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Phosphate
In chemistry, a phosphate is an anion, salt, functional group or ester derived from a phosphoric acid. It most commonly means orthophosphate, a derivative of orthophosphoric acid . The phosphate or orthophosphate ion is derived from phosphoric acid by the removal of three protons . Removal of one or two protons gives the dihydrogen phosphate ion and the hydrogen phosphate ion ion, respectively. These names are also used for salts of those anions, such as ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and trisodium phosphate. File:3-phosphoric-acid-3D-balls.png, Phosphoricacid File:2-dihydrogenphosphate-3D-balls.png, Dihydrogenphosphate File:1-hydrogenphosphate-3D-balls.png, Hydrogenphosphate File:0-phosphate-3D-balls.png, Phosphate In organic chemistry, phosphate or orthophosphate is an organophosphate, an ester of orthophosphoric acid of the form where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups. An example is trimethyl phosphate, . The term also refers to the ...
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Pyrophosphate
In chemistry, pyrophosphates are phosphorus oxyanions that contain two phosphorus atoms in a P–O–P linkage. A number of pyrophosphate salts exist, such as disodium pyrophosphate (Na2H2P2O7) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na4P2O7), among others. Often pyrophosphates are called diphosphates. The parent pyrophosphates are derived from partial or complete neutralization of pyrophosphoric acid. The pyrophosphate bond is also sometimes referred to as a phosphoanhydride bond, a naming convention which emphasizes the loss of water that occurs when two phosphates form a new P–O–P bond, and which mirrors the nomenclature for anhydrides of carboxylic acids. Pyrophosphates are found in ATP and other nucleotide triphosphates, which are important in biochemistry. The term pyrophosphate is also the name of esters formed by the condensation of a phosphorylated biological compound with inorganic phosphate, as for dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. This bond is also referred to as a high-ene ...
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Phosphorus
Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, but because it is highly reactive, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. It has a concentration in the Earth's crust of about one gram per kilogram (compare copper at about 0.06 grams). In minerals, phosphorus generally occurs as phosphate. Elemental phosphorus was first isolated as white phosphorus in 1669. White phosphorus emits a faint glow when exposed to oxygen – hence the name, taken from Greek mythology, meaning 'light-bearer' (Latin ), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus. The term '' phosphorescence'', meaning glow after illumination, derives from this property of phosphorus, although the word has since been used for a different physical process that produces a glow. The glow of phosphorus is caused by oxidation of the white (but not red) phosphorus — a process now called che ...
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Organophosphate
In organic chemistry, organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters, or OPEs) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure , a central phosphate molecule with alkyl or aromatic substituents. They can be considered as esters of phosphoric acid. Like most functional groups, organophosphates occur in a diverse range of forms, with important examples including key biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and ATP, as well as many insecticides, herbicides, nerve agents and flame retardants. OPEs have been widely used in various products as flame retardants, plasticizers, and performance additives to engine oil. The popularity of OPEs as flame retardants came as a substitution for the highly regulated brominated flame retardants. The low cost of production and compatibility to diverse polymers made OPEs to be widely used in industry including textile, furniture, electronics as plasticizers and flame retardants. These compounds are added to the final product p ...
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Phosphoric Acids And Phosphates
A phosphoric acid, in the general sense, is a phosphorus oxoacid in which each phosphorus (P) atom is in the oxidation state +5, and is bonded to four oxygen (O) atoms, one of them through a double bond, arranged as the corners of a tetrahedron. Two or more of these tetrahedra may be connected by shared single-bonded oxygens, forming linear or branched chains, cycles, or more complex structures. The single-bonded oxygen atoms that are not shared are completed with acidic hydrogen atoms. The general formula of a phosphoric acid is , where ''n'' is the number of phosphorus atoms and ''x'' is the number of fundamental cycles in the molecule's structure, between 0 and (''n''+2)/2. Removal of protons () from ''k'' hydroxyl groups –OH leaves anions generically called phosphates (if ''k'' = ''n''−2''x''+2) or hydrogen phosphates (if ''k'' is between 1 and ''n''−2''x''+1), with general formula ''n''−2''x''+2−''k''P''n''O3''n''+1−''x''sup>''k''−. The fully diss ...
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Trisodium Phosphate
Trisodium phosphate (TSP) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula . It is a white, granular or crystalline solid, highly soluble in water, producing an alkaline solution. TSP is used as a cleaning agent, builder, lubricant, food additive, stain remover, and degreaser. The item of commerce is often partially hydrated and may range from anhydrous to the dodecahydrate . Most often found in white powder form, it can also be called trisodium orthophosphate or simply sodium phosphate. Production Trisodium phosphate is produced by neutralization of phosphoric acid using sodium carbonate, which produces disodium hydrogen phosphate. The disodium hydrogen phosphate is reacted with sodium hydroxide to form trisodium phosphate and water. : : Uses Cleaning Trisodium phosphate was at one time extensively used in formulations for a variety of consumer-grade soaps and detergents, and the most common use for trisodium phosphate has been in cleaning agents. The pH of a ...
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Phosphoric Acid
Phosphoric acid (orthophosphoric acid, monophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a colorless, odorless phosphorus-containing solid, and inorganic compound with the chemical formula . It is commonly encountered as an 85% aqueous solution, which is a colourless, odourless, and non- volatile syrupy liquid. It is a major industrial chemical, being a component of many fertilizers. The compound is an acid. Removal of all three ions gives the phosphate ion . Removal of one or two protons gives dihydrogen phosphate ion , and the hydrogen phosphate ion , respectively. Phosphoric acid forms esters, called organophosphates. The name "orthophosphoric acid" can be used to distinguish this specific acid from other "phosphoric acids", such as pyrophosphoric acid. Nevertheless, the term "phosphoric acid" often means this specific compound; and that is the current IUPAC nomenclature. Production Phosphoric acid is produced industrially by one of two routes, wet processes and dry. ...
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Metabolism
Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main functions of metabolism are: the conversion of the energy in food to energy available to run cellular processes; the conversion of food to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates; and the elimination of metabolic wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transportation of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary (or intermediate) metabolism. Metabolic reactions may be categorized as '' catabolic'' – the ''breaking down'' of compounds (for example, of glucose to pyruv ...
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Phosphorylation
In chemistry, phosphorylation is the attachment of a phosphate group to a molecule or an ion. This process and its inverse, dephosphorylation, are common in biology and could be driven by natural selection. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Protein phosphorylation often activates (or deactivates) many enzymes. Glucose Phosphorylation of sugars is often the first stage in their catabolism. Phosphorylation allows cells to accumulate sugars because the phosphate group prevents the molecules from diffusing back across their transporter. Phosphorylation of glucose is a key reaction in sugar metabolism. The chemical equation for the conversion of D-glucose to D-glucose-6-phosphate in the first step of glycolysis is given by :D-glucose + ATP → D-glucose-6-phosphate + ADP : ΔG° = −16.7 kJ/mol (° indicates measurement at standard condition) Hepatic cells are freely permeable to glucose, and t ...
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Dephosphorylation
In biochemistry, dephosphorylation is the removal of a phosphate (PO43−) group from an organic compound by hydrolysis. It is a reversible post-translational modification. Dephosphorylation and its counterpart, phosphorylation, activate and deactivate enzymes by detaching or attaching phosphoric esters and anhydrides. A notable occurrence of dephosphorylation is the conversion of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate. Dephosphorylation employs a type of hydrolytic enzyme, or hydrolase, which cleaves ester bonds. The prominent hydrolase subclass used in dephosphorylation is phosphatase, which removes phosphate groups by hydrolysing phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and a molecule with a free hydroxyl (-OH) group. The reversible phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reaction occurs in every physiological process, making proper function of protein phosphatases necessary for organism viability. Because protein dephosphorylation is a key process involved in cell sig ...
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Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP), also known as monoammonium phosphate (MAP) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (NH4)(H2PO4). ADP is a major ingredient of agricultural fertilizers and some fire extinguishers. It also has significant uses in optics and electronics. Chemical properties Monoammonium phosphate is soluble in water and crystallizes from it as the anhydrous salt in the tetragonal system, as elongated prisms or needles. It is practically insoluble in ethanol.Dejun Xu, Xing Xiong, Lin Yang, Zhiye Zhang, and Xinlong Wang (2016): "Determination of the Solubility of Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate in Water-Ethanol System at Different Temperatures from 283.2 to 343.2 K". ''Journal of Chemincal Engineering Data'', volume 61, issue 1, pages 78–82. Solid monoammonium phosphate can be considered stable in practice for temperatures up to 200 °C, when it decomposes into gaseous ammonia and molten phosphoric acid .G. O. Guerrant and D. E. Brown (1 ...
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Trimethyl Phosphate
Trimethyl phosphate is the trimethyl ester of phosphoric acid. It is a colourless, nonvolatile liquid. It has some specialized uses in the production of other compounds. Production Trimethyl phosphate is prepared by treating phosphorus oxychloride with methanol in the presence of an amine base: :POCl3 + 3 CH3OH + 3 R3N → PO(OCH3)3 + 3 R3NH+Cl− It is a tetrahedral molecule that is a weakly polar solvent. Applications Trimethyl phosphate is a mild methylating agent, useful for dimethylation of anilines and related heterocyclic compounds. The method is complementary to the traditional Eschweiler-Clarke reaction in cases where formaldehyde engages in side reactions. Trimethyl phosphate is used as a solvent for aromatic halogenations and nitrations as required for the preparation of pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Other applications It is used as a color inhibitor for fibers (e.g. polyester) and other polymers. Trimethyl phosphate is used as a simulant for c ...
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Monohydrogen Phosphate
Monohydrogen phosphate is the inorganic ion with the formula PO4sup>2-. Its formula can also be written as O3(OH)sup>2-, which shows the presence of a O-H bond. Together with dihydrogen phosphate, monohydrogen phosphate occurs widely in natural systems. Their salts are used in fertilizers and in cooking. Most monohydrogenphosphate salts are colorless, water soluble, and nontoxic. Acid-base equilibria Monohydrogenphosphate is an intermediate in the multistep conversion of phosphoric acid to phosphate: {{notelist Examples *Diammonium phosphate, (NH4)2HPO4 *Disodium phosphate Disodium phosphate (DSP), or disodium hydrogen phosphate, or sodium phosphate dibasic, is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2HPO4. It is one of several sodium phosphates. The salt is known in anhydrous form as well as forms with 2, 7, 8, ..., Na2HPO4, with varying amounts of water of hydration References Ions Phosphates ...
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