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Brighton
Brighton
/ˈbraɪtən/ ( listen) is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove, East Sussex.[1] Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age, Roman and Anglo-Saxon periods. The ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" was documented in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
(1086). The town's importance grew in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
as the Old Town developed, but it languished in the early modern period, affected by foreign attacks, storms, a suffering economy and a declining population. Brighton
Brighton
began to attract more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France. The town also developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported cure for illnesses. In the Georgian era, Brighton
Brighton
developed as a fashionable seaside resort, encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent, later King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion in the Regency era. Brighton
Brighton
continued to grow as a major centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, becoming a popular destination for day-trippers from London. Many of the major attractions were built in the Victorian era, including the Grand Hotel, the West Pier, and the Brighton
Brighton
Palace Pier. The town continued to grow into the 20th century, expanding to incorporate more areas into the town's boundaries before joining the town of Hove
Hove
to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
in 1997, which was granted city status in 2000.[2] Brighton's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large cultural, music and arts scene[3] and its large LGBT population, leading to its recognition as the "unofficial gay capital of the UK".[4] Brighton
Brighton
attracted 7.5 million day visitors in 2015/16 and 4.9 million overnight visitors,[5] and is the most popular seaside destination in the UK for overseas tourists.[6] Brighton
Brighton
has also been called the UK's "hippest city",[7] and "the happiest place to live in the UK".[8]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Homelessness in Brighton 4 Geography and topography

4.1 Climate 4.2 Boundaries and areas

5 Governance and politics 6 Economy

6.1 Commerce and industry 6.2 Retail

7 Landmarks

7.1 Churches and places of worship 7.2 Beaches

8 Culture

8.1 Cinema 8.2 Festivals and rallies 8.3 Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community 8.4 Museums 8.5 Night-life and popular music 8.6 Notable residents 8.7 Restaurants 8.8 Theatre

9 Education 10 Sport 11 Transport 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 External links

Etymology[edit]

Queens Road, one of the oldest streets in Brighton

Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone (or Brighthelmston) was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries.[9][10] Brighton
Brighton
was originally an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660; it gradually supplanted the longer name, and was in general use from the late 18th century. Brighthelmstone was the town's official name until 1810, though.[10] The name is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Old English name associated with villages elsewhere in England.[10] The tūn element is common in Sussex, especially on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name.[11] An alternative etymology taken from the Old English words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance.[10] Brighthelm gives its name to, among other things, a church[12] and a pub in Brighton[13] and some halls of residence at the University of Sussex.[14] Writing in 1950, historian Antony Dale noted that unnamed antiquaries had suggested an Old English word "brist" or "briz", meaning "divided", could have contributed the first part of the historic name Brighthelmstone. The town was originally split in half by the Wellesbourne, a winterbourne which was culverted and buried in the 18th century.[15] Brighton
Brighton
has several nicknames. Poet Horace Smith called it "The Queen of Watering Places", which is still widely used,[16] and "Old Ocean's Bauble".[17] Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray
William Makepeace Thackeray
referred to "Doctor Brighton", calling the town "one of the best of Physicians". "London-by-Sea" is well-known, reflecting Brighton's popularity with Londoners as a day-trip resort, a commuter dormitory and a desirable destination for those wanting to move out of the metropolis. "The Queen of Slaughtering Places", a pun on Smith's description, became popular when the Brighton trunk murders
Brighton trunk murders
came to the public's attention in the 1930s.[17] The mid 19th-century nickname "School Town" referred to the remarkable number of boarding, charity and church schools in the town at the time.[18] History[edit] Main article: History of Brighton

Brighton, The Front and the Chain Pier Seen in the Distance, Frederick William Woledge, 1840.

The first settlement in the Brighton
Brighton
area was Whitehawk
Whitehawk
Camp, a Neolithic
Neolithic
encampment on Whitehawk Hill
Whitehawk Hill
which has been dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC.[19] It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex. Archaeologists have only partially explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds, tools and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance.[20] There was also a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts
Celts
arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC,[19] and an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury
Hollingbury
Camp on Hollingbury
Hollingbury
Hill. This Celtic Iron Age
Iron Age
encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 1,000 feet (300 m). Cissbury Ring, roughly 10 miles (16 km) from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital".[21] Later, there was a Roman villa
Roman villa
at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, and much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally.[19] From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton
Brighton
and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area.[22] After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton
Brighton
area returned to the control of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
then invaded in the late 5th century AD, and the region became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Ælle.[23] Anthony Seldon
Anthony Seldon
identified five phases of development in pre-20th century Brighton.[24] The village of Bristelmestune was founded by these Anglo-Saxon invaders, probably in the early Saxon period. They were attracted by the easy access for boats, sheltered areas of raised land for building, and better conditions compared to the damp, cold and misty Weald
Weald
to the north.[25] By the time of the Domesday survey in 1086 it was a fishing and agricultural settlement, a rent of 4,000 herring was established, and its population was about 400.[9][19] Its importance grew from the Norman era onwards. By the 14th century there was a parish church, a market and rudimentary law enforcement (the first town constable was elected in 1285).[26] Sacked and burnt by French invaders in the early 16th century—the earliest depiction of Brighton, a painting of c. 1520, shows Admiral Pregent de Bidoux's attack of June 1514—the town recovered strongly based on a thriving mackerel-fishing industry.[27] The grid of streets in the Old Town (the present Lanes area) were well developed and the town grew quickly: the population rose from c. 1,500 in 1600 to c. 4,000 in the 1640s.[19] By that time Brighton
Brighton
was Sussex's most populous and important town.[27] Having lost the Battle of Worcester, King Charles II, after hiding for 42 days in various places, fled on the evening of 15 October 1651 in the "Surprise" from Brighthelmstone to his exile in Fécamp, France. Over the next few decades, though, events severely affected its local and national standing, such that by 1730 "it was a forlorn town decidedly down on its luck". More foreign attacks, storms (especially the devastating Great Storm of 1703), a declining fishing industry, and the emergence of nearby Shoreham as a significant port caused its economy to suffer.[27] By 1708 other parishes in Sussex
Sussex
were charged rates to alleviate poverty in Brighton, and Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
wrote that the expected £8,000 cost of providing sea defences was "more than the whole town was worth". The population declined to 2,000 in the early 18th century.[19] From the 1730s, Brighton
Brighton
entered its second phase of development—one which brought a rapid improvement in its fortunes. The contemporary fad for drinking and bathing in seawater as a purported cure for illnesses was enthusiastically encouraged by Dr Richard Russell from nearby Lewes. He sent many patients to "take the cure" in the sea at Brighton, published a popular treatise[note 1] on the subject, and moved to the town soon afterwards (the Royal Albion, one of Brighton's early hotels, occupies the site of his house).[29] Others were already visiting the town for recreational purposes before Russell became famous, and his actions coincided with other developments which made Brighton
Brighton
more attractive to visitors. From the 1760s it was a boarding point for boats travelling to France; road transport to London was improved[30] when the main road via Crawley
Crawley
was turnpiked in 1770;[31] and spas and indoor baths were opened by other entrepreneurial physicians such as Sake Dean Mahomed
Sake Dean Mahomed
and Anthony Relhan (who also wrote the town's first guidebook).[30]

Photochrom
Photochrom
of Brighton
Brighton
aquarium, 1890–1900

From 1780, development of the Georgian terraces had started, and the fishing village developed as the fashionable resort of Brighton. Growth of the town was further encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent (later King George IV) after his first visit in 1783.[32] He spent much of his leisure time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion
Royal Pavilion
during the early part of his Regency. In this period the modern form of the name Brighton
Brighton
came into common use.[33] A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Preston Barracks
Preston Barracks
in 1793.[34] The arrival of the London and Brighton Railway
London and Brighton Railway
in 1841 brought Brighton
Brighton
within the reach of day-trippers from London. The population grew from around 7,000 in 1801 to more than 120,000 by 1901.[35] Many of the major attractions were built during the Victorian era, such as the Grand Hotel (1864), the West Pier
West Pier
(1866), and the Palace Pier (1899). Prior to either of these structures, the famous Chain Pier was built, to the designs of Captain Samuel Brown. It lasted from 1823 to 1896, and is featured in paintings by both Turner and Constable.[36] Because of boundary changes, the land area of Brighton
Brighton
expanded from 1,640 acres (7 km2) in 1854 to 14,347 acres (58 km2) in 1952.[37] New housing estates were established in the acquired areas, including Moulsecoomb, Bevendean, Coldean
Coldean
and Whitehawk. The major expansion of 1928 also incorporated the villages of Patcham, Ovingdean
Ovingdean
and Rottingdean, and much council housing was built in parts of Woodingdean
Woodingdean
after the Second World War. In 1997, Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
were joined to form the unitary authority of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove, which was granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
as part of the millennium celebrations in 2000. Homelessness in Brighton[edit] In 2016, Government figures analysed by the charity Shelter revealed that Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
had the worst rate for homelessness outside London and is worse than some boroughs in the capital. Based on the Freedom of Information data there are 4,095 people sleeping rough or in emergency or temporary accommodation in the city, suggesting that one in 69 people in Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
was homeless.[38] In a charity report issued in November 2016, three areas in Brighton
Brighton
& Hove, East Brighton, Queen’s Park, and Moulsecoomb
Moulsecoomb
& Bevendean
Bevendean
ranked in the top ten per cent nationally for deprivation.[39] Although deprivation in Brighton
Brighton
is distributed across the whole of the city it is more concentrated in some areas than others. The highest concentration of deprivation is in the Whitehawk, Moulsecoomb, and Hollingbury
Hollingbury
areas of the city but is also found around the St. James’s Street and Eastern Road areas.[40] A 2015 government statistic showed that the area around Brighton’s Palace Pier roundabout and to the east towards St James’s Street in Kemptown is the seventh worst ‘living environment’ in England.[41] On 19 January 2017, Brighton
Brighton
council announced they were looking at certain initiatives to try and alleviate some of the increasing homelessness seen on Brighton's streets and were hoping to open the first in-house temporary housing for homeless people in the city.[42] Geography and topography[edit]

To the east of Brighton, chalk cliffs protected by a sea-wall rise from the beach.

The underground Wellesbourne can rise to the surface during heavy rain, as in November 2000 when it flooded the London Road in Preston village.

Brighton
Brighton
lies between the South Downs
South Downs
and the English Channel
English Channel
to the north and south, respectively. The Sussex
Sussex
coast forms a wide, shallow bay between the headlands of Selsey Bill
Selsey Bill
and Beachy Head; Brighton developed near the centre of this bay around a seasonal river, the Wellesbourne (or Whalesbone), which flowed from the South Downs
South Downs
above Patcham.[9][43] This emptied into the English Channel
English Channel
at the beach near the East Cliff, forming "the natural drainage point for Brighton".[44] Behind the estuary was a stagnant pond called the Pool or Poole, so named since the medieval era.[note 2] This was built over with houses and shops from 1793, when the Wellesbourne was culverted to prevent flooding,[44][45] and only the name of the road (Pool Valley, originally Pool Lane)[46] marks its site. One original house survives from the time of the pool's enclosure.[9] Behind Pool Valley is Old Steine (historically The Steyne), originally a flat and marshy area where fishermen dried their nets. The Wellesbourne occasionally reappears during times of prolonged heavy rain; author Mark Antony Lower referred to an early 19th-century drawing of the Royal Pavilion showing "quite a pool of water across the Steyne".[47] Despite 16th-century writer Andrew Boorde's claim that "Bryght-Hempston [is] among the noble ports and havens of the realm",[48] Brighton
Brighton
never developed as a significant port: rather, it was considered as part of Shoreham. Nevertheless, the descriptions "Port of Brighthelmston" or "Port of Brighton" were sometimes used between the 14th and 19th centuries, as for example in 1766 when its notional limits were defined for customs purposes.[49] The East Cliff runs for several miles from Pool Valley towards Rottingdean
Rottingdean
and Saltdean, reaching 24 metres (80 ft) above sea level. The soil beneath it, a mixture of alluvium and clay with some flint and chalk rubble, has experienced erosion for many years.[50] The cliff itself, like the rest of Brighton's soil, is chalk.[9] Below this are thin layers of Upper and Lower Greensand separated by a thicker band of Gault
Gault
clay.[51] The land slopes upwards gradually from south to north towards the top of the Downs. Main transport links developed along the floor of the Wellesbourne valley, from which the land climbs steeply—particularly on the east side. The earliest settlement was by the beach at the bottom of the valley,[43] which was partly protected from erosion by an underwater shale-bar. Changes in sea level affected the foreshore several times: 40 acres (16 ha) disappeared in the first half of the 14th century,[52] and the Great Storm of 1703
Great Storm of 1703
caused widespread destruction. The first sea defences were erected in 1723,[52] and a century later a long sea-wall was built.[50] Climate[edit] See also: Climate of the United Kingdom Brighton
Brighton
has a temperate climate: its Köppen climate classification is Cfb. It is characterised by mild, calm weather with high levels of sunshine, sea breezes and a "healthy, bracing air" attributed to the low level of tree cover.[53] Average rainfall levels increase as the land rises: the 1958–1990 mean was 740 millimetres (29 in) on the seafront and about 1,000 millimetres (39 in) at the top of the South Downs
South Downs
above Brighton.[53] Storms caused serious damage in 1703, 1806, 1824, 1836, 1848, 1850, 1896, 1910 and 1987. Snow is rare, but particularly severe falls were recorded in 1881 and 1967.[53]

Climate data for Brighton

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 8 (46) 8 (46) 9 (49) 12 (53) 16 (60) 18 (64) 20 (68) 21 (69) 18 (65) 15 (59) 11 (52) 9 (48) 14 (57)

Average low °C (°F) 3 (38) 3 (38) 4 (40) 6 (43) 9 (48) 12 (53) 14 (58) 14 (58) 12 (54) 9 (49) 6 (43) 4 (40) 8 (47)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 88 (3.46) 60 (2.36) 51 (2.01) 58 (2.28) 56 (2.2) 50 (1.97) 54 (2.13) 62 (2.44) 67 (2.64) 105 (4.13) 103 (4.06) 97 (3.82) 851 (33.5)

Source: Met Office[citation needed]

Average sea temperature[54]

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

9.2 °C (48.6 °F) 8.7 °C (47.7 °F) 8.2 °C (46.8 °F) 9.6 °C (49.3 °F) 11.4 °C (52.5 °F) 13.6 °C (56.5 °F) 15.4 °C (59.7 °F) 16.9 °C (62.4 °F) 17.3 °C (63.1 °F) 16.3 °C (61.3 °F) 14.7 °C (58.5 °F) 12.0 °C (53.6 °F) 12.8 °C (55.0 °F)

Boundaries and areas[edit]

Date from Parish area[55]

c. 11th century 1,640 acres (660 ha)

31 October 1873 2,445 acres (989 ha)

1 October 1923 2,539 acres (1,027 ha)

1 April 1928 12,503 acres (5,060 ha)

1 April 1952 14,347 acres (5,806 ha)

31 March 1972 15,041 acres (6,087 ha)

1 April 1993 15,140 acres (6,130 ha)

1 April 1997[note 3] 21,632 acres (8,754 ha)

At the time of the Domesday survey in 1086, Brighton
Brighton
was in the Rape of Lewes
Lewes
and the Hundred of Welesmere. The new Hundred of Whalesbone, which covered the parishes of Brighton, West Blatchington, Preston and Hove, was formed in 1296. Parishes moved in and out several times, and by 1801 only Brighton
Brighton
and West Blatchington
West Blatchington
were included in the Hundred.[57] Brighton's ecclesiastical and civil parish boundaries were coterminous until 1873. Since then, the latter have changed several times as the urban area has expanded.[58] In its original form, Brighton
Brighton
covered about 1,640 acres (660 ha) between the English Channel, Hove, Preston, Ovingdean
Ovingdean
and Rottingdean. The civil parish was first extended from 31 October 1873, when 905 acres (366 ha) was annexed from Preston. Its ecclesiastical parish was not affected. On 1 October 1923, 94 acres (38 ha) were added to Brighton
Brighton
from Patcham
Patcham
parish: Brighton
Brighton
Corporation was developing the Moulsecoomb council estate there at the time. On 1 April 1928, Brighton
Brighton
became a county borough and grew by nearly five times by adding Ovingdean
Ovingdean
and Rottingdean
Rottingdean
parishes in their entirety and parts of Falmer, Patcham and West Blatchington.[58] From 1 April 1952, more of Falmer
Falmer
and part of the adjacent Stanmer
Stanmer
parish were added; 20 years later, land and marine territory associated with the new Brighton Marina
Brighton Marina
development also became part of Brighton. Except for a small addition of rural land in 1993 (from Pyecombe
Pyecombe
parish), Brighton
Brighton
Borough's boundaries remained the same until it was joined to Hove
Hove
Borough in 1997 to form the unitary authority of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove.[56] The old boundary between Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
is most clearly seen on the seafront, where the King Edward Peace Statue (1912) straddles the border, and in a twitten called Boundary Passage which runs northwards from Western Road to Montpelier Road.[59] There is a Grade II-listed parish boundary marker stone in this passageway.[60] Between Western Road and the seafront, the boundary runs up Little Western Street (pavement on eastern side, in Brighton), but it is not visible.[59] Northwards from Western Road, it runs to the west of Norfolk Road, Norfolk Terrace, Windlesham Road and Windlesham Gardens in the Montpelier area, then along the south side of Davigdor Road to Seven Dials. From there it runs along the west side of Dyke Road as far as Withdean
Withdean
Road in Withdean, at which point it crosses Dyke Road so that the section north of that is part of Hove
Hove
parish. The boundary continues to follow Dyke Road towards Devil's Dyke on the South Downs.[61]

December 2013 panorama of Brighton
Brighton
seen from Tenantry Down (to the east).

Governance and politics[edit] For the local council, see Brighton
Brighton
and Hove.

Brighton
Brighton
Town Hall dates from 1830.

Brighton
Brighton
is covered by two constituencies in the Parliament of the United Kingdom: Brighton
Brighton
Kemptown and Brighton
Brighton
Pavilion. Both are marginal constituencies which were held by Labour from 1997 to 2010.[62] At the 2017 general election, Brighton
Brighton
Kemptown elected the Labour MP Lloyd Russell-Moyle, while Brighton
Brighton
Pavilion re-elected Caroline Lucas, the first Green Party MP elected to Westminster. In European elections, Brighton
Brighton
is part of the European Parliament constituency of South-East England. As of 2018, there are 21 wards in the city of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove, of which 12 are in Brighton. Regency, St Peter's & North Laine, Preston Park, Withdean, Patcham, Hollingdean
Hollingdean
& Stanmer
Stanmer
and Hanover & Elm Grove are part of the Brighton
Brighton
Pavilion constituency; Moulsecoomb
Moulsecoomb
& Bevendean, Queen's Park, East Brighton, Woodingdean and Rottingdean
Rottingdean
Coastal are covered by the Brighton
Brighton
Kemptown constituency.[63] The newly created Borough of Brighton
Brighton
consisted of six wards in 1854: St Nicholas, St Peter, Pier, Park, Pavilion and West. When the territory was extended to include part of Preston parish in 1873, the new area became a seventh ward named Preston. The seven were split into 14 in 1894: Hanover, Kemp Town
Kemp Town
(renamed King's Cliff in 1908), Lewes
Lewes
Road, Montpelier, Pavilion, Pier, Preston, Preston Park, Queen's Park, Regency, St John, St Nicholas, St Peter, and West. Preston ward was extended in 1923 to incorporate the area taken into the borough from Patcham
Patcham
parish in 1923 for the construction of the Moulsecoomb estate, and in 1928 the ward was divided into four: Hollingbury, Moulsecoomb, Preston and Preston Park. Elm Grove and Patcham
Patcham
wards were created at the same time, bringing the total to 19. There were further changes in 1952, 1955 and 1983, at which time there were 16 wards.[64] This situation continued until 1 April 1997, when Hove
Hove
and its wards became part of the new unitary authority of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove.[65] Brighton
Brighton
Town Hall occupies a large site in The Lanes. Medieval Brighthelmston had a town hall, although it was called the Townhouse and functioned more like a market hall. A later building (1727) known as the Town Hall was principally used as a workhouse. Work on the first purpose-built town hall began in 1830; Thomas Read Kemp
Thomas Read Kemp
laid the first stone, and Thomas Cooper designed it on behalf of the Brighton Town Commissioners (of which he was a member). Brighton
Brighton
Corporation spent £40,000 to extend it in 1897–99 to the Classical design of Brighton
Brighton
Borough Surveyor Francis May. Despite this, the building was too small for municipal requirements by the mid-20th century, and extra council buildings were built in various locations throughout Brighton
Brighton
Borough Council's existence: the most recent, Bartholomew House and Priory House next to the town hall, were finished in 1987.[66][67] The town hall ceased to be responsible solely for Brighton's affairs when Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
were united in 1997, but it is still used by Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
City Council—particularly for weddings and civil ceremonies.[68] The presence of a British subsidiary of the United States arms company EDO Corporation
EDO Corporation
on the Home Farm Industrial Estate in Moulsecoomb
Moulsecoomb
has been the cause of protests since 2004. The premises were significantly damaged in January 2009 when protesters broke in.[69] Economy[edit] In 1985, the Borough Council described three "myths" about Brighton's economy. Common beliefs were that most of the working population commuted to London every day; that tourism provided most of Brighton's jobs and income; or that the borough's residents were "composed entirely of wealthy theatricals and retired businesspeople" rather than workers.[70] Brighton
Brighton
has been an important centre for commerce and employment since the 18th century. It is home to several major companies, some of which employ thousands of people locally; as a retail centre it is of regional importance; creative, digital and new media businesses are increasingly significant; and, although Brighton was never a major industrial centre, its railway works contributed to Britain's rail industry in the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly in the manufacture of steam locomotives. Since the amalgamation of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove, economic and retail data has been produced at a citywide level only. Examples of statistics include: Brighton
Brighton
and Hove's tourism industry contributes £380m to the economy and employs 20,000 people directly or indirectly; the city has 9,600 registered companies; and a 2001 report identified it as one of five "supercities for the future".[71] In the past couple of years tourists to Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
have fallen in numbers. Over 2016, day visitors to Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
dropped by an average of 2,400 per day.[72][73] In August 2017, new figures for the year showed Brighton’s tourism had fallen by a further 1% on the previous year.[74] Commerce and industry[edit]

Events at the Brighton Centre
Brighton Centre
are important to Brighton's economy.

Brighton's largest private sector employer is American Express, whose European headquarters are at John Street.[75] As of 2012, about 3,000 people work there.[76] Planning permission
Planning permission
to demolish the old Amex offices and build a replacement was granted in 2009, and work started in March 2010. Other major employers include Lloyds Bank, Asda
Asda
(which has hypermarkets at Hollingbury
Hollingbury
and Brighton
Brighton
Marina), Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
Bus and Coach Company and call-centre operator Inkfish.[71] In 2012, it was reported that about 1,500 of Gatwick Airport's 21,000 workers lived in the city of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove.[77] Brighton
Brighton
is a popular destination for conferences, exhibitions and trade fairs, and has had a purpose-built conference centre—the Brighton
Brighton
Centre—since 1977. Direct income from the Brighton
Brighton
Centre's 160 events per year is £8 million,[note 4] and a further £50 million is generated indirectly by visitors spending money during their stay. Events range from political party conferences to concerts.[78]

The Hollingbury
Hollingbury
Industrial Estate has large industrial, commercial and retail buildings such as Sussex
Sussex
House (left) and Exion 27 (right).

The Hollingbury
Hollingbury
Industrial Estate is one of the largest such facilities in Brighton; in its early days about 6,000 people were employed, principally in industrial jobs, but in the late 20th and early 21st centuries its focus has switched to commercial and retail development,[79] limiting Brighton's potential for industrial growth. Brighton
Brighton
Corporation laid out the estate on 18 acres (7.3 ha) of land around Crowhurst Road in 1950. By 1956, large-scale employment was provided at a bakery, a typewriter factory and a machine tools manufacturer among others. Most of the large factories closed during the recessions of the 1980s and 1990s, employment fell to 1,000, and structural changes started in the mid-1980s with a move towards small-scale industrial units (the Enterprise Estate was finished in October 1985) and then retail warehouses. Asda's superstore opened in November 1987, MFI followed two years later, and other retail units were built in the 1990s.[80] Two large headquarters buildings were vacated in quick succession when British Bookshops left in March 2011[81] and The Argus newspaper moved out of its headquarters in 2012—although the Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
Bus and Coach Company signed a contract to move its 1,250 employees into the latter building.[82] Brighton
Brighton
has a high density of businesses involved in the media sector, particularly digital or "new media", and since the 1990s has been referred to as "Silicon Beach".[83] By 2007, over 250 new media business had been founded in Brighton. Brandwatch
Brandwatch
is a social media monitoring company based in offices near Brighton
Brighton
station. Computer game design company Black Rock Studio was founded in 1998 and was taken over by Disney Interactive Studios,[71][83] who closed it down in 2011.[84] The Gamer Network, whose portfolio of websites relating to computer gaming (including Eurogamer) and creative industries was founded in 1999, is based in Brighton.[85] By the early 21st century, the market for office accommodation in the city was characterised by fluctuating demand and a lack of supply of high-quality buildings. As an example, the Trafalgar Place development (c. 1990), "now considered a prime office location", stood partly empty for a decade.[86] Exion 27 (built in 2001), a high-tech, energy-efficient office development at Hollingbury, remained empty for several years and is still not in commercial use: it houses some administrative departments of the University of Brighton. It was Brighton's first ultramodern commercial property and was intended for mixed commercial and industrial use, but its completion coincided with a slump in demand for high-tech premises.[87][88] Retail[edit] The Lanes
The Lanes
form a retail, leisure and residential area near the seafront, characterised by narrow alleyways following the street pattern of the original fishing village. The Lanes
The Lanes
contain predominantly clothing stores, jewellers, antique shops, restaurants and pubs. The North Laine
North Laine
area is a retail, leisure and residential area immediately north of the Lanes. Its name derives from the Anglo-Saxon "Laine" meaning "fields", although the misnomer "North Lanes" is often used to describe the area. The North Laine
North Laine
contains a mix of businesses dominated by cafés, independent and avant-garde shops, bars and theatres. Churchill Square is a shopping centre with a floor space of 470,000 sq ft (44,000 m2) and over 80 shops, several restaurants and 1,600 car-parking spaces.[89] It was built in the 1960s as an open-air, multi-level pedestrianised shopping centre, but was rebuilt and enlarged in 1998 and is no longer open-air. Further retail areas include Western Road and London Road, the latter of which is currently undergoing extensive regeneration in the form of new housing and commercial properties.[90] Landmarks[edit] Main articles: Buildings and architecture of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove, List of landmarks and notable buildings of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove, Grade I listed buildings in Brighton
Brighton
and Hove, and Grade II* listed buildings in Brighton
Brighton
and Hove

Royal Pavilion

Brighton
Brighton
Pier

The Royal Pavilion
Royal Pavilion
is a former royal palace built as a home for the Prince Regent during the early 19th century, under the direction of the architect John Nash, and is notable for its Indo-Saracenic architecture and Oriental interior. Other Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
buildings in Brighton
Brighton
include the Sassoon Mausoleum, now, with the bodies reburied elsewhere, in use as a chic supper club. Brighton
Brighton
Marine Palace and Pier (long known as the Palace Pier) opened in 1899. It features a funfair, restaurants and arcade halls.[citation needed] The West Pier
West Pier
was built in 1866 and is one of only two Grade I listed piers in the United Kingdom. It has been closed since 1975. For some time it was under consideration for restoration, but two fires in 2003, and other setbacks, led to these plans being abandoned.[91] The Brighton
Brighton
i360 observation tower opened on 4 August 2016.[92] At 162 metres (531.49 feet) high, and with an observation pod rising to 138 metres (452.75 feet), the i360 is Britain's highest observation tower outside London – taller even than the London Eye. Brighton
Brighton
clocktower, built in 1888 for Queen Victoria's jubilee, stands at the intersection of Brighton's busiest thoroughfares.

Clock Tower, Brighton

i360

Volk's Electric Railway
Volk's Electric Railway
runs along the inland edge of the beach from Brighton Pier
Brighton Pier
to Black Rock and Brighton
Brighton
Marina. It was created in 1883 and is the world's oldest operating electric railway.[93] The Grand Hotel was built in 1864. The Brighton hotel bombing
Brighton hotel bombing
occurred there. Its nighttime blue lighting is particularly prominent along the foreshore.[94] Churches and places of worship[edit] Further information: List of places of worship in Brighton
Brighton
and Hove The 11th century (1086)[95] St Nicholas Church is the oldest building in Brighton, commonly known as "The Mother Church".[96] Other notable churches include the very tall brick-built St Bartholomew's (1874) designed by the architect Edmund Scott,[97] St Peter's (1828), and St. Martin's, noted for its decorated interior. Brighton's Quakers run the Friends' Meeting House in the Lanes. There is an active Unitarian community based in a Grade 2 listed building in New Road, and a Spiritualist church
Spiritualist church
in Norfolk Square.[98] There are also a number of New Age
New Age
outlets and groups. Brighton- Hove
Hove
has five synagogues: New Church Road Synagogue, Hove; Holland Road Synagogue, Hove; Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
Progressive Synagogue, Hove; Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
Reform Synagogue, Hove; Middle Street Synagogue; Brighton. The Middle Street Synagogue is a Grade II-listed building built in 1874–75. It is being gradually restored by English Heritage. There are also several mosques[99] and Buddhist centres.[100] Brighton
Brighton
has become known as one of the least religious places in the UK, based upon analysis of the 2011 census which revealed that 42 per cent of the population profess no religion, far higher than the national average of 25%.[101] As part of the Jedi census phenomenon, 2.6 per cent claimed their religion was Jedi Knight, the largest percentage in the country.[102] Beaches[edit]

Cliff Beach: Britain's first naturist beach

Boats on Brighton
Brighton
Beach

Brighton
Brighton
has a 5.4-mile (8.7 km) expanse of shingle beach,[52] part of the unbroken 8-mile (13 km) section within the city limits.[note 5] Neighbouring Hove
Hove
is known for its hundreds of painted timber beach huts, but brick-walled chalets are also available on Brighton
Brighton
seafront, especially towards Rottingdean
Rottingdean
and Saltdean.[103] Especially east of the Palace Pier, a flat sandy foreshore is exposed at low tide.[52] The Palace Pier section of the beach has been awarded blue flag status.[104] Part of the beach adjoining Madeira Drive, to the east of the city centre, has been redeveloped into a sports complex and opened to the public in March 2007, with courts for pursuits such as beach volleyball and ultimate Frisbee among others. The city council owns all the beaches, which are divided into named sections by groynes—the first of which were completed in 1724. Eastwards from the Hove
Hove
boundary, the names are Boundary, Norfolk, Bedford, Metropole, Grand (referring to the four hotels with those names), Centre, King's, Old Ship, Volk's, Albion, Palace Pier, Aquarium, Athina (where the MS Athina B
MS Athina B
ran aground), Paston, Banjo, Duke's, Cliff, Crescent and Black Rock. Cliff Beach is a nudist beach.[105] Beyond Black Rock, the cliffs (part of the Brighton
Brighton
to Newhaven Cliffs Site of Special
Special
Scientific Interest) rise to more than 100 feet (30 m) and there are three small beaches at Ovingdean Gap, Rottingdean
Rottingdean
Gap and Saltdean
Saltdean
Gap. All are connected by the Undercliff Walk,[52] which has been affected by several cliff falls since 2000.[106] Since the demolition in 1978 of the Black Rock open-air lido at the eastern end of Brighton's seafront, the area has been developed and now features one of Europe's largest marinas. However, the site of the pool itself remains empty except for a skate park and graffiti wall. Since 2003 a series of developments have been proposed but have come to nothing, including housing, a five-star hotel with a winter garden, and an 11,000-seat sports arena.[107] The seafront is also home to many restaurants, sports facilities, amusement arcades, nightclubs and bars.[108] Culture[edit] Cinema[edit] Main article: List of films set in Brighton

Odeon Kingswest on Brighton
Brighton
seafront opened in 1973

Brighton
Brighton
featured in a number of popular movies including Quadrophenia (1979), The End of the Affair (1999), Wimbledon (2004), MirrorMask (2005), Angus, Thongs and Perfect Snogging
Angus, Thongs and Perfect Snogging
(2008), The Young Victoria (2009), Brighton
Brighton
Rock (2010 and 1947) and The Boat that Rocked (2009).[109] The Duke of York's Picturehouse,[110] dating from 1910, was opened by Mrs Violet Melnotte-Wyatt. It is the country's oldest purpose-built cinema and was Brighton's first Electric Bioscope, which still operates as an arthouse cinema. The Duke of York's Picturehouse expanded in 2012, adding two additional screens in a different location. The company is now occupying the upstairs of Komedia, situated on Gardner Street, central Brighton.[111] There are two multiplex cinemas, the Odeon on North Street and Cineworld in the Marina. Festivals and rallies[edit] Main articles: Brighton Festival and Brighton
Brighton
Fringe

"The Big Beach Boutique II": over 250,000 watched Fatboy Slim
Fatboy Slim
(July 2002)

Seafront display of Minis after a London to Brighton
Brighton
drive

Each May the city hosts the Brighton Festival and Brighton
Brighton
Fringe, the second largest arts festival in the UK (after Edinburgh). This includes processions such as the Children's Parade, outdoor spectaculars often involving pyrotechnics, and theatre, music and visual arts in venues throughout the city, some brought into this use exclusively for the festival. The earliest feature of the festival, the Artists' Open Houses, are homes of artists and craftspeople opened to the public as galleries, and usually selling the work of the occupants. Since 2002, these have been organised independently of the official Festival and Fringe. Brighton Fringe
Brighton Fringe
runs alongside Brighton
Brighton
Festival, and has grown to be one of the largest fringe festivals in the world.[112] Together with the street performers from Brighton
Brighton
Festival's "Streets of Brighton" events, and the Royal Mile-esque outdoor performances that make up "Fringe City", outdoor spectacles and events more than double during May.[113] Other festivals include The Great Escape, featuring three nights of live music in venues across the city; the Soundwaves Festival in June, which shows classical music composed in the 21st Century, and involves both amateur and professional performers; Paddle Round the Pier; Brighton
Brighton
Live which each September stages a week of free gigs in pubs to show local bands; Burning the Clocks, a winter solstice celebration; and Brighton Pride
Brighton Pride
(see lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community, below). For a number of years, Andrew Logan's Alternative Miss World extravaganza was held in the city. The Kemptown area has its own small annual street festival, the Kemptown Carnival , and the Hanover area similarly has a "Hanover Day". Local resident Fatboy Slim
Fatboy Slim
puts on a "Big Beach Boutique" show most years. An inaugural White Nights (Nuit Blanche) all-night arts festival took place in October 2008 and continued for 4 years until it was postponed in 2012 due to a lack of European funding.[114] 2009 saw the first Brighton
Brighton
Zine
Zine
Fest[115] celebrating zine and DIY culture within the city. Brighton
Brighton
is the terminus of a number of London-to- Brighton
Brighton
rides, and runs, such as the veteran car run and bike ride. Transport rallies are also hosted on the seafront. Groups of mods and Rockers still bring their scooters and motorbikes to the town, but their gatherings are now much more sedate than the violent 1960s confrontations depicted in Quadrophenia. Food and drink related festivals include the traditional Blessing of the Fisheries, where barbecued mackerel are eaten on the beach and the more recent Fiery Foods Chilli Festival.[116] There is also a twice-yearly general food festival.[117] The main Sussex
Sussex
beer festival is held in nearby Hove, and there is a smaller beer festival in the Hanover area. Brighton
Brighton
is the home of the UK's first Walk of Fame which celebrates the many rich and famous people associated with the city.[118] Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community[edit] Main article: LGBT community of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove

Brighton Pride
Brighton Pride
2014 bus

Brighton
Brighton
records LGBT history in the city since the 19th century.[119] Many LGBT pubs, clubs, bars, restaurants, cafés and shops are located around Brighton
Brighton
and in particular around St James's Street in Kemptown.[120][121] Several LGBT charities, publishers, social and support groups are also based in the city. Brighton Pride
Brighton Pride
is usually celebrated at the start of August.[122][123] Brighton
Brighton
also hosts an annual trans pride event, which is the first of its kind in the UK.[124] In a 2014 estimate, 11–15% of the city's population aged 16 or over is thought to be lesbian, gay or bisexual.[125] The city also had the highest percentage of same-sex households in the UK in 2004[126] and the largest number of civil partnership registrations outside London in 2013.[127] Museums[edit] Brighton
Brighton
museums include Brighton
Brighton
Museum & Art Gallery, Preston Manor, Booth Museum of Natural History, Brighton
Brighton
Toy and Model Museum, and Brighton
Brighton
Fishing Museum, the long established social epicentre of the seafront, which includes artefacts from the West Pier. The Royal Pavilion is also open to the public, serving as a museum to the British Regency. Further information: List of landmarks and notable buildings of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove Night-life and popular music[edit]

Theatre Royal, city centre

Brighton
Brighton
has many night-life hotspots[128] and is associated with popular musicians including Fatboy Slim, Kirk Brandon, Tim Booth, Nick Cave, David Van Day from Dollar, and Robert Smith. Live music venues include the Concorde2,[129] Brighton Centre
Brighton Centre
and the Brighton
Brighton
Dome, where ABBA
ABBA
received a substantial boost to their career when they won the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
1974. Many events and performance companies operate in the city. Brighton’s has produced several successful bands & music artists including Royal Blood, the Kooks, Fatboy Slim, the Freemasons, the Levellers and the Maccabees, British Sea Power, the Eighties Matchbox B-Line Disaster and the Rizzle Kicks. Brighton
Brighton
is also home to several independent record labels. Notable residents[edit] Main article: List of people from Brighton
Brighton
and Hove Restaurants[edit] Brighton
Brighton
has about 400 restaurants.[130] Theatre[edit]

Attenborough Arts Centre at the university of Sussex

Theatres include the Brighton Dome
Brighton Dome
and associated Pavilion Theatre, the expanded Komedia
Komedia
(primarily a comedy and music venue but also a theatre), the Old Market which was renovated and re-opened in 2010 and the Theatre Royal[131] which celebrated its 200th anniversary in 2007. The Attenborough Centre for the Creative arts is nearby, part of the University of Sussex
Sussex
campus. There are also smaller theatres such as the Marlborough Theatre, the New Venture, and the Brighton
Brighton
Little Theatre. The city has the new purpose built Brighton
Brighton
Open Air Theatre, or B•O•A•T, which is due to open for the Brighton Festival in May 2015. It is unique in that its programme will be chosen by lottery to ensure that it remains accessible and open to all comers.[citation needed] Education[edit]

Aerial View of the Sussex
Sussex
Campus showing sports fields

The University of Sussex, established in 1961 as the first of the plate-glass universities, is a campus research intensive university between Stanmer
Stanmer
Park and Falmer, four miles (6 km) from the city centre. The university is home to the reputed Institute of Development Studies and the Science Policy Research Unit, amongst over 40 other established research centres, and is ranked 1st in the world for Development studies by the World University Rankings[132].[133][134] Served by frequent trains (to Falmer
Falmer
railway station) and 24-hour buses, it has a student population of around 17,300 student of which over a third are postgraduates.[135] The university is currently ranked 18th in the UK[136] and 110th in the world by the World University Rankings.[137] The University of Brighton, the former Brighton
Brighton
Polytechnic, has a student population of 20,017 of which 80% are undergraduates.[138] The university is on several sites with additional buildings in Falmer, Moulsecoomb, Eastbourne
Eastbourne
and Hastings.[139] In 2003, the universities of Sussex
Sussex
and Brighton
Brighton
formed a medical school, known as Brighton
Brighton
and Sussex
Sussex
Medical School. The school was one of four new medical schools to be created as part of a government programme to increase the number of qualified NHS doctors. The school is based in Falmer
Falmer
and works closely with the Brighton
Brighton
and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust.

Roedean School.

Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
City Council is responsible for 80 schools, of which 54 are in Brighton.[140] A range of non-university courses for students over 16, mainly in vocational education subjects, is provided at the further education college, City College Brighton
Brighton
and Hove. More academic subjects can be studied by 16–18-year-olds at Brighton
Brighton
Hove
Hove
& Sussex
Sussex
Sixth Form College (BHASVIC) in the Seven Dials area. Varndean College
Varndean College
in North Brighton
Brighton
occupies a commanding position. The 1920s building is celebrated for its façade and internal quads. The college offers academic A levels, The International Baccalaureate and vocational courses. There are state schools and some faith schools. Notable state schools include[141] Longhill High School, Varndean School, Patcham
Patcham
High School, Dorothy Stringer High School, Blatchington Mill School and Sixth Form College and Brighton
Brighton
Aldridge Community Academy. There are a number of independent schools, including Brighton
Brighton
College, Roedean School, Steiner School, BHHS and a Montessori
Montessori
School. As with the state schools, some independents are faith-based; Torah Academy, the last Jewish primary school, became a Pre-K/Nursery School at the end of the 2007. The Brighton
Brighton
Institute of Modern Music, a fully accredited music college, opened in 2001 and has since expanded to five locations throughout the UK. In spring and summer, thousands of students from all over Europe gather to attend language courses at the many language schools. Sport[edit]

Falmer
Falmer
Stadium, home of Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
Albion Football Club

Brighton
Brighton
Marina

Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
Albion Football Club is the city's professional association football team. The club went through a rocky spell in the 90s but have since returned to form. After playing at the Goldstone Ground for 95 years, the club spent 2 years ground-sharing 70 miles away at Gillingham F.C.
Gillingham F.C.
before returning to the town as tenants of Withdean
Withdean
Athletics Stadium. At the start of the 2011–12 season the club moved permanently to Falmer
Falmer
Stadium, a Premier League level stadium colloquially known as 'the Amex'. Notable achievements include winning promotion to the Football League First Division in 1979 and staying there for 4 seasons. They reached the 1983 FA Cup Final drawing 2-2 with Manchester United before losing in the replay 5 days later. The 2017-18 Football season saw Brighton's debut in the Premier League after a win against Wigan Athletic
Wigan Athletic
guaranteed automatic promotion to the top flight.[142] Notable former managers of the club include Brian Clough, 2 Peter Taylors: Peter Taylor (born 1928) and Peter Taylor (born 1953), Jimmy Melia, Liam Brady, Jimmy Case, Steve Gritt, Brian Horton, Steve Coppell
Steve Coppell
and Mark McGhee. Notable former players include Gareth Barry, Dave Beasant, Justin Fashanu, Dennis Mortimer, Gordon Smith, Frank Stapleton, Howard Wilkinson and Bobby Zamora. Whitehawk
Whitehawk
Football Club is a semi-professional association football club based in a suburb of Brighton. They play in the Conference South league having won promotion three times in the space four years between 2009–13. Games are played at The Enclosed Ground, which is set into the South Downs
South Downs
close to Brighton
Brighton
Marina. Notable former/current players include Sergio Torres, Jake Robinson, Matthew Lawrence and Darren Freeman. Sussex
Sussex
County Cricket Club play at Eaton Road in Hove. Brighton Football Club (RFU)
Brighton Football Club (RFU)
is one of the oldest Rugby Clubs in England.[143] Brighton
Brighton
was chosen as one of the 13 Rugby World Cup 2015 host cities,[144] with two games being played at the 30,750 capacity American Express
American Express
Community Stadium. (Although it was named the " Brighton
Brighton
Community Stadium" throughout the tournament for sponsorship reasons.) One of the two games played was one of the biggest shocks in the history of Rugby Union,[145] with Japan defeating South Africa 34 points to 32, with a try in the dying minutes of the game. The other game was between Samoa and the United States. Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
Hockey Club is a large hockey club with a home ground in Hove. The men's 1XI gained promotion in 2013 to the England Hockey League system, Conference East.[146] Motoring events take place on Madeira Drive, a piece of roadway on Brighton's seafront, throughout the year. It was originally constructed to host what is commonly held to be the world's oldest motor race, the Brighton
Brighton
Speed Trials, which has been running since 1905. The event is organised by the Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
Motor Club and normally takes place on the second Saturday in September each year. From time to time a beach soccer competition is held in a temporary stadium on imported sand on the beach. The inaugural contest in June 2002 featured football stars Eric Cantona
Eric Cantona
and Matt Le Tissier. Brighton
Brighton
has a horse-racing course, Brighton
Brighton
Racecourse, with the unusual feature that when the full length of the course is to be used, some of the grass turf of the track has to be laid over the tar at the top of Wilson Avenue, a public road, which therefore has to be closed for the races. A greyhound racing circuit – the Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
Greyhound Stadium – in Hove
Hove
is run by Coral, at which Motorcycle speedway racing was staged in 1928. Brighton Sailing Club has been operating since the 1870s. The Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
Pétanque
Pétanque
Club runs an annual triples, doubles and singles competition, informal KOs, winter and summer league, plus Open competitions with other clubs. The club is affiliated to Sussex Pétanque, the local region of the English Pétanque
Pétanque
Association, so they can also play at a Regional and National level. The Peace Statue terrain is the official pétanque terrain situated on the seafront near the West Pier.[147] Brighton
Brighton
has two competitive swimming clubs: Brighton
Brighton
SC[148] formed in 1860 claims to be the oldest swimming club in England; and Brighton Dolphin SC[149] was formed in 1891 as Brighton
Brighton
Ladies Swimming. Amateur track cycling is held at the Preston Park Velodrome, the oldest velodrome in the UK built in 1877. Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Brighton
Brighton
and Hove

The Brighton Main Line
Brighton Main Line
railway (left) and A23 road
A23 road
link Brighton
Brighton
to London.

Brighton
Brighton
has several railway stations, many bus routes, coach services and taxis. A Rapid Transport System has been under consideration for some years.[150] Trolleybuses, trams, ferries and hydrofoil services have operated in the past. Brighton
Brighton
is connected to the national road network by the A23 (London Road) northwards, and by two east–west routes: the A259 along the coast and the A27 trunk route inland. The A23 joins the M23 motorway at Pease Pottage
Pease Pottage
near Gatwick Airport.[151] The A27 originally ran through the urban area along Old Shoreham Road and Lewes
Lewes
Road, but it now follows the route of the Brighton
Brighton
Bypass (opened in 1990) and the old alignment has become the A270. A bypass was first proposed in 1932, six routes were submitted for approval in 1973, and the Department of the Environment published its recommended route in 1980. Public enquiries took place in 1983 and 1987, construction started in 1989 and the first section—between London Road at Patcham
Patcham
and the road to Devil's Dyke—opened in summer 1991.[152] By 1985 there were about 5,000 parking spaces in central Brighton. The largest car parks are at London Road, King Street, and the Churchill Square/Regency Road/Russell Road complex.[153] In 1969, a 520-space multi-storey car park was built beneath the central gardens of Regency Square.[153][154]

Brighton
Brighton
Station Concourse

Frequent trains operate from Brighton
Brighton
railway station. Many Brighton residents commute to work in London[155] and destinations include London Victoria, London Bridge and St Pancras International. Most trains serve Gatwick Airport, and those operated by Thameslink continue to St Albans, Luton, Luton Airport Parkway and Bedford. The fastest service from London Victoria takes 51 minutes.[156] The West Coastway Line serves stations to Hove, Worthing, Portsmouth
Portsmouth
and Southampton; and the East Coastway Line
East Coastway Line
runs via Lewes
Lewes
to Newhaven, Eastbourne, Hastings
Hastings
and Ashford, Kent, crossing the landmark London Road viaduct en route and providing "a dramatic high-level view" of Brighton.[156] A wider range of long-distance destinations was served until 2007–08 when rationalisation caused the ending of InterCity services via Kensington (Olympia) and Reading to Birmingham, Manchester and Edinburgh.[156] Twice-daily long-distance services to Bristol
Bristol
and Great Malvern
Great Malvern
are operated by Great Western Railway
Great Western Railway
via the West Coastway Line. Until deregulation in 1986, bus services in Brighton
Brighton
were provided by Southdown Motor Services
Southdown Motor Services
and Brighton
Brighton
Borough Transport under a joint arrangement called " Brighton
Brighton
Area Transport Services". Southdown were part of the nationalised NBC group and were based at Freshfield Road in the Kemptown area; Brighton
Brighton
Borough Transport were owned by the council and used the former tram depot at Lewes
Lewes
Road as their headquarters. Joint tickets were available and revenue was shared.[157] The Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
Bus Company, owned by the Go-Ahead Group
Go-Ahead Group
since 1993, now runs most bus services in Brighton. Its fleet has about 280 buses.[158] Compass Travel, The Big Lemon, Metrobus, Stagecoach South
Stagecoach South
and The Sussex
Sussex
Bus also operate some services to central Brighton. The city had 1,184 bus stops in 2012, 456 of which had a shelter.[159] Real-time travel information displays are provided at many stops.[158]

A Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
bus service to East Moulsecoomb

The only park and ride facility in Brighton
Brighton
is based at the Withdean Stadium. It does not offer a dedicated shuttle bus service: intending passengers must join the Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
Bus Company's route 27 service to Saltdean—which travels via Brighton
Brighton
railway station, the Clock Tower and Old Steine—and pay standard fares.[160] The 20-year City Plan released in January 2013 ruled out an official park-and-ride facility, stating it would be an "inefficient use of public money, particularly in an era of declining car use". Councillors and residents in Woodingdean
Woodingdean
and Rottingdean
Rottingdean
have claimed that streets and car parks in those areas have become unofficial park-and-ride sites: drivers park for free and take buses into the city centre.[161] Brighton
Brighton
Airport is 9 miles (14 km) west of Brighton
Brighton
near the town of Shoreham-by-Sea.[151][162][163] Gatwick Airport
Gatwick Airport
is 22 miles (35 km) north on the A23; and regular coach and rail services operate from Brighton
Brighton
to the Airport.[151] See also[edit]

Brighton
Brighton
portal

The Argus (Brighton)
The Argus (Brighton)
– newspaper Brighton
Brighton
in fiction

Notes[edit]

^ De Tabe Glandulari, sive, De usu aquæ marinæ in morbis glandularum dissertatio (1750); translated into English in 1753 as Glandular Diseases, or a Dissertation on the Use of Sea Water in the Affections of the Glands.[28] ^ The name was documented as Poole in 1296 and 1497.[44] ^ Area of the unitary authority of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove.[56] ^ 2009 figures.[78] ^ Until the extension of Brighton's boundaries to include Rottingdean and Saltdean
Saltdean
in 1928, the coastline between the Hove
Hove
and Rottingdean parish boundaries measured 2.2 miles (3.5 km).[52]

References[edit]

^ OS Explorer map 122: Brighton
Brighton
and Hove. Scale: 1:25 000. Publisher: Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Southampton
Southampton
B2 edition. Publishing Date:2009. ISBN 978-0319240816 ^ "City Deal; The beginning of a great city region". Brighton
Brighton
and Hove City Council. Retrieved 14 September 2015.  ^ "England's best cultural cities: From Newcastle to Portsmouth, these iconic metropolises offer visitors a host of treats". Daily Mail. Retrieved 10 August 2015.  ^ "Sorry Bristol, Brighton
Brighton
is probably the best city in the UK – Metro News". Metro. Retrieved 10 August 2015.  ^ "Drop in Day Visitors to Brighton
Brighton
and Hove" (Research commissioned by the city council showed a 9% fall in 2015 from 10m the year before, and a 6.4% drop in related expenditure to £318m.)

"Visit Brighton
Brighton
celebrates city's tourism successes". Retrieved 10 August 2015. 

^ " Brighton
Brighton
is most popular UK seaside destination for overseas tourists". Daily Mail. Retrieved 10 August 2015.  ^ Alexis Petridis. "Is Brighton
Brighton
Britain's hippest city?". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 August 2015.  ^ "Brighton: 'The Happiest Place In The UK'". Sky News. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.  ^ a b c d e Salzman, L.F., ed. (1940). "A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 7 – The Rape of Lewes. The Borough of Brighton". Victoria County History
Victoria County History
of Sussex. British History Online. pp. 244–263. Retrieved 27 September 2011.  ^ a b c d Collis 2010, p. 44. ^ Leslie & Short 1999, pp. 32–33. ^ Collis 2010, p. 39. ^ "The Bright Helm". J D Wetherspoon
J D Wetherspoon
plc. 2009–2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.  ^ "Brighthelm". University of Sussex. 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.  ^ Dale 1950, pp. 10, 34. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 3. ^ a b Carder 1990, §. 16. ^ Sampson 1994, p. 56. ^ a b c d e f Carder 1990, §. 17. ^ " Whitehawk
Whitehawk
Camp". Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
City Council. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.  ^ "Information derived from National Trust". Archived from the original on 26 October 2009.  ^ Current Archaeology, 13 March 2014, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2014. . Retrieved 27 April 2014. ^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
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Buddhist
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" Brighton and Hove
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^ a b c Brighton
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Brighton
Borough Council 1985, p. 10. ^ Collis 2010, p. 273. ^ Vowles, Neil (6 November 2013). "Commuting effect means Brighton
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^ Middleton, Kimberly (5 March 2013). "Cross channel flights take off from Brighton
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Bibliography[edit]

Antram, Nicholas; Morrice, Richard (2008). Brighton
Brighton
and Hove. Pevsner Architectural Guides. London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12661-7.  Brighton
Brighton
Borough Council (1985). Borough of Brighton
Brighton
Residents' Handbook (2nd ed.). Wallington: Home Publishing Co. Ltd.  Carder, Timothy (1990). The Encyclopaedia of Brighton. Lewes: East Sussex
Sussex
County Libraries. ISBN 0-861-47315-9.  Collis, Rose (2010). The New Encyclopaedia of Brighton. (based on the original by Tim Carder) (1st ed.). Brighton: Brighton
Brighton
& Hove Libraries. ISBN 978-0-9564664-0-2.  Dale, Antony (1950). The History and Architecture of Brighton. Brighton: Bredin & Heginbothom Ltd.  Dale, Antony (1976). Brighton
Brighton
Town and Brighton
Brighton
People. Chichester: Phillimore & Co. ISBN 0-85033-219-2.  Dale, Antony (1986) [1951]. About Brighton: A Guide to the Buildings and Byways of Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
(2nd Revised ed.). Brighton: The Regency Society of Brighton
Brighton
and Hove.  Gwynne, Peter (1990). A History of Crawley
Crawley
(1st ed.). Chichester: Phillimore & Co. ISBN 0-85033-718-6.  Leslie, Kim; Short, Brian, eds. (1999). An Historical Atlas of Sussex. Chichester: Phillimore & Co. ISBN 1-86077-112-2.  Lower, Mark Antony (1864). "The Rivers of Sussex: Part II". Sussex Archaeological Collections. Lewes: George P. Bacon (for the Sussex Archaeological Society). 16.  Mawer, A.; Stenton, F.M.; Gover, J.E.B. (1930). The Place-Names of Sussex. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Musgrave, Clifford (1981). Life in Brighton. Rochester: Rochester Press. ISBN 0-571-09285-3.  Robinson, L.J. (1966). The Lanes
The Lanes
of Brighton: a Brief Account of the Origins of the Ancient Town of Brighthelmstone. Brighton: The Southern Publishing Co.  Sampson, Mark (1994). Brighton: History and Guide. Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-0476-3.  Seldon, Anthony (2002). Brave New City: Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
Past, Present, Future. Lewes: Pomegranate Press. ISBN 0-9542587-1-1.  s.n. (1998). A selection of notes on the History of Hove
Hove
and Brighton including a History of Hove
Hove
street names and early maps of Hove. Brighton: Brighton
Brighton
& Hove
Hove
Libraries. 

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