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CARDIFF (/ˈkɑːrdɪf/ ( listen ); Welsh : Caerdydd (info ) ) is the capital and largest city in Wales
Wales
and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. The city is the country's chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural and sporting institutions, the Welsh national media, and the seat of the National Assembly for Wales
Wales
. The unitary authority area 's mid-2011 population was estimated to be 346,100, while the population of the Larger Urban Zone was estimated at 861,400 in 2009. The Cardiff
Cardiff
metropolitan area makes up over a third of the total population of Wales, with a mid-2011 population estimate of about 1,100,000 people. Cardiff
Cardiff
is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales
Wales
with 18.3 million visitors in 2010. In 2011, Cardiff
Cardiff
was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographic 's alternative tourist destinations.

The city of Cardiff
Cardiff
is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan
Glamorgan
(and later South Glamorgan ). Cardiff
Cardiff
is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. The Cardiff
Cardiff
Urban Area covers a slightly larger area outside the county boundary, and includes the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth
Penarth
. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region contributed to its rise as a major city.

Cardiff
Cardiff
was made a city in 1905, and proclaimed the capital of Wales in 1955. Since the 1980s, Cardiff
Cardiff
has seen significant development. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
contains the Senedd
Senedd
building, home to the Welsh Assembly
Welsh Assembly
and the Wales
Wales
Millennium Centre arts complex. Current developments include the continuation of the redevelopment of the Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
and city centre areas with projects such as the Cardiff International Sports Village
Cardiff International Sports Village
, a BBC drama village , and a new business district in the city centre.

Sporting venues in the city include the Millennium Stadium (the national stadium for the Wales
Wales
national rugby union team ), SWALEC Stadium (the home of Glamorgan
Glamorgan
County
County
Cricket Club ), Cardiff
Cardiff
City Stadium (the home of Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
football team ), Cardiff International Sports Stadium (the home of Cardiff
Cardiff
Amateur Athletic Club ) and Cardiff Arms Park
Cardiff Arms Park
(the home of Cardiff Blues and Cardiff RFC rugby union teams). The city was awarded the title of European City
City
of Sport twice, due to its role in hosting major international sporting events: first in 2009 and again in 2014. The Millennium Stadium hosted 11 football matches as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics , including the games' opening event and the men's bronze medal match.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Norman occupation to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 2.3 County
County
town of Glamorganshire * 2.4 Building of the docks * 2.5 City
City
and capital city status

* 3 Government

* 3.1 Local government

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Cityscape * 4.2 Climate * 4.3 Temperature * 4.4 Sunshine hours * 4.5 Rainfall

* 5 Demography

* 5.1 Language

* 5.1.1 Language schools

* 5.2 Religion * 5.3 Health

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Shopping

* 7 Transport

* 7.1 Rail * 7.2 Air * 7.3 Road and bus * 7.4 Cycle * 7.5 Water

* 8 Telecommunications * 9 Education * 10 Landmarks and attractions

* 11 Culture and recreation

* 11.1 Music and performing arts * 11.2 Visual arts * 11.3 Recreation

* 12 Media * 13 Sport * 14 Notable people * 15 Twin towns and sister cities * 16 See also * 17 References * 18 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The front wall of Cardiff Castle
Cardiff Castle
, showing part of the original Roman fort from which the city probably derived its name.

Caerdydd (the Welsh name of the city) derives from the earlier Welsh form Caerdyf. The change from -dyf to -dydd shows the colloquial alteration of Welsh f and dd , and was perhaps also driven by folk etymology (dydd is Welsh for 'day' whereas dyf has no obvious meaning). This sound change had probably first occurred in the Middle Ages ; both forms were current in the Tudor period . Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff ". The fort probably refers to that established by the Romans . Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf (Taff), the river which flows by Cardiff
Cardiff
Castle, with the ⟨t⟩ showing consonant mutation to ⟨d⟩ and the vowel showing affection as a result of a (lost) genitive case ending.

The anglicised form Cardiff
Cardiff
is derived from Caerdyf, with the Welsh f borrowed as ff /f/ , as also happens in Taff (from Welsh Taf) and Llandaff (from Welsh Llandaf). As English does not have the vowel the final vowel has been borrowed as /ɪ/.

The antiquarian William Camden
William Camden
(1551–1623) suggested that the name Cardiff
Cardiff
may derive from "Caer-Didi" ("the Fort of Didius"), a name supposedly given in honour of Aulus Didius Gallus , governor of a nearby province at the time when the Roman fort was established. Although some sources repeat this theory, it has been rejected on linguistic grounds by modern scholars such as Professor Gwynedd Pierce.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Cardiff and Timeline of Cardiff history

ORIGINS

Tribes of Wales
Wales
at the time of the Roman invasion. The modern English-Welsh border is also shown.

Archaeological evidence from sites in and around Cardiff
Cardiff
– the St Lythans burial chamber , near Wenvoe (about four miles (6.4 km) west, south west of Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre), the Tinkinswood burial chamber , near St Nicholas
St Nicholas
(about six miles (10 km) west of Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre), the Cae'rarfau Chambered Tomb , Creigiau
Creigiau
(about six miles (10 km) north west of Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre) and the Gwern y Cleppa Long Barrow, near Coedkernew , Newport (about eight and a quarter miles (13.5 km) north east of Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre) – shows that people had settled in the area by at least around 6,000 years before present (BP) , during the early Neolithic; about 1,500 years before either Stonehenge
Stonehenge
or the Great Pyramid of Giza
Great Pyramid of Giza
was completed. A group of five Bronze Age tumuli is at the summit of The Garth (Welsh : Mynydd y Garth), within the county's northern boundary. Four Iron Age
Iron Age
hill fort and enclosure sites have been identified within Cardiff's present-day county boundaries, including Caerau Hillfort , an enclosed area of 5.1 hectares (51,000 m2).

Until the Roman conquest of Britain , Cardiff
Cardiff
was part of the territory of the Silures
Silures
– a Celtic British tribe that flourished in the Iron Age
Iron Age
– whose territory included the areas that would become known as Breconshire
Breconshire
, Monmouthshire
Monmouthshire
and Glamorgan. The 3.2-hectare (8-acre) fort established by the Romans near the mouth of the River Taff in 75 AD, in what would become the north western boundary of the centre of Cardiff, was built over an extensive settlement that had been established by the Romans in the 50s AD. The fort was one of a series of military outposts associated with Isca Augusta ( Caerleon
Caerleon
) that acted as border defences. The fort may have been abandoned in the early 2nd century as the area had been subdued. However, by this time a civilian settlement, or vicus , was established. It was likely made up of traders who made a living from the fort, ex-soldiers and their families. A Roman villa
Roman villa
has been discovered at Ely . Contemporary with the Saxon Shore Forts of the 3rd and 4th centuries, a stone fortress was established at Cardiff. Similar to the shore forts, the fortress was built to protect Britannia
Britannia
from raiders. Coins from the reign of Gratian
Gratian
indicate that Cardiff
Cardiff
was inhabited until at least the 4th century; the fort was abandoned towards the end of the 4th century, as the last Roman legions left the province of Britannia
Britannia
with Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
.

Little is known about the fort and civilian settlement in the period between the Roman departure from Britain and the Norman Conquest. The settlement probably shrank in size and may even have been abandoned. In the absence of Roman rule, Wales
Wales
was divided into small kingdoms; early on, Meurig ap Tewdrig emerged as the local king in Glywysing (which later became Glamorgan). The area passed through his family until the advent of the Normans in the 11th century.

NORMAN OCCUPATION TO THE MIDDLE AGES

View of Caerdiffe Castle

In 1081 William I, King of England
England
, began work on the castle keep within the walls of the old Roman fort. Cardiff Castle
Cardiff Castle
has been at the heart of the city ever since. The castle was substantially altered and extended during the Victorian period by John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute , and the architect William Burges . Original Roman work can, however, still be distinguished in the wall facings.

A town grew up in the shadow of the castle, made up primarily of settlers from England. Cardiff
Cardiff
had a population of between 1,500 and 2,000 in the Middle Ages, a relatively normal size for a Welsh town in this period. It was the centre of the Norman Marcher Lordship of Glamorgan
Glamorgan
and by the end of the 13th century, Cardiff
Cardiff
was the only town in Wales
Wales
with a population exceeding 2,000, although it remained relatively small compared with most notable towns in the Kingdom of England
England
, and continued to be very much contained by its walls, which has begun as a wooden palisade in the early 12th century. It was none-the-less of sufficient size and importance to be awarded a series of charters, notably in 1331 by William La Zouche, Lord of Glamorgan through marriage with the de Clare family, Edward III in 1359, then Henry IV in 1400, and later Henry VI. In no small part due to the historic Anglicisation of the town, in 1404 Owain Glyndŵr burned Cardiff
Cardiff
and took possession of the Castle. As many buildings in the town were made of timber, and tightly packed together within the town walls, much of Cardiff
Cardiff
was destroyed. Ironically given the treatment of Cardiff
Cardiff
by Glyndwr, a statue of him was erected in Cardiff
Cardiff
Town Hall in the early twentieth century, reflecting the complex and often conflicting cultural identity Cardiff
Cardiff
has as the capital of Wales. However, the town was soon rebuilt on the same street plan and began to flourish once again. In additional to serving an important political role in the governance of the fertile south Glamorgan coastal plain, Cardiff
Cardiff
was a busy port in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
due to its location on the Bristol
Bristol
trading routes, and was declared a Staple port in 1327. This furthermore led to the town gaining a reputation for piracy, which by the Early Modern period led to much dispute between the burgesses of Cardiff
Cardiff
and the surrounding county families.

COUNTY TOWN OF GLAMORGANSHIRE

John Speed 's map of Cardiff
Cardiff
from 1610 Cardiff
Cardiff
old town hall, 1860

In 1536, the Laws in Wales
Wales
Acts 1535–1542 between England
England
and Wales led to the creation of the shire of Glamorgan, and Cardiff
Cardiff
was made the county town . It also became part of Kibbor hundred . Around this same time the Herbert family became the most powerful family in the area. In 1538, Henry VIII closed the Dominican and Franciscan friaries in Cardiff, the remains of which were used as building materials. A writer around this period described Cardiff: "The River Taff runs under the walls of his honours castle and from the north part of the town to the south part where there is a fair quay and a safe harbour for shipping."

Cardiff
Cardiff
had become a Free Borough in 1542 and further Royal Charters were granted to the town by Elizabeth I in 1600 and James I in 1608. In 1573, it was made a head port for collection of customs duties. Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire
historian George Owen described Cardiff
Cardiff
in 1602 as "the fayrest towne in Wales
Wales
yett not the welthiest.", and the town gained a second Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1608.

A disastrous flood of the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
on 30 January 1607 (now believed to be a tsunami ) led to a change in the course of the River Taff and the ruining of St Mary\'s Parish Church , which was replaced by its chapel of ease, St John the Baptist.

During the Second English Civil War , St Fagans just to the west of the town, played host to the Battle of St Fagans . The battle, between a Royalist rebellion and a New Model Army detachment, was a decisive victory for the Parliamentarians and allowed Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
to conquer Wales. It is the last major battle to occur in Wales, with about 200 (mostly Royalist) soldiers killed.

In the ensuing century Cardiff
Cardiff
was at peace. In 1766, John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute married into the Herbert family and was later created Baron Cardiff , and in 1778 he began renovations on Cardiff Castle. In the 1790s a racecourse , printing press , bank and coffee house all opened, and Cardiff
Cardiff
gained a stagecoach service to London. Despite these improvements, Cardiff's position in the Welsh urban hierarchy had declined over the 18th century. Iolo Morgannwg called it "an obscure and inconsiderable place", and the 1801 census found the population to be only 1,870, making Cardiff
Cardiff
only the 25th largest town in Wales, well behind Merthyr
Merthyr
and Swansea
Swansea
.

BUILDING OF THE DOCKS

Main article: Cardiff Docks
Cardiff Docks
Cardiff Docks
Cardiff Docks
—from where coal was shipped throughout the world A view of the jubilee dock, Cardiff, from the eastern side, 1849

In 1793, John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute was born. He would spend his life building the Cardiff
Cardiff
docks and would later be called "the creator of modern Cardiff". A twice-weekly boat service between Cardiff
Cardiff
and Bristol
Bristol
was established in 1815, and in 1821, the Cardiff
Cardiff
Gas Works was established.

After the Napoleonic Wars Cardiff
Cardiff
entered a period of social and industrial unrest, starting with the trial and hanging of Dic Penderyn in 1831.

The town grew rapidly from the 1830s onwards, when the Marquess of Bute built a dock , which eventually linked to the Taff Vale Railway . Cardiff
Cardiff
became the main port for exports of coal from the Cynon , Rhondda
Rhondda
, and Rhymney valleys, and grew at a rate of nearly 80% per decade between 1840 and 1870. Much of the growth was due to migration from within and outside Wales: in 1841, a quarter of Cardiff's population were English-born and more than 10% had been born in Ireland. By the 1881 census, Cardiff
Cardiff
had overtaken both Merthyr
Merthyr
and Swansea
Swansea
to become the largest town in Wales. Cardiff's new status as the premier town in South Wales
Wales
was confirmed when it was chosen as the site of the University College South Wales
Wales
and Monmouthshire
Monmouthshire
in 1893.

A permanent military presence was established in the town with the completion of Maindy Barracks in 1877.

Cardiff
Cardiff
faced a challenge in the 1880s when David Davies of Llandinam and the Barry Railway Company promoted the development of rival docks at Barry . Barry docks had the advantage of being accessible in all tides , and David Davies claimed that his venture would cause "grass to grow in the streets of Cardiff". From 1901 coal exports from Barry surpassed those from Cardiff, but the administration of the coal trade remained centred on Cardiff, in particular its Coal Exchange , where the price of coal on the British market was determined and the first million-pound deal was struck in 1907. The city also strengthened its industrial base with the decision of the owners of the Dowlais Ironworks in Merthyr
Merthyr
(who would later form part of Guest, Keen and Nettlefolds ) to build a new steelworks close to the docks at East Moors, which Lord Bute opened on 4 February 1891.

CITY AND CAPITAL CITY STATUS

Welsh National War Memorial
Welsh National War Memorial

King Edward VII granted Cardiff
Cardiff
city status on 28 October 1905, and the city acquired a Roman Catholic Cathedral in 1916. In subsequent years an increasing number of national institutions were located in the city, including the National Museum
National Museum
of Wales
Wales
, Welsh National War Memorial , and the University of Wales
Wales
Registry Building—however, it was denied the National Library of Wales
Wales
, partly because the library's founder, Sir John Williams, considered Cardiff
Cardiff
to have "a non-Welsh population".

After a brief post-war boom, Cardiff
Cardiff
docks entered a prolonged decline in the interwar period . By 1936, their trade was less than half its value in 1913, reflecting the slump in demand for Welsh coal . Bomb damage during the Cardiff Blitz in World War II included the devastation of Llandaff Cathedral , and in the immediate postwar years the city's link with the Bute family came to an end. National Museum of Wales, Cardiff
Cardiff

The city was proclaimed capital city of Wales
Wales
on 20 December 1955, by a written reply by the Home Secretary Gwilym Lloyd George . Caernarfon had also vied for this title. Cardiff
Cardiff
therefore celebrated two important anniversaries in 2005. The Encyclopedia of Wales
Wales
notes that the decision to recognise the city as the capital of Wales
Wales
"had more to do with the fact that it contained marginal Conservative constituencies than any reasoned view of what functions a Welsh capital should have". Although the city hosted the Commonwealth Games in 1958, Cardiff
Cardiff
only became a centre of national administration with the establishment of the Welsh Office in 1964, which later prompted the creation of various other public bodies such as the Arts Council of Wales
Wales
and the Welsh Development Agency , most of which were based in Cardiff. Redevelopment in the city's historic Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay area.

The East Moors Steelworks closed in 1978 and Cardiff
Cardiff
lost population during the 1980s, consistent with a wider pattern of counter urbanisation in Britain. However, it recovered and was one of the few cities (outside London) where population grew during the 1990s. During this period the Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
Development Corporation was promoting the redevelopment of south Cardiff; an evaluation of the regeneration of Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
published in 2004 concluded that the project had "reinforced the competitive position of Cardiff" and "contributed to a massive improvement in the quality of the built environment", although it had failed "to attract the major inward investors originally anticipated".

In the Welsh devolution referendum, 1997 , Cardiff
Cardiff
voters rejected the establishment of the National Assembly for Wales
Wales
by 55.4% to 44.2% on a 47% turnout, which Denis Balsom partly ascribed to a general preference in Cardiff
Cardiff
and some other parts of Wales
Wales
for a 'British' rather than exclusively \'Welsh\' identity . The relative lack of support for the Assembly locally, and difficulties between the Welsh Office and Cardiff Council in acquiring the original preferred venue, Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Hall , encouraged other local authorities to bid to house the Assembly. However, the Assembly eventually located at Tŷ Hywel in Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
in 1999; in 2005, a new debating chamber on an adjacent site, designed by Richard Rogers
Richard Rogers
, was opened.

GOVERNMENT

Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Hall in Cathays Park Main article: Politics in Cardiff
Cardiff
See also: Cardiff Council and National Assembly for Wales
Wales

Since local government reorganisation in 1996 , Cardiff
Cardiff
has been governed by The City
City
and County
County
Council of Cardiff, which is based at County
County
Hall in Atlantic Wharf, Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay. Voters elect 75 councillors every four years.

Between the 2004 and 2012 local elections, no individual political party held a majority on Cardiff
Cardiff
County
County
Council. The Liberal Democrats held the largest number of seats and Cllr Rodney Berman was Leader of the Council. The Liberal Democrats and Plaid Cymru formed a partnership administration. In the 2012 elections the Labour Party achieved an outright majority, after gaining an additional 33 seats across the city. The Senedd
Senedd
, seat of the Welsh Assembly, is located in Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
.

The National Assembly for Wales
Wales
has been based in Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
since its formation in 1999. The building, known as the Senedd
Senedd
(which translates into English as Legislature, Parliament or Senate) was opened on 1 March 2006, by The Queen . The Assembly Members (AMs) , the Assembly Commission and Ministerial support staff are based in Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay. Cardiff
Cardiff
elects four constituency Assembly Members (AMs) to the Assembly, with the individual constituencies for the Assembly being the same as for the UK Parliament. All of the city's residents have an extra vote for the South Wales
Wales
Central region which increases proportionality to the Assembly. The most recent Welsh Assembly general election were held on 5 May 2016 . Crown Buildings are the Welsh Government's main offices in Cardiff
Cardiff

In the Assembly Cardiff
Cardiff
is represented by Jenny Rathbone (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
Central , Julie Morgan (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
North , Vaughan Gething (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
South and Penarth
Penarth
and Mark Drakeford (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
West .

In Westminster, Cardiff
Cardiff
is represented by Jo Stevens (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
Central , Anna McMorrin (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
North , Stephen Doughty (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
South and Penarth
Penarth
and Kevin Brennan (Labour) in Cardiff
Cardiff
West .

The Welsh Government has its headquarters in Cardiff's Cathays
Cathays
Park where most of its civil servants are based, with smaller numbers in other locations in the city centre , Cathays
Cathays
, Canton , and Cardiff Bay . There are other Welsh Government offices in other parts of Wales
Wales
such as Llandudno and Aberystwyth and international offices throughout the world.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Communities of Cardiff
Cardiff
that have their own community council

For local government purposes, Cardiff
Cardiff
is divided into communities. Several of these have their own community council, while the rest are governed solely by Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Council. They are:

* Lisvane * Old St Mellons * Pentyrch * Radyr and Morganstown * St Fagans * Tongwynlais

GEOGRAPHY

Looking south towards Cardiff city centre Main article: Geography of Cardiff

The centre of Cardiff
Cardiff
is relatively flat and is bounded by hills on the outskirts to the east, north and west. Its geographic features were influential in its development as the world's largest coal port, most notably its proximity and easy access to the coal fields of the south Wales
Wales
valleys. The highest point in the authority is Garth Hill 307 metres (1,007 feet) above sea level .

Cardiff
Cardiff
is built on reclaimed marshland on a bed of Triassic stones; this reclaimed marshland stretches from Chepstow
Chepstow
to the Ely Estuary , which is the natural boundary of Cardiff
Cardiff
and the Vale of Glamorgan. Triassic landscapes of this part of the world are usually shallow and low-lying which accounts and explains the flatness of the centre of Cardiff. The classic Triassic marl , sand and conglomerate rocks are used predominantly throughout Cardiff
Cardiff
as building materials. Many of these Triassic rocks have a purple complexion, especially the coastal marl found near Penarth. One of the Triassic rocks used in Cardiff
Cardiff
is " Radyr Stone", a freestone which as it name suggests is quarried in the Radyr district. Cardiff
Cardiff
has also imported some materials for buildings: Devonian
Devonian
sandstones (the Old Red Sandstone ) from the Brecon Beacons has been used. Most famously, the buildings of Cathays Park , the civic centre in the centre of the city, are built of Portland stone which was imported from Dorset. A widely used building stone in Cardiff
Cardiff
is the yellow-grey Liassic limestone rock of the Vale of Glamorgan, including the very rare "Sutton Stone", a conglomerate of lias limestone and carboniferous limestone.

Cardiff
Cardiff
is bordered to the west by the rural district of the Vale of Glamorgan—also known as The Garden of Cardiff— to the east by the city of Newport, to the north by the South Wales
Wales
Valleys and to the south by the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
. The River Taff winds through the centre of the city and together with the River Ely flows into the freshwater lake of Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay. A third river, the Rhymney flows through the east of the city entering directly into the Severn Estuary.

Cardiff
Cardiff
is situated near the Glamorgan
Glamorgan
Heritage Coast , stretching westward from Penarth
Penarth
and Barry—commuter towns of Cardiff—with striped yellow-blue Jurassic
Jurassic
limestone cliffs. The Glamorgan
Glamorgan
coast is the only part of the Celtic Sea that has exposed Jurassic
Jurassic
(blue lias ) geology. This stretch of coast, which has reefs, sandbanks and serrated cliffs, was a ship graveyard ; ships sailing up to Cardiff during the industrial era often never made it as far as Cardiff
Cardiff
as many were wrecked around this hostile coastline during west/south-westerly gales. Consequently, smuggling, deliberate shipwrecking and attacks on ships were common. ‹ The template below (Geographic location ) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

DESTINATIONS FROM CARDIFF

Llantrisant , Rhondda
Rhondda
Pontypridd , Brecon
Brecon
, Merthyr
Merthyr
Tydfil , Caerphilly
Caerphilly
Newport , Chepstow
Chepstow

Maesteg , Neath
Neath
, Bridgend
Bridgend

Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel

CARDIFF

Llantwit Major , Cardiff International Airport Penarth
Penarth
, Dinas Powys , Barry Bristol
Bristol
Channel

CITYSCAPE

See also: List of places in Cardiff Cathays
Cathays
Library

"Inner Cardiff" consists of the following wards: Plasnewydd , Gabalfa , Roath
Roath
, Cathays
Cathays
, Adamsdown
Adamsdown
and Splott ward on the north and east of the city centre, and Butetown , Grangetown , Riverside and Canton to the south and west. The inner-city areas to the south of the A4161 road (known as the "Southern Arc") are, with the exception of Cardiff Bay, some of the poorest districts of Wales
Wales
with low levels of economic activity. On the other hand, Gabalfa, Plasnewydd and Cathays north of the 'arc' have very large student populations, and Pontcanna (situated north of Riverside and alongside Canton) is a favourite for students and young professionals. Penylan , which lies to the north east side of Roath
Roath
Park, is an affluent area popular with those with older children and the retired. Overlooking Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay

To the west lie Ely , Caerau and Fairwater which contain some of the largest housing estates in the United Kingdom. With the exception of some of the outlying privately built estates at Michaelston Super Ely and 1930s developments near Waun-Gron Road, this is an economically disadvantaged area with high numbers of unemployed households. Culverhouse Cross is a more affluent western area of the city. Heath , Birchgrove , Gabalfa
Gabalfa
, Mynachdy , Llandaff North , Llandaff , Llanishen , Radyr , Whitchurch & Tongwynlais , Rhiwbina , Thornhill , Lisvane and Cyncoed lie in an arc from the north west to the north east of the centre. In particular, Lisvane, Cyncoed, Radyr and Rhiwbina contain some of the most expensive housing in Wales. Further to the east lie the wards of Pontprennau height:17em;position:relative;padding:0;margin:0"> 122 8 2 85 9 2 90 11 4 69 14 5 72 17 8 67 20 11 78 22 13 93 22 13 94 19 11 134 15 8 123 11 5 125 9 3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: Met Office, 1981–2010 averages

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

4.8 47 36 3.4 47 36 3.5 52 39 2.7 57 41 2.8 63 47 2.6 68 52 3.1 71 56 3.7 71 55 3.7 66 51 5.3 59 46 4.9 52 40 4.9 48 37

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Cardiff
Cardiff
lies within the north temperate zone and has an essentially maritime climate (Köppen : Cfb), characterised by mild weather that is often cloudy, wet and windy. Summers tend to be warm and sunny, with average maximum temperatures between 19 and 22 °C (66 and 72 °F). Winters tend to be fairly wet, but rainfall is rarely excessive and the temperature usually stays above freezing. Spring and autumn feel quite similar and the temperatures tend to stay above 14 °C (57 °F)—also the average annual daytime temperature. Rain is unpredictable at any time of year, although the showers tend to be shorter in summer. Dock feeder canal in Atlantic Wharf
Atlantic Wharf
in Winter

The northern part of the county, being higher and inland—for example, The Garth (Welsh : Mynydd y Garth), about 7 miles (11 km) north west of Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre, (elevation 1,007 feet (307 m))—tends to be cooler and wetter than the city centre.

TEMPERATURE

Cardiff's maximum and minimum monthly temperatures average 21.5 °C (70.7 °F) (July) and 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) (February). For Wales, the temperatures average 19.1 °C (66.4 °F) (July) and 1.1 °C (34.0 °F) (February).

SUNSHINE HOURS

Cardiff
Cardiff
has 1518 hours of sunshine during an average year (Wales 1388.7 hours). Cardiff
Cardiff
is sunniest during July, with an average 203.4 hours during the month ( Wales
Wales
183.3 hours), and least sunny during December with 44.6 hours ( Wales
Wales
38.5 hours).

RAINFALL

Cardiff
Cardiff
experiences less rainfall than the average for Wales. Rain falls in Cardiff
Cardiff
on 146 days during an average year, with total annual rainfall of 1,111.7 millimetres (43.77 in). Monthly rainfall pattern shows that from September to January average monthly rainfall in Cardiff
Cardiff
exceeded 100 millimetres (3.9 in) each month, the wettest month being December with 128 millimetres (5.0 in). Cardiff's driest months are from April to July, with average monthly rainfall fairly consistent, at between 60.5 and 65.9 millimetres (2.38 and 2.59 in).

CLIMATE DATA FOR CARDIFF (1981–2010) EXTREMES (1960–PRESENT)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 13.8 (56.8) 15.0 (59) 19.5 (67.1) 24.0 (75.2) 26.6 (79.9) 32.1 (89.8) 32.0 (89.6) 33.5 (92.3) 27.0 (80.6) 24.6 (76.3) 17.1 (62.8) 16.7 (62.1) 33.5 (92.3)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 8.3 (46.9) 8.6 (47.5) 11.1 (52) 13.8 (56.8) 17.1 (62.8) 19.8 (67.6) 21.7 (71.1) 21.5 (70.7) 18.8 (65.8) 14.9 (58.8) 11.3 (52.3) 8.7 (47.7) 14.7 (58.5)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 5.3 (41.5) 5.4 (41.7) 7.6 (45.7) 9.5 (49.1) 12.7 (54.9) 15.4 (59.7) 17.4 (63.3) 17.2 (63) 14.7 (58.5) 11.3 (52.3) 8.0 (46.4) 5.7 (42.3) 10.9 (51.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 2.1 (35.8) 4.0 (39.2) 5.2 (41.4) 8.3 (46.9) 11.0 (51.8) 13.1 (55.6) 12.8 (55) 10.5 (50.9) 7.7 (45.9) 4.6 (40.3) 2.6 (36.7) 7.0 (44.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −10.3 (13.5) −8.8 (16.2) −8.1 (17.4) −4.8 (23.4) −2.0 (28.4) 1.0 (33.8) 5.3 (41.5) 3.6 (38.5) 2.4 (36.3) −2.7 (27.1) −8.4 (16.9) −8.8 (16.2) −10.3 (13.5)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 121.6 (4.787) 85.2 (3.354) 89.8 (3.535) 68.6 (2.701) 72.3 (2.846) 66.6 (2.622) 78.4 (3.087) 93.4 (3.677) 94.0 (3.701) 133.5 (5.256) 123.4 (4.858) 125.3 (4.933) 1,151.9 (45.35)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 15.7 11.1 13.0 11.1 11.2 10.1 10.7 11.0 11.0 15.5 14.5 13.9 148.6

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 54.4 75.9 111.9 169.6 190.6 190.0 199.0 190.7 149.6 103.0 65.8 48.9 1,549.4

Source #1: Met Office

Source #2: KNMI

DEMOGRAPHY

Main article: Demography of Cardiff

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1801 6,342 —

1851 26,630 +319.9%

1861 48,965 +83.9%

1871 71,301 +45.6%

1881 93,637 +31.3%

1891 142,114 +51.8%

1901 172,629 +21.5%

1911 209,804 +21.5%

1921 227,753 +8.6%

1931 247,270 +8.6%

1941 257,112 +4.0%

1951 267,356 +4.0%

1961 278,552 +4.2%

1971 290,227 +4.2%

1981 274,500 −5.4%

1991 272,557 −0.7%

2001 292,150 +7.2%

2011 346,100 +18.5%

Source: Vision of Britain except 2011, which is the 2011 census data from the Office for National Statistics. Historical populations are calculated with the modern boundaries

Following a period of decline during the 1970s and 1980s, Cardiff's population is growing. The local authority area had a population of 346,100 at the 2011 census , compared to a 2001 Census figure of 305,353. Between mid-2007 and mid-2008, Cardiff
Cardiff
was the fastest-growing local authority in Wales
Wales
with population growth rate of 1.2%. According to Census 2001 data, Cardiff
Cardiff
was the 21st largest urban area . The Cardiff
Cardiff
Larger Urban Zone (a Eurostat definition including the Vale of Glamorgan
Glamorgan
and a number of local authorities in the Valleys ) has 841,600 people, the 10th largest LUZ in the UK. The Cardiff
Cardiff
and South Wales
Wales
Valleys metropolitan area has a population of nearly 1.1 million people. Residential areas of northern Cardiff

Official estimates derived from the census regarding the city's total population have been disputed. The city council has published two articles that argue the 2001 census seriously under reports the population of Cardiff
Cardiff
and, in particular, the ethnic minority population of some inner city areas.

The Welsh Government's official mid year estimate of the population of the Cardiff
Cardiff
local authority area in 2016 was 361,468

Cardiff
Cardiff
has an ethnically diverse population due to its past trading connections, post-war immigration and the large numbers of foreign students who attend university in the city. The ethnic make-up of Cardiff's population at the time of the 2011 census was: 84.7% White, 1.6% mixed White and Black African/Caribbean, 0.7% mixed White and Asian, 0.6% mixed other, 8% Asian, 2.4% Black, 1.4% Arab and 0.6% other ethnic groups. This means that almost 53,000 people from a non-white ethnic group reside in the city. This diversity, and especially that of the city's long-established African and Arab communities, has been celebrated in a number of cultural exhibitions and events, along with a number of books which have been published on this subject.

LANGUAGE

See also: Cardiff dialect Bilingual signs are commonplace in Cardiff.

Cardiff
Cardiff
has a chequered linguistic history with Welsh , English, Latin
Latin
, Norse and Norman French preponderant at different times. Welsh was the majority language in Cardiff
Cardiff
from the 13th century until the city's explosive growth in the Victorian era
Victorian era
. As late as 1850, five of the 12 Anglican
Anglican
churches within the current city boundaries conducted their services exclusively in the Welsh language , while only two worshipped exclusively in English. By 1891, the percentage of Welsh speakers had dropped to 27.9% and only Lisvane , Llanedeyrn and Creigiau
Creigiau
remained as majority Welsh-speaking communities. The Welsh language became grouped around a small cluster of chapels and churches, the most notable of which is Tabernacl in the city centre, one of four UK churches chosen to hold official services to commemorate the new millennium.

Following the establishment of the city's first Welsh School (Ysgol Gymraeg Bryntaf) in the 1950s, Welsh has regained ground. Aided by Welsh-medium education and migration from other parts of Wales, there has been a significant increase in the number and percentage of Welsh speakers, with numbers doubling in the 20 years between the 1991 and 2011 censuses, from 18,071 (6.6%) to 36,735 (11.1%) residents aged three years and above. Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Council adopted a 5-year Welsh language strategy in 2017 in order to increase the number of Welsh speakers (aged 3+) in Cardiff
Cardiff
by 15.9%, from 36,735 in 2011 to 42,584 residents by the 2021 Census. The LSOA (Lower Layer Super Output Area) with the highest percentage of Welsh speakers in the city-centre is found in Canton , at 25.5%. The LSOA with the highest percentage of Welsh speakers in the entirety of Cardiff
Cardiff
is found in Whitchurch at 26%.

In addition to English and Welsh, the diversity of Cardiff's population (including foreign students) means that a large number of languages are spoken within the city. One study has found that Cardiff has speakers of at least 94 languages, with Somali , Urdu
Urdu
, Bengali and Arabic being the most commonly spoken foreign languages.

The modern Cardiff
Cardiff
accent is distinct from that of the nearby South Wales
Wales
Valleys. It is marked primarily by:

* The substitution of ⟨iə⟩ by ⟨øː⟩ * here pronounced as in the broader form * A more mid-centralised pronunciation of ⟨ʌ⟩ as in love and other * The vowel of start may be realised as or even , so that Cardiff is pronounced .

Language Schools

Due to its diversity, large student population, and convenient size and location, Cardiff
Cardiff
has seen a rise in the number of people coming to the city to learn English. Foreign students are a common sight on the streets of Cardiff
Cardiff
with a large percentage coming from Arabic and other European countries. The British Council has an office in the city centre and there are six accredited schools in the area.

RELIGION

Cardiff's cathedrals Llandaff Cathedral Cardiff Metropolitan Cathedral

Since 1922 Cardiff
Cardiff
has included the suburban cathedral 'village' of Llandaff, whose bishop is also Archbishop of Wales
Wales
since 2002. There is also a Roman Catholic cathedral in the city. Since 1916 Cardiff
Cardiff
has been the seat of a Catholic archbishop, but there appears to have been a fall in the estimated Catholic population, with estimated numbers in 2006 being around 25,000 less than in 1980. Likewise, the Jewish population of the city also appears to have fallen—there are two synagogues in Cardiff, one in Cyncoed and one in Moira Terrace, as opposed to seven at the turn of the 20th century. There are a significant number of nonconformist chapels, an early-20th century Greek Orthodox church and 11 mosques. In the 2001 census 66.9% of Cardiff's population described itself as Christian, a percentage point below the Welsh and UK averages. Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in Riverside was the first Hindu temple in Wales. It is also the largest in Wales. Sri Dasmais Singh Sabha Gurdwara, Bhatra Sikh Centre in Riverside.

The oldest of the non-Christian communities in Wales
Wales
is Judaism. Jews were not permitted to live in England
England
and Wales
Wales
between the 1290 Edict of Expulsion —given by Edward I of England —and the 17th century. A Welsh Jewish community was re-established in the 18th century. There was once a fairly substantial Jewish population in South Wales, most of which has disappeared. The Cardiff
Cardiff
Jewish community congregations are consolidated in the present, modern building in Cyncoed Gardens , dedicated by Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks in 2003. Educational options for Jewish adults are expanding in Cardiff
Cardiff
via courses offered by Rabbi Michoel Rose and The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute .

In the 2001 census Cardiff's Muslim population stood at 3.7%, above the UK average (2.7%) and significantly above the Welsh average . Cardiff
Cardiff
has one of the longest-established Muslim populations in the UK, started by Yemeni sailors who settled in the city during the 19th century. Cardiff
Cardiff
is now home to over 11,000 Muslims from many different nationalities and backgrounds, nearly 52% of the Welsh Muslim population.

The proportion of Cardiff
Cardiff
residents declaring themselves to be Hindu, Sikh and Jewish were all considerably higher than the Welsh averages, but less than the UK figures. The city has been home to a sizable Hindu community since Indian immigrants settled there during the 1950s and 1960s. The first Hindu temple in the city was opened in Grangetown on 6 April 1979 on the site of an abandoned printing press (which itself was the former site of a synagogue). The 25th anniversary of the temple's founding was celebrated in September 2007 with a parade of over 3000 people through the city centre, including Hindus from across the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and members of Cardiff's other religious communities. Today, there are over 2000 Hindus in Cardiff, worshiping at three temples across the city.

In the 2001 census 18.8% of the city's population stated they had no religion, while 8.6% did not state a religion.

HEALTH

Main article: Cardiff and Vale University Health Board University Hospital of Wales
Wales

There are seven NHS hospitals in the city, the largest of which is the University Hospital of Wales
Wales
. The University Hospital of Wales
Wales
is the third largest hospital in the UK and deals with most accidents and emergencies. The University Dental Hospital, which provides emergency dental treatment, is also located on this site. Llandough Hospital is located in the south of the city.

The city's newest hospital, St. David\'s Hospital (built behind the former building) is located in the Canton area and provides services for the elderly and children. Cardiff
Cardiff
Royal Infirmary is located on Newport Road, near the city centre. The majority of this hospital was closed in 1999 but with the West Wing remaining open for clinic services, genitourinary medicine and rehabilitation treatment. Rookwood Hospital and Whitchurch Hospital are also located within the city, along with Rookwood Hospital and Velindre Cancer Centre. All hospitals in Cardiff
Cardiff
are administered by the Cardiff
Cardiff
and Vale University Health Board , with the exception of the Velindre site which is run by a separate trust. In addition Spire Healthcare has a private hospital in the city which is located in Pentwyn.

ECONOMY

Callaghan Square is a major commercial development in central Cardiff
Cardiff
Main article: Economy and industry of Cardiff See also: List of tallest buildings in Cardiff

As the capital city of Wales, Cardiff
Cardiff
is the main engine of growth in the Welsh economy. Though the population of Cardiff
Cardiff
is about 10% of the Welsh population, the economy of Cardiff
Cardiff
makes up nearly 20% of Welsh GDP and 40% of the city's workforce are daily in-commuters from the surrounding south Wales
Wales
area.

Industry has played a major part in Cardiff's development for many centuries. The main catalyst for its transformation from a small town into a big city was the demand for coal required in making iron and later steel, brought to the sea by packhorse from Merthyr
Merthyr
Tydfil . This was first achieved by the construction of a 25-mile (40 km) long canal from Merthyr
Merthyr
(510 feet above sea-level) to the Taff Estuary at Cardiff. Eventually the Taff Vale Railway replaced the canal barges and massive marshalling yards sprang up as new docks were developed in Cardiff
Cardiff
– all prompted by the soaring worldwide demand for coal from the South Wales
Wales
valleys. The Coal Exchange

At its peak, Cardiff's port area, known as Tiger Bay , became the busiest port in the world and—for some time—the world's most important coal port. In the years leading up to the First World War, more than 10 million tonnes of coal was exported annually from Cardiff Docks . In 1907, Cardiff's Coal Exchange was the first host to a business deal for a million pounds Sterling . After a period of decline, Cardiff's port has started to grow again – over 3 million tonnes of cargo passed through the docks in 2007.

Today, Cardiff
Cardiff
is the principal finance and business services centre in Wales, and as such there is a strong representation of finance and business services in the local economy. This sector, combined with the Public Administration, Education and Health sectors, have accounted for around 75% of Cardiff's economic growth since 1991. The city was recently placed seventh overall in the top 50 European cities in the fDI 2008 Cities of the Future list published by the fDi magazine , and also ranked seventh in terms of attracting foreign investment. Notable companies such as Legal "> BBC Broadcasting House

Cardiff
Cardiff
is home to the Welsh media and a large media sector with BBC Wales
Wales
, S4C and ITV Wales
Wales
all having studios in the city. In particular, there is a large independent TV production industry sector of over 600 companies, employing around 6000 employees and with a turnover estimated at £350 m. Just to the north west of the city, in Rhondda
Rhondda
Cynon Taff , the first completely new film studios in the UK for 30 years are being built, named Valleywood . The studios are set to be the biggest in the UK. In 2011 the BBC completed the Roath
Roath
Lock studios in Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
to film dramas such as Casualty, Doctor Who, and Pobol y Cwm.

Cardiff
Cardiff
has several regeneration projects such the St David's 2 Centre and surrounding areas of the city centre, and the £1.4 billion International Sports Village in Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
which played a part in the London 2012 Olympics . It features the only Olympic-standard swimming pool in Wales, the Cardiff International Pool , which opened on 12 January 2008.

According to the Welsh Rugby Union, the Millennium Stadium has contributed £1 billion to the Welsh economy in the ten years since it opened (1999), with around 85% of that amount staying in the Cardiff area.

SHOPPING

St. David\'s is the largest shopping centre in Wales
Wales

The majority of Cardiff's shopping portfolio is in the city centre around Queen Street and St. Mary Street, with large suburban retail parks located in Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay, Culverhouse Cross , Leckwith , Newport Road and Pontprennau
Pontprennau
, together with markets in the city centre and Splott . A major £675 million regeneration programme for Cardiff's St. David\'s Centre was completed in 2009, which has provided a total of 1,400,000 square feet (130,000 m2) of shopping space, making it one of the largest shopping centres in the United Kingdom. The centre was named the international shopping centre of the year in 2010 by Retail Leisure International (RLI). Queen Street, one of Cardiff's main shopping areas.

The Castle Quarter is a commercial area in the north of the city centre which includes some of Cardiff\'s Victorian and Edwardian arcades : Castle Arcade, High Street Arcade and Duke Street Arcade, and principal shopping streets: St Mary Street, High Street , Castle Street and Duke Street. Development of the area began in February 2010 and is expected to be completed by July 2011. Cardiff Council says that work to create the Castle Quarter as a pedestrian friendly environment for High Street and St Mary Street is designed to enhance the city centre.

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Cardiff

Cardiff
Cardiff
is the major transport hub in Wales
Wales
and is the focus for many arterial road and rail routes that connect the city with the rest of Wales, and with England.

RAIL

Main article: Rail transport in Cardiff Cardiff
Cardiff
Central railway station

Cardiff Central railway station is the largest railway station in Wales
Wales
with seven platforms, through which over 10 million passengers a year pass. It provides direct services to nearby Bridgend
Bridgend
and Newport, long distance 'Cross-Wales' services to Wrexham
Wrexham
and Holyhead , and cities such as Bristol
Bristol
, Birmingham
Birmingham
, London, Manchester
Manchester
, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and Glasgow
Glasgow
. Cardiff Queen Street railway station is the second busiest in Wales
Wales
and is the hub for routes via the Valley Lines services that connect the South Wales
Wales
valleys and the Cardiff
Cardiff
suburbs with the city centre on the former site of Temperance Town . It is located at the eastern end of the city centre, and also provides services to Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay. Cardiff Queen Street railway station

Cardiff
Cardiff
has a suburban rail system known as Valley Lines , which is operated by Arriva Trains Wales
Wales
. There are eight lines which serve 20 stations in the city, 26 in the wider urban area (including Taffs Well, Penarth
Penarth
and Dinas Powys) and more than 60 in the South Wales valleys and the Vale of Glamorgan
Glamorgan
.

AIR

Cardiff Airport Main articles: Cardiff Airport and Cardiff Heliport

Domestic and international air links to Cardiff
Cardiff
and South "> Cardiff Bus has the most bus services operating in the Cardiff
Cardiff
area Main article: Bus transport in Cardiff

The M4 is the principal motorway in the region that connects Cardiff with Swansea
Swansea
to the west, and Newport and London
London
to the east. Cardiff is served by three junctions of the M4, plus A48(M) , which leads onto the M4. The A470 is another major road within the city that provides an important link to the north with the Heads of the Valleys road , mid and north Wales. The A4232 (also known as the Peripheral Distributor Road or PDR) when completed, will form part of the Cardiff ring-road system along with the M4 motorway between junctions 30 and 33.

Cardiff
Cardiff
has a comprehensive bus network, with municipal bus company Cardiff Bus providing the vast majority of routes in the city and to Newport, Barry and Cardiff International Airport , its hub is Cardiff Central Bus
Bus
Station . National Express and Megabus provides direct services to major cities such as Swansea
Swansea
, London, Newcastle upon Tyne and Manchester
Manchester

CYCLE

Example from Excalibur Drive of the red cycle lanes used in Cardiff. Main article: Cycling in Cardiff

The Taff Trail is a walking and cycle path running for 55 miles (88.5 km) between Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
and Brecon
Brecon
in the Brecon Beacons National Park. It runs through Bute Park, Sophia Gardens and many other green areas within Cardiff. It is possible to cycle the entire distance of the Trail
Trail
almost completely off-road, as it largely follows the River Taff and many of the old disused railways of the Glamorganshire valleys. On Sundays in summer the Beacons Bike Bus
Bus
enables cyclists to take their bikes into the Beacons and then ride back to Cardiff
Cardiff
along the Trail.

WATER

Aquabus

The Aquabus runs every hour between the city centre (Taff Mead Embankment) and Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
(Mermaid Quay), and between Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay and Penarth
Penarth
( Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
barrage). Throughout the year Cardiff Waterbus sail between the Pierhead on Cardiff's Waterfront and the Penarth
Penarth
end of the Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
Barrage with short sightseeing cruises.

Between March and October boats depart from Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
to take visitors to Flat Holm
Flat Holm
Island. The Paddle Steamer Waverley and MV Balmoral sail from Britannia
Britannia
Quay (in Roath
Roath
Basin) to various destinations in the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

See also: List of Wales
Wales
dialling codes

029 is the current telephone dialling code for Cardiff, as well as for the neighbouring towns of Penarth, Dinas Powys and Caerphilly
Caerphilly
. The dialling code is optional when dialling within the area, with it being possible to dial between any two phones within the 029 code using only the eight-digit local number.

Prior to the Big Number Change on 22 April 2000 the area had shorter, six-digit local numbers with an area code of 01222 (with 0222 preceding this, prior to May 1995). There remains a common misconception that local numbers are still six digits long and that the code is 02920, despite the existence of newer Cardiff
Cardiff
numbers in the ranges (029) 21xx xxxx and (029) 22xx xxxx.

EDUCATION

See also: List of schools in Cardiff Cardiff University 's main building

Cardiff
Cardiff
is home to four major institutions of higher education: Cardiff University , Cardiff Metropolitan University , University of South Wales
Wales
and the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama .

Cardiff University was founded by Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1883 as the University College of South Wales
Wales
and Monmouthshire, is a member of the Russell Group of leading research led universities, having most of its campus in Cathays
Cathays
and the city centre. Cardiff
Cardiff
Metropolitan University (formerly UWIC) has campuses in the Llandaff, Cyncoed and city centre areas, and is part of the confederal University of Wales
Wales
. The Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama is a conservatoire established in 1949 and is based in the grounds of Cardiff
Cardiff
Castle. The University of South Wales
Wales
's Cardiff
Cardiff
campus, Atrium , is home to the Cardiff
Cardiff
School of Creative "> Royal Welsh College of Music "> Pierhead Building
Pierhead Building
See also: Architecture of Cardiff

Cardiff
Cardiff
has many landmark buildings such as the Millennium Stadium, Pierhead Building
Pierhead Building
the Welsh National Museum
National Museum
and the Senedd, the home of the National Assembly for Wales. Cardiff
Cardiff
is also famous for Cardiff Castle, St David\'s Hall , Llandaff Cathedral and the Wales
Wales
Millennium Centre .

Cardiff Castle
Cardiff Castle
is a major tourist attraction in the city and is situated in the heart of the city centre . The National History Museum at St Fagans in Cardiff
Cardiff
is a large open-air museum housing dozens of buildings from throughout Welsh history that have been moved to the site in Cardiff. The Civic Centre in Cathays Park comprises a collection of Edwardian buildings such as the City
City
Hall , National Museum and Gallery of Wales
Wales
, Cardiff Crown Court , and buildings forming part of Cardiff
Cardiff
University, together with more modern civic buildings. These buildings are laid out around the Queen Alexandra Gardens, a formal park which contains the Welsh National War Memorial and a number of other, smaller, memorials.

In addition to Cardiff
Cardiff
Castle, Castell Coch
Castell Coch
(Red Castle) is located in Tongwynlais , in the north of the city. The current castle is an elaborately decorated Victorian folly designed by William Burges for the Marquess and built in the 1870s, as an occasional retreat. However, the Victorian castle stands on the footings of a much older medieval castle possibly built by Ifor Bach , a regional baron with links to Cardiff Castle
Cardiff Castle
also. The exterior has become a popular location for film and television productions. It rarely fulfilled its intended role as a retreat for the Butes, who seldom stayed there. For the Marquess, the pleasure had been in its creation, a pleasure lost following Burges's death in 1881.

Cardiff
Cardiff
claims to have the largest concentration of castles of any city in the world. As well as Cardiff Castle
Cardiff Castle
and Castell Coch, there are the remains of two Motte and Bailey castles in Radyr and Rhiwbina (both known as the "Twmpath", a Welsh word for a small mound), which along with a castle at Whitchurch (known as Treoda and destroyed by housing in the 1960s) formed an arc of fortifications which divided the Norman lordship from the Welsh lordship of Senghenydd. Further up the Cefn Cibwr ridge on the boundary with Caerphilly
Caerphilly
there is also another ruined castle, known as Castell Morgraig. Archaeological evidence suggests this castle was never finished, and it is debated whether the fortification was of Norman or Welsh origin. The concentration of these castles is indicative of the moveable nature of the border between the Norman lordship of Glamorgan, centred at Cardiff, and its Welsh neighbours to the north.

While not strictly castles in the historic sense, there is also the ruined Llandaff Bishop\'s Palace , a fortified residence belonging to the Bishops of Llandaff and Saint Fagans Castle , a preserved seventeenth century manor house, once seat of the Earls of Plymouth.

* Cardiff's castles

*

Cardiff Castle
Cardiff Castle
*

Castell Coch
Castell Coch
*

St Fagans Castle *

Bishop's Palace

Other major tourist attractions are the Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
regeneration sites which include the recently opened Wales
Wales
Millennium Centre and the Senedd, and many other cultural and sites of interest including the Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
Barrage and the famous Coal Exchange . The New Theatre was founded in 1906 and completely refurbished in the 1980s. Until the opening of the Wales
Wales
Millennium Centre in 2004, it was the premier venue in Wales
Wales
for touring theatre and dance companies. Other venues which are popular for concerts and sporting events include Motorpoint Arena , St David's Hall and the Millennium Stadium. Cardiff Story , a museum documenting the city's history, has been open to the public since Spring 2011.

Cardiff
Cardiff
has over 1,000 listed buildings, ranging from the more prominent buildings such as the castles, to smaller buildings, houses and structures. Cathedral Road was developed by the 3rd Marquis of Bute and is lined by fine villas, some backing on to Sophia Gardens.

Cardiff
Cardiff
has walks of special interest for tourists and ramblers alike, such as the Centenary Walk , which runs for 2.3 miles (3.7 km) within Cardiff
Cardiff
city centre. This route passes through many of Cardiff's landmarks and historic buildings.

CULTURE AND RECREATION

Main articles: Culture and recreation in Cardiff , List of cultural venues in Cardiff
Cardiff
, and List of public art in Cardiff Wales Millennium Centre

Cardiff
Cardiff
has many cultural sites varying from the historical Cardiff Castle and out of town Castell Coch
Castell Coch
to the more modern Wales Millennium Centre and Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay. Cardiff
Cardiff
was a finalist in the European Capital of Culture 2008. In recent years Cardiff
Cardiff
has grown in stature as a tourist destination, with recent accolades including Cardiff
Cardiff
being voted the eighth favourite UK city by readers of the Guardian. The city was also listed as one of the top 10 destinations in the UK on the official British tourist boards website Visit Britain, and US travel guide Frommers have listed Cardiff
Cardiff
as one of 13 top destinations worldwide for 2008. Annual events in Cardiff
Cardiff
that have become regular appearances in Cardiff's calendar include Sparks in the Park , The Great British Cheese Festival , Cardiff
Cardiff
Mardi Gras, Cardiff
Cardiff
Winter Wonderland, Cardiff
Cardiff
Festival and Made in Roath
Roath
.

MUSIC AND PERFORMING ARTS

Main article: Music of Cardiff Motorpoint Arena Cardiff

A large number of concerts are held within the city, the larger ones being performed in St David's Hall, the Motorpoint Arena (previously known as the Cardiff
Cardiff
International Arena) and occasionally the Millennium Stadium. A number of festivals are also held in Cardiff—the largest of these is the Cardiff
Cardiff
Big Weekend Festival, which is held annually in the city centre during the summer and plays host to free musical performances (from artists such as Ash , Jimmy Cliff , Cerys Matthews
Cerys Matthews
, the Fun Loving Criminals , Soul II Soul
Soul II Soul
and the Magic Numbers ), fairground rides and cultural events such as a Children's Festival that takes place in the grounds of Cardiff
Cardiff
Castle. The annual festival claims to be the UK's largest free outdoor festival, attracting over 250,000 visitors in 2007.

Cardiff
Cardiff
hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1883, 1899, 1938, 1960, 1978 and 2008. Cardiff
Cardiff
is unique in Wales
Wales
in having two permanent stone circles used by the Gorsedd of Bards during Eisteddfodau. The original circle stands in Gorsedd Gardens in front of the National Museum while its 1978 replacement is situated in Bute Park . Since 1983, Cardiff
Cardiff
has hosted the BBC Cardiff
Cardiff
Singer of the World competition, a world-renowned event on the opera calendar which is held every two years. The city also hosts smaller events. St David\'s Hall

A number of performing arts venues are located within the city—the largest and most prominent of these is the Wales
Wales
Millennium Centre , which hosts performances of opera, ballet, dance, comedy and musicals, and (as of autumn 2008) is home to the BBC National Orchestra of Wales . St David's Hall (which hosts the Singer of the World competition) has regular performances of classical music and ballet as well as music of other genres. The largest of Cardiff's theatres is the New Theatre , situated in the city centre just off Queen Street. Other such venues include the Sherman Theatre , Chapter Arts Centre and the Gate Arts Centre .

The Cardiff music scene is established and wide-ranging—it is home to the BBC National Orchestra of Wales
Wales
and Welsh National Opera , has produced several leading acts itself and, as a capital city, has acted as a springboard for numerous Welsh bands to go and become famous both nationally and internationally. Acts who hail from Cardiff
Cardiff
include Charlotte Church , Shirley Bassey , Iwan Rheon , the Oppressed , Kids In Glass Houses , Los Campesinos , the Hot Puppies , the School , We\'re No Heroes , Budgie and Shakin\' Stevens . Also, performers such as the Automatic , Manic Street Preachers , Lostprophets
Lostprophets
, Super Furry Animals , Catatonia and Bullet for My Valentine have links with the city and are associated with the Cardiff
Cardiff
music scene. In 2010, Cardiff
Cardiff
was named the UK's second 'most musical' city by PRS for Music .

VISUAL ARTS

See also: Art in Cardiff

Cardiff
Cardiff
has held a photomarathon in the city each year since 2004, in which photographers compete to take the best 12 pictures of 12 previously unknown topics in 12 hours. An exhibition of the winners and other entries is held in June / July each year.

RECREATION

Bute Park

Cardiff
Cardiff
has a strong nightlife and is home to many bars, pubs and clubs. Most clubs and bars are situated in the city centre, especially St. Mary Street, and more recently Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
has built up a strong night scene, with many modern bars "> The lake at Roath
Roath
Park , including the lighthouse erected as a memorial to Captain Scott

Cardiff
Cardiff
is known for its extensive parkland, with parks and other such green spaces covering around 10% of the city's total area. Cardiff's main park, Bute Park (which was formerly the castle grounds) extends northwards from the top of one of Cardiff's main shopping street (Queen Street); when combined with the adjacent Llandaff Fields and Pontcanna Fields to the north west it produces a massive open space skirting the River Taff. Other popular parks include Roath
Roath
Park in the north, donated to the city by the 3rd Marquess of Bute in 1887 and which includes a very popular boating lake; Victoria Park, Cardiff 's first official park; and Thompson\'s Park , formerly home to an aviary removed in the 1970s. Wild open spaces include Howardian Local Nature Reserve, 32 acres (130,000 m2) of the lower Rhymney valley in Penylan noted for its Orchids, and Forest Farm Country Park, over 150 acres (0.61 km2) along the river Taff in Whitchurch.

Cardiff
Cardiff
is one of the top ten retail destinations in the UK, with two main shopping streets (Queen Street and St. Mary Street), and three main shopping arcades; St. David\'s Centre , Queens Arcade and the Capitol Centre . The current expansion of St. David's Centre as part of the St. David's 2 project has seen it become one of the largest shopping centres in the United Kingdom. As well as the modern shopping arcades, the city is also home to many Victorian shopping centres, such as High Street Arcade, Castle Arcade, Wyndham Arcade, Royal Arcade and Morgan Arcade. Also of note is The Hayes , home to Spillers Records , the world's oldest record shop. Cardiff
Cardiff
has a number of markets, including the vast Victorian indoor Cardiff
Cardiff
Central Market and the newly established Riverside Community Market, which specialises in locally produced organic produce. Several out-of-town retail parks exist, such as Newport Road, Culverhouse Cross, Cardiff Gate and Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay.

MEDIA

BBC's Roath Lock studios Main article: Media in Cardiff See also: Media in Wales
Wales

Cardiff
Cardiff
is the Welsh base for the main national broadcasters (BBC Cymru Wales
Wales
, ITV Wales
Wales
and S4C ). A locally based television station, Made in Cardiff, is also based in the city centre. Major filming studios in Cardiff
Cardiff
include the BBC's Roath Lock Studios and Pinewood Studios Wales.

Several contemporary television programmes and films are filmed in and/or set in Cardiff
Cardiff
such as Casualty , Doctor Who
Doctor Who
, Merlin , Sarah Jane Adventures , Torchwood , The Valleys , Upstairs Downstairs and Sherlock . The South Wales
Wales
Echo and Western Mail

The main local newspaper, the South Wales
Wales
Echo and the national paper the Western Mail are based in Park Street in the city centre. Capital Times, Echo Extra and the South Wales
Wales
edition of Metro are also based and distributed in the city. There are also a number of magazines based in the city including Buzz magazine , Primary Times and a monthly papur bro , or Welsh-language community newsletter, called Y Dinesydd (The Citizen).

A number of other radio stations serve the city and are based in Cardiff, including Capital FM (South Wales) , Heart (South and West Wales) , BBC Radio Wales
Wales
, BBC Radio Cymru
BBC Radio Cymru
, Nation Radio , Radio Cardiff
Cardiff
, Smooth Radio (Wales) and Xpress Radio .

The Millennium Stadium was one of the first six British landmarks to be fully mapped on Google Street View as a 360-degree virtual tour.

SPORT

Main article: Sport in Cardiff See also: Leisure centres in Cardiff , List of stadia in Wales
Wales
by capacity , and Rugby in Cardiff Sport Wales
Wales
National Centre , Cardiff, headquarters of Sport Wales
Wales
, the Welsh Sports Association and the Federation of Disability Sport Wales
Wales
.

Cardiff
Cardiff
plays host to many high-profile sporting events at local, national and international level and in recognition of the city's commitment to sport for all Cardiff
Cardiff
has been awarded the title of European Capital of Sport 2014. Organised sports have been held in the city since the early 19th century. national home sporting fixtures are nearly always played in the city. All Wales' multi-sports agencies and many of the country 's sports governing bodies have their headquarters in Cardiff
Cardiff
and the city's many top quality venues have attracted world-famous sports events, sometimes unrelated to Cardiff or to Wales. In 2008/09, 61% of Cardiff
Cardiff
residents regularly participated in sport and active recreation, the highest percentage out of all 22 local authorities in Wales. Cardiff Arms Park
Cardiff Arms Park

Rugby union
Rugby union
fans around the world have long been familiar with the Cardiff
Cardiff
Arms Park, and its successor the Millennium Stadium, which hosted the FA Cup
FA Cup
for six years (from 2001 to 2006 ) it took to rebuild Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
. In 2009, Cardiff
Cardiff
hosted the first Ashes cricket test, between England
England
and Australia, to be held in Wales. Cardiff
Cardiff
hosted eight football matches of the London 2012 Olympics .

Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
F.C. (founded 1899 as Riverside FC) played their home games at Ninian Park from 1910 until the end of the 2008–09 season. The club's new home is the Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Stadium , which until 2012, they rented to the Cardiff Blues the cities professional rugby union team, the Blues returning to the Arms Park. Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
have played in the English Football League since the 1920–21 season, climbing to Division 1 after one season. Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
are the only non-English team to have won the FA Cup
FA Cup
, beating Arsenal in the 1927 final at Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
. They were runners up to Portsmouth
Portsmouth
in the 2008 final , losing 1–0 at the new Wembley Stadium. Cardiff
Cardiff
City currently play in the Football League Championship
Football League Championship
. Cardiff
Cardiff
has numerous smaller clubs including Bridgend
Bridgend
Street A.F.C. , Caerau (Ely) A.F.C. , Cardiff Corinthians F.C. , Cardiff Grange Harlequins A.F.C. , Cardiff Metropolitan University F.C. , and Ely Rangers A.F.C. who all play in the Welsh football league system . Millennium Stadium

Cardiff Arms Park
Cardiff Arms Park
(Welsh : Parc yr Arfau Caerdydd), in central Cardiff, is among the world's most famous venues—being the scene of three Welsh Grand Slams in the 1970s (1971 , 1976 and 1978 ) and six Five Nations titles in nine years—and was the venue for Wales' games in the 1991 Rugby World Cup . The Arms Park has a sporting history dating back to at least the 1850s, when Cardiff
Cardiff
Cricket Club (formed 1819) relocated to the site. The ground was donated to Cardiff
Cardiff
CC in 1867 by the Marquess of Bute. Cardiff
Cardiff
Cricket Club shared the ground with Cardiff
Cardiff
Rugby Football Club (founded 1876) —forming Cardiff Athletic Club between them—until 1966, when the cricket section moved to Sophia Gardens. Cardiff Athletic Club and the Welsh Rugby Union established two stadia on the site— Cardiff RFC played at their stadium at the northern end of the site, and the Wales
Wales
national rugby union team played international matches at the National Stadium, Cardiff
Cardiff
Arms Park, which opened in 1970. The National Stadium was replaced by the 74,500 capacity Millennium Stadium (Welsh : Stadiwm y Mileniwm) in 1999—in time for the 1999 Rugby World Cup —and is home stadium to the Wales
Wales
national rugby and football teams for international matches. In addition to Wales' Six Nations Championship and other international games, the Millennium Stadium held four matches in the 2007 Rugby World Cup and six FA Cup
FA Cup
finals (from the 2001–02 to 2005–06 seasons) while Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
was being rebuilt. SWALEC Stadium

Glamorgan
Glamorgan
County
County
Cricket Club have competed as a first class county since 1921. Their headquarters and ground is the SWALEC Stadium , Sophia Gardens , since moving from Cardiff Arms Park
Cardiff Arms Park
in 1966. The Sophia Gardens stadium underwent a multimillion-pound improvement since being selected to host the first ‘England’ v Australia
Australia
Test Match of the 2009 Ashes series .

Cardiff
Cardiff
has a long association with boxing, from \'Peerless\' Jim Driscoll —born in Cardiff
Cardiff
in 1880—to more recent, high-profile fights staged in the city. These include the WBC Lennox Lewis vs. Frank Bruno heavyweight championship fight at the Arms Park in 1993, and many of Joe Calzaghe 's fights, between 2003 and 2007.

Cardiff's professional ice hockey team, the Cardiff Devils , play in the 3000-seater Ice Arena Wales
Wales
in the Cardiff
Cardiff
International Sports Village. They play in the 10 team professional Elite Ice Hockey League . Founded in 1986, and one of the most successful British teams during the nineties.

Cardiff's only American flag football team are the Hurricanes. They won the British Championship in 2014 after falling short by 2 points in a quarter final to eventual winners, the London
London
Rebels the previous year. They are based out of Roath
Roath
Recreational Ground. Cardiff International Pool at the International Sports Village , Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay

The 1958 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
were hosted by Cardiff. The Games involved 1,130 athletes from 35 national teams competing in 94 events. One of the venues for those Games—The Wales
Wales
Empire Swimming Pool—was demolished in 1998 to make way for the Millennium Stadium. The GBP32m Cardiff International Pool in Cardiff Bay
Cardiff Bay
, opened to the public on 12 January 2008—part of the GBP1bn International Sports Village (ISV)—is the only Olympic-standard swimming pool in Wales. When complete, the ISV complex will provide Olympic standard facilities for sports including boxing and fencing , gymnastics, judo , white water events (including canoeing and kayaking ) and wrestling as well as a snow dome with real snow for skiing and snowboarding , an Arena for public ice skating and ice hockey and an hotel. Some of the sports facilities at the ISV will be used as training venues for the London 2012 Olympics . A stage of Wales
Wales
Rally GB, hosted inside the Millennium Stadium

The Millennium Stadium hosts motorsport events such as the World Rally Championship , as part of Wales
Wales
Rally GB . The first ever indoor special stages of the World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
were held at the Millennium Stadium in September 2005 and have been an annual event sincve then. The British Speedway Grand Prix , one of the World Championship events, is held at the Millennium Stadium. While the track—a temporary, purpose built, shale oval—is not universally loved, the venue is considered the best of the World Championship's 11 rounds.

The Cardiff International Sports Stadium , opened 19 January 2009, replacing the Cardiff Athletics Stadium ; demolished to make way for the Cardiff
Cardiff
City
City
Stadium was a 4,953 capacity, multi sport/special event venue, offering fully certificated international track and field athletics facilities, including an international standard external throws area. The stadium houses the Headquarters of Welsh Athletics , the sport's governing body for Wales. The city's indoor track and field athletics sports venue is the National Indoor Athletics Centre , an international athletics and multi sports centre at the University of Wales
Wales
Institute, Cardiff
Cardiff
Campus, Cyncoed .

During the 1990s, London
London
based football club Wimbledon F.C. expressed interest in relocating to the city, having been without a home of their own since exiting their own Plough Lane stadium in 1991 and ground-sharing with Crystal Palace at Selhurst Park . However, the relocation of the club to Cardiff
Cardiff
never happened, and in 2003 the club moved to Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire, being rebranded as Milton Keynes Dons a year later.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Main article: List of people from Cardiff See also Freedom of the City
City
of Cardiff
Cardiff
recipients See also Category:People from Cardiff
Cardiff

Many notable people have hailed from Cardiff, ranging from historical figures such as the 12th century Welsh leader Ifor Bach and to more recent figures such as Roald Dahl
Roald Dahl
, Ken Follett , Griff Rhys Jones and the former Blue Peter presenter Gethin Jones . In particular, the city has been the birthplace of sports stars such as Tanni Grey-Thompson and Colin Jackson
Colin Jackson
as well as many Premier League
Premier League
, Football League and international footballers, such as Craig Bellamy , Gareth Bale
Gareth Bale
, Ryan Giggs , Joe Ledley , and former managers of the Wales
Wales
national football team Terry Yorath and John Toshack . International rugby league players from Cardiff
Cardiff
include Frank Whitcombe , Billy Boston , David Willicombe and Colin Dixon , and baseball internationals include George Whitcombe and Ted Peterson

Saint Teilo (c. 500 – 9 February c. 560), is the Patron Saint of Cardiff. He was a British Christian monk, bishop, and founder of monasteries and churches. Reputed to be a cousin, friend, and disciple of Saint David, he was bishop of Llandaff and founder of the first church at Llandaff Cathedral, where his tomb is. His Saint's Day is ninth of February.

Cardiff
Cardiff
is also well known for its musicians, such as Ivor Novello , after whom the Ivor Novello Awards are named. Idloes Owen founder of the Welsh National Opera , lived in Llandaff, Shirley Bassey is familiar to many as the singer of three James Bond
James Bond
movie theme tunes, while Charlotte Church is famous as a crossover classical/pop singer, Shakin\' Stevens was one of the top selling male artists in the UK during the 1980s and Tigertailz , a popular glam metal act in the 80s, also hailed from Cardiff. A number of Cardiff-based bands, such as Catatonia and Super Furry Animals were popular during the 1990s.

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

Cardiff
Cardiff
has twinning arrangements with:

* Luhansk
Luhansk
, Ukraine
Ukraine
. * Hordaland
Hordaland
county , Norway. * Sucre
Sucre
, Bolivia
Bolivia
. * Nantes
Nantes
, France. * Stuttgart
Stuttgart
, Germany. * Xiamen
Xiamen
, China. * Lima
Lima
, Peru
Peru
.

A total of 28 countries have a diplomatic presence in Cardiff. Many of these nations, such as Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, Thailand and the Czech Republic are represented by honorary consulates . The British Embassy of the United States operates a satellite office.

SEE ALSO

* Wales
Wales
portal

* Cardiff city centre * Cardiff music scene * List of cultural venues in Cardiff * List of Parliamentary constituencies in South Glamorgan * List of places in Cardiff * List of places of worship in Cardiff * List of streets and squares in Cardiff * National Assembly for Wales
Wales
* Big Number Change * Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* OPENCities * UK telephone code misconceptions

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