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Cardiff
Cardiff
(/ˈkɑːrdɪf/ ( listen); Welsh:  Caerdydd Welsh pronunciation: [kairˈdiːð, kaˑɨrˈdɨːð]) is the capital and largest city in Wales
Wales
and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom. The city is the country's chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural and sporting institutions, the Welsh national media, and the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. The unitary authority area's 2016 population was estimated to be 361,468,[1] while the population of the Cardiff
Cardiff
Capital Region
Region
(the ten local authorities of South East Wales) was estimated to be 1.52M.[1] Cardiff
Cardiff
is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales
Wales
with 18.3 million visitors in 2010.[5] In 2011, Cardiff
Cardiff
was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographic's alternative tourist destinations.[6] The city of Cardiff
Cardiff
is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan
Glamorgan
(and later South Glamorgan). Cardiff
Cardiff
is part of the Eurocities
Eurocities
network of the largest European cities.[7] The Cardiff Urban Area covers a slightly larger area outside the county boundary and includes the towns of Dinas Powys
Dinas Powys
and Penarth. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region contributed to its rise as a major city. Cardiff
Cardiff
was made a city in 1905, and proclaimed the capital of Wales in 1955. Since the 1980s, Cardiff
Cardiff
has seen significant development. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
contains the Senedd
Senedd
building, home to the Welsh Assembly
Welsh Assembly
and the Wales
Wales
Millennium Centre arts complex. Current developments include the continuation of the redevelopment of the Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
and city centre areas with projects such as the Cardiff
Cardiff
International Sports Village, a BBC drama village,[8] and a new business district in the city centre.[9] Sporting venues in the city include the Principality Stadium
Principality Stadium
(the national stadium for the Welsh rugby union team), Sophia Gardens
Sophia Gardens
(the home of Glamorgan
Glamorgan
County
County
Cricket Club), Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Stadium (the home of Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
football team and the Wales
Wales
football team), Cardiff International Sports Stadium (the home of Cardiff
Cardiff
Amateur Athletic Club), Cardiff Arms Park
Cardiff Arms Park
(the home of Cardiff Blues
Cardiff Blues
and Cardiff
Cardiff
RFC rugby union teams) and Ice Arena Wales
Wales
(the home of Cardiff Devils
Cardiff Devils
ice hockey team). The city was awarded the title of European City
City
of Sport twice, due to its role in hosting major international sporting events: first in 2009 and again in 2014.[10] The Principality Stadium
Principality Stadium
hosted 11 football matches as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics, including the games' opening event and the men's bronze medal match.[11]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 Norman occupation to the Middle Ages 2.3 County
County
town of Glamorganshire 2.4 Building of the docks 2.5 City
City
and capital city status

3 Government

3.1 Local government

4 Geography

4.1 Cityscape 4.2 Climate 4.3 Temperature 4.4 Sunshine hours 4.5 Rainfall

5 Demography

5.1 Health 5.2 Language

5.2.1 Language schools

5.3 Religion

6 Economy

6.1 Shopping

7 Transport

7.1 Rail 7.2 Air 7.3 Road and bus 7.4 Cycle 7.5 Water

8 Telecommunications 9 Education 10 Landmarks and attractions 11 Culture and recreation

11.1 Music and performing arts 11.2 Visual arts 11.3 Recreation

12 Media 13 Sport 14 Notable people 15 Twin towns and sister cities 16 See also 17 References 18 External links

Etymology[edit]

The front wall of Cardiff
Cardiff
Castle Part of the original Roman fort

Caerdydd (the Welsh name of the city) derives from the earlier Welsh form Caerdyf. The change from -dyf to -dydd shows the colloquial alteration of Welsh f [v] and dd [ð], and was perhaps also driven by folk etymology (dydd is Welsh for 'day' whereas dyf has no obvious meaning). This sound change had probably first occurred in the Middle Ages; both forms were current in the Tudor period. Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff". The fort probably refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf (Taff), the river which flows by Cardiff
Cardiff
Castle, with the ⟨t⟩ showing consonant mutation to ⟨d⟩ and the vowel showing affection as a result of a (lost) genitive case ending.[12] The anglicised form Cardiff
Cardiff
is derived from Caerdyf, with the Welsh f [v] borrowed as ff /f/, as also happens in Taff (from Welsh Taf) and Llandaff
Llandaff
(from Welsh Llandaf). As English does not have the vowel [ɨ] the final vowel has been borrowed as /ɪ/. The antiquarian William Camden
William Camden
(1551–1623) suggested that the name Cardiff
Cardiff
may derive from "Caer-Didi" ("the Fort of Didius"), a name supposedly given in honour of Aulus Didius Gallus, governor of a nearby province at the time when the Roman fort was established. Although some sources repeat this theory, it has been rejected on linguistic grounds by modern scholars such as Professor Gwynedd Pierce.[13] History[edit] Main articles: History of Cardiff
History of Cardiff
and Timeline of Cardiff
Cardiff
history Origins[edit]

Tribes of Wales
Wales
at the time of the Roman invasion. The modern English-Welsh border is also shown.

Archaeological evidence from sites in and around Cardiff: the St Lythans burial chamber near Wenvoe, approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) to the west of Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre); the Tinkinswood burial chamber, near St Nicholas
St Nicholas
(about 6 miles (9.7 km) west of Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre), the Cae'rarfau Chambered Tomb, Creigiau
Creigiau
(about 6 miles (9.7 km) northwest of Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre) and the Gwern y Cleppa Long Barrow, near Coedkernew, Newport (about 8 miles (13 km) northeast of Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre), all show that people had settled in the area by at least around 6000 BC, during the early Neolithic; about 1,500 years before either Stonehenge
Stonehenge
or the Great Pyramid of Giza
Great Pyramid of Giza
was completed.[14][15][16][17][18] A group of five Bronze Age tumuli is at the summit of the Garth (Welsh: Mynydd y Garth), within the county's northern boundary.[19] Four Iron Age
Iron Age
hill fort and enclosure sites have been identified within Cardiff's present-day county boundaries, including Caerau Hillfort, an enclosed area of 5.1 hectares (13 acres).[20][21][22][23] Until the Roman conquest of Britain, Cardiff
Cardiff
was part of the territory of the Silures
Silures
– a Celtic British tribe that flourished in the Iron Age – whose territory included the areas that would become known as Breconshire, Monmouthshire
Monmouthshire
and Glamorgan.[24] The 3.2-hectare (8-acre) fort established by the Romans near the mouth of the River Taff
River Taff
in AD 75, in what would become the north western boundary of the centre of Cardiff, was built over an extensive settlement that had been established by the Romans in the 50s AD.[25] The fort was one of a series of military outposts associated with Isca Augusta (Caerleon) that acted as border defences. The fort may have been abandoned in the early 2nd century as the area had been subdued. However, by this time a civilian settlement, or vicus, was established. It was likely made up of traders who made a living from the fort, ex-soldiers and their families. A Roman villa
Roman villa
has been discovered at Ely.[26] Contemporary with the Saxon Shore Forts
Saxon Shore Forts
of the 3rd and 4th centuries, a stone fortress was established at Cardiff. Similar to the shore forts, the fortress was built to protect Britannia
Britannia
from raiders.[27] Coins from the reign of Gratian
Gratian
indicate that Cardiff
Cardiff
was inhabited until at least the 4th century; the fort was abandoned towards the end of the 4th century, as the last Roman legions left the province of Britannia
Britannia
with Magnus Maximus.[28][29] Little is known about the fort and civilian settlement in the period between the Roman departure from Britain and the Norman Conquest. The settlement probably shrank in size and may even have been abandoned. In the absence of Roman rule, Wales
Wales
was divided into small kingdoms; early on, Meurig ap Tewdrig emerged as the local king in Glywysing (which later became Glamorgan). The area passed through his family until the advent of the Normans in the 11th century.[30] Norman occupation to the Middle Ages[edit]

View of Caerdiffe Castle

In 1081 William I, King of England, began work on the castle keep within the walls of the old Roman fort.[31] Cardiff Castle
Cardiff Castle
has been at the heart of the city ever since.[32] The castle was substantially altered and extended during the Victorian period by John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute, and the architect William Burges. Original Roman work can, however, still be distinguished in the wall facings. A town grew up in the shadow of the castle, made up primarily of settlers from England.[33] Cardiff
Cardiff
had a population of between 1,500 and 2,000 in the Middle Ages, a relatively normal size for a Welsh town in this period.[34] It was the centre of the Norman Marcher Lordship of Glamorgan
Glamorgan
and by the end of the 13th century, Cardiff
Cardiff
was the only town in Wales
Wales
with a population exceeding 2,000, although it remained relatively small compared with most notable towns in the Kingdom of England, and continued to be very much contained by its walls, which has begun as a wooden palisade in the early 12th century.[35][36] It was none-the-less of sufficient size and importance to be awarded a series of charters, notably in 1331 by William La Zouche, Lord of Glamorgan
Glamorgan
through marriage with the de Clare family,[37] Edward III in 1359,[38] then Henry IV in 1400,[38] and later Henry VI. In no small part due to the historic Anglicisation of the town, in 1404 Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
burned Cardiff
Cardiff
and took possession of the Castle.[36] As many buildings in the town were made of timber, and tightly packed together within the town walls, much of Cardiff
Cardiff
was destroyed. Ironically given the treatment of Cardiff
Cardiff
by Glyndwr, a statue of him was erected in Cardiff Town Hall
Cardiff Town Hall
in the early twentieth century, reflecting the complex and often conflicting cultural identity Cardiff
Cardiff
has as the capital of Wales. However, the town was soon rebuilt on the same street plan and began to flourish once again.[34] In addition to serving an important political role in the governance of the fertile south Glamorgan
Glamorgan
coastal plain, Cardiff
Cardiff
was a busy port in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
due to its location on the Bristol trading routes, and was declared a Staple port in 1327. This furthermore led to the town gaining a reputation for piracy, which by the Early Modern period led to much dispute between the burgesses of Cardiff
Cardiff
and the surrounding county families. County
County
town of Glamorganshire[edit]

John Speed's map of Cardiff
Cardiff
from 1610

Cardiff
Cardiff
old town hall, 1860

In 1536, the Laws in Wales
Wales
Acts 1535–1542 between England
England
and Wales led to the creation of the shire of Glamorgan, and Cardiff
Cardiff
was made the county town. It also became part of Kibbor hundred.[citation needed] Around this same time the Herbert family became the most powerful family in the area.[33] In 1538, Henry VIII closed the Dominican and Franciscan
Franciscan
friaries in Cardiff, the remains of which were used as building materials.[34] A writer around this period described Cardiff: "The River Taff
River Taff
runs under the walls of his honours castle and from the north part of the town to the south part where there is a fair quay and a safe harbour for shipping."[34] Cardiff
Cardiff
had become a Free Borough in 1542[36] and further Royal Charters were granted to the town by Elizabeth I in 1600[39] and James I in 1608.[40] In 1573, it was made a head port for collection of customs duties.[33] Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire
historian George Owen described Cardiff
Cardiff
in 1602 as "the fayrest towne in Wales
Wales
yett not the welthiest.",[33] and the town gained a second Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1608.[41] A disastrous flood of the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
on 30 January 1607 (now believed to be a tsunami)[42] led to a change in the course of the River Taff
River Taff
and the ruining of St Mary's Parish Church, which was replaced by its chapel of ease, St John the Baptist.[citation needed] During the Second English Civil War, St Fagans
St Fagans
just to the west of the town, played host to the Battle of St Fagans. The battle, between a Royalist rebellion and a New Model Army
New Model Army
detachment, was a decisive victory for the Parliamentarians and allowed Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
to conquer Wales.[36] It is the last major battle to occur in Wales, with about 200 (mostly Royalist) soldiers killed.[33] In the ensuing century Cardiff
Cardiff
was at peace. In 1766, John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute married into the Herbert family and was later created Baron Cardiff,[33] and in 1778 he began renovations on Cardiff Castle.[43] In the 1790s a racecourse, printing press, bank and coffee house all opened, and Cardiff
Cardiff
gained a stagecoach service to London. Despite these improvements, Cardiff's position in the Welsh urban hierarchy had declined over the 18th century. Iolo Morganwg
Iolo Morganwg
called it "an obscure and inconsiderable place", and the 1801 census found the population to be only 1,870, making Cardiff
Cardiff
only the 25th largest town in Wales, well behind Merthyr
Merthyr
and Swansea.[44] Building of the docks[edit] Main article: Cardiff
Cardiff
Docks

A view of the jubilee dock, Cardiff, from the eastern side, 1849

In 1793, John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute
John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute
was born. He would spend his life building the Cardiff
Cardiff
docks and would later be called "the creator of modern Cardiff".[33] A twice-weekly boat service between Cardiff
Cardiff
and Bristol
Bristol
was established in 1815,[43] and in 1821, the Cardiff
Cardiff
Gas Works was established.[43] After the Napoleonic Wars Cardiff
Cardiff
entered a period of social and industrial unrest, starting with the trial and hanging of Dic Penderyn in 1831.[citation needed] The town grew rapidly from the 1830s onwards, when the Marquess of Bute built a dock, which eventually linked to the Taff Vale Railway. Cardiff
Cardiff
became the main port for exports of coal from the Cynon, Rhondda, and Rhymney valleys, and grew at a rate of nearly 80% per decade between 1840 and 1870. Much of the growth was due to migration from within and outside Wales: in 1841, a quarter of Cardiff's population were English-born and more than 10% had been born in Ireland.[45] By the 1881 census, Cardiff
Cardiff
had overtaken both Merthyr and Swansea
Swansea
to become the largest town in Wales.[46] Cardiff's new status as the premier town in South Wales
Wales
was confirmed when it was chosen as the site of the University College South Wales
Wales
and Monmouthshire
Monmouthshire
in 1893.[44] A permanent military presence was established in the town with the completion of Maindy Barracks
Maindy Barracks
in 1877.[47] Cardiff
Cardiff
faced a challenge in the 1880s when David Davies of Llandinam and the Barry Railway Company
Barry Railway Company
promoted the development of rival docks at Barry. Barry docks had the advantage of being accessible in all tides, and David Davies claimed that his venture would cause "grass to grow in the streets of Cardiff". From 1901 coal exports from Barry surpassed those from Cardiff, but the administration of the coal trade remained centred on Cardiff, in particular its Coal Exchange, where the price of coal on the British market was determined and the first million-pound deal was struck in 1907.[44] The city also strengthened its industrial base with the decision of the owners of the Dowlais Ironworks in Merthyr
Merthyr
(who would later form part of Guest, Keen and Nettlefolds) to build a new steelworks close to the docks at East Moors, which Lord Bute opened on 4 February 1891.[48] City
City
and capital city status[edit]

Welsh National War Memorial

King Edward VII granted Cardiff
Cardiff
city status on 28 October 1905,[49] and the city acquired a Roman Catholic Cathedral in 1916. In subsequent years an increasing number of national institutions were located in the city, including the National Museum of Wales, Welsh National War Memorial, and the University of Wales
Wales
Registry Building – however, it was denied the National Library of Wales, partly because the library's founder, Sir John Williams, considered Cardiff to have "a non-Welsh population".[44] After a brief post-war boom, Cardiff
Cardiff
docks entered a prolonged decline in the interwar period. By 1936, their trade was less than half its value in 1913, reflecting the slump in demand for Welsh coal.[44] Bomb damage during the Cardiff Blitz
Cardiff Blitz
in World War II included the devastation of Llandaff
Llandaff
Cathedral, and in the immediate postwar years the city's link with the Bute family came to an end.

National Museum of Wales, Cardiff

The city was recognised as the capital city of Wales
Wales
on 20 December 1955, by a written reply by the Home Secretary
Home Secretary
Gwilym Lloyd George.[50] Caernarfon
Caernarfon
had also vied for this title.[51] Cardiff therefore celebrated two important anniversaries in 2005. The Encyclopedia of Wales
Wales
notes that the decision to recognise the city as the capital of Wales
Wales
"had more to do with the fact that it contained marginal Conservative constituencies than any reasoned view of what functions a Welsh capital should have". Although the city hosted the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
in 1958, Cardiff
Cardiff
only became a centre of national administration with the establishment of the Welsh Office
Welsh Office
in 1964, which later prompted the creation of various other public bodies such as the Arts Council of Wales
Wales
and the Welsh Development Agency, most of which were based in Cardiff.

Redevelopment in the city's historic Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
area

The East Moors Steelworks closed in 1978 and Cardiff
Cardiff
lost population during the 1980s,[52] consistent with a wider pattern of counter urbanisation in Britain. However, it recovered and was one of the few cities (outside London) where population grew during the 1990s.[53] During this period the Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
Development Corporation was promoting the redevelopment of south Cardiff; an evaluation of the regeneration of Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
published in 2004 concluded that the project had "reinforced the competitive position of Cardiff" and "contributed to a massive improvement in the quality of the built environment", although it had failed "to attract the major inward investors originally anticipated".[54] In the Welsh devolution referendum, 1997, Cardiff
Cardiff
voters rejected the establishment of the National Assembly for Wales
Wales
by 55.4% to 44.2% on a 47% turnout, which Denis Balsom partly ascribed to a general preference in Cardiff
Cardiff
and some other parts of Wales
Wales
for a 'British' rather than exclusively 'Welsh' identity.[55][56] The relative lack of support for the Assembly locally, and difficulties between the Welsh Office and Cardiff Council
Cardiff Council
in acquiring the original preferred venue, Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Hall, encouraged other local authorities to bid to house the Assembly.[57][58] However, the Assembly eventually located at Tŷ Hywel in Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
in 1999; in 2005, a new debating chamber on an adjacent site, designed by Richard Rogers, was opened. Government[edit]

Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Hall in Cathays
Cathays
Park

Main article: Politics in Cardiff See also: Cardiff Council
Cardiff Council
and National Assembly for Wales Since local government reorganisation in 1996, Cardiff
Cardiff
has been governed by the City
City
and County
County
Council of Cardiff, which is based at County
County
Hall in Atlantic Wharf, Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay. Voters elect 75 councillors every four years. Between the 2004 and 2012 local elections, no individual political party held a majority on Cardiff
Cardiff
County
County
Council. The Liberal Democrats held the largest number of seats and Cllr Rodney Berman
Rodney Berman
was Leader of the Council.[59] The Liberal Democrats and Plaid Cymru formed a partnership administration.[60] In the 2012 elections the Labour Party achieved an outright majority, after gaining an additional 33 seats across the city.

The Senedd, seat of the Welsh Assembly, is located in Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay.

The National Assembly for Wales
Wales
has been based in Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
since its formation in 1999. The building, known as the Senedd
Senedd
(which translates into English as Legislature, Parliament or Senate) was opened on 1 March 2006, by The Queen.[61] The Assembly Members (AMs), the Assembly Commission and Ministerial support staff are based in Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay. Cardiff
Cardiff
elects four constituency Assembly Members (AMs) to the Assembly, with the individual constituencies for the Assembly being the same as for the UK Parliament. All of the city's residents have an extra vote for the South Wales
Wales
Central region which increases proportionality to the Assembly. The most recent Welsh Assembly general election were held on 5 May 2016.

Crown Buildings are the Welsh Government's main offices in Cardiff

In the Assembly Cardiff
Cardiff
is represented by Jenny Rathbone (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
Central, Julie Morgan
Julie Morgan
(Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
North, Vaughan Gething (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
South and Penarth
Penarth
and Mark Drakeford (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
West. In Westminster, Cardiff
Cardiff
is represented by Jo Stevens (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
Central, Anna McMorrin(Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
North, Stephen Doughty (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
South and Penarth
Penarth
and Kevin Brennan (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
West. The Welsh Government
Welsh Government
has its headquarters in Cardiff's Cathays
Cathays
Park where most of its civil servants are based, with smaller numbers in other locations in the city centre, Cathays, Canton, and Cardiff Bay.[62] There are other Welsh Government
Welsh Government
offices in other parts of Wales
Wales
such as Llandudno and Aberystwyth and international offices throughout the world.[63] Local government[edit]

Communities of Cardiff
Cardiff
that have their own community council

For local government purposes, Cardiff
Cardiff
is divided into communities. Several of these have their own community council, while the rest are governed solely by Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Council. They are:

Lisvane Old St Mellons Pentyrch Radyr
Radyr
and Morganstown St Fagans Tongwynlais

Geography[edit]

Looking south towards Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre

Main article: Geography of Cardiff The centre of Cardiff
Cardiff
is relatively flat and is bounded by hills on the outskirts to the east, north and west. Its geographic features were influential in its development as the world's largest coal port, most notably its proximity and easy access to the coal fields of the south Wales
Wales
valleys. The highest point in the authority is Garth Hill 307 metres (1,007 feet) above sea level. Cardiff
Cardiff
is built on reclaimed marshland on a bed of Triassic
Triassic
stones; this reclaimed marshland stretches from Chepstow
Chepstow
to the Ely Estuary,[64] which is the natural boundary of Cardiff
Cardiff
and the Vale of Glamorgan. Triassic
Triassic
landscapes of this part of the world are usually shallow and low-lying which accounts and explains the flatness of the centre of Cardiff.[65] The classic Triassic
Triassic
marl, sand and conglomerate rocks are used predominantly throughout Cardiff
Cardiff
as building materials. Many of these Triassic
Triassic
rocks have a purple complexion, especially the coastal marl found near Penarth. One of the Triassic
Triassic
rocks used in Cardiff
Cardiff
is " Radyr
Radyr
Stone", a freestone which as its name suggests is quarried in the Radyr
Radyr
district.[66] Cardiff
Cardiff
has also imported some materials for buildings: Devonian
Devonian
sandstones (the Old Red Sandstone) from the Brecon Beacons
Brecon Beacons
has been used. Most famously, the buildings of Cathays
Cathays
Park, the civic centre in the centre of the city, are built of Portland stone
Portland stone
which was imported from Dorset.[67] A widely used building stone in Cardiff
Cardiff
is the yellow-grey Liassic limestone rock of the Vale of Glamorgan, including the very rare "Sutton Stone", a conglomerate of lias limestone and carboniferous limestone.[68] Cardiff
Cardiff
is bordered to the west by the rural district of the Vale of Glamorgan
Glamorgan
– also known as The Garden of Cardiff
Cardiff
– [69] to the east by the city of Newport, to the north by the South Wales
Wales
Valleys and to the south by the Severn Estuary and Bristol
Bristol
Channel. The River Taff winds through the centre of the city and together with the River Ely flows into the freshwater lake of Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay. A third river, the Rhymney flows through the east of the city entering directly into the Severn Estuary. Cardiff
Cardiff
is situated near the Glamorgan
Glamorgan
Heritage Coast, stretching westward from Penarth
Penarth
and Barry – commuter towns of Cardiff
Cardiff
– with striped yellow-blue Jurassic
Jurassic
limestone cliffs. The Glamorgan
Glamorgan
coast is the only part of the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
that has exposed Jurassic
Jurassic
(blue lias) geology. This stretch of coast, which has reefs, sandbanks and serrated cliffs, was a ship graveyard; ships sailing up to Cardiff during the industrial era often never made it as far as Cardiff
Cardiff
as many were wrecked around this hostile coastline during west/south-westerly gales. Consequently, smuggling, deliberate shipwrecking and attacks on ships were common.[70]

Destinations from CARDIFF

Llantrisant, Rhondda Pontypridd, Brecon, Merthyr
Merthyr
Tydfil, Caerphilly Newport, Chepstow

Maesteg, Neath, Bridgend

CARDIFF

Bristol
Bristol
Channel

Llantwit Major, Cardiff
Cardiff
International Airport Penarth, Dinas Powys, Barry Bristol
Bristol
Channel

Cityscape[edit] See also: List of places in Cardiff

Overlooking Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay, viewed from Penarth

Cathays
Cathays
Library

"Inner Cardiff" consists of the following wards: Plasnewydd, Gabalfa, Roath, Cathays, Adamsdown
Adamsdown
and Splott
Splott
ward on the north and east of the city centre, and Butetown, Grangetown, Riverside and Canton to the south and west.[71] The inner-city areas to the south of the A4161 road (known as the "Southern Arc") are, with the exception of Cardiff Bay, some of the poorest districts of Wales
Wales
with low levels of economic activity.[72] On the other hand, Gabalfa, Plasnewydd
Plasnewydd
and Cathays
Cathays
north of the 'arc' have very large student populations,[73] and Pontcanna
Pontcanna
(situated north of Riverside and alongside Canton) is a favourite for students and young professionals. Penylan, which lies to the north east side of Roath
Roath
Park, is an affluent area popular with those with older children and the retired. To the west lie Ely, Caerau and Fairwater which contain some of the largest housing estates in the United Kingdom. With the exception of some of the outlying privately built estates at Michaelston Super Ely and 1930s developments near Waun-Gron Road, this is an economically disadvantaged area with high numbers of unemployed households. Culverhouse Cross
Culverhouse Cross
is a more affluent western area of the city. Heath, Birchgrove, Gabalfa, Mynachdy, Llandaff
Llandaff
North, Llandaff, Llanishen, Radyr, Whitchurch & Tongwynlais, Rhiwbina, Thornhill, Lisvane
Lisvane
and Cyncoed
Cyncoed
lie in an arc from the north west to the north east of the centre. In particular, Lisvane, Cyncoed, Radyr
Radyr
and Rhiwbina
Rhiwbina
contain some of the most expensive housing in Wales. Further to the east lie the wards of Pontprennau
Pontprennau
& Old St Mellons, Rumney, Pentwyn, Llanrumney
Llanrumney
and Trowbridge. The last three are again largely of public housing stock, although new private housing is being built in Trowbridge in considerable number. Pontprennau
Pontprennau
is the newest 'suburb' of Cardiff, whilst Old St Mellons
St Mellons
has a history going back to the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
in the 11th century.[74] To the north west of the city lies a region that may be called "Rural Cardiff" containing the villages of St. Fagans, Creigiau, Pentyrch, Tongwynlais
Tongwynlais
and Gwaelod-y-garth.[75] St. Fagans, home to the Museum of Welsh Life, is protected from further development.[76] Since 2000, there has been a significant change of scale and building height in Cardiff, with the development of the city centre's first purpose-built high-rise apartments.[77] Tall buildings have been built in the city centre and Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay, and more are planned.[78] In 2017, plans were approved to create a new suburb of 7000 homes to the northwest of the city. Known as Plasdŵr, it is to be built between Radyr
Radyr
and the village of St Fagans.[79] Climate[edit] See also: Climate of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
§ Wales

Cardiff

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    122     8 2

    85     9 2

    90     11 4

    69     14 5

    72     17 8

    67     20 11

    78     22 13

    93     22 13

    94     19 11

    134     15 8

    123     11 5

    125     9 3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: Met Office, 1981–2010 averages

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    4.8     47 36

    3.4     47 36

    3.5     52 39

    2.7     57 41

    2.8     63 47

    2.6     68 52

    3.1     71 56

    3.7     71 55

    3.7     66 51

    5.3     59 46

    4.9     52 40

    4.9     48 37

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Cardiff
Cardiff
lies within the north temperate zone and has an essentially maritime climate (Köppen: Cfb), characterised by mild weather that is often cloudy, wet and windy.[80] Summers tend to be warm and sunny, with average maximum temperatures between 19 and 22 °C (66 and 72 °F). Winters tend to be fairly wet, but rainfall is rarely excessive and the temperature usually stays above freezing. Spring and autumn feel quite similar and the temperatures tend to stay above 14 °C (57 °F) – also the average annual daytime temperature. Rain is unpredictable at any time of year, although the showers tend to be shorter in summer.[81]

Dock feeder canal in Atlantic Wharf
Atlantic Wharf
in Winter

The northern part of the county, being higher and inland – for example, the Garth (Welsh: Mynydd y Garth), about 7 miles (11 km) north west of Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre, (elevation 1,007 feet (307 m)) – tends to be cooler and wetter than the city centre.[citation needed][82] Temperature[edit] Cardiff's maximum and minimum monthly temperatures average 21.5 °C (70.7 °F) (July) and 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) (February). For Wales, the temperatures average 19.1 °C (66.4 °F) (July) and 1.1 °C (34.0 °F) (February).[83][84] Sunshine hours[edit] Cardiff
Cardiff
has 1518 hours of sunshine during an average year (Wales 1388.7 hours). Cardiff
Cardiff
is sunniest during July, with an average 203.4 hours during the month ( Wales
Wales
183.3 hours), and least sunny during December with 44.6 hours (Wales 38.5 hours).[83][84] Rainfall[edit] Cardiff
Cardiff
experiences less rainfall than the average for Wales. Rain falls in Cardiff
Cardiff
on 146 days during an average year, with total annual rainfall of 1,151.9 millimetres (45.35 in). Monthly rainfall pattern shows that from October to January average monthly rainfall in Cardiff
Cardiff
exceeded 100 millimetres (3.9 in) each month, the wettest month being December with 125.3 millimetres (4.93 in). Cardiff's driest months are from April to June, with average monthly rainfall fairly consistent, at between 65 and 75 millimetres (2.6 and 3.0 in).[83][84] 2017 figures from the Met Office now reveals Cardiff
Cardiff
as the wettest city in Britain.[85] Swansea used to be the wettest British city in recent history.

Climate data for Cardiff
Cardiff
(1981–2010) Extremes (1960–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 13.8 (56.8) 15.0 (59) 19.5 (67.1) 24.0 (75.2) 26.6 (79.9) 32.1 (89.8) 32.0 (89.6) 33.5 (92.3) 27.0 (80.6) 24.6 (76.3) 17.1 (62.8) 16.7 (62.1) 33.5 (92.3)

Average high °C (°F) 8.3 (46.9) 8.6 (47.5) 11.1 (52) 13.8 (56.8) 17.1 (62.8) 19.8 (67.6) 21.7 (71.1) 21.5 (70.7) 18.8 (65.8) 14.9 (58.8) 11.3 (52.3) 8.7 (47.7) 14.7 (58.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 5.3 (41.5) 5.4 (41.7) 7.6 (45.7) 9.5 (49.1) 12.7 (54.9) 15.4 (59.7) 17.4 (63.3) 17.2 (63) 14.7 (58.5) 11.3 (52.3) 8.0 (46.4) 5.7 (42.3) 10.9 (51.6)

Average low °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 2.1 (35.8) 4.0 (39.2) 5.2 (41.4) 8.3 (46.9) 11.0 (51.8) 13.1 (55.6) 12.8 (55) 10.5 (50.9) 7.7 (45.9) 4.6 (40.3) 2.6 (36.7) 7.0 (44.6)

Record low °C (°F) −10.3 (13.5) −8.8 (16.2) −8.1 (17.4) −4.8 (23.4) −2.0 (28.4) 1.0 (33.8) 5.3 (41.5) 3.6 (38.5) 2.4 (36.3) −2.7 (27.1) −8.4 (16.9) −8.8 (16.2) −10.3 (13.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 121.6 (4.787) 85.2 (3.354) 89.8 (3.535) 68.6 (2.701) 72.3 (2.846) 66.6 (2.622) 78.4 (3.087) 93.4 (3.677) 94.0 (3.701) 133.5 (5.256) 123.4 (4.858) 125.3 (4.933) 1,151.9 (45.35)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 15.7 11.1 13.0 11.1 11.2 10.1 10.7 11.0 11.0 15.5 14.5 13.9 148.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 54.4 75.9 111.9 169.6 190.6 190.0 199.0 190.7 149.6 103.0 65.8 48.9 1,549.4

Source #1: Met Office[86]

Source #2: KNMI[87]

Demography[edit] Main article: Demography of Cardiff

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1801 6,342 —    

1851 26,630 +319.9%

1861 48,965 +83.9%

1871 71,301 +45.6%

1881 93,637 +31.3%

1891 142,114 +51.8%

1901 172,629 +21.5%

1911 209,804 +21.5%

1921 227,753 +8.6%

1931 247,270 +8.6%

1941 257,112 +4.0%

1951 267,356 +4.0%

1961 278,552 +4.2%

1971 290,227 +4.2%

1981 274,500 −5.4%

1991 272,557 −0.7%

2001 292,150 +7.2%

2011 346,100 +18.5%

2016 361,468 +4.4%

Source: Vision of Britain except 2011, which is the 2011 census data from the Office for National Statistics. Historical populations are calculated with the modern boundaries

Following a period of decline during the 1970s and 1980s, Cardiff's population is growing. The local authority area had a population of 346,100 at the 2011 census,[88] compared to a 2001 Census figure of 305,353.[89] Between mid –2007 and mid–2008, Cardiff
Cardiff
was the fastest-growing local authority in Wales
Wales
with population growth rate of 1.2%.[90] According to Census 2001 data, Cardiff
Cardiff
was the 21st largest urban area.[91] The Cardiff
Cardiff
Larger Urban Zone (a Eurostat definition including the Vale of Glamorgan
Glamorgan
and a number of local authorities in the Valleys) has 841,600 people, the 10th largest LUZ in the UK.[92] The Cardiff
Cardiff
and South Wales
Wales
Valleys metropolitan area has a population of nearly 1.1 million people.[93]

Residential areas of northern Cardiff

Official estimates derived from the census regarding the city's total population have been disputed. The city council has published two articles that argue the 2001 census seriously under reports the population of Cardiff
Cardiff
and, in particular, the ethnic minority population of some inner city areas.[94][95] The Welsh Government's official mid year estimate of the population of the Cardiff
Cardiff
local authority area in 2016 was 361,468 [96] At the time of the 2011 census the official population of the Cardiff
Cardiff
Built Up Area [97] was estimated to be 447,287.[98] The BUA is not contiguous with the local authority boundary and aggregates data at a lower level; for Cardiff
Cardiff
this includes: urban part of Cardiff, Penarth/Dinas Powys, Caerphilly
Caerphilly
and Pontypridd. Cardiff
Cardiff
has an ethnically diverse population due to its past trading connections, post-war immigration and the large numbers of foreign students who attend university in the city. The ethnic make-up of Cardiff's population at the time of the 2011 census was: 84.7% White, 1.6% mixed White and Black African/Caribbean, 0.7% mixed White and Asian, 0.6% mixed other, 8.1% Asian, 2.4% Black, 1.4% Arab and 0.6% other ethnic groups.[99] This means that almost 53,000 people from a non-white ethnic group reside in the city. This diversity, and especially that of the city's long-established[citation needed] African and Arab communities, has been celebrated in a number of cultural exhibitions and events, along with a number of books which have been published on this subject.[100][101] Health[edit] Main article: Cardiff
Cardiff
and Vale University Health Board

University Hospital of Wales

There are seven NHS hospitals in the city, the largest of which is the University Hospital of Wales. The University Hospital of Wales
Wales
is the third largest hospital in the UK and deals with most accidents and emergencies.[102] The University Dental Hospital, which provides emergency dental treatment, is also located on this site. Llandough Hospital is located in the south of the city. The city's newest hospital, St. David's Hospital (built behind the former building) is located in the Canton area and provides services for the elderly and children. Cardiff
Cardiff
Royal Infirmary is located on Newport Road, near the city centre. The majority of this hospital was closed in 1999 but with the West Wing remaining open for clinic services, genitourinary medicine and rehabilitation treatment. Rookwood Hospital and Whitchurch Hospital
Whitchurch Hospital
are also located within the city, along with Rookwood Hospital and Velindre Cancer Centre. All hospitals in Cardiff
Cardiff
are administered by the Cardiff
Cardiff
and Vale University Health Board,[103] with the exception of the Velindre site which is run by a separate trust.[104] In addition Spire Healthcare has a private hospital in the city which is located in Pentwyn.[105] Language[edit] See also: Cardiff
Cardiff
dialect

Bilingual signs are commonplace in Cardiff.

Cardiff
Cardiff
has a chequered linguistic history with Welsh, English, Latin, Norse and Norman French preponderant at different times. Welsh was the majority language in Cardiff
Cardiff
from the 13th century until the city's explosive growth in the Victorian era.[106] As late as 1850, five of the 12 Anglican
Anglican
churches within the current city boundaries conducted their services exclusively in the Welsh language, while only two worshipped exclusively in English.[106] By 1891, the percentage of Welsh speakers had dropped to 27.9% and only Lisvane, Llanedeyrn
Llanedeyrn
and Creigiau
Creigiau
remained as majority Welsh-speaking communities.[107] The Welsh language
Welsh language
became grouped around a small cluster of chapels and churches, the most notable of which is Tabernacl in the city centre, one of four UK churches chosen to hold official services to commemorate the new millennium. Following the establishment of the city's first Welsh School (Ysgol Gymraeg Bryntaf) in the 1950s, Welsh has regained ground.[108] Aided by Welsh-medium education and migration from other parts of Wales, there has been a significant increase in the number and percentage of Welsh speakers, with numbers doubling in the 20 years between the 1991 and 2011 censuses, from 18,071 (6.6%) to 36,735 (11.1%) residents aged three years and above.[109] Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Council adopted a 5-year Welsh language
Welsh language
strategy in 2017 in order to increase the number of Welsh speakers (aged 3+) in Cardiff
Cardiff
by 15.9%, from 36,735 in 2011 to 42,584 residents by the 2021 Census.[110] The LSOA (Lower Layer Super Output Area) with the highest percentage of Welsh speakers in the city-centre is found in Canton, at 25.5%.[111] The LSOA with the highest percentage of Welsh speakers in the entirety of Cardiff
Cardiff
is found in Whitchurch at 26%.[111] In addition to English and Welsh, the diversity of Cardiff's population (including foreign students) means that a large number of languages are spoken within the city. One study has found that Cardiff has speakers of at least 94 languages, with Somali, Urdu, Bengali and Arabic being the most commonly spoken foreign languages.[112] The modern Cardiff
Cardiff
accent is distinct from that of the nearby South Wales
Wales
Valleys. It is marked primarily by:

The substitution of ⟨iə⟩ by ⟨øː⟩[113][114] here [hiə] pronounced as [(h)jøː] in the broader form A more mid-centralised pronunciation of ⟨ʌ⟩ as in love and other[114] The vowel of start may be realised as [æː] or even [ɛː], so that Cardiff
Cardiff
is pronounced [ˈkæːdɪf].

Language schools[edit] Due to its diversity, large student population, and convenient size and location, Cardiff
Cardiff
has seen a rise in the number of people coming to the city to learn English. Foreign students coming from Arab states and other European countries are a common sight on the streets of Cardiff.[90] The British Council
British Council
has an office in the city centre and there are six accredited schools in the area.[115] Religion[edit] Main article: Christianity in Wales Main article: Religion in Wales

Cardiff's cathedrals

Llandaff
Llandaff
Cathedral, an Anglican
Anglican
cathedral, the parish church of Llandaff, the seat of the Bishop of Llandaff, the head of the Church in Wales

Cardiff
Cardiff
Metropolitan Cathedral

Since 1922, Cardiff
Cardiff
has included Llandaff
Llandaff
within its boundary, and therefore Llandaff
Llandaff
Cathedral, an Anglican
Anglican
cathedral, the parish church of Llandaff
Llandaff
and the seat of the Bishop of Llandaff, the head of the Church in Wales
Wales
Diocese of Llandaff. There is a Roman Catholic cathedral in the city. Since 1916, Cardiff has been the seat of a Catholic archbishop, but there appears to have been a fall in the estimated Catholic population, with estimated numbers in 2006 being around 25,000 fewer than in 1980.[116] Likewise, the Jewish population of the city also appears to have fallen – there are two synagogues in Cardiff, one in Cyncoed
Cyncoed
and one in Moira Terrace, as opposed to seven at the turn of the 20th century.[117] There are a significant number of nonconformist chapels, an early 20th century Greek Orthodox church and 11 mosques.[118][119][120] In the 2001 census 66.9% of Cardiff's population described itself as Christian, a percentage point below the Welsh and UK averages.

Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in Riverside was the first Hindu temple in Wales. It is also the largest in Wales.

Sri Dasmais Singh Sabha Gurdwara, Bhatra Sikh Centre in Riverside.

The oldest of the non-Christian communities in Wales
Wales
is Judaism. Jews were not permitted to live in England
England
and Wales
Wales
between the 1290 Edict of Expulsion – given by Edward I of England
Edward I of England
– and the 17th century. A Welsh Jewish community was re-established in the 18th century.[121] There was once a fairly substantial Jewish population in South Wales, most of which has disappeared. The Cardiff
Cardiff
Jewish community congregations are consolidated in the present, modern building in Cyncoed
Cyncoed
Gardens, dedicated by Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks in 2003.[122] Educational options for Jewish adults are expanding in Cardiff
Cardiff
via courses offered by Rabbi Michoel Rose and The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute.[123] In the 2001 census Cardiff's Muslim population stood at 3.7%, above the UK average (2.7%) and significantly above the Welsh average. Cardiff
Cardiff
has one of the longest-established Muslim populations in the UK, started by Yemeni sailors who settled in the city during the 19th century.[124] Cardiff
Cardiff
is now home to over 11,000 Muslims from many different nationalities and backgrounds,[125] nearly 52% of the Welsh Muslim population.[126] The proportion of Cardiff
Cardiff
residents declaring themselves to be Hindu, Sikh and Jewish were all considerably higher than the Welsh averages, but less than the UK figures. The city has been home to a sizable Hindu community since Indian immigrants settled there during the 1950s and 1960s. The first Hindu temple in the city was opened in Grangetown on 6 April 1979 on the site of an abandoned printing press (which itself was the former site of a synagogue).[127] The 25th anniversary of the temple's founding was celebrated in September 2007 with a parade of over 3000 people through the city centre, including Hindus from across the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and members of Cardiff's other religious communities.[128] Today, there are over 2000 Hindus in Cardiff, worshiping at three temples across the city.[125] In the 2001 census 18.8% of the city's population stated they had no religion, while 8.6% did not state a religion.[129] Economy[edit]

Callaghan Square is a major commercial development in central Cardiff

Main article: Economy and industry of Cardiff See also: List of tallest buildings in Cardiff As the capital city of Wales, Cardiff
Cardiff
is the main engine of growth in the Welsh economy. Though the population of Cardiff
Cardiff
is about 10% of the Welsh population, the economy of Cardiff
Cardiff
makes up nearly 20% of Welsh GDP and 40% of the city's workforce are daily in-commuters from the surrounding south Wales
Wales
area.[130][131] Industry has played a major part in Cardiff's development for many centuries. The main catalyst for its transformation from a small town into a big city was the demand for coal required in making iron and later steel, brought to the sea by packhorse from Merthyr
Merthyr
Tydfil. This was first achieved by the construction of a 25-mile (40 km) long canal from Merthyr
Merthyr
(510 feet above sea-level) to the Taff Estuary at Cardiff.[132] Eventually the Taff Vale Railway
Taff Vale Railway
replaced the canal barges and massive marshalling yards sprang up as new docks were developed in Cardiff
Cardiff
– all prompted by the soaring worldwide demand for coal from the South Wales
Wales
valleys.

The Coal Exchange

At its peak, Cardiff's port area, known as Tiger Bay, became the busiest port in the world and – for some time – the world's most important coal port.[133][134] In the years leading up to the First World War, more than 10 million tonnes of coal was exported annually from Cardiff
Cardiff
Docks.[135] In 1907, Cardiff's Coal Exchange
Coal Exchange
was the first host to a business deal for a million pounds Sterling.[136] After a period of decline, Cardiff's port has started to grow again – over 3 million tonnes of cargo passed through the docks in 2007.[137] Today, Cardiff
Cardiff
is the principal finance and business services centre in Wales, and as such there is a strong representation of finance and business services in the local economy. This sector, combined with the Public Administration, Education and Health sectors, have accounted for around 75% of Cardiff's economic growth since 1991.[138] The city was recently placed seventh overall in the top 50 European cities in the fDI 2008 Cities of the Future list published by the fDi magazine, and also ranked seventh in terms of attracting foreign investment.[139] Notable companies such as Legal & General, Admiral
Admiral
Insurance, HBOS, Zurich, ING Direct, The AA, Principality Building Society, 118118, British Gas, Brains, SWALEC
SWALEC
Energy and BT, all operate large national or regional headquarters and contact centres in the city, some of them based in Cardiff's office towers such as Capital Tower and Brunel House. Other major employers include NHS Wales
Wales
and the National Assembly for Wales. On 1 March 2004, Cardiff
Cardiff
was granted Fairtrade City
City
status. Cardiff
Cardiff
is one of the most popular tourist destination cities in the United Kingdom, receiving 18.3 million visitors in 2010 and generating £852 million for the city's economy.[5] One result of this is that one in five employees in Cardiff
Cardiff
are based in the distribution, hotels and restaurants sector, highlighting the growing retail and tourism industries in the city.[138] There are a large number of hotels of varying sizes and standards in the city, providing almost 9,000 available bed spaces.[140]

BBC Broadcasting House

Cardiff
Cardiff
is home to the Welsh media and a large media sector with BBC Wales, S4C
S4C
and ITV Wales
Wales
all having studios in the city.[141] In particular, there is a large independent TV production industry sector of over 600 companies, employing around 6000 employees and with a turnover estimated at £350 m.[141] Just to the north west of the city, in Rhondda
Rhondda
Cynon Taff, the first completely new film studios in the UK for 30 years are being built, named Valleywood. The studios are set to be the biggest in the UK. In 2011 the BBC completed the Roath Lock studios in Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
to film dramas such as Casualty, Doctor Who, and Pobol y Cwm.[142] Cardiff
Cardiff
has several regeneration projects such as the St David's 2 Centre and surrounding areas of the city centre, and the £1.4 billion International Sports Village in Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
which played a part in the London
London
2012 Olympics. It features the only Olympic-standard swimming pool in Wales, the Cardiff
Cardiff
International Pool, which opened on 12 January 2008. According to the Welsh Rugby Union, the Principality Stadium
Principality Stadium
has contributed £1 billion to the Welsh economy in the ten years after it opened in 1999, with around 85% of that amount staying in the Cardiff area.[143] Shopping[edit]

St. David's is the largest shopping centre in Wales.

The majority of Cardiff's shopping portfolio is in the city centre around Queen Street and St. Mary Street, with large suburban retail parks located in Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay, Culverhouse Cross, Leckwith, Newport Road and Pontprennau, together with markets in the city centre and Splott. A major £675 million regeneration programme for Cardiff's St. David's Centre
St. David's Centre
was completed in 2009, which has provided a total of 1,400,000 square feet (130,000 m2) of shopping space, making it one of the largest shopping centres in the United Kingdom.[144] The centre was named the international shopping centre of the year in 2010 by Retail Leisure International (RLI).[145]

Queen Street, one of Cardiff's main shopping areas

The Castle Quarter
Castle Quarter
is a commercial area in the north of the city centre which includes some of Cardiff's Victorian and Edwardian arcades: Castle Arcade, High Street Arcade and Duke Street Arcade, and principal shopping streets: St Mary Street, High Street, Castle Street and Duke Street. Development of the area began in February 2010 and is expected to be completed by July 2011. Cardiff Council
Cardiff Council
says that work to create the Castle Quarter
Castle Quarter
as a pedestrian friendly environment for High Street and St Mary Street is designed to enhance the city centre.[146] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Cardiff

Cardiff
Cardiff
Central railway station

Cardiff
Cardiff
is the major transport hub in Wales
Wales
and is the focus for many arterial road and rail routes that connect the city with Wales
Wales
and England. Rail[edit] Main article: Rail transport in Cardiff

Cardiff
Cardiff
Queen Street railway station

Cardiff Central railway station
Cardiff Central railway station
is the largest railway station in Wales
Wales
with seven platforms, through which over 12.5 million passengers a year pass.[147] It provides direct services to Bridgend and Newport; long-distance, cross- Wales
Wales
services to Wrexham, Holyhead, Bristol, Birmingham, Manchester
Manchester
and London. Cardiff Queen Street railway station
Cardiff Queen Street railway station
is the second-busiest in Wales and is the hub for routes via the Valley Lines
Valley Lines
services that connect the South Wales
Wales
valleys and the Cardiff
Cardiff
suburbs with the city centre on the former site of Temperance Town. It is located at the eastern end of the city centre, and also provides services to Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay. Cardiff
Cardiff
has a suburban rail system known as Valley Lines, which is operated by Arriva Trains Wales. There are eight lines which serve 20 stations in the city, 26 in the wider urban area (including Taffs Well, Penarth
Penarth
and Dinas Powys) and more than 60 in the South Wales valleys and the Vale of Glamorgan.[148] Air[edit]

Cardiff
Cardiff
Airport

Main articles: Cardiff Airport
Cardiff Airport
and Cardiff
Cardiff
Heliport Domestic and international air links to Cardiff
Cardiff
and South & West Wales
Wales
are provided from Cardiff Airport
Cardiff Airport
(CWL), the only international airport in Wales. The airport is situated in the village of Rhoose, 10 miles (16 km) west of the city. There are regular bus services linking the airport with the Cardiff
Cardiff
Central Bus
Bus
Station as well as a train service from Rhoose
Rhoose
Cardiff International Airport
Cardiff International Airport
railway station to Cardiff
Cardiff
Central. Road and bus[edit]

Cardiff Bus
Cardiff Bus
has the most bus services operating in the Cardiff
Cardiff
area.

Main article: Bus
Bus
transport in Cardiff The M4 is the principal motorway in the region that connects Cardiff with Swansea
Swansea
to the west, and Newport and London
London
to the east. Cardiff is served by three junctions of the M4, plus A48(M), which leads onto the M4. The A470 is another major road within the city that provides an important link to the north with the Heads of the Valleys road, mid and north Wales. The A4232 (also known as the Peripheral Distributor Road or PDR) when completed, will form part of the Cardiff
Cardiff
ring-road system along with the M4 motorway
M4 motorway
between junctions 30 and 33.[149] Cardiff
Cardiff
has a comprehensive bus network, with providers including municipal bus company Cardiff Bus
Cardiff Bus
(routes within the city and to Newport, Barry and Penarth), NAT Group
NAT Group
(cross-city and to Cardiff International Airport), Stagecoach
Stagecoach
(to the South Wales
Wales
Valleys) and FirstGroup
FirstGroup
(to Cowbridge and Bridgend). National Express and Megabus provides direct services to major cities such as Bristol, London, Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
and Manchester

Cycle[edit]

Typical cycle lane in Cardiff

Main article: Cycling in Cardiff The Taff Trail
Taff Trail
is a walking and cycle path running for 55 miles (88.5 km) between Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
and Brecon
Brecon
in the Brecon
Brecon
Beacons National Park. It runs through Bute Park, Sophia Gardens
Sophia Gardens
and many other green areas within Cardiff. It is possible to cycle the entire distance of the Trail
Trail
almost completely off-road, as it largely follows the River Taff
River Taff
and many of the old disused railways of the Glamorganshire valleys. On Sundays in summer the Beacons Bike Bus enables cyclists to take their bikes into the Beacons and then ride back to Cardiff
Cardiff
along the Trail.[150] Nextbike
Nextbike
propose to have a public bike hire scheme operating in Cardiff
Cardiff
by Autumn 2017. This would see 500 cycles over 50 docking stations in the city. It comes 6 years after OYBike
OYBike
ended a smaller scheme (with 10 stations) following the council's withdrawal of funding in 2011.[151] Water[edit]

Aquabus

The Aquabus water taxi runs every hour between the city centre (Taff Mead Embankment) and Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
(Mermaid Quay), and between Cardiff Bay and Penarth
Penarth
Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
Barrage. Throughout the year, Cardiff Waterbus [152] sail between the Pierhead on The Waterfront and the Penarth
Penarth
end of the Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
Barrage with short sightseeing cruises. Between March and October boats depart from Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
to take visitors to Flat Holm
Flat Holm
Island. The Paddle Steamer Waverley and MV Balmoral sail from Britannia
Britannia
Quay (in Roath
Roath
Basin) to various destinations in the Bristol
Bristol
Channel.

Telecommunications[edit] See also: List of Wales
Wales
dialling codes 029 is the current telephone dialling code for Cardiff, as well as for the neighbouring towns of Penarth, Dinas Powys
Dinas Powys
and Caerphilly. The dialling code is optional when dialling within the area, with it being possible to dial between any two phones within the 029 code using only the eight-digit local number. Prior to the Big Number Change on 22 April 2000 the area had shorter, six-digit local numbers with an area code of 01222 (with 0222 preceding this, prior to May 1995). There remains a common misconception that local numbers are still six digits long and that the code is 02920, despite the existence of newer Cardiff
Cardiff
numbers in the ranges (029) 21xx xxxx and (029) 22xx xxxx. Education[edit] See also: List of schools in Cardiff

Cardiff
Cardiff
University's main building

Cardiff
Cardiff
is home to four major institutions of higher education: Cardiff
Cardiff
University, Cardiff
Cardiff
Metropolitan University, University of South Wales
Wales
and the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama. Cardiff University
Cardiff University
was founded by Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1883 as the University College of South Wales
Wales
and Monmouthshire,[153] is a member of the Russell Group
Russell Group
of leading research led universities, having most of its campus in Cathays
Cathays
and the city centre. Cardiff
Cardiff
Metropolitan University (formerly UWIC) has campuses in the Llandaff, Cyncoed
Cyncoed
and city centre areas, and is part of the confederal University of Wales. The Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama is a conservatoire established in 1949 and is based in the grounds of Cardiff
Cardiff
Castle. The University of South Wales's Cardiff
Cardiff
campus, Atrium, is home to the Cardiff
Cardiff
School of Creative & Cultural Industries and is located in the city centre.

Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama

The total number of higher education students in the city is around 43,900.[154][155] The city also has two further education colleges: Cardiff and Vale College
Cardiff and Vale College
and St. David's College. The former is the result of a merger, completed in August 2011, between Coleg Glan Hafren and Barry College. Further education is also offered at most high schools in the city. Cardiff
Cardiff
has 3 state nursery schools (one bilingual), 98 state primary schools (two bilingual, fifteen Welsh medium), and 19 state secondary schools (three Welsh medium).[156] There are also a number of independent schools in the city, including St John's College, Llandaff Cathedral School, Cardiff
Cardiff
Sixth Form College, Kings Monkton and Howell's School, a single-sex girls' school (until sixth form). In 2013 Cardiff Sixth Form College
Cardiff Sixth Form College
came top of the independent senior schools in the UK, which were based on the percentage of A* and A at Advanced Level. Also in the top 100 were St John's College and Howell's School.[157] Notable schools include Whitchurch High School
Whitchurch High School
(the largest in Wales),[158] Fitzalan High School
Fitzalan High School
(which is one of the most multi-cultural state schools in the UK),[159] and Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Glantaf, which is the largest Welsh medium secondary in Wales. As well as academic institutions, Cardiff
Cardiff
is also home to other educational and learning organisations such as Techniquest, a hands-on science discovery centre that now has franchises throughout Wales, and is part of the Wales
Wales
Gene Park in collaboration with Cardiff University, NHS Wales
Wales
and the Welsh Development Agency
Welsh Development Agency
(WDA).[160] Cardiff
Cardiff
is also home of the largest regional office of the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO). This office is home to the organisation's curriculum and assessment centre, which is responsible for overseeing the creation and grading of various IBDP assessments. Landmarks and attractions[edit]

Pierhead Building

See also: Architecture of Cardiff
Architecture of Cardiff
and Listed buildings in Cardiff Cardiff
Cardiff
has many landmark buildings such as the Principality Stadium, Pierhead Building
Pierhead Building
the Welsh National Museum and the Senedd, the home of the National Assembly for Wales. Cardiff
Cardiff
is also famous for Cardiff Castle, St David's Hall, Llandaff
Llandaff
Cathedral and the Wales
Wales
Millennium Centre. Cardiff Castle
Cardiff Castle
is a major tourist attraction in the city and is situated in the heart of the city centre. The National History Museum at St Fagans
St Fagans
in Cardiff
Cardiff
is a large open-air museum housing dozens of buildings from throughout Welsh history that have been moved to the site in Cardiff. The Civic Centre in Cathays Park
Cathays Park
comprises a collection of Edwardian buildings such as the City
City
Hall, National Museum and Gallery of Wales, Cardiff
Cardiff
Crown Court, and buildings forming part of Cardiff
Cardiff
University, together with more modern civic buildings. These buildings are laid out around the Queen Alexandra Gardens, a formal park which contains the Welsh National War Memorial and a number of other, smaller, memorials. In addition to Cardiff
Cardiff
Castle, Castell Coch
Castell Coch
(Red Castle) is located in Tongwynlais, in the north of the city. The current castle is an elaborately decorated Victorian folly designed by William Burges
William Burges
for the Marquess and built in the 1870s, as an occasional retreat. However, the Victorian castle stands on the footings of a much older medieval castle possibly built by Ifor Bach, a regional baron with links to Cardiff Castle
Cardiff Castle
also. The exterior has become a popular location for film and television productions. It rarely fulfilled its intended role as a retreat for the Butes, who seldom stayed there. For the Marquess, the pleasure had been in its creation, a pleasure lost following Burges's death in 1881. Cardiff
Cardiff
claims to have the largest concentration of castles of any city in the world.[161] As well as Cardiff Castle
Cardiff Castle
and Castell Coch, there are the remains of two Motte and Bailey castles in Radyr
Radyr
and Rhiwbina
Rhiwbina
(both known as the "Twmpath", a Welsh word for a small mound),[162] which along with a castle at Whitchurch (known as Treoda and destroyed by housing in the 1960s) formed an arc of fortifications which divided the Norman lordship from the Welsh lordship of Senghenydd.[163] Further up the Cefn Cibwr ridge on the boundary with Caerphilly
Caerphilly
there is also another ruined castle, known as Castell Morgraig. Archaeological evidence suggests this castle was never finished, and it is debated whether the fortification was of Norman or Welsh origin. The concentration of these castles is indicative of the moveable nature of the border between the Norman lordship of Glamorgan, centred at Cardiff, and its Welsh neighbours to the north. While not strictly castles in the historic sense, there is also the ruined Llandaff
Llandaff
Bishop's Palace, a fortified residence belonging to the Bishops of Llandaff
Llandaff
and Saint Fagans Castle, a preserved seventeenth century manor house, once the seat of the Earls of Plymouth.

Cardiff's castles

Cardiff
Cardiff
Castle

Castell Coch

St Fagans
St Fagans
Castle

Bishop's Palace

Other major tourist attractions are the Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
regeneration sites which include the recently opened Wales
Wales
Millennium Centre and the Senedd, and many other cultural and sites of interest including the Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
Barrage and the famous Coal Exchange. The New Theatre was founded in 1906 and completely refurbished in the 1980s. Until the opening of the Wales
Wales
Millennium Centre in 2004, it was the premier venue in Wales
Wales
for touring theatre and dance companies. Other venues which are popular for concerts and sporting events include Motorpoint Arena, St David's Hall
St David's Hall
and the Principality Stadium. Cardiff
Cardiff
Story, a museum documenting the city's history, has been open to the public since spring 2011. Cardiff
Cardiff
has over 1,000 listed buildings, ranging from the more prominent buildings such as the castles, to smaller buildings, houses and structures.[164] Cathedral Road was developed by the 3rd Marquis of Bute and is lined by fine villas, some backing on to Sophia Gardens. Cardiff
Cardiff
has walks of special interest for tourists and ramblers alike, such as the Centenary Walk, which runs for 2.3 miles (3.7 km) within Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre. This route passes through many of Cardiff's landmarks and historic buildings. Culture and recreation[edit] Main articles: Culture and recreation in Cardiff, List of cultural venues in Cardiff, and List of public art in Cardiff

Wales
Wales
Millennium Centre

Cardiff
Cardiff
has many cultural sites varying from the historical Cardiff Castle and out of town Castell Coch
Castell Coch
to the more modern Wales Millennium Centre and Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay. Cardiff
Cardiff
was a finalist in the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
2008.[165] In recent years Cardiff
Cardiff
has grown in stature as a tourist destination, with recent accolades including Cardiff
Cardiff
being voted the eighth favourite UK city by readers of the Guardian.[166] The city was also listed as one of the top 10 destinations in the UK on the official British tourist boards website Visit Britain,[167] and US travel guide Frommers have listed Cardiff as one of 13 top destinations worldwide for 2008.[168] Annual events in Cardiff
Cardiff
that have become regular appearances in Cardiff's calendar include Sparks in the Park, The Great British Cheese Festival, Cardiff Mardi Gras, Cardiff
Cardiff
Winter Wonderland, Cardiff
Cardiff
Festival and Made in Roath. Music and performing arts[edit] Main article: Music of Cardiff

Motorpoint Arena Cardiff

A large number of concerts are held within the city, the larger ones being performed in St David's Hall, the Motorpoint Arena (previously known as the Cardiff
Cardiff
International Arena) and occasionally the Principality Stadium. A number of festivals are also held in Cardiff—the largest of these is the Cardiff
Cardiff
Big Weekend Festival, which is held annually in the city centre during the summer and plays host to free musical performances (from artists such as Ash, Jimmy Cliff, Cerys Matthews, the Fun Loving Criminals, Soul II Soul
Soul II Soul
and the Magic Numbers), fairground rides and cultural events such as a Children's Festival that takes place in the grounds of Cardiff
Cardiff
Castle. The annual festival claims to be the UK's largest free outdoor festival, attracting over 250,000 visitors in 2007.[169] Cardiff
Cardiff
hosted the National Eisteddfod
National Eisteddfod
in 1883, 1899, 1938, 1960, 1978 and 2008. Cardiff
Cardiff
is unique in Wales
Wales
in having two permanent stone circles used by the Gorsedd of Bards during Eisteddfodau. The original circle stands in Gorsedd Gardens in front of the National Museum while its 1978 replacement is situated in Bute Park. Since 1983, Cardiff
Cardiff
has hosted the BBC Cardiff Singer of the World
BBC Cardiff Singer of the World
competition, a world-renowned event on the opera calendar which is held every two years. The city also hosts smaller events.

St David's Hall

A number of performing arts venues are located within the city. The largest and most prominent of these is the Wales
Wales
Millennium Centre, which hosts performances of opera, ballet, dance, comedy and musicals, and (as of autumn 2008) is home to the BBC National Orchestra of Wales. St David's Hall
St David's Hall
(which hosts the Singer of the World competition) has regular performances of classical music and ballet as well as music of other genres. The largest of Cardiff's theatres is the New Theatre, situated in the city centre just off Queen Street. Other such venues include the Sherman Theatre, Chapter Arts Centre
Chapter Arts Centre
and the Gate Arts Centre. The Cardiff music scene
Cardiff music scene
is established and wide-ranging: it is home to the BBC National Orchestra of Wales
Wales
and Welsh National Opera, has produced several leading acts itself and, as a capital city, has acted as a springboard for numerous Welsh bands to become famous both nationally and internationally. Acts hailing from Cardiff
Cardiff
include Charlotte Church, Shirley Bassey, Iwan Rheon, the Oppressed, Kids In Glass Houses, Los Campesinos, the Hot Puppies, the School, We're No Heroes, Budgie and Shakin' Stevens. Also, performers such as the Automatic,[170] Manic Street Preachers,[171] Lostprophets,[172] Super Furry Animals, Catatonia and Bullet for My Valentine
Bullet for My Valentine
have links with the city and are associated with the Cardiff
Cardiff
music scene.[173] In 2010, Cardiff
Cardiff
was named the UK's second 'most musical' city by PRS for Music.[174] Visual arts[edit] See also: Art in Cardiff Cardiff
Cardiff
has held a photomarathon in the city each year since 2004, in which photographers compete to take the best 12 pictures of 12 previously unknown topics in 12 hours. An exhibition of the winners and other entries is held in June / July each year.[175] Recreation[edit]

Bute Park

Cardiff
Cardiff
has a strong nightlife and is home to many bars, pubs and clubs. Most clubs and bars are situated in the city centre, especially St. Mary Street, and more recently Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
has built up a strong night scene, with many modern bars & restaurants. The Brewery Quarter on St. Mary Street is a recently developed venue for bars and restaurant with a central courtyard. Charles Street is also a popular part of the city.

The lake at Roath
Roath
Park, including the lighthouse erected as a memorial to Captain Scott

Cardiff
Cardiff
is known for its extensive parkland, with parks and other such green spaces covering around 10% of the city's total area.[176] Cardiff's main park, Bute Park
Bute Park
(which was formerly the castle grounds) extends northwards from the top of one of Cardiff's main shopping street (Queen Street); when combined with the adjacent Llandaff
Llandaff
Fields and Pontcanna
Pontcanna
Fields to the north west it produces a massive open space skirting the River Taff. Other popular parks include Roath
Roath
Park in the north, donated to the city by the 3rd Marquess of Bute in 1887 and which includes a very popular boating lake; Victoria Park, Cardiff's first official park; and Thompson's Park, formerly home to an aviary removed in the 1970s. Wild open spaces include Howardian Local Nature Reserve, 32 acres (130,000 m2) of the lower Rhymney valley in Penylan
Penylan
noted for its Orchids, and Forest Farm Country Park, over 150 acres (0.61 km2) along the river Taff in Whitchurch. Cardiff
Cardiff
is one of the top ten retail destinations in the UK,[144][177] with two main shopping streets (Queen Street and St. Mary Street), and three main shopping arcades; St. David's Centre, Queens Arcade
Queens Arcade
and the Capitol Centre. The current expansion of St. David's Centre
St. David's Centre
as part of the St. David's 2 project has seen it become one of the largest shopping centres in the United Kingdom. As well as the modern shopping arcades, the city is also home to many Victorian shopping centres, such as High Street Arcade, Castle Arcade, Wyndham Arcade, Royal Arcade and Morgan Arcade. Also of note is The Hayes, home to Spillers Records, the world's oldest record shop.[178][179] Cardiff
Cardiff
has a number of markets, including the vast Victorian indoor Cardiff
Cardiff
Central Market and the newly established Riverside Community Market, which specialises in locally produced organic produce. Several out-of-town retail parks exist, such as Newport Road, Culverhouse Cross, Cardiff Gate and Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay. Media[edit]

BBC's Roath Lock
Roath Lock
studios

Main article: Media in Cardiff See also: Media in Wales Cardiff
Cardiff
is the Welsh base for the main national broadcasters (BBC Cymru Wales, ITV Wales
Wales
and S4C). A locally based television station, Made in Cardiff, is also based in the city centre. Major filming studios in Cardiff
Cardiff
include the BBC's Roath Lock
Roath Lock
Studios and Pinewood Studios Wales. Several contemporary television programmes and films are filmed in and/or set in Cardiff
Cardiff
such as Casualty, Doctor Who, Merlin, Sarah Jane Adventures, Torchwood, The Valleys, Upstairs Downstairs and Sherlock.[180]

The South Wales
Wales
Echo and Western Mail

The main local newspaper, the South Wales
Wales
Echo and the national paper the Western Mail are based in Park Street in the city centre. Capital Times, Echo Extra and the South Wales
Wales
edition of Metro are also based and distributed in the city. There are also a number of magazines based in the city including Buzz magazine, Primary Times
Primary Times
and a monthly papur bro, or Welsh-language community newsletter, called Y Dinesydd (The Citizen). A number of radio stations serve the city and are based in Cardiff, including Capital FM (South Wales), Heart (South and West Wales), BBC Radio Wales, BBC Radio Cymru, Nation Radio, Radio Cardiff, Smooth Radio (Wales) and Xpress Radio. The Principality Stadium
Principality Stadium
was one of the first six British landmarks to be fully mapped on Google Street View as a 360-degree virtual tour.[181] Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Cardiff See also: Leisure centres in Cardiff, List of stadia in Wales
Wales
by capacity, and Rugby in Cardiff

Sport Wales
Wales
National Centre, Cardiff, headquarters of Sport Wales, the Welsh Sports Association
Welsh Sports Association
and the Federation of Disability Sport Wales

Cardiff
Cardiff
plays host to many high-profile sporting events at local, national and international level and in recognition of the city's commitment to sport for all Cardiff
Cardiff
has been awarded the title of European Capital of Sport
European Capital of Sport
2014.[182][183][184] Organised sports have been held in the city since the early 19th century.[185] national home sporting fixtures are nearly always played in the city. All Wales' multi-sports agencies and many of the country's sports governing bodies have their headquarters in Cardiff
Cardiff
and the city's many top quality venues have attracted world-famous sports events, sometimes unrelated to Cardiff
Cardiff
or to Wales. In 2008/09, 61% of Cardiff
Cardiff
residents regularly participated in sport and active recreation, the highest percentage out of all 22 local authorities in Wales.[186]

Cardiff
Cardiff
Arms Park

Rugby union
Rugby union
fans around the world have long been familiar with the old National Stadium, Cardiff
Cardiff
Arms Park, and its successor the Principality Stadium, which hosted the FA Cup
FA Cup
for six years (from 2001 to 2006) it took to rebuild Wembley Stadium. In 2009, Cardiff
Cardiff
hosted the first Ashes cricket test, between England
England
and Australia, to be held in Wales. Cardiff
Cardiff
hosted eight football matches of the London 2012 Olympics.[187] Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
F.C. (founded 1899 as Riverside FC) played their home games at Ninian Park
Ninian Park
from 1910 until the end of the 2008–09 season. The club's new home is the Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Stadium, which until 2012, they rented to the Cardiff Blues
Cardiff Blues
the cities professional rugby union team, the Blues returning to the Arms Park. Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
have played in the English Football League since the 1920–21 season, climbing to Division 1 after one season.[188][189] Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
are the only non-English team to have won the FA Cup, beating Arsenal in the 1927 final at Wembley Stadium.[189] They were runners up to Portsmouth
Portsmouth
in the 2008 final, losing 1–0 at the new Wembley Stadium.[190] Cardiff City
City
currently play in the Football League Championship.[191] Cardiff has numerous smaller clubs including Bridgend
Bridgend
Street A.F.C., Caerau (Ely) A.F.C., Cardiff
Cardiff
Corinthians F.C., Cardiff
Cardiff
Grange Harlequins A.F.C., Cardiff Metropolitan University
Cardiff Metropolitan University
F.C., and Ely Rangers A.F.C. who all play in the Welsh football league system.[192]

Principality Stadium

Cardiff Arms Park
Cardiff Arms Park
(Welsh: Parc yr Arfau Caerdydd), in central Cardiff, is among the world's most famous venues—being the scene of three Welsh Grand Slams in the 1970s (1971, 1976 and 1978) and six Five Nations titles in nine years—and was the venue for Wales' games in the 1991 Rugby World Cup.[193][194][195][196] The Arms Park has a sporting history dating back to at least the 1850s, when Cardiff Cricket Club (formed 1819) relocated to the site.[185] The ground was donated to Cardiff
Cardiff
CC in 1867 by the Marquess of Bute. Cardiff
Cardiff
Cricket Club shared the ground with Cardiff
Cardiff
Rugby Football Club (founded 1876) —forming Cardiff Athletic Club
Cardiff Athletic Club
between them—until 1966, when the cricket section moved to Sophia Gardens. Cardiff Athletic Club
Cardiff Athletic Club
and the Welsh Rugby Union
Welsh Rugby Union
established two stadia on the site— Cardiff
Cardiff
RFC played at their stadium at the northern end of the site, and the Wales national rugby union team played international matches at the National Stadium, Cardiff
Cardiff
Arms Park, which opened in 1970. The National Stadium was replaced by the 74,500 capacity Millennium Stadium
Millennium Stadium
(Welsh: Stadiwm y Mileniwm) in 1999—in time for the 1999 Rugby World Cup—and is home stadium to the Wales
Wales
national rugby and football teams for international matches.[185][193][197][198] In addition to Wales' Six Nations Championship and other international games, the Principality Stadium held four matches in the 2007 Rugby World Cup
2007 Rugby World Cup
and six FA Cup finals (from the 2001–02 to 2005–06 seasons) while Wembley Stadium was being rebuilt.[194]

SWALEC
SWALEC
Stadium

Glamorgan
Glamorgan
County
County
Cricket Club have competed as a first class county since 1921. Their headquarters and ground is the SWALEC
SWALEC
Stadium, Sophia Gardens, since moving from Cardiff Arms Park
Cardiff Arms Park
in 1966. The Sophia Gardens
Sophia Gardens
stadium underwent a multimillion-pound improvement since being selected to host the first ‘England’ v Australia
Australia
Test Match of the 2009 Ashes series.[185][199] Cardiff
Cardiff
has a long association with boxing, from 'Peerless' Jim Driscoll—born in Cardiff
Cardiff
in 1880—to more recent, high-profile fights staged in the city.[200] These include the WBC Lennox Lewis vs. Frank Bruno heavyweight championship fight at the Arms Park in 1993, and many of Joe Calzaghe's fights, between 2003 and 2007. Cardiff's professional ice hockey team, the Cardiff
Cardiff
Devils, play in the 3000-seater Ice Arena Wales
Wales
in the Cardiff
Cardiff
International Sports Village. They play in the 12 team professional Elite Ice Hockey League. Founded in 1986, and one of the most successful British teams during the nineties. Cardiff's only American flag football team are the Hurricanes. They won the British Championship in 2014 after falling short by 2 points in a quarter final to eventual winners, the London
London
Rebels the previous year. They are based out of Roath
Roath
Recreational Ground.

Cardiff International Pool
Cardiff International Pool
at the International Sports Village, Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay

The 1958 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
were hosted by Cardiff. The Games involved 1,130 athletes from 35 national teams competing in 94 events.[201] One of the venues for those Games—The Wales
Wales
Empire Swimming Pool—was demolished in 1998 to make way for the Principality Stadium. The GBP32m Cardiff International Pool
Cardiff International Pool
in Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay, opened to the public on 12 January 2008—part of the GBP1bn International Sports Village (ISV)—is the only Olympic-standard swimming pool in Wales. When complete, the ISV complex will provide Olympic standard facilities for sports including boxing and fencing, gymnastics, judo, white water events (including canoeing and kayaking) and wrestling as well as a snow dome with real snow for skiing and snowboarding, an arena for public ice skating and ice hockey and an hotel.[202][203] Some of the sports facilities at the ISV were to be used as training venues for the London
London
2012 Olympics.[204]

A stage of Wales
Wales
Rally GB, hosted inside the Principality Stadium

The Principality Stadium
Principality Stadium
hosts motorsport events such as the World Rally Championship, as part of Wales
Wales
Rally GB. The first ever indoor special stages of the World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
were held at the Principality Stadium
Principality Stadium
in September 2005 and have been an annual event sincve then.[205] The British Speedway Grand Prix, one of the World Championship events, is held at the Millennium Stadium.[198] While the track—a temporary, purpose built, shale oval—is not universally loved, the venue is considered the best of the World Championship's 11 rounds.[206] The Cardiff
Cardiff
International Sports Stadium, opened 19 January 2009, replacing the Cardiff
Cardiff
Athletics Stadium; demolished to make way for the Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Stadium was a 4,953 capacity, multi sport/special event venue, offering fully certificated international track and field athletics facilities, including an international standard external throws area.[207][208][209] The stadium houses the Headquarters of Welsh Athletics, the sport's governing body for Wales.[210] The city's indoor track and field athletics sports venue is the National Indoor Athletics Centre, an international athletics and multi sports centre at the University of Wales
Wales
Institute, Cardiff
Cardiff
Campus, Cyncoed.[211] During the 1990s, London
London
based football club Wimbledon F.C.
Wimbledon F.C.
expressed interest in relocating to the city, having been without a home of their own since exiting their own Plough Lane
Plough Lane
stadium in 1991 and ground-sharing with Crystal Palace at Selhurst Park. However, the relocation of the club to Cardiff
Cardiff
never happened, and in 2003 the club moved to Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
in Buckinghamshire, being rebranded as Milton Keynes Dons a year later.[212] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Cardiff

See also Freedom of the City
City
of Cardiff
Cardiff
recipients

See also Category:People from Cardiff

Many notable people have hailed from Cardiff, ranging from historical figures such as the 12th century Welsh leader Ifor Bach and to more recent figures such as Roald Dahl, Ken Follett, Griff Rhys Jones
Griff Rhys Jones
and the former Blue Peter presenter Gethin Jones. The notable actors of Cardiff
Cardiff
include Ioan Gruffudd
Ioan Gruffudd
(notable performances are film roles such as Lancelot in King Arthur (2004), Mister Fantastic (Reed Richards) in Fantastic 4 (2005) and its sequel Fantastic 4: Rise of the Silver Surfer (2007)) and Iwan Rheon. Also notable is Siân Grigg, BAFTA winner and Oscar nominated Hollywood make up artist. In particular, the city has been the birthplace of sports stars such as Tanni Grey-Thompson
Tanni Grey-Thompson
and Colin Jackson
Colin Jackson
as well as many Premier League, Football League and international footballers, such as Craig Bellamy, Gareth Bale, Ryan Giggs, Joe Ledley, and former managers of the Wales
Wales
national football team Terry Yorath
Terry Yorath
and John Toshack. International rugby league players from Cardiff
Cardiff
include Frank Whitcombe, Billy Boston, David Willicombe and Colin Dixon. International Rugby Union
Rugby Union
Jamie Roberts, Jamie Robinson, Nicky Robinson, Rhys Patchell, and baseball internationals include George Whitcombe and Ted Peterson. Saint Teilo
Saint Teilo
(c. 500 – 9 February c. 560), is the patron saint of Cardiff. He was a British Christian monk, bishop, and founder of monasteries and churches. Reputed to be a cousin, friend, and disciple of Saint David, he was bishop of Llandaff
Llandaff
and founder of the first church at Llandaff
Llandaff
Cathedral, where his tomb is. His Saint's Day is ninth of February. Cardiff
Cardiff
is also well known for its musicians, such as Ivor Novello, after whom the Ivor Novello
Ivor Novello
Awards are named. Idloes Owen, founder of the Welsh National Opera, lived in Llandaff, Shirley Bassey
Shirley Bassey
is familiar to many as the singer of three James Bond
James Bond
movie theme tunes, while Charlotte Church
Charlotte Church
is famous as a crossover classical/pop singer. Shakin' Stevens
Shakin' Stevens
was one of the top selling male artists in the UK during the 1980s. Tigertailz, a popular glam metal act in the 80s, also hailed from Cardiff. A number of Cardiff-based bands, such as Catatonia and Super Furry Animals
Super Furry Animals
were popular during the 1990s. Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Cardiff
Cardiff
has twinning arrangements with:[213]

Luhansk, Ukraine[213] Hordaland
Hordaland
county, Norway[213] Sucre, Bolivia[213] Nantes, France[213][214] Stuttgart, Germany[213] Xiamen, China[213] Lima, Peru[213]

A total of 28 countries have a diplomatic presence in Cardiff.[215] Many of these nations, such as Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, Thailand and the Czech Republic are represented by honorary consulates. The British Embassy of the United States operates a satellite office.[216][217][218][219][220][221][222][223] See also[edit]

Wales
Wales
portal

Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre Cardiff
Cardiff
music scene List of cultural venues in Cardiff List of Parliamentary constituencies in South Glamorgan List of places in Cardiff List of places of worship in Cardiff List of streets and squares in Cardiff National Assembly for Wales Big Number Change Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom OPENCities UK telephone code misconceptions

References[edit]

^ a b c https://statswales.gov.wales/Catalogue/Population-and-Migration/Population/Estimates/Local-Authority/populationestimates-by-localauthority-year ^ http://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/cardiff-population/ ^ "2011 Census: Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England
England
and Wales". ONS. Retrieved 25 December 2012 ^ a b "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2014.  ^ a b "Tourism Boost for Cardiff
Cardiff
Economy". Cardiff
Cardiff
County
County
Council. 13 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2011.  ^ "'Gem' Cardiff
Cardiff
in world's top 10 places to visit in 2011". BBC News. 22 June 2011.  ^ "Eurocities". Retrieved 20 May 2008.  ^ "Proposed BBC Drama Village at Media Capital, Roath
Roath
Basin". Welsh Assembly Government. 14 December 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2011.  ^ " Cardiff
Cardiff
Business District 'needs skills and transport'". BBC Wales. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011.  ^ " City
City
takes European sports capital title for 2014". South Wales Echo. 1 April 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011.  ^ "Olympic football in Cardiff". Visit Cardiff. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011.  ^ Hywel Wyn Owen and Richard Morgan, Dictionary of the Place-names of Wales. University of Wales
Wales
Press, 2007, ISBN 1-84323-901-9, p. 70. ^ Pierce, Gwynedd
Gwynedd
O. "What's In A Name? – Cardiff". BBC Wales. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2008.  ^ "St Lythans Chambered Long Cairn, Maesyfelin; Gwal-y-Filiast, site details". The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales
Wales
website. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales. 26 July 2007. Retrieved 9 June 2009.  ^ "TINKINSWOOD CHAMBERED CAIRN, site details". The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales
Wales
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on the Web – Italian Vice-Consulate". Retrieved 6 May 2008. [dead link] ^ "Swiss UK Consulates". Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2008.  ^ "Honorary Consulate, Cardiff". Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2008.  ^ "New Czech Honorary Consulate in Cardiff". Embassy of the Czech Republic in the United Kingdom. Retrieved 6 May 2008.  ^ " Wales
Wales
in the World" (PDF). European and External Affairs Committee, Welsh Assembly. 12 June 2006. Retrieved 6 May 2008. 

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Cardiff
Cardiff
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Cardiff Council
Cardiff Council
site Cardiff
Cardiff
Records: the full text of the edition of historical records for Cardiff, edited by J. H. Matthews (1898–1905.) Part of British History Online. Cardiff
Cardiff
and south east Wales
Wales
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Cardiff

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City
City
of Cardiff

About Cardiff

Architecture

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City
centre Culture and recreation Economy and industry History (Timeline) Leisure centres Libraries Media People Places Politics Public art Schools Sport Transport

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Cardiff
Cardiff
templates

Culture Economy Education Landmarks and visitor attractions Media Politics Sport Transport

Neighbourhoods

Adamsdown Birchgrove Butetown Caerau Canton Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay Cardiff
Cardiff
Gate Cathays Creigiau Cyncoed Danescourt Ely Fairwater Gabalfa Grangetown Heath Lisvane Llandaff Llandaff
Llandaff
North Llanishen Llanrumney Pentwyn Pentyrch Penylan Pontcanna Pontprennau Radyr
Radyr
and Morganstown Rhiwbina Riverside Roath Rumney Splott St Fagans St Mellons Thornhill Tongwynlais Tremorfa Trowbridge Whitchurch

Principal areas of Wales

v t e

Cardiff
Cardiff
electoral wards

Electoral wards of Cardiff
Cardiff
Council:

Adamsdown Butetown Caerau Canton Cathays Creigiau
Creigiau
& St. Fagans Cyncoed Ely Fairwater Gabalfa Grangetown Heath Llanishen Lisvane Llandaff Llandaff
Llandaff
North Llanrumney Pentwyn Pentyrch Penylan Plasnewydd Pontprennau
Pontprennau
& Old St. Mellons Radyr
Radyr
& Morganstown Rhiwbina Riverside Rumney Splott Trowbridge Whitchurch & Tongwynlais

v t e

Communities of Cardiff

Adamsdown Butetown Caerau Canton Castle Cathays Cyncoed Ely Fairwater Gabalfa Grangetown Heath Lisvane Llandaff Llandaff
Llandaff
North Llanishen Llanrumney Pentwyn Pentyrch Pontprennau Radyr
Radyr
and Morganstown Rhiwbina Riverside Roath Rumney St Fagans Old St Mellons Splott Tongwynlais Trowbridge Whitchurch

v t e

Local government districts of Wales
Wales
1974–1996

Clwyd

Alyn and Deeside Colwyn Delyn Glyndŵr Rhuddlan Wrexham
Wrexham
Maelor

Dyfed

Carmarthen Ceredigion Dinefwr Llanelli Preseli Pembrokeshire South Pembrokeshire

Gwent

Blaenau Gwent Islwyn Monmouth Newport Torfaen

Gwynedd

Aberconwy Arfon Dwyfor Meirionnydd Ynys Môn - Isle of Anglesey

Mid Glamorgan

Cynon Valley Merthyr
Merthyr
Tydfil Ogwr Rhondda Rhymney Valley Taff-Ely

Powys

Brecknock Montgomeryshire Radnorshire

South Glamorgan

Cardiff Vale of Glamorgan

West Glamorgan

Lliw Valley Neath Port
Port
Talbot Swansea

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Principal areas of Wales

Blaenau Gwent Bridgend Caerphilly Cardiff Carmarthenshire Ceredigion Conwy Denbighshire Flintshire Gwynedd Merthyr
Merthyr
Tydfil Monmouthshire Neath
Neath
Port
Port
Talbot Newport Pembrokeshire Powys Rhondda
Rhondda
Cynon Taf Swansea Torfaen Vale of Glamorgan Wrexham Ynys Môn

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Scotland

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Bangor Cardiff Newport St Asaph St Davids Swansea

Northern Ireland

Armagh Belfast Derry Lisburn Newry

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Capitals of British administrative divisions

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Episkopi Cantonment, Akrotiri and Dhekelia The Valley, Anguilla Hamilton, Bermuda Rothera, British Antarctic Territory Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory Road Town, British Virgin Islands George Town, Cayman Islands

Stanley, Falkland Islands Gibraltar, Gibraltar Brades, Montserrat Adamstown, Pitcairn Islands Jamestown, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha King Edward Point, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Cockburn Town, Turks and Caicos Islands

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Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
host cities

1930: Hamilton 1934: London 1938: Sydney 1950: Auckland 1954: Vancouver

1958: Cardiff 1962: Perth 1966: Kingston 1970: Edinburgh 1974: Christchurch

1978: Edmonton 1982: Brisbane 1986: Edinburgh 1990: Auckland 1994: Victoria

1998: Kuala Lumpur 2002: Manchester 2006: Melbourne 2010: Delhi 2014: Glasgow

2018: Gold Coast 2022: Birmingham 2026: TBA

v t e

European Capitals of Sport

2001 Madrid 2002 Stockholm 2003 Glasgow 2004 Alicante 2005 Rotterdam 2006 Copenhagen 2007 Stuttgart 2008 Warsaw 2009 Milan 2010 Dublin 2011 Valencia 2012 Istanbul 2013 Antwerp 2014 Cardiff 2015 Turin 2016 Prague 2017 Marseille 2018 Sofia 2019 Budapest 2020 Málaga 2021 Lisboa 2022 The Hague

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 44144648272961285

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