Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of
chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. By
controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the
flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give
rise to the complexity of life. Over the last decades of the 20th
century, biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living
processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany
to medicine to genetics are engaged in biochemical research. Today,
the main focus of pure biochemistry is on understanding how biological
molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living
cells, which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding
of tissues, organs, and whole organisms—that is, all of biology.
Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the
molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in
able to result in the processes of life. Depending on the exact
definition of the terms used, molecular biology can be thought of as a
branch of biochemistry, or biochemistry as a tool with which to
investigate and study molecular biology.
Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and
interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic
acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells
and perform many of the functions associated with life. The
chemistry of the cell also depends on the reactions of smaller
molecules and ions. These can be inorganic, for example water and
metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids, which are used to
synthesize proteins. The mechanisms by which cells harness energy
from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism.
The findings of biochemistry are applied primarily in medicine,
nutrition, and agriculture. In medicine, biochemists investigate the
causes and cures of diseases. In nutrition, they study how to
maintain health wellness and study the effects of nutritional
deficiencies. In agriculture, biochemists investigate soil and
fertilizers, and try to discover ways to improve crop cultivation,
crop storage and pest control.
2 Starting materials: the chemical elements of life
3.4 Nucleic acids
Carbohydrates as energy source
5 Relationship to other "molecular-scale" biological sciences
6 See also
6.2 See also
8.1 Cited literature
9 Further reading
10 External links
Main article: History of biochemistry
Gerty Cori and
Carl Cori jointly won the
Nobel Prize in 1947 for their
discovery of the
Cori cycle at RPMI.
At its broadest definition, biochemistry can be seen as a study of the
components and composition of living things and how they come together
to become life, in this sense the history of biochemistry may
therefore go back as far as the ancient Greeks. However,
biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning
sometime in the 19th century, or a little earlier, depending on which
aspect of biochemistry is being focused on. Some argued that the
beginning of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first
enzyme, diastase (today called amylase), in 1833 by Anselme Payen,
while others considered Eduard Buchner's first demonstration of a
complex biochemical process alcoholic fermentation in cell-free
extracts in 1897 to be the birth of biochemistry. Some might
also point as its beginning to the influential 1842 work by Justus von
Liebig, Animal chemistry, or,
Organic chemistry in its applications to
physiology and pathology, which presented a chemical theory of
metabolism, or even earlier to the 18th century studies on
fermentation and respiration by Antoine Lavoisier. Many other
pioneers in the field who helped to uncover the layers of complexity
of biochemistry have been proclaimed founders of modern biochemistry,
for example Emil Fischer for his work on the chemistry of
proteins, and F. Gowland Hopkins on enzymes and the dynamic nature
The term "biochemistry" itself is derived from a combination of
biology and chemistry. In 1877,
Felix Hoppe-Seyler used the term
(biochemie in German) as a synonym for physiological chemistry in the
foreword to the first issue of Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie
(Journal of Physiological Chemistry) where he argued for the setting
up of institutes dedicated to this field of study. The German
Carl Neuberg however is often cited to have coined the word in
1903, while some credited it to Franz Hofmeister.
DNA structure (1D65)
It was once generally believed that life and its materials had some
essential property or substance (often referred to as the "vital
principle") distinct from any found in non-living matter, and it was
thought that only living beings could produce the molecules of
life. Then, in 1828,
Friedrich Wöhler published a paper on the
synthesis of urea, proving that organic compounds can be created
artificially. Since then, biochemistry has advanced, especially
since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques
such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation
interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron
microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. These techniques
allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and
metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
(citric acid cycle), and led to an understanding of biochemistry on a
Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of
the gene and its role in the transfer of information in the cell. This
part of biochemistry is often called molecular biology. In the
1950s, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, and Maurice
Wilkins were instrumental in solving
DNA structure and suggesting its
relationship with genetic transfer of information. In 1958, George
Edward Tatum received the
Nobel Prize for work in fungi
showing that one gene produces one enzyme. In 1988, Colin
Pitchfork was the first person convicted of murder with
which led to the growth of forensic science. More recently, Andrew
Z. Fire and
Craig C. Mello
Craig C. Mello received the 2006
Nobel Prize for
discovering the role of
RNA interference (RNAi), in the silencing of
Starting materials: the chemical elements of life
The main elements that compose the human body are shown from most
abundant (by mass) to least abundant.
Composition of the human body
Composition of the human body and Dietary mineral
Around two dozen of the 92 naturally occurring chemical elements are
essential to various kinds of biological life. Most rare elements on
Earth are not needed by life (exceptions being selenium and iodine),
while a few common ones (aluminum and titanium) are not used. Most
organisms share element needs, but there are a few differences between
plants and animals. For example, ocean algae use bromine, but land
plants and animals seem to need none. All animals require sodium, but
some plants do not.
Plants need boron and silicon, but animals may not
(or may need ultra-small amounts).
Just six elements—carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, calcium, and
phosphorus—make up almost 99% of the mass of living cells, including
those in the human body (see composition of the human body for a
complete list). In addition to the six major elements that compose
most of the human body, humans require smaller amounts of possibly 18
The four main classes of molecules in biochemistry (often called
biomolecules) are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic
acids. Many biological molecules are polymers: in this
terminology, monomers are relatively small micromolecules that are
linked together to create large macromolecules known as polymers. When
monomers are linked together to synthesize a biological polymer, they
undergo a process called dehydration synthesis. Different
macromolecules can assemble in larger complexes, often needed for
Main articles: Carbohydrate, Monosaccharide, Disaccharide, and
Glucose, a monosaccharide
A molecule of sucrose (glucose + fructose), a disaccharide
Amylose, a polysaccharide made up of several thousand glucose units
The function of carbohydrates includes energy storage and providing
structure. Sugars are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are
sugars. There are more carbohydrates on Earth than any other known
type of biomolecule; they are used to store energy and genetic
information, as well as play important roles in cell to cell
interactions and communications.
The simplest type of carbohydrate is a monosaccharide, which among
other properties contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, mostly in a
ratio of 1:2:1 (generalized formula CnH2nOn, where n is at least 3).
Glucose (C6H12O6) is one of the most important carbohydrates; others
include fructose (C6H12O6), the sugar commonly associated with the
sweet taste of fruits,[a] and deoxyribose (C5H10O4). A
monosaccharide can switch between acyclic (open-chain) form and a
cyclic form. The open-chain form can be turned into a ring of carbon
atoms bridged by an oxygen atom created from the carbonyl group of one
end and the hydroxyl group of another. The cyclic molecule has an
hemiacetal or hemiketal group, depending on whether the linear form
was an aldose or a ketose.
Conversion between the furanose, acyclic, and pyranose forms of
In these cyclic forms, the ring usually has 5 or 6 atoms. These forms
are called furanoses and pyranoses, respectively — by analogy
with furan and pyran, the simplest compounds with the same
carbon-oxygen ring (although they lack the double bonds of these two
molecules). For example, the aldohexose glucose may form a hemiacetal
linkage between the hydroxyl on carbon 1 and the oxygen on carbon 4,
yielding a molecule with a 5-membered ring, called glucofuranose. The
same reaction can take place between carbons 1 and 5 to form a
molecule with a 6-membered ring, called glucopyranose. Cyclic forms
with a 7-atom ring called heptoses are rare.
Two monosaccharides can be joined together by a glycosidic or ether
bond into a disaccharide through a dehydration reaction during which a
molecule of water is released. The reverse reaction in which the
glycosidic bond of a disaccharide is broken into two monosaccharides
is termed hydrolysis. The best-known disaccharide is sucrose or
ordinary sugar, which consists of a glucose molecule and a fructose
molecule joined together. Another important disaccharide is lactose
found in milk, consisting of a glucose molecule and a galactose
Lactose may be hydrolysed by lactase, and deficiency in this
enzyme results in lactose intolerance.
When a few (around three to six) monosaccharides are joined, it is
called an oligosaccharide (oligo- meaning "few"). These molecules tend
to be used as markers and signals, as well as having some other
uses. Many monosaccharides joined together make a polysaccharide.
They can be joined together in one long linear chain, or they may be
branched. Two of the most common polysaccharides are cellulose and
glycogen, both consisting of repeating glucose monomers. Examples are
cellulose which is an important structural component of plant's cell
walls, and glycogen, used as a form of energy storage in animals.
Sugar can be characterized by having reducing or non-reducing ends. A
reducing end of a carbohydrate is a carbon atom that can be in
equilibrium with the open-chain aldehyde (aldose) or keto form
(ketose). If the joining of monomers takes place at such a carbon
atom, the free hydroxy group of the pyranose or furanose form is
exchanged with an OH-side-chain of another sugar, yielding a full
acetal. This prevents opening of the chain to the aldehyde or keto
form and renders the modified residue non-reducing.
Lactose contains a
reducing end at its glucose moiety, whereas the galactose moiety forms
a full acetal with the C4-OH group of glucose.
Saccharose does not
have a reducing end because of full acetal formation between the
aldehyde carbon of glucose (C1) and the keto carbon of fructose (C2).
Main articles: Lipid, Glycerol, and Fatty acid
Structures of some common lipids. At the top are cholesterol and oleic
acid. The middle structure is a triglyceride composed of oleoyl,
stearoyl, and palmitoyl chains attached to a glycerol backbone. At the
bottom is the common phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine.
Lipids comprises a diverse range of molecules and to some extent is a
catchall for relatively water-insoluble or nonpolar compounds of
biological origin, including waxes, fatty acids, fatty-acid derived
phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and terpenoids (e.g.,
retinoids and steroids). Some lipids are linear aliphatic molecules,
while others have ring structures. Some are aromatic, while others are
not. Some are flexible, while others are rigid.
Lipids are usually made from one molecule of glycerol combined with
other molecules. In triglycerides, the main group of bulk lipids,
there is one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids. Fatty acids
are considered the monomer in that case, and may be saturated (no
double bonds in the carbon chain) or unsaturated (one or more double
bonds in the carbon chain).
Most lipids have some polar character in addition to being largely
nonpolar. In general, the bulk of their structure is nonpolar or
hydrophobic ("water-fearing"), meaning that it does not interact well
with polar solvents like water. Another part of their structure is
polar or hydrophilic ("water-loving") and will tend to associate with
polar solvents like water. This makes them amphiphilic molecules
(having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions). In the case of
cholesterol, the polar group is a mere -OH (hydroxyl or alcohol). In
the case of phospholipids, the polar groups are considerably larger
and more polar, as described below.
Lipids are an integral part of our daily diet. Most oils and milk
products that we use for cooking and eating like butter, cheese, ghee
etc., are composed of fats. Vegetable oils are rich in various
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Lipid-containing foods undergo
digestion within the body and are broken into fatty acids and
glycerol, which are the final degradation products of fats and lipids.
Lipids, especially phospholipids, are also used in various
pharmaceutical products, either as co-solubilisers (e.g., in
parenteral infusions) or else as drug carrier components (e.g., in a
liposome or transfersome).
The general structure of an α-amino acid, with the amino group on the
left and the carboxyl group on the right.
Proteins are very large molecules – macro-biopolymers – made from
monomers called amino acids. An amino acid consists of a carbon atom
attached to an amino group, —NH2, a carboxylic acid group, —COOH
(although these exist as —NH3+ and —COO− under physiologic
conditions), a simple hydrogen atom, and a side chain commonly denoted
as "—R". The side chain "R" is different for each amino acid of
which there are 20 standard ones. It is this "R" group that made each
amino acid different, and the properties of the side-chains greatly
influence the overall three-dimensional conformation of a protein.
Some amino acids have functions by themselves or in a modified form;
for instance, glutamate functions as an important neurotransmitter.
Amino acids can be joined via a peptide bond. In this dehydration
synthesis, a water molecule is removed and the peptide bond connects
the nitrogen of one amino acid's amino group to the carbon of the
other's carboxylic acid group. The resulting molecule is called a
dipeptide, and short stretches of amino acids (usually, fewer than
thirty) are called peptides or polypeptides. Longer stretches merit
the title proteins. As an example, the important blood serum protein
albumin contains 585 amino acid residues.
Generic amino acids (1) in neutral form, (2) as they exist
physiologically, and (3) joined together as a dipeptide.
A schematic of hemoglobin. The red and blue ribbons represent the
protein globin; the green structures are the heme groups.
Proteins can have structural and/or functional roles. For instance,
movements of the proteins actin and myosin ultimately are responsible
for the contraction of skeletal muscle. One property many proteins
have is that they specifically bind to a certain molecule or class of
molecules—they may be extremely selective in what they bind.
Antibodies are an example of proteins that attach to one specific type
of molecule. In fact, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA),
which uses antibodies, is one of the most sensitive tests modern
medicine uses to detect various biomolecules. Probably the most
important proteins, however, are the enzymes. Virtually every reaction
in a living cell requires an enzyme to lower the activation energy of
the reaction. These molecules recognize specific reactant molecules
called substrates; they then catalyze the reaction between them. By
lowering the activation energy, the enzyme speeds up that reaction by
a rate of 1011 or more; a reaction that would normally take over 3,000
years to complete spontaneously might take less than a second with an
enzyme. The enzyme itself is not used up in the process, and is free
to catalyze the same reaction with a new set of substrates. Using
various modifiers, the activity of the enzyme can be regulated,
enabling control of the biochemistry of the cell as a whole.
The structure of proteins is traditionally described in a hierarchy of
four levels. The primary structure of a protein simply consists of its
linear sequence of amino acids; for instance,
Secondary structure is concerned with local morphology (morphology
being the study of structure). Some combinations of amino acids will
tend to curl up in a coil called an α-helix or into a sheet called a
β-sheet; some α-helixes can be seen in the hemoglobin schematic
Tertiary structure is the entire three-dimensional shape of the
protein. This shape is determined by the sequence of amino acids. In
fact, a single change can change the entire structure. The alpha chain
of hemoglobin contains 146 amino acid residues; substitution of the
glutamate residue at position 6 with a valine residue changes the
behavior of hemoglobin so much that it results in sickle-cell disease.
Finally, quaternary structure is concerned with the structure of a
protein with multiple peptide subunits, like hemoglobin with its four
subunits. Not all proteins have more than one subunit.
Examples of protein structures from the
Protein Data Bank
Members of a protein family, as represented by the structures of the
Ingested proteins are usually broken up into single amino acids or
dipeptides in the small intestine, and then absorbed. They can then be
joined to make new proteins. Intermediate products of glycolysis, the
citric acid cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway can be used to
make all twenty amino acids, and most bacteria and plants possess all
the necessary enzymes to synthesize them. Humans and other mammals,
however, can synthesize only half of them. They cannot synthesize
isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine,
tryptophan, and valine. These are the essential amino acids, since it
is essential to ingest them. Mammals do possess the enzymes to
synthesize alanine, asparagine, aspartate, cysteine, glutamate,
glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine, the nonessential
amino acids. While they can synthesize arginine and histidine, they
cannot produce it in sufficient amounts for young, growing animals,
and so these are often considered essential amino acids.
If the amino group is removed from an amino acid, it leaves behind a
carbon skeleton called an α-keto acid. Enzymes called transaminases
can easily transfer the amino group from one amino acid (making it an
α-keto acid) to another α-keto acid (making it an amino acid). This
is important in the biosynthesis of amino acids, as for many of the
pathways, intermediates from other biochemical pathways are converted
to the α-keto acid skeleton, and then an amino group is added, often
via transamination. The amino acids may then be linked together to
make a protein.
A similar process is used to break down proteins. It is first
hydrolyzed into its component amino acids. Free ammonia (NH3),
existing as the ammonium ion (NH4+) in blood, is toxic to life forms.
A suitable method for excreting it must therefore exist. Different
tactics have evolved in different animals, depending on the animals'
Unicellular organisms simply release the ammonia into the
environment. Likewise, bony fish can release the ammonia into the
water where it is quickly diluted. In general, mammals convert the
ammonia into urea, via the urea cycle.
In order to determine whether two proteins are related, or in other
words to decide whether they are homologous or not, scientists use
sequence-comparison methods. Methods like sequence alignments and
structural alignments are powerful tools that help scientists identify
homologies between related molecules. The relevance of finding
homologies among proteins goes beyond forming an evolutionary pattern
of protein families. By finding how similar two protein sequences are,
we acquire knowledge about their structure and therefore their
Main articles: Nucleic acid, DNA, RNA, and Nucleotide
The structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the picture shows the
monomers being put together.
Nucleic acids, so called because of their prevalence in cellular
nuclei, is the generic name of the family of biopolymers. They are
complex, high-molecular-weight biochemical macromolecules that can
convey genetic information in all living cells and viruses. The
monomers are called nucleotides, and each consists of three
components: a nitrogenous heterocyclic base (either a purine or a
pyrimidine), a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.
Structural elements of common nucleic acid constituents. Because they
contain at least one phosphate group, the compounds marked nucleoside
monophosphate, nucleoside diphosphate and nucleoside triphosphate are
all nucleotides (not simply phosphate-lacking nucleosides).
The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and
ribonucleic acid (RNA). The phosphate group and the sugar of each
nucleotide bond with each other to form the backbone of the nucleic
acid, while the sequence of nitrogenous bases stores the information.
The most common nitrogenous bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine,
thymine, and uracil. The nitrogenous bases of each strand of a nucleic
acid will form hydrogen bonds with certain other nitrogenous bases in
a complementary strand of nucleic acid (similar to a zipper). Adenine
binds with thymine and uracil; thymine binds only with adenine; and
cytosine and guanine can bind only with one another.
Aside from the genetic material of the cell, nucleic acids often play
a role as second messengers, as well as forming the base molecule for
adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy-carrier molecule
found in all living organisms. Also, the nitrogenous bases
possible in the two nucleic acids are different: adenine, cytosine,
and guanine occur in both
RNA and DNA, while thymine occurs only in
DNA and uracil occurs in RNA.
Carbohydrates as energy source
Glucose is an energy source in most life forms. For instance,
polysaccharides are broken down into their monomers (glycogen
phosphorylase removes glucose residues from glycogen). Disaccharides
like lactose or sucrose are cleaved into their two component
The metabolic pathway of glycolysis converts glucose to pyruvate by
via a series of intermediate metabolites. Each chemical modification
(red box) is performed by a different enzyme. Steps 1 and 3 consume
ATP (blue) and steps 7 and 10 produce ATP (yellow). Since steps 6-10
occur twice per glucose molecule, this leads to a net production of
Glucose is mainly metabolized by a very important ten-step pathway
called glycolysis, the net result of which is to break down one
molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. This also produces
a net two molecules of ATP, the energy currency of cells, along with
two reducing equivalents of converting NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide: oxidised form) to
NADH (nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide: reduced form). This does not require oxygen; if no
oxygen is available (or the cell cannot use oxygen), the NAD is
restored by converting the pyruvate to lactate (lactic acid) (e.g., in
humans) or to ethanol plus carbon dioxide (e.g., in yeast). Other
monosaccharides like galactose and fructose can be converted into
intermediates of the glycolytic pathway.
In aerobic cells with sufficient oxygen, as in most human cells, the
pyruvate is further metabolized. It is irreversibly converted to
acetyl-CoA, giving off one carbon atom as the waste product carbon
dioxide, generating another reducing equivalent as NADH. The two
molecules acetyl-CoA (from one molecule of glucose) then enter the
citric acid cycle, producing two more molecules of ATP, six more NADH
molecules and two reduced (ubi)quinones (via
FADH2 as enzyme-bound
cofactor), and releasing the remaining carbon atoms as carbon dioxide.
NADH and quinol molecules then feed into the enzyme
complexes of the respiratory chain, an electron transport system
transferring the electrons ultimately to oxygen and conserving the
released energy in the form of a proton gradient over a membrane
(inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes). Thus, oxygen is reduced
to water and the original electron acceptors NAD+ and quinone are
regenerated. This is why humans breathe in oxygen and breathe out
carbon dioxide. The energy released from transferring the electrons
from high-energy states in
NADH and quinol is conserved first as
proton gradient and converted to ATP via ATP synthase. This generates
an additional 28 molecules of ATP (24 from the 8
NADH + 4 from the 2
quinols), totaling to 32 molecules of ATP conserved per degraded
glucose (two from glycolysis + two from the citrate cycle). It is
clear that using oxygen to completely oxidize glucose provides an
organism with far more energy than any oxygen-independent metabolic
feature, and this is thought to be the reason why complex life
appeared only after Earth's atmosphere accumulated large amounts of
Main article: Gluconeogenesis
In vertebrates, vigorously contracting skeletal muscles (during
weightlifting or sprinting, for example) do not receive enough oxygen
to meet the energy demand, and so they shift to anaerobic metabolism,
converting glucose to lactate. The liver regenerates the glucose,
using a process called gluconeogenesis. This process is not quite the
opposite of glycolysis, and actually requires three times the amount
of energy gained from glycolysis (six molecules of ATP are used,
compared to the two gained in glycolysis). Analogous to the above
reactions, the glucose produced can then undergo glycolysis in tissues
that need energy, be stored as glycogen (or starch in plants), or be
converted to other monosaccharides or joined into di- or
oligosaccharides. The combined pathways of glycolysis during exercise,
lactate's crossing via the bloodstream to the liver, subsequent
gluconeogenesis and release of glucose into the bloodstream is called
the Cori cycle.
Relationship to other "molecular-scale" biological sciences
Schematic relationship between biochemistry, genetics, and molecular
Researchers in biochemistry use specific techniques native to
biochemistry, but increasingly combine these with techniques and ideas
developed in the fields of genetics, molecular biology and biophysics.
There has never been a hard-line among these disciplines in terms of
content and technique. Today, the terms molecular biology and
biochemistry are nearly interchangeable. The following figure is a
schematic that depicts one possible view of the relationship between
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital
processes occurring in living organisms. Biochemists focus heavily on
the role, function, and structure of biomolecules. The study of the
chemistry behind biological processes and the synthesis of
biologically active molecules are examples of biochemistry.
Genetics is the study of the effect of genetic differences on
organisms. Often this can be inferred by the absence of a normal
component (e.g., one gene), in the study of "mutants" – organisms
with a changed gene that leads to the organism being different with
respect to the so-called "wild type" or normal phenotype. Genetic
interactions (epistasis) can often confound simple interpretations of
such "knock-out" or "knock-in" studies.
Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the
process of replication, transcription and translation of the genetic
material. The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic
material is transcribed into
RNA and then translated into protein,
despite being an oversimplified picture of molecular biology, still
provides a good starting point for understanding the field. This
picture, however, is undergoing revision in light of emerging novel
roles for RNA.
Chemical biology seeks to develop new tools based on small molecules
that allow minimal perturbation of biological systems while providing
detailed information about their function. Further, chemical biology
employs biological systems to create non-natural hybrids between
biomolecules and synthetic devices (for example emptied viral capsids
that can deliver gene therapy or drug molecules).
Book: Biochemistry: An introduction
Main article: Outline of biochemistry
Important publications in biochemistry (chemistry)
List of biochemistry topics
List of biochemists
List of biomolecules
Hypothetical types of biochemistry
International Union of
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Fructose is not the only sugar found in fruits.
sucrose are also found in varying quantities in various fruits, and
indeed sometimes exceed the fructose present. For example, 32% of the
edible portion of date is glucose, compared with 23.70% fructose and
8.20% sucrose. However, peaches contain more sucrose (6.66%) than they
do fructose (0.93%) or glucose (1.47%).
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