HOME
The Info List - Cher



--- Advertisement ---


(i)

CHER (/ʃɛər/ ; born CHERILYN SARKISIAN; May 20, 1946) is an American singer and actress. Sometimes referred to as the Goddess of Pop , she has been described as embodying female autonomy in a male-dominated industry. She is known for her distinctive contralto singing voice and for having worked in numerous areas of entertainment, as well as adopting a variety of styles and appearances during her five-decade-long career.

Cher
Cher
gained popularity in 1965 as one-half of the folk rock husband-wife duo Sonny & Cher after their song " I Got You Babe " reached number one on the American and British charts. By the end of 1967, they had sold 40 million records worldwide and had become, according to _Time _ magazine, rock's "it" couple. She began her solo career simultaneously, releasing in 1966 her first million-seller song, " Bang Bang (My Baby Shot Me Down) ". She became a television personality in the 1970s with her shows _The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour _, watched by over 30 million viewers weekly during its three-year run, and _ Cher
Cher
_. She emerged as a fashion trendsetter by wearing elaborate outfits on her television shows. While working on television, she established herself as a solo artist with the U.S. _Billboard_ Hot 100 chart-topping singles "Gypsys, Tramps "> Cher as a high school student in 1960

Cher
Cher
was born Cherilyn Sarkisian (Armenian : Սարգիսեան)? in El Centro, California on May 20, 1946. Her father, John Sarkisian, was an Armenian-American truck driver with drug and gambling problems, and her mother, Georgia Holt (born Jackie Jean Crouch), was an occasional model and bit-part actress who claimed Irish, English, German, and Cherokee ancestry. Cher's father was rarely home when she was an infant, and her parents divorced when Cher
Cher
was ten months old. Her mother later married actor John Southall, by whom she had another daughter, Cher's half-sister.

Now living in Los Angeles, Cher's mother began acting while working as a waitress. She changed her name to Georgia Holt and played minor roles in films and on television. Holt also secured acting parts for her daughters as extras on television shows like _The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet _. Her mother's relationship with Southall ended when Cher
Cher
was nine years old, but she considers him her father and remembers him as a "good-natured man who turned belligerent when he drank too much". Holt remarried and divorced several more times, and she moved her family around the country (including New York, Texas, and California). They often had little money, and Cher
Cher
recounted having had to use rubber bands to hold her shoes together. At one point, her mother left Cher
Cher
at an orphanage for several weeks. Although they met every day, both found the experience traumatic.

When Cher
Cher
was in fifth grade, she produced a performance of the musical _ Oklahoma!
Oklahoma!
_ for her teacher and class. She organized a group of girls, directing and choreographing their dance routines. Unable to convince boys to participate, she acted the male roles and sang their songs. By age nine, she had developed an unusually low voice. Fascinated by film stars, Cher's role model was Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
, particularly due to her role in the 1961 film _Breakfast at Tiffany\'s _. Cher
Cher
began to take after the unconventional outfits and behavior of Hepburn's character. She was disappointed by the absence of dark-haired Hollywood actresses whom she could emulate then. She had wanted to be famous since childhood but felt unattractive and untalented, later commenting, "I couldn't think of anything that I could do ... I didn't think I'd be a singer or dancer. I just thought, well, I'll be famous. That was my goal."

In 1961, Holt married bank manager Gilbert LaPiere, who adopted Cher (under the name Cheryl LaPiere) and Georganne, and enrolled them at Montclair College Preparatory School , a private school in Encino , whose students were mostly from affluent families. The school's upper-class environment presented a challenge for Cher; biographer Connie Berman wrote, " stood out from the others in both her striking appearance and outgoing personality." A former classmate commented, "I'll never forget seeing Cher
Cher
for the first time. She was so special ... She was like a movie star, right then and there ... She said she was going to be a movie star and we knew she would." Despite not being an excellent student, Cher
Cher
was intelligent and creative, according to Berman. She earned high grades, excelling in French and English classes. As an adult, she discovered that she had dyslexia . Cher
Cher
achieved notoriety for her unconventional behavior: she performed songs for students during the lunch hours and surprised peers when she wore a midriff-baring top. She later recalled, "I was never really in school. I was always thinking about when I was grown up and famous."

1962–1965: SOLO CAREER BREAKTHROUGH

At age 16, Cher
Cher
dropped out of school, left her mother's house, and moved into Los Angeles with a friend. She took acting classes and worked to support herself, dancing in small clubs along Hollywood's Sunset Strip
Sunset Strip
and introducing herself to performers, managers, and agents. According to Berman, " did not hesitate to approach anyone she thought could help her get a break, make a new contact, or get an audition." Cher
Cher
met performer Sonny Bono in November 1962 when he was working for record producer Phil Spector . Cher's friend moved out, and Cher
Cher
accepted Sonny's offer to be his housekeeper . Sonny introduced Cher
Cher
to Spector, who used her as a backup singer on many recordings, including the Ronettes ' " Be My Baby " and the Righteous Brothers ' "You\'ve Lost That Lovin\' Feelin\' ". Spector produced her first single, the commercially unsuccessful " Ringo, I Love You ", which Cher
Cher
recorded under the name Bonnie Jo Mason.

Cher
Cher
and Sonny became close friends, eventual lovers, and performed their own unofficial wedding ceremony in a hotel room in Tijuana, Mexico, on October 27, 1964. Although Sonny had wanted to launch Cher
Cher
as a solo artist, she encouraged him to perform with her because she suffered from stage fright , and he began joining her onstage, singing the harmonies. Cher
Cher
disguised her nervousness by looking at Sonny; she later commented that she sang to the people through him. In late 1964, they emerged as a duo called Caesar it was later described by AllMusic 's Tim Sendra as "one of the stronger folk-pop records of the era".

1965–1967: SONNY AND CHER\'S RISE TO POP STARDOM

Sonny & Cher in Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
, 1966

In early 1965, Caesar and Cleo began calling themselves Sonny Cher recalled, " had told us ... that Americans just didn't get us and that if we were going to make it big, we were going to have to go to England." According to writer Cintra Wilson , "English newspaper photographers showed up when S&C were thrown out of the London Hilton the night they arrived—literally overnight, they were stars. London went gaga for the heretofore-unseen S _ Rolling Stone _ listed it among "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time " in 2003. As the song knocked the Beatles off the top of the British charts, English teenagers began to emulate Sonny and Cher's fashion style, such as bell-bottoms , striped pants, ruffled shirts, industrial zippers and fur vests. Upon their return to the U.S., the duo made several appearances on the teen-pop showcases _Hullabaloo _ and _ Shindig! _ and completed a tour of some of the largest arenas in the U.S. Their shows attracted Cher
Cher
look-alikes—"girls who were ironing their hair straight and dyeing it black, to go with their vests and bell-bottoms". Cher
Cher
expanded her creative range by designing a clothing line.

Sonny and Cher's first album, _ Look at Us _ (1965), released for the Atco Records division of Atlantic Records , spent eight weeks at number two on the _Billboard_ 200, behind the Beatles' _Help! _. Their material became popular, and the duo successfully competed with the dominant British Invasion and Motown sounds of the era. Sonny and Cher
Cher
charted ten _Billboard _ top 40 singles between 1965 and 1972, including five top-ten singles: "I Got You Babe", "Baby Don\'t Go ", "The Beat Goes On ", "All I Ever Need Is You ", and "A Cowboy\'s Work Is Never Done ". At one point, they had five songs in the top 50 at the same time, a feat equaled only by the Beatles and Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
. By the end of 1967, they had sold 40 million records worldwide and had become, according to _Time _ magazine's Ginia Bellafante , rock's "it" couple.

Cher's following releases kept her solo career fully competitive with her work with Sonny. _ The Sonny Side of Chér _ (1966) features "Bang Bang (My Baby Shot Me Down) ", which reached number two in America and became her first million-seller solo single. _Chér _, also released in 1966, contains the Burt Bacharach and Hal David composition "Alfie ", which was added to the credits of the American version of the 1966 film of the same name and became the first stateside version of the popular song. _ With Love, Chér _ (1967) includes songs described by biographer Mark Bego as "little soap-opera stories set to rock music" such as the U.S. top-ten single " You Better Sit Down Kids ".

1967–1970: BACKLASH FROM THE YOUNGER GENERATION, FIRST MARRIAGE

_ Cher
Cher
on the set of the television series The Man from U.N.C.L.E. _, 1967

By the end of the 1960s, Sonny and Cher's music had ceased to chart. According to Berman, "the heavy, loud sound of groups like Jefferson Airplane and Cream made the folk-rock music of Sonny and Cher
Cher
seem too bland." Cher
Cher
later commented, "I loved the new sound of Led Zeppelin , Eric Clapton , the electric-guitar oriented bands. Left to myself, I would have changed with the times because the music really turned me on. But Son didn't like it—and that was that." Their monogamous lifestyle during the period of the sexual revolution and the anti-drug position they adopted at the height of the drug culture eventually made the duo lose their popular appeal among American youths. According to Bego, "in spite of their revolutionary unisex clothes, Sonny and Cher
Cher
were quite 'square' when it came to sex and drugs." In an attempt to recapture their young audience, the duo produced and starred in the film _Good Times _ (1967), which was commercially unsuccessful.

Cher's next album, _Backstage _ (1968), in which she runs in diverse musical directions, including Brazilian jazz and anti-war protest settings, was not a commercial success. In 1969, she was dropped from Imperial Records. Sonny and Cher
Cher
had been dropped from Atco; however, the label wanted to sign Cher
Cher
for a solo album. _3614 Jackson Highway _ (1969) was recorded without the guidance of Sonny and incorporates experiments in soul music ; AllMusic's Mark Deming proclaimed it "the finest album of her career". Displeased with the _3614 Jackson Highway_ album, Sonny prevented Cher
Cher
from releasing more recordings for Atco.

Meanwhile, Sonny dated others, and by the end of the 1960s their relationship had begun to unravel. According to _People _ magazine, " tried desperately to win her back, telling her he wanted to marry and start a family." They officially married after she gave birth on March 4, 1969 to Chastity Bono (who later became Chaz Bono ).

That year, the duo spent $500,000 and mortgaged their home to make the film _Chastity _. Written and directed by Sonny, who did not appear in the movie, it tells the story of a young woman, played by Cher, searching for the meaning of life. The art film failed commercially, putting the couple $190,000 in debt with back taxes. However, some critics noted that Cher
Cher
showed signs of acting potential; _Cue_ magazine wrote, " Cher
Cher
has a marvelous quality that often makes you forget the lines you are hearing."

At the lowest point of their career, the duo put together a nightclub routine that relied on a more adult approach to sound and style. According to writer Cintra Wilson, "Their lounge act was so depressing, people started heckling them. Then Cher
Cher
started heckling back. Sonny ... reprimanded her; then she'd heckle Sonny". The heckling became a highlight of the act and attracted viewers. Television executives took note, and the couple began making guest appearances on prime-time shows, in which they presented a "new, sophisticated, and mature" image. Cher
Cher
adopted alluring, low-cut gowns that became her signature outfits.

1971–1974: TELEVISION CAREER BREAKTHROUGH, FIRST MUSICAL COMEBACK

_ Cher
Cher
(right)_ with Farrah Fawcett on _The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour _

CBS
CBS
head of programming Fred Silverman offered Sonny and Cher
Cher
their own television program after he noticed them as guest-hosts on _The Merv Griffin Show _ in 1971. _The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour _ premiered as a summer replacement series on August 1, 1971, and had six episodes. Because it was a ratings success, the couple returned that December with a full-time show.

Watched by more than 30 million viewers weekly during its three-year run, _The Sonny ">

Since Sonny's first attempts at reviving their recording career as a duo had also been unsuccessful, Kapp Records recruited Snuff Garrett to work with them. He produced Cher's first U.S. solo number-one single, " Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves ", which "proved that ... Garrett knew more about Cher's voice and her persona as a singer than Sonny did", writes Bego. The song was featured on the 1971 album _Chér _ (eventually reissued under the title _Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves_), which was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). Its second single, " The Way of Love ", reached number seven on the _Billboard_ Hot 100 chart and established Cher's more confident image as a recording artist.

In 1972, Cher
Cher
released the all-ballad set _Foxy Lady _, demonstrating the evolution of her vocal abilities, according to Bego. Following the release of the album, Garrett quit as producer after disagreeing with Sonny about the kind of material Cher
Cher
should record. At Sonny's insistence, in 1973 Cher
Cher
released an album of standards called _ Bittersweet White Light _, which was commercially unsuccessful. That year, lyricist Mary Dean brought Garrett "Half-Breed ", a song about the daughter of a Cherokee mother and a white father, that she had written especially for Cher. Although Garrett did not have Cher
Cher
as a client at the time, he was convinced that "it's a smash for Cher
Cher
and for nobody else", so he held the song for months until he got Cher back. "Half-Breed" was featured on the album of the same name and became Cher's second U.S. solo number-one single. Both the album and the single were certified gold by the RIAA. Cher's third U.S. solo number-one single was "Dark Lady ", in 1974, from the namesake album . Later that year, she released a _ Greatest Hits
Greatest Hits
_ album that, according to _Billboard_ magazine, proved her to be "one of the most consistent hitmakers of the past five years", as well as a "proven superstar who always sells records".

Between 1971 and 1973, Sonny and Cher's recording career was revived with four albums released under Kapp Records and MCA Records: _Sonny & Cher
Cher
Live _ (1971), _All I Ever Need Is You _ (1972), _Mama Was a Rock and Roll Singer, Papa Used to Write All Her Songs _ (1973), and _Live in Las Vegas Vol. 2 _ (1973). Cher
Cher
later commented on this period: "I could do a whole album ... in three days ... We were on the road ... and we were doing the Sonny ">_ Cher
Cher
performing with David Bowie
David Bowie
on the Cher
Cher
_ show, 1975

Cher
Cher
and Sonny had marital problems since late 1972, but appearances were maintained until 1974. "The public still thinks we are married," Sonny wrote in his diary at the time, " that's the way it has to be." In February 1974, Sonny filed for a separation, citing "irreconcilable differences". A week later, Cher
Cher
countered with a divorce suit and charged Sonny with "involuntary servitude", claiming that he withheld money from her and deprived her of her rightful share of their earnings. The couple battled in court over finances and the custody of Chastity, which was eventually granted to Cher. Their divorce was finalized on June 26, 1975.

In 1974, Cher
Cher
won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Musical or Comedy for _The Sonny "> Cher
Cher
with then-husband Gregg Allman in 1975

On February 16, 1975, Cher
Cher
returned to television with a solo show on CBS. Called _ Cher
Cher
_, it began as a highly rated special with guests Flip Wilson
Flip Wilson
, Elton John , and Bette Midler . The show was produced by Geffen and centered on Cher's songs, monologues, comedy performance, and her variation of clothing, which was the largest for a weekly TV show. Early critical reception was favorable; _Los Angeles Times _ exclaimed that "Sonny without Cher
Cher
was a disaster. Cher
Cher
without Sonny, on the other hand, could be the best thing that's happened to weekly television this season." _Cher_ lasted for less than a year, replaced by a new show in which she professionally reunited with ex-husband Sonny; she said, "doing a show alone was more than I could handle."

On June 30, 1975, four days after finalizing her divorce from Sonny, Cher
Cher
married rock musician Gregg Allman , co-founder of The Allman Brothers Band . She filed for divorce nine days later because of his heroin and liquor problems, but they reconciled within a month. They had one son, Elijah Blue , on July 10, 1976. Sonny and Cher's TV reunion, _ The Sonny and Cher Show _, debuted on CBS
CBS
in February 1976—the first show ever to star a divorced couple. Although the show was a ratings success on its premiere, Cher
Cher
and Sonny's insulting onscreen banter about their divorce, her reportedly extravagant lifestyle, and her troubled relationship with Allman caused a public backlash that eventually contributed to the show's cancellation in August 1977.

Cher's next albums, _I\'d Rather Believe in You _ (1976) and _ Cherished _ (1977), the latter a return to her pop style at Warner's producers insistence, were commercially unsuccessful. In 1977, under the rubric "Allman and Woman", she recorded alongside Allman the duet album _ Two the Hard Way _. Their relationship ended following the release of the album, and their divorce was finalized in 1979. Beginning in 1978, she had a two-year live-in relationship with Kiss member Gene Simmons . That year, she legally changed her name from Cherilyn Sarkisian La Piere Bono Allman to Cher, to eliminate the use of four surnames. She returned to prime time television with the specials _ Cher... Special _ (1978) and _ Cher
Cher
... and Other Fantasies_ (1979).

1979–1982: SECOND MUSICAL COMEBACK, SHIFT FROM DISCO MUSIC TO ROCK

Cher
Cher
performing in Las Vegas, 1981

A single mother with two children, Cher
Cher
realized that she had to make a choice about the direction of her singing career. Deciding to temporarily abandon her desire to be a rock singer, she signed with Casablanca Records and launched a comeback with the single "Take Me Home " and the album of the same name , both of which capitalized on the disco craze. Both the album and the single became instant successes, remained bestsellers for more than half of 1979, and were certified gold by the RIAA. Sales of the album may have been boosted by the image of a scantily clad Cher
Cher
in a Viking
Viking
outfit on its cover. Despite her initial lack of enthusiasm for disco music, she changed her mind after the success, commenting, "I never thought I would want to do disco ... it's terrific! It's great music to dance to. I think that danceable music is what everybody wants."

Encouraged by the popularity of _Take Me Home_, Cher
Cher
planned to return to rock music in her next album, _Prisoner _ (1979). The album's cover features Cher
Cher
draped in chains as a "prisoner of the press", which caused controversy among feminist groups for her perceived portrayal of a sex slave. She included rock songs, which made the disco release seem unfocused and led to its commercial failure. _Prisoner_ produced the single "Hell on Wheels ", featured on the soundtrack of the film _ Roller Boogie _. The song exploits the late 1970s roller-skating fad and contributed to its popularity.

In 1980, alongside Italian record producer Giorgio Moroder , Cher wrote her last Casablanca disco recording, "Bad Love", for the film _Foxes _. She formed the rock band Black Rose that year with her then-lover, guitarist Les Dudek . Although Cher
Cher
was the lead singer, she did not receive top billing because she wanted to create the impression that all band members were equal. Since she was easily recognized when she performed with the band, she developed a punk look by cutting her trademark long hair. Despite appearances on television, the band failed to earn concert dates. Their album _Black Rose _ received unfavorable reviews; Cher
Cher
told _Rolling Stone_, "The critics panned us, and they didn't attack the record. They attacked me. It was like, 'How dare Cher
Cher
sing rock "> Cher
Cher
performing during a benefit concert for Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation in 1989

In 1987, Cher
Cher
signed with Geffen Records and revived her musical career with what music critics Johnny Danza and Dean Ferguson describe as "her most impressive string of hits to date", establishing her as a "serious rock and roller ... a crown that she'd worked long and hard to capture". Michael Bolton
Michael Bolton
, Jon Bon Jovi
Bon Jovi
, Desmond Child , and Richie Sambora produced her first Geffen album, _ Cher
Cher
_, which was certified platinum by the RIAA. It features the rock ballad "I Found Someone ", her first U.S. top-ten single in more than eight years.

Cher's 19th studio album _Heart of Stone _ (1989) was certified triple platinum by the RIAA. The music video for its second single, " If I Could Turn Back Time ", caused controversy due to Cher's performance on a Navy warship , straddling a cannon, and wearing a leather thong that revealed her tattooed buttocks. The song topped the Australian charts for seven weeks, reached number three on the _Billboard_ Hot 100 chart and became one of Cher's most successful singles. Other songs from _Heart of Stone_ to reach the U.S. top ten were "After All ", a duet with Peter Cetera , and "Just Like Jesse James ". At the 1989 People\'s Choice Awards , Cher
Cher
won the Favorite All-Around Female Star Award. She embarked on the Heart of Stone Tour in 1990. Most critics liked the tour's nostalgic nature and admired Cher's showmanship. Its parent television special _ Cher
Cher
at the Mirage _ (1991) was filmed during a concert in Las Vegas.

In her first film in three years, _Mermaids _ (1990), Cher
Cher
paid tribute to her own mother in this story about a woman who moves her two daughters from town to town at the end of a love affair. She conflicted with the film's first two directors, Lasse Hallström and Frank Oz , who were replaced by Richard Benjamin . Believing Cher would be the star attraction, the producers allowed her creative control for the film. _Mermaids_ was a moderate box office success and received mixed reviews. One of the two songs Cher
Cher
recorded for the film's soundtrack , "The Shoop Shoop Song (It\'s in His Kiss) ", topped the UK Singles Chart for five weeks.

Cher's final studio album for Geffen Records, _Love Hurts _ (1991), stayed at number one in the UK for six weeks and produced the UK top-ten single " Love and Understanding ". The album was certified gold by the RIAA. In later years, Cher
Cher
commented that her Geffen label "hit years" had been especially significant to her, "because I was getting to do songs that I really loved ... songs that really represented me, and they were popular!" She released the exercise book _Forever Fit_ in 1991, followed by the 1992 fitness videos _CherFitness: A New Attitude _ and _CherFitness: Body Confidence _. She embarked on the Love Hurts Tour during 1992. That year, the UK-only compilation album _Greatest Hits: 1965–1992 _ peaked at number one in the country for seven weeks. It features three new songs: " Oh No Not My Baby ", "Whenever You\'re Near ", and "Many Rivers to Cross ".

1992–1997: HEALTH AND PROFESSIONAL STRUGGLES, DIRECTING DEBUT

Partially due to her experiences filming _Mermaids_, Cher
Cher
turned down leading roles in such films as _The War of the Roses _ and _Thelma & Louise _. According to Berman, "After the success of _Moonstruck_, she was so worried about her next career move that she was overly cautious." In the early 1990s, she contracted the Epstein–Barr virus and developed chronic fatigue syndrome , which left her too exhausted to sustain her music and film careers. Because she needed to earn money and was not healthy enough to work on other projects, she starred in infomercials launching health, beauty, and diet products, which earned her close to $10 million in fees. The skits were parodied on _ Saturday Night Live _ and critics considered them a sellout, many suggesting her film career was over. She told _Ladies\' Home Journal _, "Suddenly I became the Infomercial Queen and it didn't occur to me that people would focus on that and strip me of all my other things."

Cher
Cher
made cameo appearances in the Robert Altman films _The Player _ (1992) and _Prêt-à-Porter _ (1994). In 1994, she started a mail-order catalogue business, _Sanctuary_, selling Gothic-themed products, and contributed a rock version of "I Got You Babe" to MTV 's animated series _ Beavis and Butt-head
Beavis and Butt-head
_. Alongside Chrissie Hynde , Neneh Cherry , and Eric Clapton , she topped the UK Singles Chart in 1995 with the charity single " Love Can Build a Bridge ". Later that year, she signed with Warner Music UK's label WEA and released the album _It\'s a Man\'s World _ (1995), which came out of her idea of covering men's songs from a woman's point of view. In general, critics favored the album and its R it reached number 64 on the _Billboard_ 200.

In 1996, Cher
Cher
played the wife of a businessman who hires a hitman to murder her in the Chazz Palminteri -scripted dark comedy film _Faithful _. Although the film received negative reviews from critics, Cher
Cher
was praised for her role; _The New York Times_' Janet Maslin wrote that she "does her game best to find comic potential in a victim's role." Cher
Cher
refused to promote the film, claiming it was "horrible". She made her directing debut with a segment in the abortion-themed anthology _ If These Walls Could Talk _ (1996), in which she starred as a doctor murdered by an anti-abortion fanatic. It drew the highest ratings for an original HBO movie to date, registering an 18.7 rating with a 25 share in HBO homes and attracting 6.9 million viewers. Her music played a large role in the American TV series _ The X-Files
The X-Files
_ episode "The Post-Modern Prometheus ", which aired in November 1997. Written for her, it tells the story of a scientist's grotesque creature who adores Cher
Cher
because of her role in _Mask_, in which her character cares for her disfigured son.

1998–2000: DEATH OF SONNY BONO, FOURTH MUSICAL COMEBACK

Sonny and Cher's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame

Following Sonny Bono's death in a skiing accident in 1998, Cher delivered a tearful eulogy at his funeral, calling him "the most unforgettable character" she had met. She paid tribute to him by hosting the CBS
CBS
special _Sonny she feared being criticized for capitalizing on the event. She later told _Rolling Stone_, "I couldn't ignore it, could I? I might have if I cared more about what people think than what I know is right for me."

Cher's 22nd studio album _Believe _ (1998) marked a musical departure for her, as it comprises dance-pop songs, many of which capture the "disco-era essence"; Cher
Cher
said, "It's not that I think this is a '70s album ... but there's a thread, a consistency running through it that I love.'" _Believe_ was certified quadruple platinum by the RIAA and went on to be certified gold or platinum in 39 countries, selling 10 million copies worldwide. The album's title track reached number one in more than 23 countries and sold over 10 million copies worldwide. It became the best-selling recording of 1998 and 1999, respectively, in the UK and the U.S., and Cher's most successful single to date. "Believe" topped the UK Singles Chart for seven weeks and became the biggest-selling single of all time by a female artist in the UK, selling over 1.7 million copies in the country as of November 2013. It also topped the _Billboard_ Hot 100 chart for four weeks, selling over 1.8 million units in the U.S. as of December 1999. The song earned Cher
Cher
the Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for Best Dance Recording .

In January 1999, Cher
Cher
performed " The Star-Spangled Banner
The Star-Spangled Banner
" at the Super Bowl XXXIII . Two months later, she sang on the television special _ VH1 Divas Live 2_, which attracted 19.4 million viewers. According to VH1
VH1
, it was the most popular, and most watched program in the television network's history, as Cher's presence was "a huge part of making it exactly that." Capitalizing on the success of "Believe", Cher's former record company Geffen Records released the compilation album _If I Could Turn Back Time: Cher\'s Greatest Hits
Greatest Hits
_ (1999), which features the previously unreleased song "Don't Come Cryin' to Me". It was certified gold by the RIAA. The Do You Believe? tour ran from 1999 to 2000 and was sold out in every American city it was booked in, amassing a global audience of more than 1.5 million. Its companion television special, _Cher: Live in Concert – From the MGM Grand in Las Vegas _ (1999), was the highest rated original HBO program in 1998–99, registering a 9.0 rating among adults 18 to 49 and a 13.0 rating in the HBO universe of about 33 million homes. In November 1999, Cher
Cher
released the compilation album _The Greatest Hits
Greatest Hits
_, which sold three million copies outside of the U.S. as of January 2000.

Cher
Cher
was named the number-one dance artist of 1999 by _Billboard_. At the 1999 World Music Awards , she received the Legend Award for her "lifelong contribution to the music industry". Her next film, Franco Zeffirelli 's _ Tea with Mussolini _ (1999), got mixed reviews, but she earned critical acclaim for her performance as a rich, flamboyant American socialite whose visit to Italy is not welcome among the Englishwomen; one reviewer from _ Film Comment _ wrote, "It is only after she appears that you realize how sorely she's been missed from movie screens! For Cher
Cher
is a star. That is, she manages the movie star trick of being at once a character and at the same time never allowing you to forget: that's Cher."

_ Not.com.mercial _ (2000) was written mostly by Cher
Cher
after she had attended a songwriters' conference in 1994; it marked her first attempt at writing most of the tracks for an album. As the album was rejected by her record label for being uncommercial, she chose to sell it only on her website. In the song "Sisters of Mercy", she criticized as "cruel, heartless and wicked" the nuns who prevented her mother from retrieving her from a Catholic orphanage. The Catholic church denounced the song.

2001–2013: TOURING SUCCESS, VEGAS RESIDENCY, RETURN TO FILM

Cher
Cher
performing during Living Proof: The Farewell Tour in 2004

Cher's highly anticipated dance-oriented follow-up to _Believe_, _ Living Proof _ (2001), entered the _Billboard_ 200 at number nine and was certified gold by the RIAA. The album includes the UK top-ten single "The Music\'s No Good Without You " and "Song for the Lonely ", the latter song dedicated to "the courageous people of New York" following the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
. In May 2002, she performed during the benefit concert _ VH1 Divas Las Vegas _. At the 2002 _Billboard_ Music Awards , she won the Dance/Club Play Artist of the Year Award and was presented with the Artist Achievement Award by Steven Tyler for having "helped redefine popular music with massive success on the _Billboard_ charts". That year, her wealth was estimated at $600 million.

In June 2002, Cher
Cher
embarked on the Living Proof: The Farewell Tour , announced as the final live concert tour of her career, although she vowed to continue making records and films. The show highlighted her successes in music, television, and film, featuring video clips from the 1960s onwards and an elaborate backdrop and stage set-up.

Initially scheduled for 49 shows, the worldwide tour was extended several times. By October 2003, it had become the most successful tour ever by a woman, grossing $145 million from 200 shows and playing to 2.2 million fans. A collection of live tracks taken from the tour was released in 2003 as the album _ Live! The Farewell Tour _. The NBC special _ Cher
Cher
– The Farewell Tour _ (2003) attracted 17 million viewers. It was the highest rated network-TV concert special of 2003 and earned Cher
Cher
the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Variety, Music, or Comedy Special
Special
.

After leaving Warner UK in 2002, Cher
Cher
signed a worldwide deal with the U.S. division of Warner Bros. Records
Warner Bros. Records
in September 2003. _The Very Best of Cher
Cher
_ (2003), a greatest-hits collection that surveys her entire career, peaked at number four on the _Billboard_ 200 and was certified double platinum by the RIAA. She played herself in the Farrelly brothers comedy _Stuck on You _ (2003), mocking her public image as she appears in bed with a much younger boyfriend. Her 326-date Farewell Tour ended in 2005 as one of the highest-grossing concert tours of all time, seen by over 3.5 million fans and earning $250 million. In 2008, she began a three-year, 200-performance residency at the Colosseum at Caesars Palace , Las Vegas, for which she earned a reported $60 million per year. Titled Cher
Cher
, the production featured state-of-the-art video and special effects, elaborate set designs, 14 dancers, four aerialists and more than 20 costume changes.

Cher
Cher
returned to film in the 2010 musical _Burlesque_ , playing a nightclub impresario whom a young Hollywood hopeful is looking to impress. One of the two songs she recorded for the film's soundtrack , the power ballad "You Haven\'t Seen the Last of Me ", reached number one on the _Billboard_ Dance Club Songs
Dance Club Songs
chart in January 2011, making Cher
Cher
the only artist to date to have a number-one single on a _Billboard_ chart in each decade from the 1960s to the 2010s. In November 2010, she received the honor of placing her handprints and footprints in cement in the courtyard in front of Grauman\'s Chinese Theatre in Hollywood. The next year, she lent her voice to Janet the Lioness in the comedy _Zookeeper _. _ Dear Mom, Love Cher _, a documentary she produced about her mother Georgia Holt, aired on Lifetime in May 2013.

2013–PRESENT: RETURN TO MUSIC AND TOURING, BROADWAY PROJECT

Cher
Cher
performing during the Dressed to Kill Tour in 2014

_Closer to the Truth _, Cher's 25th studio album and the first since 2001's _Living Proof_, entered the _Billboard_ 200 at number three in October 2013, her highest position on that chart to date. Michael Andor Brodeur from _ The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe
_ commented that "Cher's 'Goddess of Pop' sash remains in little danger of undue snatching; at 67, she sounds more convincing than J-Lo or Madonna reporting from 'the club'". Cher
Cher
premiered the lead single "Woman\'s World " on the season four finale of the talent show _The Voice _, her first live TV performance in over a decade. She later joined the show's season five as judge Blake Shelton 's team adviser.

On June 30, 2013, Cher
Cher
headlined the annual Dance on the Pier benefit, celebrating Gay Pride day. It became the event's first sellout in five years. In November 2013, she appeared as a guest performer and judge on the seventeenth season of ABC's _Dancing with the Stars _, during its eighth week, which was dedicated to her. She embarked on the Dressed to Kill Tour in March 2014, nearly a decade after announcing her "farewell tour". She quipped about that fact during the shows, saying this would actually be her last farewell tour while crossing fingers . The tour's first leg, which included 49 sold-out shows in North America, grossed $54.9 million. In November 2014, she cancelled all remaining dates due to an infection that affected kidney function.

On May 7, 2014, Cher
Cher
confirmed a collaboration with American hip hop group Wu-Tang Clan on their album _ Once Upon a Time in Shaolin _. Credited as Bonnie Jo Mason, she uses an alias of hers originated in 1964. Only one copy of the album has been produced, and it was sold by online auction in November 2015. After appearing as Marc Jacobs
Marc Jacobs
' guest at the 2015 Met Gala , Cher
Cher
posed for his brand's fall/winter advertising campaign. The fashion designer stated, "This has been a dream of mine for a very, very long time."

Cher
Cher
first mentioned plans for a Broadway musical based on her life and music in June 2012. At that time, she revealed that the show would feature three actresses playing herself during different stages of her life. By 2015, she was still working on the project, enlisting writer Rick Elice to develop the script. In late 2016, it was announced Jason Moore had signed on to direct, while Flody Suarez and Jeffrey Seller would serve as producers. Billed as _The Cher
Cher
Show_, a staged reading was workshopped in New York City from January 2–14, 2017.

Classic Cher , a series of shows in cooperation with AEG Live , will see her perform 30 live concerts in the newly built Park Theater at Monte Carlo Resort and Casino and The Theater at MGM National Harbor . Opening night was on February 8, 2017. On May 21, 2017, Cher
Cher
has been honored with the coveted Billboard Icon Award for being "one of the most dominant figures in music and entertainment for more than six decades". As part of her appearance, Cher
Cher
performed her 1998 single "Believe " and her 1989 hit " If I Could Turn Back Time ".

ARTISTRY

MUSIC AND VOICE

_ "All I Really Want to Do" (1965) In " All I Really Want to Do ", Cher
Cher
alternates between high and low registers; this gave listeners the impression of a Sonny and Cher
Cher
song and demonstrated her ability to carry both male and female ranges. ------------------------- "Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves" (1971) Cher's vocal performances during the 1970s such as "Gypsys, Tramps codecs="vorbis"" data-title="Original Ogg file (64 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="64082" /> "Believe " features the pioneering use of Auto-Tune , also known as the " Cher
Cher
effect". ------------------------- "Believe" without Auto-Tune For comparison, Auto-Tune is not applied in this section -------------------------

Problems playing these files? See media help ._

Cher
Cher
has employed various musical styles, including folk rock , pop rock , power ballads, disco, new wave music , rock music , punk rock , arena rock , and hip hop; she said she has done this to "remain relevant and do work that strikes a chord". Her music has mainly dealt with themes of heartbreak, independence, and self-empowerment for women; by doing so, she became "a brokenhearted symbol of a strong but decidedly single woman", according to _Out _ magazine's Judy Wieder. _Goldmine _ magazine's Phill Marder credited Cher's "nearly flawless" song selection as what made her a notorious rock singer; while several of her early songs were penned by or sung with Sonny Bono, most of her solo successes, which outnumbered Sonny and Cher's successes, were composed by independent songwriters, selected by Cher. _Not.com.mercial_ (2000), the singer's first album mostly written by herself, presents a "1970s singer-songwriter feel" that proves "Cher adept in the role of storyteller", according to AllMusic's Jose F. Promis.

Robert Hilburn of _Los Angeles Times_ writes, "There were a lot of great records by female singers in the early days of rock ... None, however, reflected the authority and command that we associate with rock 'n' roll today as much as key early hits". Some of Cher's early songs discuss subjects rarely addressed in American popular music such as divorce, prostitution, unplanned and underaged pregnancy, and racism. According to AllMusic's Joe Viglione, the 1972 single "The Way of Love " is "either about a woman expressing her love for another woman, or a woman saying au revoir to a gay male she loved" ("What will you do/When he sets you free/Just the way that you/Said good-bye to me"). Her ability to carry both male and female ranges allowed her to sing solo in androgynous and gender-neutral-themed songs.

Cher
Cher
has a contralto singing voice, described by author Nicholas E. Tawa as "bold, deep, and with a spacious vibrato ". Ann Powers of _The New York Times_ called it "a quintessential rock voice: impure, quirky, a fine vehicle for projecting personality." AllMusic's Bruce Eder wrote that the "tremendous intensity and passion" of Cher's vocals coupled with her "ability to meld that projection with her acting skills" can provide "an incredibly powerful experience for the listener", despite her having a limited vocal range. Paul Simpson, in his book _The Rough Guide to Cult Pop_ (2003), posits that " Cher
Cher
the possessor of one of the huskiest, most distinctive voices in pop ... which can work wonders with the right material directed by the right producer". He further addresses the believability of her vocal performances: "she spits out the words ... with such conviction you'd think she was delivering an eternal truth about the human condition".

Writing about Cher's musical output during the 1960s, Robert Hilburn of _Los Angeles Times_ stated that "Rock was subsequently blessed with the staggering blues exclamations of Janis Joplin
Janis Joplin
in the late '60s and the raw poetic force of Patti Smith in the mid-'70s. Yet no one matched the pure, seductive wallop of Cher". By contrast, her vocal performances during the 1970s were described by Eder as "dramatic, highly intense ... almost as much 'acted' as sung". First heard in the 1980 record _Black Rose_, Cher
Cher
employed sharper, more aggressive vocals in her hard rock-oriented albums, establishing her sexually confident image. For the 1995 album _It's a Man's World_, she restrained her vocals, singing in higher registers and without vibrato.

The 1998 song "Believe" has an electronic vocal effect proposed by Cher, and was the first commercial recording to feature Auto-Tune —an audio processor originally intended to disguise or correct off-key inaccuracies in vocal music recordings—as a deliberate creative effect. After the success of the song, the technique became known as the " Cher
Cher
effect" and has since been widely used in popular music. Cher
Cher
continued to use Auto-Tune on the albums _Living Proof_ (2001) and _Closer to the Truth_ (2013).

In an interview in 2013, Cher
Cher
reflected on how her voice had evolved during the course of her career, eventually getting stronger and suppler over the years. While she didn't really like it at the beginning, working with vocal coaches had made a significant difference; she stated in the _ Toronto Sun _: "It's so freaky because people my age are having to lose notes and I'm gaining notes, so that's pretty shocking."

FILMS, MUSIC VIDEOS, AND PERFORMANCES

See also: Cher videography Cher
Cher
performing during the Dressed to Kill Tour in 2014

Author Yvonne Tasker, in her book _Working Girls: Gender and Sexuality in Popular Cinema_ (2002), notes that Cher's film roles often mirrors her public image as a rebellious, sexually autonomous, and self-made woman. In her films, she recurrently serves as a social intermediary to disenfranchised male characters, such as Eric Stoltz 's elephantiasis victim in _Mask_ (1985), Liam Neeson
Liam Neeson
's mute homeless veteran in _Suspect_ (1987), and Nicolas Cage 's socially isolated baker with a wooden hand in _Moonstruck_ (1987). Film critic Kathleen Rowe wrote of _Moonstruck_ that the depiction of Cher's character as "a 'woman on top' enhanced by the unruly star persona Cher
Cher
brings to the part'. Jeff Yarbrough of _ The Advocate
The Advocate
_ wrote that Cher
Cher
was "one of the first superstars to 'play gay' with compassion and without a hint of stereotyping", as she portrays a lesbian in the 1983 film _Silkwood_.

Cher's public image is also reflected in her music videos and live performances, in which she "repeatedly comments on her own construction, on her search for perfection and on the performance of the female body", wrote Tasker. Unlike other music video and stage acts of that time who often featured female backers who would mimic the singer's performance, Cher
Cher
uses a male dancer dressed as her in the 1992 concert video _ Cher
Cher
at the Mirage_; Author Diane Negra commented, "In authorizing her own quotation, Cher
Cher
acknowledges herself as fictionalized production, and proffers to her audience a pleasurable plurality." James Sullivan of _ San Francisco Chronicle
San Francisco Chronicle
_ wrote that " Cher
Cher
is well aware that her chameleonic glitz set the stage for the current era of stadium-size razzle-dazzle. She's comfortable enough to see such imitation as flattery, not theft."

Cher
Cher
was ranked 17th on VH1's list of the "50 Greatest Women of the Video Era". The 1980 video for "Hell on Wheels " involves cinematic techniques and was one of the first music videos ever. Deemed "controversial" for her performance on a Navy warship, straddling a cannon, and wearing a leather thong that revealed her tattooed buttocks, the 1989 music video for " If I Could Turn Back Time " was the first ever to be banned by MTV.

PUBLIC IMAGE

_Time _ magazine's Cady Lang described Cher
Cher
as a "cultural phenomenon has forever changed the way we see celebrity fashion." Cher
Cher
emerged as a fashion trendsetter in the 1960s, popularizing "hippie fashion with bell-bottoms , bandanas, and Cherokee-inspired tunics". She began working as a model in 1967 for photographer Richard Avedon after then-_Vogue _ magazine editor Diana Vreeland discovered her at a party for Jacqueline Kennedy
Jacqueline Kennedy
that year. Avedon took the controversial photo of Cher
Cher
in a beaded and feathered nude gown for the cover of _Time_ magazine in 1975. Through her 1970s television shows, she became a sex symbol with her inventive and revealing Bob Mackie -designed outfits, and fought the network censors to bare her navel . Although Cher
Cher
has been erroneously attributed to being the first woman to expose her navel on television, she was the most prominent to do so since the establishment of the American Code of Practices for Television Broadcasters in 1951, which prompted network censors to ban navel exposure on U.S. television. _People_ dubbed Cher
Cher
the "pioneer of the belly beautiful". In 1972, after she was featured on the annual "Best Dressed Women" lists, Mackie stated: "There hasn't been a girl like Cher
Cher
since Dietrich and Garbo . She's a high-fashion star who appeals to people of all ages." _ Cher
Cher
exposing her navel for a scene from an Egyptian soap opera skit on The Sonny and Cher
Cher
Show _, 1977

In May 1999, after the Council of Fashion Designers of America recognized Cher
Cher
with an award for her influence in fashion, Robin Givhan of _Los Angeles Times_ called her a "fashion visionary" for "striking just the right note of contemporary wretched excess". Givhan referenced Tom Ford
Tom Ford
, Anna Sui
Anna Sui
and Dolce "> Cher
Cher
at an amfAR event, 2015

Beginning in 1990, Cher
Cher
served as a donor and as the National Chairperson and Honorary Spokesperson for the Children's Craniofacial Association, whose mission is to "empower and give hope to facially disfigured children and their families". The annual Cher's Family Retreat is held each June to provide craniofacial patients, their siblings and parents an opportunity to interact with others who have endured similar experiences. She supports and promotes Get A-Head Charitable Trust, which aims to improve the quality of life for people with head and neck diseases.

Cher
Cher
is a donor, fundraiser, and international spokesperson for Keep a Child Alive , an organization that seeks to accelerate action to combat the AIDS pandemic, including the provision of antiretroviral medicine to children and their families with HIV/AIDS. In 1996, she hosted the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) Benefit alongside Elizabeth Taylor at the Cannes Film Festival. In 2015, she received the amfAR Award of Inspiration for "her willingness and ability to use her fame for the greater good" and for being "one of the great champions in the fight against AIDS".

Cher
Cher
has been a vocal supporter of American soldiers and returning veterans. She has contributed resources to Operation Helmet, an organization that provides free helmet upgrade kits to troops in Iraq and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. She has contributed to the Intrepid Fallen Heroes Fund, which serves military personnel who have been disabled in operations in Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan, and those severely injured in other operations. In 1993, she participated in a humanitarian effort in Armenia
Armenia
, taking food and medical supplies to the war-torn region.

Cher
Cher
has engaged in the construction of houses with Habitat for Humanity and served as the Honorary National Chair of a Habitat's elimination of poverty housing initiative "Raise the Roof", an effort to engage artists in the organization's work while on tour. In 2007, she became the primary supporter of the Peace Village School (PVS) in Ukunda , Kenya, which "provides nutritious food, medical care, education and extracurricular activities for more than 300 orphans and vulnerable children, ages 2 to 13 years." Her support enabled the school to acquire land and build permanent housing and school facilities, and in partnership with Malaria No More and other organizations, she piloted an effort to eliminate malaria mortality and morbidity for the children, their caregivers and the surrounding community. In 2016, after the discovery of lead contamination in the drinking water of Flint, Michigan , Cher
Cher
donated more than 180,000 bottles of water to the city as part of a partnership with Icelandic Glacial .

Cher's older child, Chaz Bono (born Chastity Bono), first came out as a lesbian at age 17, which reportedly caused Cher
Cher
to feel "guilt, fear and pain". However, she soon came to accept Chaz's sexual orientation, and came to the conclusion that LGBT
LGBT
people "didn't have the same rights as everyone else, thought that was unfair". She was the keynote speaker for the 1997 national Parents, Families, "> Cher
Cher
during her July 12, 2006 visit at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center , Germany, which treats injured U.S. military personnel serving in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iraq
Iraq

Cher
Cher
has said that she is not a registered Democrat, but has attended many Democratic conventions and events. Over the years, Cher's political views have attracted media attention, and she has been an outspoken critic of the conservative movement. In an interview with _Vanity Fair _, she was critical of a variety of political topics, including Republican politicians like Sarah Palin and Jan Brewer . She has commented that she did not understand why anyone would be a Republican because eight years under the administration of George W. Bush "almost killed ".

During the 2000 United States presidential election , ABC News wrote that she was determined to do "whatever possible to keep him out of office". She told the site, "If you're black in this country, if you're a woman in this country, if you are any minority in this country at all, what could possibly possess you to vote Republican? ... You won't have one fucking right left." She added, "I don't like Bush. I don't trust him. I don't like his record. He's stupid. He's lazy."

On October 27, 2003, Cher
Cher
anonymously called a C-SPAN phone-in program to recount a visit she made to maimed soldiers at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center and criticized the lack of media coverage and government attention given to injured servicemen. She remarked that she watches C-SPAN every day. Although she identified herself as an unnamed entertainer, she was recognized by the C-SPAN host, who subsequently questioned her about her 1992 support for independent presidential candidate Ross Perot . She said, "When I heard him talk right in the beginning, I thought that he would bring some sort of common-sense business approach and also less partisanship, but then ... I was completely disappointed like everyone else when he just kind of cut and run and no one knew exactly why ... Maybe he couldn't have withstood all the investigation that goes on now".

On Memorial Day
Memorial Day
weekend in 2006, Cher
Cher
called into C-SPAN's _ Washington Journal _ endorsing Operation Helmet, a group that provides helmets to help soldiers avoid head injuries while in the war zone. On June 14, 2006, she made a guest appearance on C-SPAN with Dr. Bob Meaders, the founder of Operation Helmet. That year, in an interview with _Stars and Stripes _, she explained her "against the war in Iraq
Iraq
but for the troops" position: "I don't have to be for this war to support the troops because these men and women do what they think is right. They do what they're told to do. They do it with a really good heart. They do the best they can. They don't ask for anything."

Cher
Cher
supported Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
in her 2008 presidential campaign. After Obama won the Democratic nomination, she supported his candidacy on radio and TV programs. However, in a 2010 interview with _Vanity Fair_, she commented that she "still thinks Hillary would have done a better job", although she "accepts the fact that Barack Obama inherited insurmountable problems". During the 2012 United States presidential election , Cher
Cher
and comedian Kathy Griffin released a public service announcement titled "Don't Let Mitt Turn Back Time on Women's Rights". In the PSA, the pair criticized Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney for his support of Richard Mourdock , the U.S. Senate candidate who suggested that pregnancies resulting from rape were "part of God's plan".

In September 2013, Cher
Cher
declined an invitation to perform at the 2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony in Russia due to the country's controversial anti-gay legislation that overshadowed preparations for the event. In June 2015, after Donald Trump
Donald Trump
announced his candidacy for president, she made a series of critical comments on Twitter, stating that "Donald Trump's punishment is being Donald Trump".

LEGACY AND INFLUENCE

See also: Cher as a gay icon Wax figure of Cher
Cher
wearing an outfit similar to the one she wore at the 60th Academy Awards in 1988

According to _Goldmine_ magazine's Phill Marder, Cher
Cher
"has been and remains today one of the Rock Era's most dominant figures". He described her as the leader of an effort in the 1960s to "advance feminine rebellion in the rock world the prototype of the female rock star, setting the standard for appearance, from her early hippie days to her later outlandish outfits, and her attitude—the perfect female punk long before punk even was a rock term." According to Jeff Miers from _ The Buffalo News
The Buffalo News
_, "Her music has changed with the times over the decades, rather than changing those times through groundbreaking work"; however, he felt that subsequent female singers such as Cyndi Lauper , Christina Aguilera , Lady Gaga
Lady Gaga
, and Madonna, whom he calls "her generation's Cher", were heavily inspired by Cher's abilities to combine "showmanship with deep musicality ... to make valid statements in a wide variety of trend-driven idioms ... to ease effortlessly between pop subgenres to shock without alienating her fans", as well as by her charismatic stage presence and the strong LGBT
LGBT
support among her fan base. _Billboard'_s Keith Caulfield wrote that "There's divas, and then there's Cher." She is commonly referred to by the media as the "Goddess of Pop ."

Cher
Cher
has repeatedly reinvented herself through various personas, for which Professor Richard Aquila from Ball State University
Ball State University
called her "the ultimate pop chameleon". _The New York Times_ declared Cher
Cher
as the "Queen of the Comeback". According to author Lucy O\'Brien , " Cher
Cher
adheres to the American Dream of reinvention of self: 'Getting old does not have to mean getting obsolete.'"

Author Craig Crawford , in his book _The Politics of Life: 25 Rules for Survival in a Brutal and Manipulative World_ (2007), describes Cher
Cher
as "a model of flexible career management", and relates her career successes to a constant reshaping of her image according to the evolving trends of popular culture. He further explains that she billed "each dramatic turnaround of style as another example of rebellion—an image that allowed her to make calculated changes while appearing to be consistent." Author Grant McCracken stated, "The term 'reinvention' is now often used to talk about the careers of American celebrities. But in Cher's case, it is particularly apt is inclined to lock on to each new fashion wave is swept violently down the diffusion stream and out of fashion. Only substantial re-creation permits her to return to stardom." Her "integrity" and "perseverance" are highlighted in the _Reaching Your Goals_ book series of illustrated inspirational stories for children, in which her life is detailed emphasizing the importance of self-actualization : "For years, Cher
Cher
worked hard to become a successful singer. Then she worked hard to become an actress. Even when she needed money, she turned down movie roles that weren't right for her. Her goal has always been to be a good actress, not just a rich and famous one."

Cher's "ability to forge an immensely successful and lengthy career as a woman in a male-dominated entertainment world" has drawn attention from feminist critics. According to author Diane Negra, Cher
Cher
was presented in the beginning of her career as a product of male creativity; Cher
Cher
remembers, "It was a time when girl singers were patted on the head for being good and told not to think". However, her image eventually changed due to her "refusal of dependence on a man and the determination not only to forge a career (as an actor) on her own terms but to refuse the conventional role assigned to women over forty years old in an industry that fetishises youth", wrote author Yvonne Tasker. She was featured in the 16th-anniversary edition of _Ms. _ magazine as an "authentic feminist hero" and a 1980s role model for women: "Cher, the straightforward, tattooed, dyslexic single mother, the first Oscar winner to have entered into matrimony with a known heroin addict and to have admitted to being a fashion victim by choice, has finally landed in an era that's not afraid to applaud real women."

Stephanie Brush from _The New York Times_ wrote, following the telecast of Cher's Oscar win in 1988, that she "performs the function for women moviegoers that Jack Nicholson has always fulfilled for men. Free of the burden of ever having been America's sweetheart, she is the one who represents us in our revenge fantasies, telling all the fatheads ... exactly where they can go. You need to be more than beautiful to get away with this. You need to have been Cher
Cher
for 40 years."

Alec Mapa of _The Advocate_ elaborates: "While the rest of us were sleeping, Cher's been out there for the last four decades living out every single one of our childhood fantasies ... Cher
Cher
embodies an unapologetic freedom and fearlessness that some of us can only aspire to." _Rolling Stone_'s Jancee Dunn wrote, " Cher
Cher
is the coolest woman who ever stood in shoes. Why? Because her motto is, 'I don't give a shit what you think, I'm going to wear this multicolored wig.' There are folks all over America who would, in their heart of hearts, love to date people half their age, get multiple tattoos and wear feathered headdresses. Cher
Cher
does it for us." Alexander Fury of _The Independent_ wrote that Cher
Cher
"represents a seemingly immortal, omnipotent, uni-monikered level of fame." Bego stated: "No one in the history of show business has had a career of the magnitude and scope of Cher's. She has been a teenage pop star, a television hostess, a fashion magazine model, a rock star, a pop singer, a Broadway actress, an Academy Award-winning movie star, a disco sensation, and the subject of a mountain of press coverage."

ACHIEVEMENTS AND RECOGNITION

See also: List of awards and nominations received by Cher

Throughout her solo career, Cher
Cher
has sold 100 million records worldwide, becoming one of the best-selling music artists of all time. She is the only artist to date to have a number-one single on a _Billboard_ chart in each decade from the 1960s to the 2010s.

She has held U.S. _Billboard_ Hot 100 number-one singles over the longest period of time in history: 33 years, seven months and three weeks between "I Got You Babe", which topped the chart for the first time in August 14, 1965, and "Believe", whose last week at number one was April 3, 1999. With "Believe", she became the oldest female artist to have a U.S. number-one song in the rock era, at the age of 52. _Billboard_ ranked her at number 43 on their "Greatest Hot 100 Artists of All Time" list. In 2014, the magazine listed her as the 23rd highest-grossing touring act since 1990, with total earned revenue of $351.6 million and 4.5 million attendance at her shows.

In 2003, Cher
Cher
appeared at number 41 on VH1's list of "The 200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons", which recognizes "the folks that have significantly inspired and impacted American society". She was ranked 31st on VH1's list of "The 100 Greatest Women in Music", based on the period 1992–2012. _Esquire _ magazine placed her at number 44 on their list of "The 75 Greatest Women of All Time". In a 2001 poll, _Biography _ magazine ranked her as their third favorite leading actress of all time, behind Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
and Katharine Hepburn . She was featured on the "100 Greatest Movie Stars of our Time" list compiled by _People_. She is one of the few artists to win three of the four major American entertainment awards (EGOT —Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, and Tony ), and one of five actor-singers to have had a U.S. number-one single and won an acting Academy Award.

DISCOGRAPHY

Main articles: Cher albums discography and Cher singles discography See also: Sonny -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">

* _Good Times _ (1967) * _Chastity _ (1969) * _Come Back to the Five and Dime, Jimmy Dean, Jimmy Dean _ (1982) * _ Silkwood _ (1983) * _Mask _ (1985) * _Suspect _ (1987) * _The Witches of Eastwick _ (1987) * _ Moonstruck _ (1987) * _Mermaids _ (1990) * _The Player _ (1992) * _Prêt-à-Porter _ (1994) * _Faithful _ (1996) * _ If These Walls Could Talk _ (1996) * _ Tea with Mussolini _ (1999) * _Stuck on You _ (2003) * _ Burlesque
Burlesque
_ (2010) * _Zookeeper _ (2011)

SEE ALSO

* Biography portal * Cher
Cher
portal

* Book: Cher
Cher

* Honorific nicknames in popular music * List of best-selling music artists * List of highest-grossing concert tours * List of people of self-identified Cherokee ancestry * Mononymous persons * Culture of the United States

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ Nichelle Nichols and BarBara Luna in the TV series _ Star Trek
Star Trek
_ episode "Mirror, Mirror " on October 6, 1967, and Diana Ewing in the episode " The Cloud Minders " of the same program on February 28, 1969.

FOOTNOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Bellafante, Ginia (January 19, 1998). "Appreciation: The Sonny Side of Life". _Time _. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Berman 2001 , p. 17.

* ^ Bego 2001 , p. 11: Sarkisian's profession; Berman 2001 , p. 17: Sarkisian's nationality and personal problems, Crouch's profession; Cheever, Susan (May 17, 1993). "In a Broken Land". _People _. Retrieved January 16, 2016. : Sarkisian's nationality, Crouch's ancestry. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Parish & Pitts 2003 , p. 147. * ^ Berman 2001 , pp. 17–18. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Berman 2001 , p. 18. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 10. * ^ Cher
Cher
& Coplon 1998 , p. 39. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Berman 2001 , p. 22. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Berman 2001 , p. 21. * ^ "Cheryl Lapiere, Born 05/20/1946 in California". California Birth Index . Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 23. * ^ _A_ _B_ Berman 2001 , p. 24. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 27. * ^ _A_ _B_ Berman 2001 , p. 28. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Eder, Bruce. " Cher
Cher
— Biography & History". AllMusic . Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ " Cher
Cher
divorces Sonny". _ Record-Journal _. June 28, 1975. Retrieved April 24, 2016. * ^ Cher
Cher
& Coplon 1998 , p. 94. * ^ Bego 2001 , pp. 29–30. * ^ _A_ _B_ Caulfield, Keith (May 20, 2014). "Cher\'s 20 Biggest Billboard Hits". _Billboard _. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 40. * ^ " Cher
Cher
— Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Sendra, Tim. " All I Really Want to Do Cher
Cher
— Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Cher
Cher
& Coplon 1998 , p. 98. * ^ Cher
Cher
& Coplon 1998 , pp. 108–109. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Wilson, Cintra (February 22, 2000). "Cher". Salon . Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Caulfield, Keith (August 14, 2015). "Rewinding the Charts: Fifty Years Ago, Sonny & Cher \'Got\' to No. 1". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ "500 Greatest Songs of All Time". _ Rolling Stone _. Retrieved January 16, 2015. * ^ Cher
Cher
& Coplon 1998 , pp. 110–111. * ^ Cher
Cher
& Coplon 1998 , p. 114. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Parish & Pitts 2003 , p. 149. * ^ Cher
Cher
& Coplon 1998 , p. 116. * ^ _A_ _B_ Parish & Pitts 2003 , p. 148. * ^ _A_ _B_ Caulfield, Keith (October 2, 2013). " Cher
Cher
Earns Highest-Charting Solo Album Ever on Billboard 200". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ " Sonny & Cher – Chart history". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ DeCaro, Frank (May 31, 1998). "Style Over Substance; Got You Babe: Cher
Cher
Reclaims Her History". _ The New York Times
The New York Times
_. Retrieved February 6, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , pp. 45–54. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Berman 2001 , p. 31. * ^ Cher
Cher
& Coplon 1998 , p. 134. * ^ _A_ _B_ Brush, Stephanie (March 20, 1988). "Cher: Yes? No? (Check Only One)". _The New York Times_. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bego 2001 , pp. 55–56. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 54. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bego 2001 , pp. 58–59. * ^ Deming, Mark. " 3614 Jackson Highway Cher
Cher
— Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Green, Michelle (August 5, 1991). "Sonny on Cher". _People_. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Chaz Bono, Cher\'s child, becomes a man after Southern California judges grants gender change". _ Herald Sun _. May 7, 2010. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Berman 2001 , pp. 31–32. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Johnson, Anne Janette (2002). " Cher
Cher
Facts, information, pictures". Encyclopedia.com . Retrieved January 16, 2016.

* ^ _A_ _B_ Berman 2001 , pp. 32–33. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 33. * ^ Berman 2001 , pp. 33–34. * ^ _A_ _B_ Erickson, Hal . " Cher
Cher
— Biography, Movie Highlights and Photos". AllMovie . Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Mansour 2005 , p. 450. * ^ Bego 2001 , pp. 76–78. * ^ Bego 2001 , pp. 68–72. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 72. * ^ Bronson 1997 , p. 301. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 81. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bronson 1997 , p. 345. * ^ Bego 2001 , pp. 81–82. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bronson 1997 , p. 359. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ "Gold & Platinum". Recording Industry Association of America . Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Kirsch, Bob (November 17, 1974). "Top Album Picks". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Larkin 2011 , p. 2999. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Danza, Johnny; Ferguson, Dean. "Cher: Back To The Dance Floor!". About.com . Archived from the original on September 18, 2005. * ^ "On the Record". _People_. May 11, 1998. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Berman 2001 , p. 35. * ^ Bono 1992 , p. 4. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Cher". Hollywood Foreign Press Association . Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Hyatt 2003 , p. 231. * ^ Higgins, Bill (November 2, 2012). "How David Geffen Romanced Cher
Cher
and Built a Music Empire". _ The Hollywood Reporter
The Hollywood Reporter
_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Crampton & Rees 1999 , p. 194. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bego 2001 , pp. 97–98. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 41. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 101. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 36. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bego 2001 , p. 102. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lonergan & Studwell 1999 , p. 208. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 105. * ^ " Cher
Cher
marries Greg Allman — Jun 30, 1975". History . Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Cagle, Jess (July 10, 1992). " Gregg Allman and Cher\'s troubled marriage". _ Entertainment Weekly _. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 42. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hochman 1999 , p. 1004. * ^ Parish & Pitts 2003 , p. 150. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 116. * ^ " Gregg Allman — Songwriter, Singer". Biography.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Armstrong, Lois (April 10, 1978). "Cher\'s New Flame". _People_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ "Rock On!". _People_. August 18, 1980. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Armstrong, Lois (October 22, 1979). "Cher\'s Life With Gene". _People_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Stevens, Heidi (July 20, 2002). "Turning Back Time". _Chicago Tribune _. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 119. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 133. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Berman 2001 , p. 44. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 124. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 45. * ^ _A_ _B_ Berman 2001 , pp. 45–46. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 272. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 139. * ^ Berman 2001 , pp. 46–47. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 47. * ^ "Picks and Pans Review: Cher
Cher
... a Celebration at Caesars". _People_. April 4, 1983. Retrieved March 9, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 143. * ^ Guarisco, Donald A. " Dead Ringer for Love Meat Loaf
Meat Loaf
— Song Info". AllMusic. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 159. * ^ _A_ _B_ Berman 2001 , p. 49. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Parish & Pitts 2003 , p. 151. * ^ Zuckoff 2009 , p. 431. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 54. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sessums, Kevin (October 31, 1990). "Cher: Starred and Feathered". _Vanity Fair _. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ "Mask (1985) — Weekend Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo . Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Hassan, Genevieve (March 18, 2010). "Talking Shop: Designer Bob Mackie". BBC News
BBC News
. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Mansour 2005 , p. 82.

* ^ Cher's romantic relationships during the 1980s:

* Jerome, Jim (January 23, 1984). " Cher
Cher
Finds a New Life". _People_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. : Val Kilmer; * Bego 2001 , p. 377: Eric Stoltz; * Sidman, Amanda (April 29, 2008). "If she could turn back time, Cher
Cher
might be Mrs. Tom Cruise". _New York Daily News _. Retrieved January 17, 2016. : Tom Cruise; * Bego 2001 , p. 377: Ron Duguay; * Jerome, Jim (March 18, 1985). "Cher\'s Got Critics Raving Over Her Risky Role—And Offscreen She\'s Got a Loving New Man". _People_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. : Josh Donen; * "Engaging Behavior". _People_. October 3, 1994. Retrieved January 17, 2016. : Richie Sambora; * Miller, Samantha (November 29, 1999). "The Ex Files". _People_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. : Rob Camilletti.

* ^ "1987 Yearly Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 14, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , pp. 213. * ^ Berman 2001 , pp. 68–72. * ^ _A_ _B_ "This Week In ... 1989". ARIA Music News . Archived from the original on November 14, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Roedy 2011 , p. 87. * ^ _A_ _B_ Semonche 2007 , p. 161. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 217. * ^ "And the 15th Annual People\'s Choice for "Favorite All Around Female Star" is ... Cher!". CBS
CBS
. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ O\'Connor, John J. (February 4, 1991). "Review/Television; A Potpourri Of Cher\'s Mood Swings". _The New York Times_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 67. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Kennedy, Dana (May 31, 1996). " Cher
Cher
plots her next comeback". _Entertainment Weekly_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Berman 2001 , pp. 69–71. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 228. * ^ Mansfield, Brian . "Mermaids – Original Soundtrack — Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ " Cher
Cher
— full Official Chart History". Official Charts Company . Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Bessman, Jim (May 18, 1996). " Cher
Cher
Changes Approach For Her \'Man\'s World\' On Reprise". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 231. * ^ _A_ _B_ Parish & Pitts 2003 , p. 152. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 234. * ^ Promis, Jose F. "Greatest Hits: 1965–1992 – Cher
Cher
— Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 71. * ^ Sonneborn 2002 , p. 40. * ^ _A_ _B_ Berman 2001 , p. 73. * ^ _A_ _B_ Murphy, Ryan (May 30, 1994). "The Beat Doesn\'t Go On: Where The Heck Is Cher?". _ Orlando Sentinel _. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 238. * ^ Murphy, Ryan (May 21, 1993). "Cher: Is her movie career dead?". _Entertainment Weekly_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 256. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 253. * ^ Bronson, Fred (April 1, 1995). "Chart Beat: 2Pac Finally Wins \'Against The World\'". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Berman 2001 , p. 82. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Holden, Stephen (June 30, 1996). "Queen of the Comeback, Cher
Cher
Tries Yet Again". _The New York Times_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Flick, Larry (May 11, 1996). "Dance Trax: Daphne Gets New Lease On Her Career With \'Rent\'". _Billboard_. Retrieved February 13, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 259. * ^ Berman 2001 , pp. 83–84. * ^ Maslin, Janet (April 3, 1996). "Faithful (1996) — Film Review; A Feuding Couple Relies On Hit-Man Diplomacy". _The New York Times_. Retrieved February 2, 2016. * ^ Bernstein, Paula (March 7, 2000). " HBO climbing another \'Walls\'". _Variety _. Retrieved February 5, 2016. * ^ Carter, Bill (April 12, 2000). "TV Notes; Going Out Blazing". _The New York Times_. Retrieved February 5, 2016. * ^ Negra 2001 , pp. 176–177. * ^ Carter, Chris (2005). _Audio Commentary for "The Post-Modern Prometheus"_ (DVD). _The X-Files: The Complete Fifth Season _: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment . * ^ Deans, Meghan (August 23, 2012). "Reopening The X-Files
The X-Files
– \'The Post-Modern Prometheus\'". Tor.com . Retrieved January 17, 2016.

* ^ "Tearful Cher
Cher
remembers Sonny\'s wit, tenacity". _Lawrence Journal-World _. January 10, 1998. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 281. * ^ "Sonny & Cher". Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 90. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 91. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 283. * ^ " Cher
Cher
Says \'Farewell\' With 50-City Tour". _Billboard _. May 1, 2002. Retrieved July 8, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Global music taste revealed in BBC World Service poll". BBC. December 20, 2002. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Ahmed, Insanul (August 5, 2010). "Complex Presents: The 25 Greatest Auto-Tune Songs". _Complex _. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hay, Carla (February 5, 2000). "Backstreets, Cher, TLC Among Those Up For Record of the Year". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Berman 2001 , p. 13. * ^ Myers, Justin (November 22, 2013). "Official Charts Flashback 1998: Cher
Cher
– Believe". Official Charts Company. Retrieved February 6, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Billboard Chart Record-Breakers: The Longest Music Moments Ever". _Billboard_. May 9, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Paoletta, Michael (December 25, 1999). "If Labels \'Believe\' In Dance Acts, Success Will Follow". _Billboard_. Retrieved February 6, 2016. * ^ Taylor, Chuck. "The Billboard Hot 100 Songs of the Year (1990–1999)". _Billboard_. Archived from the original on April 13, 2012. * ^ Wilker, Deborah (January 28, 1999). "A Reason To Believe". _ Sun-Sentinel _. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Mayfield, Geoff (May 8, 1999). "Between the Bullets". _Billboard_. Retrieved February 6, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 286. * ^ Jacks, Kelso (April 12, 1999). "Record News". _ CMJ New Music Report_. Retrieved February 6, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 290. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Believe it". _Billboard_. January 22, 2000. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 291. * ^ "Sunday\'s Madonna\'s Night". _Cable World_. September 3, 2001. Retrieved February 6, 2016. * ^ Dezzani, Mark (May 22, 1999). "Smith Leads A More Polished WMAs". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 287. * ^ Berman 2001 , pp. 86–87. * ^ Wilker, Deborah (November 14, 2000). "I\'ve Got E, Babe". _Chicago Tribune_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Flick, Larry (January 12, 2002). "Warner\'s Cher
Cher
Offers \'Living Proof\'". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ "Chart Beat Bonus". _Billboard_. March 8, 2002. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ "\'Divas Las Vegas\' Hits DVD/CD". _Billboard_. September 10, 2002. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ "2002 Billboard Music Awards". _Billboard_. December 9, 2002. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Waddell, Ray (December 7, 2002). "Award Is \'Living Proof\' Of Success". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ "In pictures: Cher
Cher
empties wardrobe". BBC News. September 4, 2006. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Greenblatt, Leah (October 5, 2007). "Retirements that didn\'t last". _Entertainment Weekly_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Newman, Melinda (January 18, 2003). "The Beat". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ "Program summary — Cher: The Farewell Tour". ABC Television . Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ "On the road with Cher". Adobe Systems . Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Bonin, Liane (October 31, 2003). "Cher\'s tour is the most successful ever by a woman". _Entertainment Weekly_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Unterberger, Richie . "Live: The Farewell Tour – Cher
Cher
— Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ "Numbers". _Time_. April 21, 2003. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Hay, Carla (December 27, 2003). "Tuned In: Rating Hits And Misses". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ " Cher
Cher
– The Farewell Tour". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences . Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Newman, Melinda (September 13, 2003). "The Beat: Cher
Cher
Signs Worldwide Warner Bros. Deal". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016.

* ^ "Cher\'s \'Farewell\' Tour Beats On". _Billboard_. June 9, 2003. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Caro, Mark (December 12, 2003). "Farrelly brothers\' comedy chops come unglued in \'Stuck on You\'". _Chicago Tribune_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Lawrence, Jesse (March 23, 2014). "With Strong Demand For Tickets, Will Cher\'s Dressed To Kill Tour Really Be Farewell?". _ Forbes
Forbes
_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Smith, Krista (November 30, 2010). "Forever Cher". _Vanity Fair_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ " Cher
Cher
Announces Final Shows of Three Year Residency at The Colosseum at Caesars Palace". PR Newswire
PR Newswire
. September 21, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Bernstein, Jacob (July 3, 2013). " Cher
Cher
Talks About (What Else?) Being Cher". _The New York Times_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Wood, Mikael (November 19, 2010). " Christina Aguilera and Cher Shine on \'Burlesque\' Soundtrack". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Caulfield, Keith (January 18, 2011). " Cher
Cher
Shines with No. 1 in Sixth Consecutive Decade". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ " Cher
Cher
Immortalized in Cement". _ The Advocate
The Advocate
_. November 19, 2010. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. * ^ Ebert, Roger (July 6, 2011). "Zookeeper Movie Review & Film Summary (2011)". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Cher
Cher
to Celebrate Release of New Single \'Woman\'s World\' With Performance on Final Episode of NBC\'s \'The Voice\' on Tuesday, June 18th". Yahoo! Finance . June 10, 2013. Archived from the original on July 21, 2016. * ^ Brodeur, Michael Andor (September 24, 2013). "Album Review: Cher, \'Closer to the Truth\'". _ The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe
_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Kroll, Katy (October 16, 2013). "\'The Voice\' Recap: Cher Chews Out Contestant". _Rolling Stone_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Smith, Liz (July 3, 2013). "It\'s a \'Woman\'s World\' for Cher — and ALL her fans!". _Chicago Tribune_. Retrieved January 17, 2016.

* ^ Oldenburg, Ann (November 5, 2013). " Cher
Cher
rocks \'Dancing\' as sixth celeb exits". _ USA Today _. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Caulfield, Keith (July 15, 2014). " Cher
Cher
Tour Grosses $55 Million (So Far)". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Rocha, Michael James (July 12, 2014). "Pop diva Cher
Cher
still reigns supreme". _ The San Diego Union-Tribune
The San Diego Union-Tribune
_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Swartz, Diana (November 20, 2014). " Cher
Cher
Cancels Remaining Tour Dates to Recover". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Newman, Jason (May 7, 2014). "Cher, Wu-Tang Clan Collaborate for Two Songs on Secret Album". _Rolling Stone_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Greenburg, Zack O\'Malley (November 24, 2015). "Wu-Tang Clan Secret Album Sold By Paddle8, But To Whom?". _Forbes_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Vanmetre, Elizabeth (May 27, 2015). " Cher
Cher
looks beautiful in new Marc Jacobs
Marc Jacobs
ad". _New York Daily News_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Schneier, Matthew (May 5, 2015). "At the Met Gala, Cher
Cher
and Marc Jacobs
Marc Jacobs
Make a Dream Duo". _The New York Times_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ McPhee, Ryan (October 26, 2015). "Pop Superstar Cher
Cher
Taps Tony Nominee Rick Elice to Pen Book
Book
for Her Bio-Musical". Broadway.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Hetrick, Adam (November 16, 2016). " Cher
Cher
Musical Sets Director Ahead of January Staged Reading". _ Playbill
Playbill
_. Retrieved November 17, 2016. * ^ " Cher
Cher
brings her \'Classic Cher\' tour to Las Vegas". _Billboard_. 18 October 2016. * ^ " Cher
Cher
to Receive Icon Award and Perform at BBMAs". Billboard Music Awards . May 4, 2017. Archived from the original on July 7, 2017. * ^ Bego 2001 , pp. 40–41. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sillitoe, Sue; Bell, Matt (February 1999). "Recording Cher\'s \'Believe\'". _ Sound on Sound _. Archived from the original on October 5, 2003. * ^ _A_ _B_ Tawa 2005 , p. 217. * ^ _A_ _B_ Flick, Larry (October 31, 1998). " Cher
Cher
Wants You To \'Believe\' In Pop". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Wieder, Judy (May 2002). " Cher
Cher
shares". _Out _. Retrieved March 7, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Marder, Phill (November 15, 2010). "Rock Hall of Fame would be a lot sunnier with Cher". _Goldmine _. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Promis, Jose F. "Not.Com.mercial – Cher
Cher
— Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hilburn, Robert (August 18, 2002). "Written Off ... Unfairly?". _ Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Viglione, Joe. " Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves Cher
Cher
— Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Holden, Stephen (December 18, 1997). "Cabaret Review; On Life\'s Rough-and-Tumble, via Mama\'s Tender Heart". _The New York Times_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Powers, Ann (July 7, 1999). "Pop Review; Quirky but Real, the Beat Goes On". _The New York Times_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Eder, Bruce. "Half Breed – Cher
Cher
— Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Simpson 2003 , p. 116. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 142. * ^ Farber, Jim (June 14, 1991). "Love Hurts Review". _Entertainment Weekly_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Lee, Chris (November 15, 2008). "The (retro) future is his". _Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Smith, Kerry L. " Living Proof Cher
Cher
— Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Sendra, Tim. "Closer to the Truth – Cher
Cher
— Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Rechtshaffen, Michael (September 13, 2013). " Cher
Cher
finds \'Truth\' in new album". _ Toronto Sun _. Retrieved July 29, 2017. * ^ Tasker 2002 , pp. 191–192. * ^ _A_ _B_ Negra 2001 , pp. 170–171. * ^ Tasker 2002 , p. 192. * ^ Yarbrough, Jeff (August 20, 1996). "Hollywood lives". _The Advocate_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tasker 2002 , p. 193. * ^ Negra 2001 , p. 175. * ^ Sullivan, James (August 5, 2002). "Cher\'s still a diva to believe in / Farewell Tour takes Oakland crowd on glitzy, sentimental ride". _ San Francisco Chronicle
San Francisco Chronicle
_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ "The Greatest — Ep. 071 \'50 Greatest Women of the Video Era\'". VH1
VH1
. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. * ^ Flint, Roger (March 1980). "Filming the \'Hell on Wheels\' Spot". _ American Cinematographer _. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Quirk 1991 , p. 272. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lang, Cady (May 20, 2016). " Cher
Cher
Birthday: Fashion Evolution". _Time_. Retrieved May 7, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Aminosharei, Nojan. "Influential Women in Music – Influential Musicians". _Elle _. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Howard 2014 , pp. 125–126. * ^ "Mirror, Mirror". _ Star Trek
Star Trek
_. Retrieved February 12, 2016. * ^ "Cloud Minders, The". _Star Trek_. Retrieved February 12, 2016.

* ^ Sources recognizing Cher
Cher
as the first woman to expose her navel on television:

* Fury, Alexander (July 23, 2015). " Cher
Cher
on the cover of Love magazine: Queen of chiffon and sequins is the ultimate fashion icon". _ The Independent
The Independent
_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * Hagwood, Rod Stafford (August 29, 2002). "A Living Dress-up Doll". _Sun-Sentinel_. Retrieved February 12, 2016. * Johnson, Zach (March 14, 2014). " Cher
Cher
and Bob Mackie End 42-Year Partnership: "I\'m Crying," the Singer Tweets". E! . Retrieved February 12, 2016.

* ^ Trier-Bieniek 2014 , p. 105. * ^ Chunovic 2000 , p. 57. * ^ Johnson, Kristina; Nolan, Cathy; Savaiano, Jacqueline (April 21, 1986). "For Those Who Can Stomach It, the Belly Beautiful Emerges as the Season\'s Hot New Look". _People_. Retrieved February 12, 2016.

* ^ Bego 2001 , p. 77. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Givhan, Robin (May 14, 1999). "And the Fashion Award Goes to ... Cher?". _Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Satenstein, Liana (May 20, 2016). "All Hail Cher, Queen of the Red Carpet Rebels". _Vogue _. Retrieved May 10, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Fury, Alexander (July 23, 2015). " Cher
Cher
on the cover of Love magazine: Queen of chiffon and sequins is the ultimate fashion icon". _The Independent_. Retrieved February 12, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ McCracken 2008 , p. 27 * ^ Ramazanoglu 1993 , p. 197. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sullivan, Jim (June 2, 1996). " Cher
Cher
thinks the unthinkable: removing all but one tattoo Gasp: Actress-singer-rebel ponders if it\'s time for a change, now that tattoos are so popular. She bets that even Bob Dole has one". _ The Baltimore Sun _. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Bono 1992 , p. 237. * ^ Jerome, Jim (May 25, 1998). "Being Cher". _People_. Retrieved January 17, 2016. * ^ Gundersen, Edna (February 6, 2008). " Cher
Cher
shares: Life, love, tattoos, politics, paparazzi". _USA Today_. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Ullman 2007 , p. 165. * ^ "Madonna Tops the List as VH1
VH1
Counts Down Music\'s \'100 Sexiest Artists\' In Five-Hour, Five Night Special, Premiering September 23–27 at 10:00 P.M. (ET/PT)". PR Newswire. September 19, 2002. Retrieved January 16, 2016. * ^ Wortham, Jenna (January 29, 2016). "There\'s Only Love and Fear: On Cher\'s Twitter". _The New York Times_. Retrieved February 12, 2016. * ^ Heisey, Monica (April 30, 2015). "The brilliance of Cher\'s Twitter – a jewel in the bizarro crown of the internet". _The Guardian _. Retrieved February 12, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ " Cher
Cher
Presents \'Love Sees No Color\' Premiere at Los Angeles Fundraiser Party". PR Newswire. November 12, 2007. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ "The Collection of Cher
Cher
Auction — Press Release". Julien\'s Auctions . October 3, 2006. Retrieved February 12, 2016. * ^ Bono, Chastity (August 20, 1996). " Cher
Cher
— The Advocate interview by Chastity Bono". _The Advocate_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ "Cher, Felipe Diniz and Jean Paul Gaultier Honored at Fifth Annual Inspiration Gala São Paulo". amfAR . April 11, 2015. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Cheever, Susan (May 17, 1993). "In a Broken Land". _People_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Yaeger, Lynn (January 20, 2016). "In Praise of Cher\'s Response to the Flint Water Crisis". _Vogue_. Retrieved January 22, 2016. * ^ Bernstein 2003 , p. 166. * ^ _A_ _B_ Plumez 2002 , p. 182. * ^ "Quote, unquote". _The Advocate_. May 26, 1998. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Wilker, Deborah (November 1, 2000). " Cher
Cher
Begs Voters Not to Choose Bush". ABC News. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ "Cher: \'I don\'t know why anyone would want to be a Republican\'". _Los Angeles Times_. February 6, 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ " Cher
Cher
called in to comment on her visit to wounded soldiers in Walter Reed Army Hospital". C-SPAN Video Library . October 27, 2003. Retrieved July 21, 2016. * ^ Wolf, Buck ; Yeransian, Leslie (June 15, 2006). " Cher
Cher
Goes to Washington". ABC News. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ "Operation Helmet — Video". C-SPAN Video Library. June 14, 2006. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Mraz, Steve (July 16, 2006). "Cher: \'I don\'t have to be for this war to support the troops\'". _Stars and Stripes _. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Malkin, Marc (October 23, 2008). " Cher
Cher
Radios It In For Barack Obama". E! . Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ " Cher
Cher
On Finding Love: \'Guys Don\'t Want To Be Mr. Cher\'". _ Access Hollywood _. October 31, 2008. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Couch, Aaron (November 3, 2012). "Cher, Kathy Griffin Slam Mitt Romney as \'Anti-Women\' in PSA (Video)". _The Hollywood Reporter_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Michaels, Sean (September 16, 2013). "Cher: I won\'t play Winter Olympics due to Russia\'s anti-gay laws". _The Guardian_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Weiner, Natalie (June 19, 2015). " Cher
Cher
Takes on Donald Trump
Donald Trump
on Twitter, Says His Punishment Is \'Being Donald Trump\'". _Billboard_. Retrieved February 12, 2016. * ^ Marder, Phill (September 13, 2012). "Goldmine Hall of Fame Volume 8 continues wide variety". _Goldmine_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Miers, Jeff (April 17, 2014). "Tracing Cher\'s influence among pop divas". _ The Buffalo News
The Buffalo News
_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Caulfield, Keith (July 8, 2015). " Cher
Cher
Reflects on 50 Years on the Billboard Charts: \'I Got You Babe,\' \'Believe\' & Beyond". _Billboard_. Retrieved May 2, 2016. * ^ Usborne, David (September 30, 2016). " Cher
Cher
denounces Donald Trump as \'an a**hole\' at world youth summit and claims \'he traumatises me\'". _The Independent_. Retrieved May 19, 2017. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 7. * ^ Ransford, Marc (May 27, 2003). "Professor: Cher
Cher
is the ultimate pop chameleon". Ball State University
Ball State University
. Archived from the original on June 5, 2010. * ^ Carson, Lewis & Shaw 2004 , p. 130. * ^ _A_ _B_ Crawford 2007 , pp. 31–32. * ^ Negra 2001 , p. 164. * ^ Negra 2001 , p. 170. * ^ Tasker 2002 , p. 191. * ^ Parker, Kathleen (July 20, 1988). " Cher
Cher
As \'Feminist Extraordinaire\' Is A Ms.-erable Choice". _Orlando Sentinel_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Mapa, Alec (April 15, 2003). "We love you, Auntie Cher". _The Advocate_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Dunn, Jancee (September 19, 1996). "Cher". _Rolling Stone_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Bego 2001 , p. 3. * ^ " Cher
Cher
says sorry for eBay \'mistake\'". _ The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
_. April 24, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2016. * ^ Bronson, Fred (March 13, 1999). "Chart Beat: Did She Or Didn\'t She? Cher
Cher
She Did!". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ "Greatest of All Time Hot 100 Artists". _Billboard_. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Waddell, Ray (May 27, 2014). "Rolling Stones No. 1 on List of Top 25 Live Artists Since 1990". _Billboard_. Retrieved March 24, 2016. * ^ "The 200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons Complete Ranked List". PR Newswire. July 21, 2003. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ "The 100 Greatest Woman In Music". VH1. February 13, 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ "The 75 Greatest Women of All Time". _Esquire _. February 4, 2016. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ " Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
Named Favorite All-Time Oscar-Winning Actress by Biography Magazine Readers". PR Newswire. May 29, 2001. Retrieved January 18, 2016. * ^ Laufenberg 2005 , p. 120. * ^ Christianson, Emily (February 21, 2013). "EGOTs on deck: Who will win an Emmy, Grammy, Oscar and Tony award next". _Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved January 18, 2016.

SOURCES

* Bego, Mark (2001). _Cher: If You Believe_. Taylor Trade Publications. ISBN 0-8154-1153-7 . * Berman, Connie (2001). _Cher_. Infobase Publishing
Infobase Publishing
. ISBN 978-0-7910-5907-4 . * Bernstein, Robert A. (2003). _Straight Parents, Gay Children: Keeping Families Together_. Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56025-452-1 . * Bono, Sonny (1992). _And the Beat Goes On_. Pocket Books . ISBN 0-671-69367-0 . * Bronson, Fred (1997). _The Billboard Book
Book
of Number One Hits_. Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-7641-5 . * Carson, Mina; Lewis, Tisa; Shaw, Susan M. (2004). _Girls Rock! Fifty Years of Women Making Music_. University Press of Kentucky . ISBN 0-8131-2904-4 . * Cher; Coplon, Jeff (1998). _The First Time_. Simon & Schuster . ISBN 0-684-80900-1 . * Chunovic, Louis (2000). _One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television from_ I Love Lucy _to_ South Park. TV Books. ISBN 1-57500-186-1 . * Crampton, Luke; Rees, Dafydd (1999). _Rock Stars Encyclopedia_. Dorling Kindersley . ISBN 0-7894-4613-8 . * Crawford, Craig (2007). _The Politics of Life: 25 Rules for Survival in a Brutal and Manipulative World_. Rowman & Littlefield . ISBN 1-4422-1297-7 . * Hochman, Steve (1999). _Popular Musicians_. Salem Press . ISBN 0-89356-990-9 . * Howard, Josiah (2014). _Cher: Strong Enough_. Plexus Publishing. ISBN 0-85965-897-X . * Hyatt, Wesley (2003). _Short-Lived Television Series, 1948–1978: Thirty Years of More Than 1,000 Flops_. McFarland . ISBN 1-4766-0515-7 . * Larkin, Colin (2011). _The Encyclopedia of Popular Music_. Omnibus Press . ISBN 0-85712-595-8 . * Laufenberg, Norbert B. (2005). _Entertainment Celebrities_. Trafford Publishing . ISBN 1-4120-5335-8 . * Lonergan, David F.; Studwell, William Emmett (1999). _The Classic Rock and Roll Reader: Rock Music from Its Beginnings to the Mid-1970s_. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-7890-0151-9 . * Mansour, David (2005). _From Abba to Zoom: A Pop Culture Encyclopedia of the Late 20th Century_. Andrews McMeel Publishing . ISBN 0-7407-9307-1 . * McCracken, Grant David (2008). _Transformations: Identity Construction in Contemporary Culture_. Indiana University Press . ISBN 0-253-21957-4 . * Negra, Diane (2001). _Off-White Hollywood: American Culture and Ethnic Female Stardom_. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-415-21678-8 . * Parish, James Robert ; Pitts, Michael R. (2003). _Hollywood Songsters: Allyson to Funicello_. Routledge . ISBN 0-415-94332-9 . * Plumez, Jacqueline Hornor (2002). _Mother Power: Discover the Difference That Women Have Made All Over the World_. EBSCO Publishing . ISBN 1-4022-5247-1 . * Quirk, Lawrence J. (1991). _Totally Uninhibited: The Life and Wild Times of Cher_. William Morrow and Company . ISBN 0-688-09822-3 . * Ramazanoglu, Caroline (1993). _Up Against Foucault: Explorations of Some Tensions Between Foucault and Feminism_. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-05011-1 . * Roedy, Bill (2011). _What Makes Business Rock: Building the World's Largest Global Networks_. John Wiley & Sons . ISBN 1-118-00476-0 . * Semonche, John E. (2007). _Censoring Sex: A Historical Journey Through American Media_. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-5132-6 . * Simpson, Paul (2003). _The Rough Guide to Cult Pop_. Rough Guides . ISBN 1-84353-229-8 . * Sonneborn, Liz (2002). _A to Z of American Women in the Performing Arts_. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-4398-1 . * Tasker, Yvonne (2002). _Working Girls: Gender and Sexuality in Popular Cinema_. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-82660-5 . * Tawa, Nicholas E. (2005). _Supremely American: Popular Song in the 20th Century_. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-5295-0 . * Trier-Bieniek, Adrienne (2014). _Gender & Pop Culture: A Text-Reader_. Springer Science+Business Media . ISBN 94-6209-575-2 . * Ullman, Dana (2007). _The Homeopathic Revolution: Why Famous People and Cultural Heroes Choose Homeopathy_.