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THE OPEN CHAMPIONSHIP, often referred to as THE OPEN or the BRITISH OPEN, is the oldest of the four major championships in professional golf . Held in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, it is administered by The R eight of them joined ten professionals in the field. Prestwick Golf Club , site of the first Open Championship in 1860 Willie Park Sr. wearing the Challenge Belt, the winner's prize at The Open from 1860 to 1870

James Ogilvie Fairlie was the principal organiser of the first Open Championship held at Prestwick in 1860 . With the untimely death of Allan Robertson
Allan Robertson
, aged 43 in 1859, Prestwick members decided to conduct a challenge the following year that would determine the land’s greatest golfer. In a proposed competition for a "Challenge Belt", Fairlie sent out a series of letters to Blackheath , Perth , Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Musselburgh
Musselburgh
and St Andrews
St Andrews
, inviting a player known as a "respectable caddie" to represent each of the clubs in a tournament to be held on 17 October 1860.

Originally, the trophy presented to the event's winner was the Challenge Belt, a red leather belt with a silver buckle. The Challenge Belt was retired in 1870, when Young Tom Morris was allowed to keep it for winning the tournament three consecutive times. Because no trophy was available, the tournament was cancelled in 1871. In 1872, after Young Tom Morris won again for a fourth time in a row, he was awarded a medal. The present trophy, The Golf
Golf
Champion Trophy, better known by its popular name of the Claret Jug , was then created.

Prestwick administered The Open from 1860 to 1870. In 1871, it agreed to organise it jointly with The Royal and Ancient Golf
Golf
Club of St Andrews and The Honourable Company of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Golfers . In 1892 the event was doubled in length from 36 to 72 holes, four rounds of what was by then the standard complement of 18 holes. The 1894 Open was the first held outside Scotland, at the Royal St George\'s Golf
Golf
Club in England
England
. Because of an increasing number of entrants, a cut was introduced after two rounds in 1898. In 1920 full responsibility for The Open Championship
The Open Championship
was handed over to The Royal "> Logo from 1995 through 2002. Previously, the Open Championship did not have an official logo beyond the Claret Jug.

In 1995, John Daly\'s playoff win over Italian Costantino Rocca began another era of American domination. Tiger Woods
Tiger Woods
won three Championships, two at St Andrews
St Andrews
in 2000 and 2005, and one at Hoylake in 2006. There was a dramatic moment at St Andrews
St Andrews
in 2000, as the ageing Jack Nicklaus waved farewell to the crowds, while the young challenger to his crown watched from a nearby tee. Nicklaus later decided to play in The Open for one final time in 2005, when the R"> Logo for 2003−2014

In 2007, the Europeans finally broke an eight-year drought in the majors when Pádraig Harrington
Pádraig Harrington
of Ireland defeated Sergio García
Sergio García
by one stroke in a four-hole playoff at Carnoustie . Harrington retained the Championship in 2008.

In 2009, 59-year-old Tom Watson turned in one of the most remarkable performances ever seen at The Open. Leading the tournament through 71 holes and needing just a par on the last hole to become the oldest ever winner of a major championship, Watson bogeyed, setting up a four-hole playoff, which he would lose to Stewart Cink .

In 2013, Phil Mickelson won his first Open Championship at Muirfield . His victory meant that he had won 3 of the 4 majors in pursuit of the career grand slam, just needing the U.S. Open , where he has finished runner-up six times.

In 2015, Zach Johnson
Zach Johnson
denied Jordan Spieth
Jordan Spieth
his chance of winning the Grand Slam by winning an aggregate playoff over Louis Oosthuizen and Marc Leishman
Marc Leishman
at the Old Course at St Andrews
St Andrews
.

FORMAT

The Open is a 72-hole stroke play tournament contested over four days, Thursday through Sunday. Since 1979 it has been played in the week which includes the 3rd Friday in July. Currently, 156 players are in the field, mostly made up of the world's leading professionals, who are given exemptions, along with winners of the top amateur championships. Further places are given to players, amateurs and professionals, who are successful in a number of qualifying events. There is a cut after 36 holes after which only the leading 70 players (and ties) play in the final 36 holes on the weekend. In the event of a tie after 72 holes, a four-hole aggregate playoff is held; if two or more players are still tied, it continues as sudden-death until there is a winner.

TIMELINE OF FORMAT CHANGES

* 1860: Contested over 36 holes, played on a single day * 1892: Extended to 72 holes, played over two days * 1898: Cut introduced after 36 holes. Those 20 or more strokes behind the leader were excluded * 1904: Extended to a third day with 18 holes on each of the first two days. Cut rule unchanged * 1905: Cut rule changed to exclude those 15 or more strokes behind the leader * 1907: Qualifying introduced, replacing the 36-hole cut and the contest reduced again to two days * 1910: Cut reintroduced instead of qualifying, play being extended to three days again. Top 60 and ties made the cut. * 1911: With an increase in the number of entries, the first two rounds were spread over three days, with 36 holes on the fourth day * 1912: Qualifying reintroduced to replace the cut. Contest reduced again to two days * 1926: Cut reintroduced. First Open with both qualifying and a cut. Extended again to a third day with 18 holes on the first two days. Those 15 or more strokes behind the leader were excluded from the final day. Days standardised as Wednesday to Friday * 1929: Cut rule changed to ensure that at least 60 made the cut even if 15 or more strokes behind the leader * 1930: Cut rule changed to top 60 and ties * 1937: Cut rule changed to top 40 and ties * 1938: Cut rule changed to be a maximum of 40 players. Ties for 40th place did not make the cut * 1939: Cut rule changed to be a maximum of 44 players. Ties for 44th place did not make the cut * 1946: Cut rule changed to be a maximum of 40 players. Ties for 40th place did not make the cut * 1951: Cut rule changed to be a maximum of 50 players. Ties for 50th place did not make the cut * 1957: Leaders after 36 holes go off last, replacing the random draw * 1963: Cut rule changed to top 45 and ties * 1964: Playoff reduced from 36 holes to 18, followed by sudden-death if still level * 1966: Play extended to four days, 18 holes per day from Wednesday to Saturday. Cut rule changed to top 55 and ties * 1968: Cut rule changed to top 70 and ties after 36 holes and then top 45 and ties after 54 holes * 1970: Cut rule changed to top 80 and ties after 36 holes and then top 55 and ties after 54 holes * 1971: Cut rule changed to top 80 and ties after 36 holes and then top 60 and ties after 54 holes * 1973: Play in groups of three introduced for the first two rounds * 1974: Use of "bigger ball" (1.68 in, 42.67 mm) made compulsory * 1978: "10-shot rule" introduced so that players within 10 shots of the leader make the cut even if outside the top 80/60 * 1980: Play from Thursday to Sunday * 1986: 54-hole cut discontinued. Cut rule changed to top 70 and ties after 36 holes. Four-hole playoff introduced * 1996: "10-shot rule" dropped

TROPHIES AND MEDALS

The Claret Jug

There are a number of medals and trophies that are, or have been, given for various achievements during The Open.

* The Challenge Belt – awarded to the winner from 1860 until 1870 , when Young Tom Morris won the belt outright by winning the Championship for the third year in a row. * The Golf
Golf
Champion Trophy (commonly known as the Claret Jug ) – replaced the Challenge Belt and has been awarded to the winner since 1873 although Young Tom Morris, the winner in 1872 , is the first name engraved on it. (The Open was not held in 1871.) * Gold medal – awarded to the winner. First given out in 1872 when the Claret Jug was not yet ready, and since awarded to all champions. * Silver
Silver
medal – awarded since 1949 to the leading amateur completing the final round. * Bronze medal – awarded since 1972 to all other amateurs completing the final round.

The Professional Golfers\' Association (of Great Britain and Ireland) also mark the achievements of their own members in The Open.

* Ryle Memorial Medal – awarded since 1901 to the winner if he is a PGA member. * Braid Taylor Memorial Medal – awarded since 1966 to the highest finishing PGA member. * Tooting Bec Cup – awarded since 1924 to the PGA member who records the lowest single round during the championship.

The Braid Taylor Memorial Medal and the Tooting Bec Cup are restricted to members born in, or with a parent or parents born in, the UK or Republic of Ireland.

HOST COURSES

See also: List of The Open Championship venues Carnoustie St Andrews
St Andrews
Muirfield Turnberry Royal Troon Active venues in Scotland
Scotland
The 2018 venue (Carnoustie) is shown in green Royal Birkdale Royal Liverpool (Hoylake) Royal St George\'s Royal Lytham Active venues in England
England
The 2017 venue (Royal Birkdale) is shown in green Royal Portrush Active venue in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland

The common factor in the venues is links courses. The Open has always been played in Scotland, northwest England, and southeast England, along with one course in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
which will again stage the competition in 2019.

From 1860 to 1870 The Open was organised by and played at Prestwick Golf
Golf
Club . From its revival in 1872 until 1891 it was played on three courses in rotation: Prestwick, The Old Course at St Andrews
St Andrews
, and Musselburgh
Musselburgh
Links . In 1892 the newly built Muirfield replaced Musselburgh
Musselburgh
in the rotation. In 1893 two English courses, Royal St George\'s and Royal Liverpool Golf
Golf
Club, Hoylake , were invited to join the rotation with Royal St George's being allocated the 1894 Open and Royal Liverpool having the 1897 event. At a meeting in 1907 Royal Cinque Ports Golf
Golf
Club became the sixth course on the rota, being allocated the 1909 Open. With three courses in both England
England
and Scotland, the meeting also agreed that the Championship was to be played in England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
alternately. The alternation of venues in England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
continued until the Second World War.

The rotation of the six courses was reinstated after the First World War with Royal Cinque Ports hosting the first post-war Open in 1920. It had been chosen as the venue for the cancelled 1915 Open. In 1923 Troon was used instead of Muirfield when "some doubts exists as to the Honourable Company of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Golfers being desirous of their course being used for the event". Muirfield returned as the venue in 1929. Serious overcrowding problems at Prestwick in 1925 meant that the course was never again used for the Open and was replaced by Carnoustie as the third Scottish course. While Royal St George's and Royal Liverpool continued to be used at six-year intervals the third English course varied. After Royal Cinque Ports in 1920, Royal Lytham was used in 1926 and then Prince's in 1932. Royal Cinque Ports was intended as the venue in 1938 but in February of that year abnormal high tides caused severe flooding to the course leaving it like "an inland sea several feet deep" and the venue was switched to Royal St George's. Birkdale was chosen as the venue for 1940, although the event was cancelled because of the Second World War.

There are ten courses in the current rota, five in Scotland, four in England
England
and one in Northern Ireland. In recent times the Old Course has hosted the Open every five years. The remaining courses host the Open roughly every 10 years but the gaps between hosting Opens may be longer or shorter than this. In 2014, it was announced by The R the R&A
R&A
subsequently stated that Muirfield would be welcomed back to the Open rota.

From 1894 (when it was first played in England) to 2016, it has been played 62 times in Scotland, 49 times in England
England
and once in Northern Ireland. It was not until 2011 and 2012 that England
England
hosted consecutive Opens.

FUTURE VENUES

YEAR EDITION COURSE TOWN COUNTY COUNTRY DATES LAST HOSTED REF

2018 147th Carnoustie Golf
Golf
Links Carnoustie Angus Scotland
Scotland
19–22 July 2007

2019 148th Royal Portrush Golf
Golf
Club Portrush Antrim Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
18–21 July 1951

2020 149th Royal St George\'s Golf
Golf
Club Sandwich Kent
Kent
England
England
16–19 July 2011

QUALIFICATION

See also: 2017 Open Championship

The field for the Open is 156, and golfers gain a place in a number of ways. Most of the field is made up of leading players who are given exemptions. Further places are given to players who are successful in The Open Qualifying Series and in Final Qualifying. Any remaining places, and places made available because qualified players are not competing, are made available to the highest ranked players in the Official World Golf
Golf
Ranking .

There are currently 28 exemption categories. Among the more significant are:

* The top 50 on the Official World Golf
Golf
Ranking. This category means that no member of the current elite of world golf will be excluded. * The top 30 in the previous season's European Tour Race to Dubai and the 30 qualifiers for Tour Championship . Most of these players will also be in the World top 50. * All previous Open Champions who will be age 60 or under on the final day of the tournament. Each year a number of past champions choose not to compete. * All players who have won one of the other three majors in the previous five years. * The top 10 from the previous year's Open Championship. * The winners of The Amateur
Amateur
Championship and the U.S. Amateur (provided the winners maintain their amateur status prior to the tournament).

International qualifying is through the "Open Qualifying Series". Ten tournaments are selected each year. These currently consist of one event from the PGA Tour of Australasia , the Asian Tour , the Sunshine Tour and the Japan Golf Tour and three from the European Tour and the PGA Tour . A pre-allocated number of places are made available at these tournaments (from 1 to 4) which are given to the leading players in those events who are not, at that point, qualified for the Open, provided they finish in a high-enough position. A total of 32 places are available.

Local qualifying was the traditional way for non-exempt players to win a place at The Open. In recent years it has comprised a number of "Regional Qualifying" competitions around Britain and Ireland with successful competitors, joined by those players exempt from regional qualifying, playing in 36-hole "Final Qualifying" tournaments. There are 15 places available through Final Qualifying, three at each of the five venues.

TIMELINE OF QUALIFICATION CHANGES

Up to 1920 a variety of qualification systems were used. From 1921 to 1962 (except 1926) local qualifying was used. All those who entered played 18 holes on one of two courses and then played 18 holes on the other course the following day. Qualifying took place immediately before the Championship itself. In 1963 a system of exemptions for the leading players was introduced with local qualifying continuing for the remaining players. Since then a large number of changes have been made to the exemption criteria and to the qualifying system for the remaining players.

* 1907: Qualifying introduced for the first time. Players play 36 holes on one of two days. Top 30 and ties qualify on each day * 1908: Players play on either the first morning and second afternoon or the first afternoon and second morning. Top 30 and ties qualify from each group * 1909: Same but each of the two groups has to contain at least 30 professionals * 1910: Qualifying dropped * 1912: Qualifying reintroduced. Players play 36 holes on one of three days. Top 20 and ties qualify on each day * 1914. Qualifying over two days using two courses. Exactly 100 players qualify. 18-hole playoff the following day for those tied for final places. This was the first occasion on which qualifying did not take place on the championship course. * 1920: Separate qualifying for amateurs and professionals. Amateurs qualify at the Open venue (total of 8 places with the Amateur
Amateur
Champion receiving automatic entry). Professionals qualified using two courses in Surrey. Top 72 and ties qualify * 1921: Local qualifying reintroduced using two courses. Generally the Championship course is used together with a nearby course. Top 80 and ties qualify * 1926: Regional qualifying used. Total of 101 and ties qualify at one of three venues (southern, central, northern) * 1927: Local qualifying reintroduced. Top 100 and ties qualify * 1937: Top 140 and ties qualify * 1938: Maximum of 130 players qualify. Ties for 130th place did not qualify * 1946: Maximum of 100 players qualify. Ties for 100th place did not qualify * 1961: Maximum of 120 players qualify. Ties for 120th place did not qualify * 1963: Exemption from qualifying introduced for the leading players including past 10 Open champions. Local qualifying continues for the remainder of the field but now two separate competitions are held with a preallocated number of places available. Two courses near the Open venue are used but not the Open venue itself. Playoff for those tied for final places. Total of 120 qualify * 1965: Total of 130 qualify * 1968: Exemption extended all previous Open champions * 1971: Total of 150 qualify * 1984: Exemption for previous Open champions aged under 65 * 1995: Exemption for previous Open champions extended to those aged 65 or under * 2004: International Final Qualifying introduced * 2008: Exemption for previous Open champions restricted to those aged 60 or under (with transitional arrangement for those born between 1942 and 1948) * 2014: Open Qualifying Series introduced replacing International Final Qualifying

TOURNAMENT NAME

In Britain, the tournament is best known by its official title, The Open Championship, or simply the Open. Outside of the United Kingdom, the tournament is often referred to as the "British Open" to disambiguate the tournament from other national open golf tournaments , such as the U.S. Open . Likewise, the Masters and PGA Championship are often referred to as the "U.S. Masters" and "U.S. PGA Championship" outside of the United States, the latter being distinguished in the UK from the European Tour's BMW PGA Championship . In recent years, the R for instance, the tournament's current television deal with U.S. network NBC contractually forbids the broadcaster from doing so. Lead personality Johnny Miller admitted that he had "trouble" with the mandate during NBC's first year, sometimes having to correct himself on-air when accidentally referring to the event as the British Open. The Open's women's counterpart, however, is officially titled the Women\'s British Open .

Some U.S. critics have argued that the insistence of referring to the tournament as "The Open" expresses an opinion of exceptionalism for the event by the R about $8.6 million and $1.55 million. The other majors had prize money of at least $10.0 million and first prizes of at least $1.8 million. The relative decline in prize money, in dollar terms, was attributable to a fall in the £/$ exchange rate .

For the first time in 2017 , the prize money was denominated in U.S. dollars. With total prize money of $10.25 million (£7.89 million), it was somewhat lower than the $11 million at the Masters and $12 million for the U.S. Open .

There was no prize money in the first three Opens. In 1863 , a prize fund of ten pounds was introduced, which was shared between the second-, third-, and fourth-placed professionals, with the champion keeping the belt for a year. Old Tom Morris won the first champion's cash prize of six pounds in 1864 .

Until the late 1990s, The Open prize fund was significantly lower than the other three majors; by 2002 , it was the highest.

RECORDS

* Oldest winner: Old Tom Morris (7004169030000000000♠46 years, 102 days), 1867 . * Youngest winner: Young Tom Morris (7003636600000000000♠17 years, 156 days), 1868. * Most victories: 6, Harry Vardon
Harry Vardon
(1896, 1898, 1899, 1903, 1911, 1914). * Most consecutive victories: 4, Young Tom Morris (1868, 1869, 1870, 1872 – there was no championship in 1871). * Lowest score after 36 holes: 130, Nick Faldo
Nick Faldo
(66-64), 1992; Brandt Snedeker (66-64), 2012 * Lowest score after 54 holes: 198, Tom Lehman
Tom Lehman
(67-67-64), 1996 * Lowest final score (72 holes): 264, Henrik Stenson (68-65-68-63, 264), 2016. * Lowest final score (72 holes) in relation to par: −20, Henrik Stenson (68-65-68-63, 264), 2016. * Greatest victory margin: 13 strokes, Old Tom Morris, 1862. This remained a record for all majors until 2000, when Woods won the U.S. Open by 15 strokes at Pebble Beach . Old Tom's 13-stroke margin was achieved over just 36 holes. * Lowest round: 62, Branden Grace
Branden Grace
, 3rd round, 2017; a record for all majors. * Lowest round in relation to par: −9, Paul Broadhurst , 3rd round, 1990; Rory McIlroy , 1st round, 2010. * Wire-to-wire winners (after 72 holes with no ties after rounds): Ted Ray in 1912, Bobby Jones in 1927, Gene Sarazen in 1932, Henry Cotton in 1934, Tom Weiskopf in 1973, Tiger Woods
Tiger Woods
in 2005, and Rory McIlroy in 2014. * Most runner-up finishes: 7, Jack Nicklaus (1964, 1967, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1977, 1979)

CHAMPIONS

See also: List of The Open Championship champions

YEAR DATES CHAMPION COUNTRY VENUE Winning score Winning margin RUNNER(S)-UP Winner's share (£ )

2017 20–23 Jul Jordan Spieth
Jordan Spieth
United States Royal Birkdale 268 (−12) 3 strokes Matt Kuchar
Matt Kuchar
1,420,000

2016 14–17 Jul Henrik Stenson Sweden
Sweden
Royal Troon 264 (−20) 3 strokes Phil Mickelson 1,175,000

2015 16–20 Jul Zach Johnson
Zach Johnson
United States St Andrews
St Andrews
273 (−15) Playoff Marc Leishman
Marc Leishman
Louis Oosthuizen 1,150,000

2014 17–20 Jul Rory McIlroy Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Royal Liverpool 271 (−17) 2 strokes Rickie Fowler Sergio García
Sergio García
975,000

2013 18–21 Jul Phil Mickelson United States Muirfield 281 (−3) 3 strokes Henrik Stenson 945,000

2012 19–22 Jul Ernie Els (2) South Africa
South Africa
Royal Lytham & St Annes 273 (−7) 1 stroke Adam Scott 900,000

2011 14–17 Jul Darren Clarke
Darren Clarke
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Royal St George\'s 275 (−5) 3 strokes Dustin Johnson
Dustin Johnson
Phil Mickelson 900,000

2010 15–18 Jul Louis Oosthuizen South Africa
South Africa
St Andrews
St Andrews
272 (−16) 7 strokes Lee Westwood 850,000

2009 16–19 Jul Stewart Cink United States Turnberry 278 (−2) Playoff Tom Watson 750,000

2008 17–20 Jul Pádraig Harrington
Pádraig Harrington
(2) Ireland Royal Birkdale 283 (+3) 4 strokes Ian Poulter 750,000

2007 19–22 Jul Pádraig Harrington
Pádraig Harrington
Ireland Carnoustie 277 (−7) Playoff Sergio García
Sergio García
750,000

2006 20–23 Jul Tiger Woods
Tiger Woods
(3) United States Royal Liverpool 270 (−18) 2 strokes Chris DiMarco 720,000

2005 14–17 Jul Tiger Woods
Tiger Woods
(2) United States St Andrews
St Andrews
274 (−14) 5 strokes Colin Montgomerie
Colin Montgomerie
720,000

2004 15–18 Jul Todd Hamilton United States Royal Troon 274 (−10) Playoff Ernie Els 720,000

2003 17–20 Jul Ben Curtis United States Royal St George\'s 283 (−1) 1 stroke Thomas Bjørn
Thomas Bjørn
Vijay Singh 700,000

2002 18–21 Jul Ernie Els South Africa
South Africa
Muirfield 278 (−6) Playoff Stuart Appleby Steve Elkington Thomas Levet 700,000

2001 19–22 Jul David Duval
David Duval
United States Royal Lytham & St Annes 274 (−10) 3 strokes Niclas Fasth 600,000

2000 20–23 Jul Tiger Woods
Tiger Woods
United States St Andrews
St Andrews
269 (−19) 8 strokes Thomas Bjørn
Thomas Bjørn
Ernie Els 500,000

1999 15–18 Jul Paul Lawrie Scotland
Scotland
Carnoustie 290 (+6) Playoff Justin Leonard Jean van de Velde 350,000

1998 16–19 Jul Mark O\'Meara United States Royal Birkdale 280 (E) Playoff Brian Watts 300,000

1997 17–20 Jul Justin Leonard United States Royal Troon 272 (−12) 3 strokes Darren Clarke
Darren Clarke
Jesper Parnevik 250,000

1996 18–21 Jul Tom Lehman
Tom Lehman
United States Royal Lytham & St Annes 271 (−13) 2 strokes Ernie Els Mark McCumber 200,000

1995 20–23 Jul John Daly United States St Andrews
St Andrews
282 (−6) Playoff Costantino Rocca 125,000

1994 14–17 Jul Nick Price Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Turnberry 268 (−12) 1 stroke Jesper Parnevik 110,000

1993 15–18 Jul Greg Norman (2) Australia
Australia
Royal St George\'s 267 (−13) 2 strokes Nick Faldo
Nick Faldo
100,000

1992 16–19 Jul Nick Faldo
Nick Faldo
(3) England
England
Muirfield 272 (−12) 1 stroke John Cook 95,000

1991 18–21 Jul Ian Baker-Finch Australia
Australia
Royal Birkdale 272 (−8) 2 strokes Mike Harwood
Mike Harwood
90,000

1990 19–22 Jul Nick Faldo
Nick Faldo
(2) England
England
St Andrews
St Andrews
270 (−18) 5 strokes Mark McNulty Payne Stewart
Payne Stewart
85,000

1989 20–23 Jul Mark Calcavecchia
Mark Calcavecchia
United States Royal Troon 275 (−13) Playoff Wayne Grady Greg Norman 80,000

1988 14–18 Jul Seve Ballesteros
Seve Ballesteros
(3) Spain
Spain
Royal Lytham & St Annes 273 (−11) 2 strokes Nick Price 80,000

1987 16–19 Jul Nick Faldo
Nick Faldo
England
England
Muirfield 279 (−5) 1 stroke Paul Azinger Rodger Davis 75,000

1986 17–20 Jul Greg Norman Australia
Australia
Turnberry 280 (E) 5 strokes Gordon J. Brand 70,000

1985 18–21 Jul Sandy Lyle Scotland
Scotland
Royal St George\'s 282 (+2) 1 stroke Payne Stewart
Payne Stewart
65,000

1984 19–22 Jul Seve Ballesteros
Seve Ballesteros
(2) Spain
Spain
St Andrews
St Andrews
276 (−12) 2 strokes Bernhard Langer Tom Watson 55,000

1983 14–17 Jul Tom Watson (5) United States Royal Birkdale 275 (−9) 1 stroke Andy Bean Hale Irwin 40,000

1982 15–18 Jul Tom Watson (4) United States Royal Troon 284 (−4) 1 stroke Peter Oosterhuis Nick Price 32,000

1981 16–19 Jul Bill Rogers United States Royal St George\'s 276 (−4) 4 strokes Bernhard Langer 25,000

1980 17–20 Jul Tom Watson (3) United States Muirfield 271 (−13) 4 strokes Lee Trevino 25,000

1979 18–21 Jul Seve Ballesteros
Seve Ballesteros
Spain
Spain
Royal Lytham & St Annes 283 (−1) 3 strokes Ben Crenshaw
Ben Crenshaw
Jack Nicklaus 15,000

1978 12–15 Jul Jack Nicklaus (3) United States St Andrews
St Andrews
281 (−7) 2 strokes Ben Crenshaw
Ben Crenshaw
Raymond Floyd Tom Kite Simon Owen 12,500

1977 6–9 Jul Tom Watson (2) United States Turnberry 268 (−12) 1 stroke Jack Nicklaus 10,000

1976 7–10 Jul Johnny Miller United States Royal Birkdale 279 (−9) 6 strokes Seve Ballesteros
Seve Ballesteros
Jack Nicklaus 7,500

1975 9–13 Jul Tom Watson United States Carnoustie 279 (−9) Playoff Jack Newton 7,500

1974 10–13 Jul Gary Player (3) South Africa
South Africa
Royal Lytham & St Annes 282 (−2) 4 strokes Peter Oosterhuis 5,500

1973 11–14 Jul Tom Weiskopf United States Troon 276 (−12) 3 strokes Neil Coles Johnny Miller 5,500

1972 12–15 Jul Lee Trevino (2) United States Muirfield 278 (−6) 1 stroke Jack Nicklaus 5,500

1971 7–10 Jul Lee Trevino United States Royal Birkdale 278 (−14) 1 stroke Lu Liang-Huan 5,500

1970 8–12 Jul Jack Nicklaus (2) United States St Andrews
St Andrews
283 (−5) Playoff Doug Sanders 5,250

1969 9–12 Jul Tony Jacklin England
England
Royal Lytham & St Annes 280 (−4) 2 strokes Bob Charles 4,250

1968 10–13 Jul Gary Player (2) South Africa
South Africa
Carnoustie 289 (+1) 2 strokes Bob Charles Jack Nicklaus 3,000

1967 12–15 Jul Roberto De Vicenzo
Roberto De Vicenzo
Argentina
Argentina
Royal Liverpool 278 (−10) 2 strokes Jack Nicklaus 2,100

1966 6–9 Jul Jack Nicklaus United States Muirfield 282 (−2) 1 stroke Doug Sanders Dave Thomas 2,100

1965 7–9 Jul Peter Thomson (5) Australia
Australia
Royal Birkdale 285 (−3) 2 strokes Brian Huggett Christy O\'Connor Snr 1,750

1964 8–10 Jul Tony Lema United States St Andrews
St Andrews
279 (−9) 5 strokes Jack Nicklaus 1,500

1963 10–13 Jul Bob Charles New Zealand
New Zealand
Royal Lytham & St Annes 277 (−3) Playoff Phil Rodgers 1,500

1962 11–13 Jul Arnold Palmer (2) United States Troon 276 (−12) 6 strokes Kel Nagle 1,400

1961 12–15 Jul Arnold Palmer United States Royal Birkdale 284 (−4) 1 stroke Dai Rees 1,400

1960 6–9 Jul Kel Nagle Australia
Australia
St Andrews
St Andrews
278 (−10) 1 stroke Arnold Palmer 1,250

1959 1–3 Jul Gary Player South Africa
South Africa
Muirfield 284 (E) 2 strokes Fred Bullock Flory Van Donck 1,000

1958 2–5 Jul Peter Thomson (4) Australia
Australia
Royal Lytham & St Annes 278 (−6) Playoff Dave Thomas 1,000

1957 3–5 Jul Bobby Locke (4) South Africa
South Africa
St Andrews
St Andrews
279 (−9) 3 strokes Peter Thomson 1,000

1956 4–6 Jul Peter Thomson (3) Australia
Australia
Royal Liverpool 286 (+2) 3 strokes Flory Van Donck 1,000

1955 6–8 Jul Peter Thomson (2) Australia
Australia
St Andrews
St Andrews
281 (−7) 2 strokes John Fallon 1,000

1954 7–9 Jul Peter Thomson Australia
Australia
Royal Birkdale 283 (−5) 1 stroke Bobby Locke Dai Rees Syd Scott 750

1953 8–10 Jul Ben Hogan United States Carnoustie 282 (−6) 4 strokes Antonio Cerdá Dai Rees Frank Stranahan (a) Peter Thomson 500

1952 9–11 Jul Bobby Locke (3) South Africa
South Africa
Royal Lytham & St Annes 287 (−1) 1 stroke Peter Thomson 300

1951 4–6 Jul Max Faulkner England
England
Royal Portrush 285 (−3) 2 strokes Antonio Cerdá 300

1950 5–7 Jul Bobby Locke (2) South Africa
South Africa
Troon 279 (−9) 2 strokes Roberto de Vicenzo
Roberto de Vicenzo
300

1949 6–9 Jul Bobby Locke South Africa
South Africa
Royal St George\'s 283 (−5) Playoff Harry Bradshaw 300

1948 30 Jun – 2 Jul Henry Cotton (3) England
England
Muirfield 284 (E) 5 strokes Fred Daly 150

1947 2–4 Jul Fred Daly Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Royal Liverpool 293 (+5) 1 stroke Reg Horne Frank Stranahan (a) 150

1946 3–5 Jul Sam Snead United States St Andrews
St Andrews
290 (+2) 4 strokes Johnny Bulla Bobby Locke 150

1940–45: No Championships because of World War II
World War II

1939 5–7 Jul Dick Burton England
England
St Andrews
St Andrews
290 (−2) 2 strokes Johnny Bulla 100

1938 6–8 Jul Reg Whitcombe England
England
Royal St George\'s 295 (+15) 2 strokes Jimmy Adams 100

1937 7–9 Jul Henry Cotton (2) England
England
Carnoustie 290 2 strokes Reg Whitcombe 100

1936 25–27 Jun Alf Padgham England
England
Royal Liverpool 287 1 stroke Jimmy Adams 100

1935 26–28 Jun Alf Perry England
England
Muirfield 283 4 strokes Alf Padgham 100

1934 27–29 Jun Henry Cotton England
England
Royal St George\'s 283 5 strokes Sid Brews 100

1933 5–8 Jul Denny Shute United States St Andrews
St Andrews
292 Playoff Craig Wood 100

1932 8–10 Jun Gene Sarazen United States Prince\'s 283 5 strokes Macdonald Smith 100

1931 3–5 Jun Tommy Armour United States Carnoustie 296 1 stroke José Jurado 100

1930 18–20 Jun Bobby Jones (a) (3) United States Royal Liverpool 291 2 strokes Leo Diegel Macdonald Smith 100

1929 8–10 May Walter Hagen (4) United States Muirfield 292 6 strokes Johnny Farrell 75

1928 9–11 May Walter Hagen (3) United States Royal St George\'s 292 2 strokes Gene Sarazen 75

1927 13–15 Jul Bobby Jones (a) (2) United States St Andrews
St Andrews
285 6 strokes Aubrey Boomer Fred Robson 75

1926 23–25 Jun Bobby Jones (a) United States Royal Lytham -webkit-column-width: 25em; column-width: 25em;">

* 1949 – Frank Stranahan * 1950 – Frank Stranahan (2) * 1951 – Frank Stranahan (3) * 1952 – Jackie Jones * 1953 – Frank Stranahan (4) * 1954 – Peter Toogood * 1955 – Joe Conrad * 1956 – Joe Carr * 1957 – Dickson Smith * 1958 – Joe Carr (2) * 1959 – Reid Jack * 1960 – Guy Wolstenholme * 1961 – Ronnie White * 1962 – Charlie Green * 1963 – none * 1964 – none * 1965 – Michael Burgess * 1966 – Ronnie Shade * 1967 – none * 1968 – Michael Bonallack * 1969 – Peter Tupling * 1970 – Steve Melnyk * 1971 – Michael Bonallack (2) * 1972 – none * 1973 – Danny Edwards * 1974 – none * 1975 – none * 1976 – none * 1977 – none * 1978 – Peter McEvoy * 1979 – Peter McEvoy (2) * 1980 – Jay Sigel * 1981 – Hal Sutton * 1982 – Malcolm Lewis * 1983 – none * 1984 – none * 1985 – José María Olazábal
José María Olazábal
* 1986 – none * 1987 – Paul Mayo * 1988 – Paul Broadhurst * 1989 – Russell Claydon * 1990 – none * 1991 – Jim Payne * 1992 – Daren Lee * 1993 – Iain Pyman * 1994 – Warren Bennett * 1995 – Steve Webster * 1996 – Tiger Woods
Tiger Woods
* 1997 – Barclay Howard * 1998 – Justin Rose * 1999 – none * 2000 – none * 2001 – David Dixon * 2002 – none * 2003 – none * 2004 – Stuart Wilson * 2005 – Lloyd Saltman * 2006 – Marius Thorp * 2007 – Rory McIlroy * 2008 – Chris Wood * 2009 – Matteo Manassero * 2010 – Jin Jeong * 2011 – Tom Lewis * 2012 – none * 2013 – Matthew Fitzpatrick
Matthew Fitzpatrick
* 2014 – none * 2015 – Jordan Niebrugge * 2016 – none * 2017 – Alfie Plant

BROADCASTING

As of 2016, European Tour Productions serves as the host broadcaster for the Open Championship. The host broadcaster, as well as British and American broadcasters Sky Sports and NBC Sports , utilized a total of 175 cameras during the 2016 tournament. For more details on this topic, see List of The Open Championship broadcasters .

UNITED KINGDOM

In the United Kingdom, the Open Championship was historically broadcast by the BBC —a relationship which lasted from 1955 to 2015. The BBC's rights to the Open had been threatened by the event's removal from Category
Category
A of Ofcom 's "listed" events , a status which legally mandated that the Open be broadcast in its entirety by a terrestrial broadcaster. It had since been moved to Category
Category
B, meaning that television rights to the tournament could now be acquired by a pay television outlet, such as BT Sport
BT Sport
or Sky Sports , as long as rights to broadcast a highlights programme are given to one of the main terrestrial broadcasters.

Former R&A
R&A
chief executive Peter Dawson had been critical of the quality of the BBC's television coverage in recent years, stating alongside its final renewal in 2010 that "They know we've got our eye on them. You have to stay in practice and keep up with advances in technology." The Guardian
The Guardian
felt that the R&A
R&A
was being "pressured" to negotiate a more lucrative broadcast deal, as the other three majors have in the United States, but also argued that viewer interest in golf could face further declines in the UK without widely available coverage.

On 3 February 2015, the R early round coverage airs on Golf
Golf
Channel , with the main NBC network broadcasting live weekend coverage. The R the Golf
Golf
Channel cable network will have a total of 34.5 hours of coverage, with 29 hours on Thursday and Friday, and 5.5 hours on Saturday and Sunday. The NBC broadcast network will have a total of 15 hours of coverage on the weekend, with 8 hours Saturday, and 7 hours Sunday. The 49.5 total hours of coverage on Golf
Golf
Channel and NBC remains unchanged from 2016, with the difference being that Golf
Golf
Channel's total coverage goes down thirty minutes from 35 hours to 34.5 hours, and NBC's total coverage goes up thirty minutes from 14.5 hours to 15 hours.

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ "Prestwick Golf
Golf
Club details". theopen.com. Retrieved 23 December 2015. * ^ Joy, David (June 2003). "Prestwick Golf
Golf
Club". Links Magazine. Retrieved 1 February 2016. * ^ A B "Claret Jug". theopen.com. Retrieved 16 June 2016. * ^ "Ryle Memorial Medal" (PDF). Professional Golfers\' Association . Retrieved 9 November 2014. * ^ "Braid Taylor Memorial Medal" (PDF). Professional Golfers' Association. Retrieved 9 November 2014. * ^ "Tooting Bec Cup" (PDF). Professional Golfers' Association. Retrieved 9 November 2014. * ^ "The Open Golf
Golf
Championship". The Times. 10 July 1893. p. 7. * ^ "The Open Championship". The Times. 18 November 1907. p. 12. * ^ "The Golf
Golf
Championship - Official announcement". The Times. 14 April 1915. p. 16. * ^ "The Championships". The Times. 22 May 1922. p. 22. * ^ "Gales and snow - Damage on east coast - Widespread flooding". The Times. 14 February 1938. p. 12. * ^ " Golf
Golf
- The Open and Amateur
Amateur
Championships - New Conditions". The Times. 12 February 1938. p. 4. * ^ " Golf
Golf
Championships for 1940". The Times. 21 January 1939. p. 4. * ^ "The Open: Press conference confirms Royal Portrush". BBC News. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014. * ^ "Royal Portrush to host The 148th Open in 2019". theopen.com. Retrieved 20 October 2015. * ^ " Muirfield to lose right to host Open after vote against allowing women members". BBC Sport. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016. * ^ "Carnoustie". theopen.com. Retrieved 20 October 2015. * ^ "Royal Portrush". theopen.com. Retrieved 20 October 2015. * ^ "Royal St George\'s". theopen.com. Retrieved 20 October 2015. * ^ " The Open Championship
The Open Championship
– Entry Form" (PDF). theopen.com. Retrieved 28 January 2015. * ^ "Qualification". theopen.com. Retrieved 16 June 2016. * ^ A B C D Costa, Brian (18 July 2017). "Dear American Twits, This Golf