * QUANSHUI CHICKEN (Spring Water Chicken) – Quanshui Chicken is cooked with the natural spring water in the Southern Mountain of Chongqing . * XIAO MIAN (little noodle) – lamian noodles with chili oil and rich mixtures of spices and ingredients.

SPORTS AND RECREATION

Association Football

Professional association football teams in Chongqing include:

*

* Chongqing Lifan ( Chinese Super League ) * Chongqing F.C. _folded_

Chongqing Lifan is a professional Chinese football club who currently plays in the Chinese Super League. They are owned by the Chongqing-based Lifan Group , which manufactures motorcycles, cars and spare parts. Originally called _Qianwei (Vanguard) Wuhan_, the club formed in 1995 to take part in the recently developed, fully professional Chinese football league system . They would quickly rise to top tier of the system and experience their greatest achievement in winning the 2000 Chinese FA Cup , and coming in fourth within the league. However, since then they have struggled to replicate the same success, and have twice been relegated from the top tier.

Chongqing FC was an association football club located in the city, and competed in China League One , the country's second-tier football division, before being relegated to the China League Two , and dissolving due to a resultant lack of funds.

Chongqing is also the birthplace of soccer games in southwestern China. Soccer was introduced to this region in as early as 1905 by some British soldiers and missionaries. They founded a varsity soccer team at the predecessor of modern-day Guangyi High School (also known as Chongqing No.5 High School), and trained them to be a highly skilled team. A professional soccer stadium was constructed on the Guangyi campus in the Southern Mountain. It was the first professional soccer stadium in southwestern China. The Guangyi varsity team beat English and French naval teams and even the Sheffield Wednesday team in friendlies.

Basketball

Chongqing Soaring Dragons became the 20th team playing in Chinese Basketball Association in 2013. They play at Datianwan Arena , in the same sporting complex as Datianwan Stadium .

Sport Venues

Sport venues in Chongqing include:

* The Chongqing Olympic Sports Center is a multi-purpose stadium. It is currently used mostly for football matches, as it has a grass surface, and can hold 58,680. It was built in 2004. * Yanghe Stadium is a multi-use stadium that is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 32,000 people, and is the home of Chongqing Lifan in the Chinese Super League. The stadium was purchased by the Lifan Group in 2001 for RMB 80 million and immediately replaced Datianwan Stadium as the home of Chongqing Lifan.

* Datianwan Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium that is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium has a capacity 32,000 people, and up until 2001 was the home of Chongqing Lifan.

RELIGION

Religion in Chongqing Chinese ancestral religion (26.63%) Christianity (1.05%) Other religions or not religious people (72.32%)

The predominant religions in Chongqing are Chinese folk religions , Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism . According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 26.63% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors , while 1.05% of the population identifies as Christian .

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 72.32% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities , Buddhism, Confucianism , Taoism, folk religious sects . The Jade Emperor at the Fengdu Ghost City . Buddhist temple in Jiulongpo .

NOTABLE HISTORIC FIGURES

* Ba Manzi : a legendary hero of Ba kingdom in Zhou dynasty * Qing, the Widow : a legendary woman in Qin dynasty , known as the first entrepreneur in Chinese history * Yan Yan : a loyal general during Three Kingdoms period * Qin Liangyu : a popular heroine in Ming dynasty who fought against Manchus * Nie Rongzhen : marshal of the People\'s Liberation Army of China * Liu Bocheng : an early leader of Chinese communist party during Anti-Japanese War * Lu Zuofu : a well-known patriot entrepreneur

EDUCATION

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

Entrance to the Nankai School See also: List of universities and colleges in Chongqing

* Chongqing University (重庆大学) * Southwest University (西南大学) * Southwest University of Political Science and Law (西南政法大学) * Third Military Medical University (第三军医大学) * Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications (重庆邮电大学) * Chongqing University of Technology (重庆理工大学) * Chongqing Jiaotong University (重庆交通大学) * Chongqing Medical University (重庆医科大学) * Chongqing Normal University (重庆师范大学) * Chongqing Technology and Business University (重庆工商大学) * Chongqing Three Gorges University (重庆三峡学院) * Chongqing Telecommunication Institute (重庆通讯学院) * Chongqing University of Science and Technology (重庆科技学院) * Sichuan Fine Arts Institute (四川美术学院) * Sichuan International Studies University (四川外国语大学) * University of Logistics (后勤工程学院) * Chongqing University of Arts and Science (重庆文理学院) * Yangtze Normal University (长江师范学院) * Chongqing University of Education (重庆第二师范学院)

NOTABLE HIGH SCHOOLS

* Bashu Secondary School (巴蜀中学) * Chongqing No.1 Middle School (重庆第一中学) * High School Affiliated to Southwest University (西南大学附属中学) * Chongqing Yucai Middle School (重庆市育才中学) * Chongqing Nankai Secondary School (重庆南开中学) * Foreign Languages School Attached to Sichuan International Studies University (重庆一外) * Chongqing No.8 Middle School (重庆第八中学) * Tongliang High School (铜梁中学) * Verakin High School of Chongqing / Chongqing No.2 Foreign Languages School (重庆二外) * Chongqing Railway High School (重庆铁路中学)

INTERNATIONAL SCHOOLS

* Yew Chung International School of Chongqing (重庆耀中国际学校) * KL International School of Chongqing Bashu (重庆市诺林巴蜀外籍人员子女学校)

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

CONSULATES

Consulate Date Consular District

Canada Consulate-General, Chongqing 05.1998 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan

United Kingdom Consulate-General, Chongqing 03.2000 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan

Cambodia Consulate-General, Chongqing 12.2004 Chongqing, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi

Japan Consulate-General, Chongqing 01.2005 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi

Denmark Consulate, Chongqing 07.2005 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan

Philippines Consulate-General, Chongqing 12.2008 Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan

Hungary Consulate-General, Chongqing 02.2010 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu

Ethiopia Consulate-General, Chongqing 11.2011 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan

Italy Consulate-General, Chongqing 12.2013 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan

Netherlands Consulate-General, Chongqing 01.2014 Chongqing, Sichuan, Shaanxi

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2016)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

Chongqing has sister city relationships many cities of the world including:

* France Toulouse , France (1982) * United States Seattle , United States (1983) * Canada Toronto , Canada (1986) * Japan Hiroshima , Japan (1986) * United Kingdom Leicester , United Kingdom (1993) * Russia Voronezh , Russia (1993) * Ukraine Zaporizhia Oblast , Ukraine (2002) * South Africa Mpumalanga , South Africa (2002) * DE Düsseldorf , Germany (2004) * Australia Brisbane , Australia (2005) * Iran Shiraz , Iran (2005) * Egypt Aswan , Egypt (2005) * Korea Busan , South Korea (2007) * Norway Sør-Trøndelag , Norway (2007) * Thailand Chiang Mai Province , Thailand (2008) * Argentina Córdoba , Argentina (2010) * Hungary Pest , Hungary (2010) * Thailand Bangkok , Thailand (2005) * Belgium Antwerp , Belgium (2011) * Brazil Bahia , Brazil (2011) * United States Detroit, United States (2011) * United States New York City, United States (2011) * India Chennai , India (2015)

SEE ALSO

* Major national historical and cultural sites in Chongqing * List of cities in China by population and built-up area * List of twin towns and sister cities in China

PORTALS Access related topics

* _ CHINA PORTAL _

NOTES

* ^ CH\'UNGK\'ING, CH\'UNG K\'ING, Chongking, and other renderings are also found in older literature. The Beijing-based Standard Chinese pronunciation is rendered in Wade-Giles as CH\'UNG-CH\'ING, and in the latter 20th century this form was used officially in Taiwan and in Western academic literature.

* ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines ). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.

* ^ This may include:

* Buddhists ; * Confucians ; * Deity worshippers ; * Taoists ; * Members of folk religious sects ; * Small minorities of Muslims ; * And people not bounded to, nor practicing any, institutional or diffuse religion.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Chongqing\'s Mayor turns against Bo Xilai". Theepochtimes.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Doing Business in China – Survey". Ministry of Commerce – People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-05. * ^ _A_ _B_ 2015年重庆常住人口3016.55万人 继续保持增长态势 (IN CHINESE). CHONGQING NEWS. 28 JANUARY 2016. RETRIEVED 2016-02-13. * ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (IN CHINESE). UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME CHINA. 2013. RETRIEVED 2014-05-14. * ^ "City Flower". En.cq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "City Tree". En.cq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "China\'s Direct-Controlled Municipalities". Geography.about.com. 14 March 1997. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发5号". 豆丁网. 19 February 1995. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-28. * ^ 程正龙. "2015年重庆常住人口3016.55万人 继续保持增长态势-今日重庆-华龙网". _cq.cqnews.net_. Retrieved 2016-02-13. * ^ "最新中国城市人口数量排名(根据2010年第六次人口普查)". www.elivecity.cn. 2012. Retrieved 2014-05-28. * ^ "Chongqing\'s Official Abbreviation". English.cri.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "EIU Report". Eiu.com. Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kim Hunter Gordon, Jesse Watson (2011). _ Chongqing & The Three Gorges_. pp. 38–40. ISBN 978-7-5022-5215-1 . * ^ "Chongqing\'s History with the State of Ba". Chongqing Municipal Government. 6 December 2007. * ^ " Ming Yuzhen Information". Neohumanism.com. Retrieved 2012-07-02. * ^ Nicola di Cosmo, Don J. Wyatt. _Political Frontiers, Ethnic Boundaries, and Human Geographies in Chinese History_. Retrieved 2012-07-02. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 2015-08-19. The last Manchu dynasty * ^ "UK Consulate Page". Cq.xinhuanet.com. 30 December 2004. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " Chongqing Opens Itself To Foreigners". Mitchellteachers.org. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "French Consulate Page". Cq.xinhuanet.com. 30 December 2004. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Japanese Consulate Page". Chongqing.cn.emb-japan.go.jp. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "US Consulate Page". Us-passport-service-guide.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "German Consulate Page". 2011.cqlib.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 2015-08-19. Chiang Kai-shek & Stilwell, Joseph * ^ "WWII Era History of Chongqing". .needham.k12.ma.us. 23 October 1944. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " Chongqing becomes 5th National Central city". English.peopledaily.com.cn. 10 February 2010. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Establishment of the Liangjiang New Area". Gochina.scmp.com. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ Chongqing on the mend after crackdown on criminal gangs Archived 4 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine ., SCMP, 5 October 2009 * ^ lawyer reveals Bo Xilai\'s use of torture Archived 20 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 2015-08-19. Morning Post Gang trials * ^ ""Say cheese!" – Cities with the most surveillance cameras Panethos". panethos.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2016-10-16. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 2015-08-19. Bashan Poems * ^ "Location of Chongqing". En.cq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 October 2016. Retrieved 2015-08-06. Chongqing's bordering provinces * ^ Chongqing Topography. "Mountains in Sichuan and Chongqing". Fodors.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "The Three Gorges Corp". Ctg.com.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " Yangtze River". Chinese National Tourism Office, US Chinese Embassy. Retrieved 2014-03-31. * ^ Murphy, Ryan (28 December 2010). "Trip to Chongqing". Elevendegreesnorth.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Poems of Li Bai". Poemhunter.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2015-08-19. Chongqing Mountains Data * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值数据集 (1971–2000年) (IN CHINESE). CHINA METEOROLOGICAL ADMINISTRATION . MAY 2011. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 21 SEPTEMBER 2013. RETRIEVED 2011-05-23. * ^ _A_ _B_ "无标题文档". Archived from the original on 2012-10-13. Retrieved 2016-10-16. * ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2010-08-28. * ^ 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 (IN CHINESE). GUANGZHOU POPULAR SCIENCE NEWS NET (广州科普资讯网). 12 SEPTEMBER 2007. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 18 MARCH 2013. RETRIEVED 2014-11-12. * ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2013-05-22. * ^ " Chongqing Municipality". IES Global. Retrieved 2011-07-17. * ^ " Chongqing – City of Hills, Fog and Spicy Food". China.com. Retrieved 2011-07-17. * ^ Lin, Yutang.1944. The Vigil of a Nation. The John Day Company. New York. 262 pages * ^ "WEATHER & EXTREME EVENTS 7 of 10 Most Air-Polluted Cities Are in China". _JAN 16, 2013_. Imaginechina/Corbis. http://news.discovery.com. Retrieved 2014-09-01. * ^ "重庆调整部分行政区划:4区(县)并为2区". News.163.com. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ 国家统计局统计用区划代码 Archived 5 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ 《保定经济统计年鉴2011》 * ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). _Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao_ (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2 . * ^ 《中国民政统计年鉴2012》 * ^ "Position of Five Function Districts in Chongqing". Chongqing Municipal Government. 22 September 2013. Retrieved 2015-05-26. * ^ 五大功能区域: 都市功能核心区 . CQNEWS CORPORATION. RETRIEVED 2015-05-26. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ 统计年鉴2014 (IN CHINESE). STATISTICS BUREAU OF CHONGQING. 9 FEBRUARY 2015. RETRIEVED 2015-05-01.

* ^ 2014年重庆市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 (IN CHINESE). CHONGQING BUREAU OF STATISTICS. 16 MARCH 2015. RETRIEVED 2015-05-01. * ^ "China\'s Chongqing starts household registration reform". Xinhua News. 2 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-12. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Residence Status of Population by Region and Sex (2004)". National Bureau of Statistics of China, in allcountries.org. 2005. Retrieved 2010-08-12. * ^ "Age Composition and Dependency Ratio of Population by Region (2004)". National Bureau of Statistics of China, in allcountries.org. 2005. Retrieved 2010-08-12. * ^ "Number and Size of Family Households by Region (2004)". National Bureau of Statistics of China, in allcountries.org. 2005. Retrieved 2010-08-12. * ^ Page, Jeremy (15 March 2012). " Chongqing Party Chief Position". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ Kuo, Ping-chia. " Chongqing History: The Modern Period". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2016-07-31. * ^ "Chongqing, once a wartime capitol". En.cq.gov.cn. 14 March 1997. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " Qiu Shaoyun Memorial Hall". Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2016-10-16. * ^ Pike, John (21 November 2003). "A history of the 13th Army Group". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ Chinese vice premier urges Chongqing to become economic engine for western regions Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine . – Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Australia – retrieved 2009-01-31. * ^ China urges reform, development of Chongqing municipality Archived 23 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine . – Xinhua News Agency – retrieved 2009-01-31. * ^ "Market Profiles on Chinese Cities and Provinces (hktdc.com)". Tdctrade.com. Retrieved 2011-03-14. * ^ "Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything," Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, Penguin, p. 218, 2006. * ^ Chongqing Municipality(重慶市) Archived 7 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine . – The Australia- China Chamber of Commerce and Industry of New South Wales – retrieved 2009-01-31. * ^ _A_ _B_ Critical Eye on Chongqing – Pillar of the West Archived 6 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine . – China Business Review – retrieved 2009-01-31. * ^ MacKie, Nick (4 May 2005). "China\'s west seeks to impress investors". _BBC News_. Retrieved 2010-04-28. * ^ A survey in 2005 by China's State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) found 13 firms in the manganese triangle had breached targets on the release of hexavalent chromium and ammonia-nitrogen – in the worst case, by a factor of 180. The cleanup ordered by SEPA resulted in firms closing and the expenditure of 280 million yuan. * ^ "Asia Times Online: China Business News : China-Myanmar pipeline projects on track". Atimes.com. 24 April 2007. Retrieved 2011-03-14. * ^ welcome to www.cnnz.gov.cn Archived 7 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ " China Business News : HP Foxcom Setup Laptop Plants in Chongqing". The China Perspective. Retrieved 2011-03-14. * ^ " Chongqing Investment Zone Profiles". Allroadsleadtochina.com. 30 May 2007. Retrieved 2011-03-14. * ^ China\'s Three Gorges Dam Archived 3 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine . – CNN – retrieved 2009-01-31. * ^ Dee-Ann Durbin (28 August 2012). "Ford building sixth plant in China". Associated Press. Retrieved 20 March 2017. * ^ Seetharaman, Deepa. " Mazda in Chongqing". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " HSBC opens bank in Chongqing". Hsbc.com.cn. 28 December 2009. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Standard Chartered open a bank in Chongqing" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " Citibank opens branch in Chongqing". Citigroup.com. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 2012-09-03. Deutsche Bank opens Chongqing branch * ^ " ANZ Bank opens a branch in Chongqing". Anz.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Page Not Found Scotiabank". scotiabank.com. Retrieved 2016-10-16. * ^ Yue, Terril. " Wal-Mart reopens Chongqing locations". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ Multinational Grocery Stores in Chongqing * ^ Tan, Kenneth (12 November 2007). " Chongqing Carrefour Stampede". Shanghaiist.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ Innovative City in West China Chongqing (PDF) Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine . – Jon Sigurdson and Krystyna Palonka of Stockholm School of Economics, EIJS – retrieved on 1 February 2009. * ^ "The Rise of The \'Champs\' – New Report Maps Business Opportunity in China\'s Fastest Growing Cities". Sourcewire.com. 9 November 2010. Retrieved 2011-03-14. * ^ "Industrial Park". Chinaknowledge.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "CETD". Hktdc.com. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "CHTIDT". En.cq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "CNNZ". English.cq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ Contact:. "CEPZ". Rightsite.asia. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Jianqiao Industrial Park Profile". Hktdc.com. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 2013-12-29. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 October 2016. Retrieved 2012-09-03. Liangjiang New Area * ^ "New cloud computing center". En.cq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ Chongqing Urban Bridges Archived 12 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Chongqing\'s Cruise Industry * ^ " Chongqing Ports Details". Service-industries-research.hktdc.com. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ Black, Simon (12 July 2011). "Chongqing: World\'s Largest Construction Project". Articles.businessinsider.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ Bicycles rare in Chongqing Archived 12 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "CJIA Stats". Theairdb.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ 2010年全国机场吞吐量排名 (IN CHINESE). CIVIL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION OF CHINA. 21 MARCH 2012. RETRIEVED 2012-03-23. * ^ "Frankfurt- Chongqing Route". Thechinatimes.com. 27 March 2012. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ 颜培 (23 April 2012). "Chongqing\'s new cargo routes". China.org.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Chongqing\'s Rising Technology Exports". Ft.cq.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ Chongqing Airport Profile Archived 30 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Line 2 & 1". English.cqnews.net. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Planning of Chongqing Line 6". Cn.siemens.com. 30 December 2010. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " Chongqing City Transport". English.cqnews.net. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ _ Chongqing Daily_ (23 March 2008) * ^ 翟时雨 (Ruo Shiyu) (2003). "中篇第四节:四川话的分区 (The divisions of the Sichuan dialect)". _《汉语方言学》 (_The Study of Chinese Languages_)_ (in Chinese). 西南师范大学出版社 ( Southwest China Normal University Press). ISBN 7-5621-2942-8 . * ^ "苗族:特色苗语 (The Miao People: Characteristics of the Miao language)". Retrieved 2010-07-31. * ^ "People\'s Liberation Monument". Chongqingwomen.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "General Joseph Stillwell Museum". Travelchinaguide.com. 17 May 1944. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Red Rock Village Museum". Beijingfeeling.com. 15 September 2013. Archived from the original on 2011-06-23. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Chongqing: The First Underwater Museum in China has Been Built and Opened". Chinahush. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Great Hall of the People". Placesonline.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Luohan Si". Fodors.com. 28 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ www.chinaeducenter.com. "Embassies List". Chinaeducenter.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " Wuxi County". English.51766.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Dazu Rock Carvings". China.org.cn. 12 September 2003. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "China: Three Natural Bridges National Geopark". Naturalarches.org. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Furong Cave". Gxnu.edu.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Ciqkou". Blog.seattlechinesegarden.org. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Fishing Town". Chongqingwomen.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ Xueyu Cave Archived 18 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ " Chongqing Zoo Profile and Pictures". Travelchinaguide.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Chinese radio stations". Chinaculture.org. 24 September 2003. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ Bandurski, David (1 June 2011). "Chongqing\'s TV revolution". Cmp.hku.hk. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " Chongqing Daily\'s Bo Xilai Coverage". Theepochtimes.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ SinoHotelGuide.com. " Chongqing Dining Overlook" (in Dutch). Sinohotelguide.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " Chongqing Hot Pot & Dining Guide". Travelchinaguide.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Bighead Carp, or Jiangtuan Fish". Nas.er.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Jiangtuan Fish". Chinatravelcompass.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.

* ^ " Chongqing Dining, Dining in Chongqing, Chongqing cuisine, Chongqing Food, Chongqing restaurants". Chinatourguide.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26. * ^ "Qianzhang". Chinatourguide.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " Lifan Group buys Chongqing soccer team". China.org.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "2000 Chinese FA Cup". Rsssf.com. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " Chongqing Lifan F.C". Soccerway.com. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2015-07-06. Chongqing FC folds * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 2015-08-06. Beijing Ducks vs. Chongqing * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-06. Official Site * ^ " Yanghe Stadium profile". Footballgroundmap.com. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ " Datianwan Stadium profile". Worldstadiums.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 25 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 2009-02-11. Website in English * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 2015-05-16. Website in English * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ "各国驻华领馆领区一览表 (in Simplified Chinese)". 中华人民共和国外交部. 8 May 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ "荷兰意大利有望年内在渝设领事馆 (in Simplified Chinese)". 和讯财经. 8 May 2013.

SOURCES

* Danielson, Eric N. (2005). _"Chongqing," pp.325–362 in The Three Gorges and the Upper Yangzi_. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 981-232-599-9 . * Danielson, Eric N. (2005). _"Revisiting Chongqing: China's Second World War Temporary National Capital," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong Branch, Vol.45_. Hong Kong: Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong Branch. * Huang, Jiren (1999). _Lao Chongqing (Old Chongqing): Ba Shan Ye Yu (part of the "Lao Cheng Shi" series)_. Nanjing: Jiangsu Meishu Chubanshe ( Jiangsu Fine Arts Publishing House). * Kapp, Robert A. (1974). _"Chungking as a Center of Warlord Power, 1926–1937," pp.143–170 in The Chinese City Between Two Worlds, ed. by Mark Elvin and G. William Skinner_. Stanford: Stanford University Press. * Kapp, Robert A. (1973). _Szechwan and the Chinese Republic: Provincial Militarism and Central Power, 1911–1938_. New Haven: Yale University Press. * Liao, Qingyu (2005). _ Chongqing Ge Le Shan Pei Du Yizhi (The Construction of War-time Capital on the Gele Mountain, Chongqing)_. Chengdu: Sichuan University Press. * Long, Juncai (2005). _Sui Yue Ya Feng de Jiyi: Chongqing Kang Zhan Yizhi (Covered Memory of Flowing Years: Site of Anti-Japanese War in Chongqing)_. Chongqing: Southwest University Press. * McIsaac, Lee (2000). _"The City as Nation: Creating a Wartime Capital in Chongqing," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900–1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick_. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. * Xu; Dongsheng Liu; Yuchuan (1998). _ Chongqing Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Chongqing)_. Beijing: People's Fine Arts Publishing House.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for CHONGQING _.

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to: CHONGQING _ (category)

* Chongqing Municipal Government website

Preceded by Guangzhou CAPITAL OF CHINA _Republic of China _ 21 November 1937 – 5 May 1946 Succeeded by Nanjing

Preceded by Guangzhou CAPITAL OF CHINA _Republic of China _ 14 October 1949 – 30 November 1949 Succeeded by Chengdu

* v * t * e

Municipality of Chongqing

* History * Politics * Economy

DISTRICTS

* Yuzhong * Dadukou * Jiangbei * Shapingba * Jiulongpo * Nan\'an * Beibei * Bishan * Tongliang * Qijiang * Dazu * Yubei * Banan * Fuling * Wanzhou * Qianjiang * Changshou * Hechuan * Jiangjin * Nanchuan * Yongchuan * Rongchang * Tongnan * Kaizhou * Liangping * Wulong

_

COUNTIES

* Chengkou * Dianjiang * Fengdu * Fengjie * Wushan * Wuxi * Yunyang * Zhong

AUTONOMOUS COUNTIES

* Pengshui * Shizhu * Xiushan * Youyang

DEFUNCT DIVISIONS

* Wansheng * Shuangqiao * Shizhong

ATTRACTIONS

* Baiheliang Underwater Museum * Ciqikou * Dazu Rock Carvings * Diaoyu Fortress * Fengdu Ghost City * Foreigners\' Street * Furong Cave * People\'s Great Hall * Red Rock Village Museum * Science and Technology Museum * Snowy Jade Cave * Stilwell Museum * Three Gorges Museum * Three Natural Bridges * Wulong Karst * Zoo * Twelve Views of Chongqing

SPORTS VENUES

* Chongqing Olympic Sports Center * Yanghe Stadium * Datianwan Stadium

HIGHER EDUCATION

* Chongqing University * Southwest University * Chongqing University of Technology * Chongqing

.

Time at 25052355.05, Busy percent: -44.67979725782

Warning: error_log(logs/periodic-service_log.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/PeriodicService.php on line 30
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25052355.05 3logs/periodic-service_log.txt
Warning: file_get_contents(periodicTasks.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/PeriodicService.php on line 40

Warning: file_get_contents(file-server-ip.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/const.php on line 59

Notice: Undefined offset: 1 in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/const.php on line 62

Warning: error_log(isfileserver_log.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/helper.php on line 21

Warning: file_put_contents(periodicTasks.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/PeriodicService.php on line 171