A BARITONE is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types . It is the most common male voice. Originally from the Greek βαρύτονος (_barýtonos_), meaning _deep (or heavy) sounding_, music for this voice is typically written in the range from the second F below middle C to the F above middle C (i.e. F2 –F4) in choral music, and from the second A below middle C to the A above middle C (A2 to A4) in operatic music, but can be extended at either end. The baritone voice type is generally divided into the baryton-Martin baritone (light baritone), lyric baritone, _Kavalierbariton_, Verdi baritone, dramatic baritone, _baryton-noble_ baritone, and the bass-baritone.
* 1 History
* 1.1 19th century * 1.2 20th century
* 2 Voice type
* 3 Subtypes and roles in opera
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links
The first use of the term "baritone" emerged as _baritonans_, late in the 15th century, usually in French sacred polyphonic music. At this early stage it was frequently used as the lowest of the voices (including the bass), but in 17th-century Italy the term was all-encompassing and used to describe the average male choral voice.
Baritones took roughly the range as it is known today at the beginning of the 18th century, but they were still lumped in with their bass colleagues until well into the 19th century. Indeed, many operatic works of the 18th century have roles marked as bass that in reality are low baritone roles (or bass-baritone parts in modern parlance). Examples of this are to be found, for instance, in the operas and oratorios of George Frideric Handel . The greatest and most enduring parts for baritones in 18th-century operatic music were composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart . They include Count Almaviva in _ The Marriage of Figaro _, Guglielmo in _ Così fan tutte _, Papageno in _ The Magic Flute _ and the lead in _ Don Giovanni _.
In theatrical documents, cast lists, and journalistic dispatches that from the beginning of the 19th century till the mid 1820s, the terms _primo basso_, _basse chantante_, and _basse-taille_ were often used for men who would later be called baritones. These included the likes of Filippo Galli , Giovanni Inchindi , and Henri-Bernard Dabadie . The basse-taille and the proper bass were commonly confused because their roles were sometimes sung by singers of either actual voice part.
The bel canto style of vocalism which arose in Italy in the early 19th century supplanted the castrato -dominated _opera seria _ of the previous century. It led to the baritone being viewed as a separate voice category from the bass. Traditionally, basses in operas had been cast as authority figures such as a king or high priest; but with the advent of the more fluid baritone voice, the roles allotted by composers to lower male voices expanded in the direction of trusted companions or even romantic leads—normally the province of tenors. More often than not, however, baritones found themselves portraying villains.
The principal composers of bel canto opera are considered to be:
Gioachino Rossini (_
The Barber of Seville _, _William Tell _);
Gaetano Donizetti (_
Don Pasquale _, _L\'elisir d\'amore _, _Lucia
di Lammermoor _, _Lucrezia Borgia _, _
La favorite _);
The prolific operas of these composers, plus the works of Verdi's
maturity, such as _
Un ballo in maschera _, _
La forza del destino _,
The major international baritone of the first half of the 19th
century was the Italian
Antonio Tamburini (1800–1876). He was a
Don Giovanni in Mozart's eponymous opera as well as being a
Bellini and Donizetti specialist. Commentators praised his voice for
its beauty, flexibility and smooth tonal emission, which are the
hallmarks of a bel canto singer. Tamburini's range, however, was
probably closer to that of a bass-baritone than to that of a modern
"Verdi baritone". His French equivalent was Henri-Bernard Dabadie, who
was a mainstay of the
The most important of Tamburini's Italianate successors were all Verdians. They included:
Giorgio Ronconi , who created the title role in Verdi's _Nabucco_
Felice Varesi , who created the title roles in _Macbeth _ and
Rigoletto _ as well as Germont in _
La traviata _
Antonio Superchi , the originator of Don Carlo in _
* Francesco Graziani , who was the original Don Carlo di Vargas in
La forza del destino _
Leone Giraldoni , the creator of Renato in _
Un ballo in maschera _
and the first Simon Boccanegra
Enrico Delle Sedie , who was London's first Renato
* Adriano Pantaleoni , renowned for his performances as Amonasro in
Among the non-Italian born baritones that were active in the third quarter of the 19th century, Tamburini's mantle as an outstanding exponent of Mozart and Donizetti's music was probably taken up most faithfully by a Belgian, Camille Everardi , who later settled in Russia and taught voice. In France, Paul Barroilhet succeeded Dabadie as the Paris opera's best known baritone. Like Dabadie, he also sang in Italy and created an important Donizetti role: in his case, Alphonse in _ La favorite _ (in 1840).
Luckily, the gramophone was invented early enough to capture on disc
the voices of the top Italian Verdi and Donizetti baritones of the
last two decades of the 19th century, whose operatic performances were
characterized by considerable re-creative freedom and a high degree of
technical finish. They included
Mattia Battistini (known as the "King
of Baritones"), Giuseppe Kaschmann (born
Josip Kašman ) who,
atypically, sang Wagner's Telramund and Amfortas not in Italian but in
German, at the
Notable among their contemporaries were the cultured and technically
adroit French baritones Jean Lassalle (hailed as the most accomplished
baritone of his generation),
Victor Maurel (the creator of Verdi's
Iago, Falstaff and Tonio in Leoncavallo 's _Pagliacci_), Paul Lhérie
(the first Posa in the revised, Italian-language version of _Don
Maurice Renaud (a singing actor of the first magnitude).
Lassalle, Maurel and Renaud enjoyed superlative careers on either side
of the Atlantic and left a valuable legacy of recordings. Five other
significant Francophone baritones who recorded, too, during the early
days of the gramophone/phonograph were
Léon Melchissédec and Jean
Noté of the
The oldest-born star baritone known for sure to have made solo gramophone discs was the Englishman Sir Charles Santley (1834–1922). Santley made his operatic debut in Italy in 1858 and became one of Covent Garden's leading singers. He was still giving critically acclaimed concerts in London in the 1890s. The composer of _Faust _, Charles Gounod , wrote Valentine's aria "Even bravest heart" for him at his request for the London production in 1864 so that the leading baritone would have an aria. A couple of primitive cylinder recordings dating from about 1900 have been attributed by collectors to the dominant French baritone of the 1860s and 1870s, Jean-Baptiste Faure (1830–1914), the creator of Posa in Verdi's original French-language version of _Don Carlos_. It is doubtful, however, that Faure (who retired in 1886) made the cylinders. However, a contemporary of Faure's, Antonio Cotogni, (1831–1918)—probably the foremost Italian baritone of his generation—can be heard, briefly and dimly, at the age of 77, on a duet recording with the tenor Francesco Marconi . (Cotogni and Marconi had sung together in the first London performance of Amilcare Ponchielli 's _La Gioconda _ in 1883, performing the roles of Barnaba and Enzo respectively.)
There are 19th-century references in the musical literature to certain baritone subtypes. These include the light and tenorish baryton-Martin, named after French singer Jean-Blaise Martin (1768/69–1837), and the deeper, more powerful _Heldenbariton_ (today's bass-baritone) of Wagnerian opera.
Perhaps the most accomplished _Heldenbaritons_ of Wagner's day were
August Kindermann ,
Franz Betz and Theodor Reichmann . Betz created
Hans Sachs in _Die Meistersinger _ and undertook Wotan in the first
Der Ring des Nibelungen _ cycle at
Nineteenth-century operettas became the preserve of lightweight
baritone voices. They were given comic parts in the tradition of the
previous century's comic bass by
Gilbert and Sullivan in many of their
productions. This did not prevent the French master of operetta,
Jacques Offenbach , from assigning the villain's role in _The Tales of
Hoffmann _ to a big-voiced baritone for the sake of dramatic effect.
Other 19th-century French composers like Meyerbeer,
Hector Berlioz ,
Camille Saint-Saëns ,
Georges Bizet and
Jules Massenet wrote
attractive parts for baritones, too. These included Nelusko in
_L\'Africaine _ (Meyerbeer's last opera), Mephistopheles in _La
damnation de Faust _ (a role also sung by basses), the Priest of Dagon
in _Samson and Delilah _, Escamillo in _
Mozart continued to be sung throughout the 19th century although, generally speaking, his operas were not revered to the same extent that they are today by music critics and audiences. Back then, baritones rather than high basses normally sang Don Giovanni – arguably Mozart's greatest male operatic creation. Famous Dons of the late 19th and early 20th centuries included Scotti and Maurel, as well as Portugal's Francisco De Andrade and Sweden's John Forsell .
The dawn of the 20th century opened up more opportunities for baritones than ever before as a taste for strenuously exciting vocalism and lurid, "slice-of-life" operatic plots took hold in Italy and spread elsewhere. The most prominent verismo baritones included such major singers in Europe and America as the polished Giuseppe De Luca (the first Sharpless in _ Madama Butterfly _), Mario Sammarco (the first Gerard in _ Andrea Chénier _), Eugenio Giraldoni (the first Scarpia in _ Tosca _), Pasquale Amato (the first Rance in _La fanciulla del West _), Riccardo Stracciari (noted for his richly attractive timbre ) and Domenico Viglione Borghese , whose voice was exceeded in size only by that of the lion-voiced Titta Ruffo . Ruffo was the most commanding Italian baritone of his era or, arguably, any other era. He was at his prime from the early 1900s to the early 1920s and enjoyed success in Italy, England and America (in Chicago and later at the Met).
Between them, these baritones established the _echt_ performance style for baritones undertaking roles in verismo operas. The chief verismo composers were Giacomo Puccini , Ruggero Leoncavallo, Pietro Mascagni , Alberto Franchetti , Umberto Giordano and Francesco Cilea . Verdi's works continued to remain popular, however, with audiences in Italy, the Spanish-speaking countries, the United States and the United Kingdom and, interestingly enough, Germany, where there was a major Verdi revival in Berlin between the Wars.
Outside the field of Italian opera, an important addition to the
Austro-German repertory occurred in 1905. This was the premiere of
Richard Strauss 's _Salome _, with the pivotal part of John the
Baptist assigned to a baritone. (The enormous-voiced Dutch baritone
Anton van Rooy , a Wagner specialist, sang John when the opera reached
the Met in 1907). Then, in 1925, Germany's Leo Schützendorf created
the title baritone role in
Alban Berg 's harrowing _
Wozzeck _. In a
separate development, the French composer
Characteristic of the Wagnerian baritones of the 20th century was a general progression of individual singers from higher-lying baritone parts to lower-pitched ones. This was the case with Germany's Hans Hotter . Hotter made his debut in 1929. As a young singer he appeared in Verdi and created the Commandant in Richard Strauss's _Friedenstag _ and Olivier in _Capriccio _. By the 1950s, however, he was being hailed as the top Wagnerian bass-baritone in the world. His Wotan was especially praised by critics for its musicianship. Other major Wagnerian baritones have included Hotter's predecessors Leopold Demuth , Anton van Rooy, Hermann Weil , Clarence Whitehill , Friedrich Schorr , Rudolf Bockelmann and Hans Hermann Nissen . Demuth, van Rooy, Weil and Whitehill were at their peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries while Schorr, Bockelmann and Nissen were stars of the 1920s and 1930s.
In addition to their heavyweight Wagnerian cousins, there was a plethora of baritones with more lyrical voices active in Germany and Austria during the period between the outbreak of WW1 in 1914 and the end of WW2 in 1945. Among them were Joseph Schwarz (de), Heinrich Schlusnus , Herbert Janssen , Willi Domgraf-Fassbaender , Karl Schmitt-Walter and Gerhard Hüsch . Their abundant inter-war Italian counterparts included, among others, Carlo Galeffi , Giuseppe Danise , Enrico Molinari , Umberto Urbano , Cesare Formichi , Luigi Montesanto , Apollo Granforte , Benvenuto Franci , Renato Zanelli (who switched to tenor roles in 1924), Mario Basiola , Giovanni Inghilleri , Carlo Morelli (the Chilean-born younger brother of Renato Zanelli) and Carlo Tagliabue , who retired as late as 1958.
One of the best known Italian Verdi baritones of the 1920s and 1930s,
Mariano Stabile , sang Iago and
Rigoletto and Falstaff (at
Gobbi's competitors included Gino Bechi , Giuseppe Valdengo , Paolo Silveri , Giuseppe Taddei , Ettore Bastianini , Cesare Bardelli and Giangiacomo Guelfi . Another of Gobbi's contemporaries was the Welshman Geraint Evans , who famously sang Falstaff at Glyndebourne and created the roles of Mr. Flint and Mountjoy in works by Benjamin Britten . Some considered his best role to have been Wozzeck. The next significant Welsh baritone was Bryn Terfel . He made his premiere at Glyndebourne in 1990 and went on to build an international career as Falstaff and, more generally, in the operas of Mozart and Wagner.
The first famous American baritone appeared in the 1900s. It was the American-born but Paris-based Charles W. Clark who sang Italian, French and German composers. An outstanding group of virile-voiced American baritones appeared then in the 1920s. The younger members of this group were still active as recently as the late 1970s. Outstanding among its members were the Met-based Verdians Lawrence Tibbett (a compelling, rich-voiced singing actor), Richard Bonelli , John Charles Thomas , Robert Weede , Leonard Warren and Robert Merrill . They sang French opera, too, as did the American-born but also Paris-based baritone of the 1920s, and 1930s Arthur Endreze .
Also to be found singing Verdi roles at the Met, Covent Garden and the Vienna Opera during the late 1930s and the 1940s was the big-voiced Hungarian baritone, Sandor (Alexander) Sved .
The leading Verdi baritones of the 1970s and 1980s were probably Italy's Renato Bruson and Piero Cappuccilli , America's Sherrill Milnes , Sweden's Ingvar Wixell and the Romanian baritone Nicolae Herlea . At the same time, Britain's Sir Thomas Allen was considered to be the most versatile baritone of his generation in regards to repertoire, which ranged from Mozart to Verdi and lighter Wagner roles, through French and Russian opera, to modern English music. Another British baritone, Norman Bailey , established himself internationally as a memorable Wotan and Hans Sachs. He had, however, a distinguished if lighter-voiced Wagnerian rival during the 1960s and 1970s in the person of Thomas Stewart of America. Other notable post-War Wagnerian baritones have been Canada's George London , Germany's Hermann Uhde and, more recently, America's James Morris .
Among the late-20th-century baritones noted throughout the opera world for their Verdi performances was Vladimir Chernov , who emerged from the former USSR to sing at the Met. Chernov followed in the footsteps of such richly endowed East European baritones as Ippolit Pryanishnikov (a favorite of Tchaikovski's), Joachim Tartakov (an Everardi pupil), Oskar Kamionsky (an exceptional _bel canto_ singer nicknamed the "Russian Battistini"), Waclaw Brzezinski (known as the "Polish Battistini"), Georges Baklanoff (a powerful singing actor), and, during a career lasting from 1935 to 1966, the Bolshoi 's Pavel Lisitsian . Dmitri Hvorostovsky and Sergei Leiferkus are two Russian baritones of the modern era who appear regularly in the West. Like Lisitsian, they sing Verdi and the works of their native composers, including Tchaikovsky's _Eugene Onegin_ and _The Queen of Spades _.
In the realm of French song, the bass-baritone José van Dam and the lighter-voiced Gérard Souzay have been notable. Souzay's repertoire extended from the Baroque works of Jean-Baptiste Lully to 20th-century composers such as Francis Poulenc . Pierre Bernac , Souzay's teacher, was an interpreter of Poulenc's songs in the previous generation. Older baritones identified with this style include France's Dinh Gilly and Charles Panzéra and Australia's John Brownlee . Another Australian, Peter Dawson , made a small but precious legacy of benchmark Handel recordings during the 1920s and 1930s. (Dawson, incidentally, acquired his outstanding Handelian technique from Sir Charles Santley.) Yet another Australian baritone of distinction between the wars was Harold Williams , who was based in the United Kingdom. Important British-born baritones of the 1930s and 1940s were Dennis Noble , who sang Italian and English operatic roles, and the Mozartian Roy Henderson . Both appeared often at Covent Garden.
Prior to World War II, Germany's Heinrich Schlusnus, Gerhard Hüsch and Herbert Janssen were celebrated for their beautifully sung lieder recitals as well as for their mellifluous operatic performances in Verdi, Mozart, and Wagner respectively. After the war's conclusion, Hermann Prey and Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau appeared on the scene to take their place. In addition to his interpretations of lieder and the works of Mozart, Prey sang in Strauss operas and tackled lighter Wagner roles such as Wolfram or Beckmesser. Fischer-Dieskau sang parts in 'fringe' operas by the likes of Ferruccio Busoni and Paul Hindemith as well as appearing in standard works by Verdi and Wagner. He earned his principal renown, however, as a lieder singer. Talented German and Austrian lieder singers of a younger generation include Olaf Bär , Matthias Goerne , Wolfgang Holzmair (who also performs regularly in opera), Thomas Quasthoff , Stephan Genz (de) and Christian Gerhaher . Well-known non-Germanic baritones of recent times have included the Italians Giorgio Zancanaro and Leo Nucci , the Frenchman François le Roux , the Canadians Gerald Finley and James Westman and the versatile American Thomas Hampson , his compatriot Nathan Gunn and the Englishman Simon Keenlyside .
The vocal range of the baritone lies between the bass and the tenor voice types . The baritone vocal range is usually between the 2nd A below middle C (A2) and the A above middle C (A4).
SUBTYPES AND ROLES IN OPERA
Within the baritone voice type category are seven generally recognized subcategories: baryton-Martin baritone (light baritone), lyric baritone, _Kavalierbariton_, Verdi baritone, dramatic baritone, _baryton-noble_ baritone, and the bass-baritone.
The baryton-Martin baritone (sometimes referred to as light baritone)
lacks the lower G2–B2 range a heavier baritone is capable of, and
has a lighter, almost tenor-like quality. Its common range is from C3
to the B above middle C (C3 to B4). Generally seen only in French
repertoire, this _
Baryton-Martin roles in opera:
* Pelléas, _Pelléas et Mélisande _ (Claude Debussy) * L'Horloge Comtoise, _L\'enfant et les sortilèges _ (Maurice Ravel) * Orfeo, _L\'Orfeo _ (Claudio Monteverdi) * Ramiro, _L\'heure espagnole _ (Maurice Ravel) * Aeneas, _ Dido and Aeneas _ (Henry Purcell)
The lyric baritone is a sweeter, milder sounding baritone voice, lacking in harshness; lighter and perhaps mellower than the dramatic baritone with a higher tessitura . Its common range is from the A below C3 to the G above middle C (A2 to G4). It is typically assigned to comic roles.
Lyric baritone roles in opera:
* Count Almaviva, _
The Marriage of Figaro _ (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
* Guglielmo, _
Così fan tutte _ (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart)
* Don Giovanni, _
Don Giovanni _ (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart)
* Papageno, _
The Magic Flute _ (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart)
* Dr Malatesta _
Don Pasquale _ (Gaetano Donizetti)
* Prospero, _The Tempest _ (
Thomas Adès )
* Marcello, _
La bohème _ (
Giacomo Puccini )
* Figaro, _
The Barber of Seville _ (
Gioachino Rossini )
* Morales, _
The _Kavalierbariton_ baritone is a metallic voice that can sing both lyric and dramatic phrases, a manly, noble baritonal color. Its common range is from the A below low C to the G above middle C (A2 to G4). Not quite as powerful as the Verdi baritone who is expected to have a powerful appearance on stage, perhaps muscular or physically large.
_Kavalierbariton_ roles in opera:
* Don Giovanni, _ Don Giovanni _ (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart) * Count, _Capriccio _ ( Richard Strauss ) * Giorgio Germont, _ La traviata _ ( Giuseppe Verdi ) * Zurga _ Les pêcheurs de perles _ ( Georges Bizet )
The Verdi baritone is a more specialized voice category and a subset of the Dramatic Baritone. Its common range is from the G below low C to the B4♭ above middle C (G2 to B♭4). A Verdi baritone refers to a voice capable of singing consistently and with ease in the highest part of the baritone range. It will generally have a lot of squillo , or "ping".
Verdi baritone roles in opera:
* Amonasro, _
The dramatic baritone is voice that is richer, fuller, and sometimes
harsher than a lyric baritone and with a darker quality. Its common
range is from the G half an octave below low C to the G above middle C
(G2 to G4). The dramatic baritone category corresponds roughly to the
Heldenbariton in the German _Fach_ system except that some Verdi
baritone roles are not included. The primo passaggio and secondo
passaggio of both the Verdi and Dramatic
Dramatic baritone roles in opera:
* Jack Rance, _
La fanciulla del West
The _baryton-noble_ baritone is French for "noble baritone" and
describes a part that requires a noble bearing, smooth vocalisation
and forceful declamation, all in perfect balance. This category
originated in the
_Baryton-noble_ roles in opera are:
* Aleko, _Aleko _
* Alberich, _Siegfried _
* Alfio, _
Cavalleria rusticana _
* Amfortas, _
* Amonasro, _
Main article: Bass-baritone
Bass-baritones are typically divided into two separate categories: lyric bass-baritone and dramatic bass-baritone.
The lyric bass-baritone is a higher bass-baritone. Its common range is from about the F below C3 to the F♯ above middle C (F2 to F#4). Some bass-baritones are baritones, like Friedrich Schorr, George London, James Morris and Bryn Terfel. The following are more often performed by lower baritones as opposed to high basses.
Lyric bass-baritone roles in opera:
* Don Pizarro, _
Fidelio _ (
Ludwig van Beethoven )
* Golaud, _Pelléas et Mélisande _ (
The dramatic bass-baritone is a lower baritone (a _heldenbaritone _). Its common range is from about the F below low C to the F♯ above middle C (F2 to F#4).
Dramatic bass-baritone roles in opera:
* Aleko, _Aleko _ (
Sergei Rachmaninoff )
* Igor, _
GILBERT AND SULLIVAN AND OPERETTA
All of Gilbert and Sullivan 's Savoy operas have at least one lead baritone character. Notable operetta roles are:
* Archibald Grosvenor, _Patience _
* Captain Corcoran, _
Main article: List of baritones in non-classical music
In barbershop music , the baritone part sings in a similar range to the Lead (singing the melody) however usually singing lower than the lead. A barbershop baritone has a specific and specialized role in the formation of the four-part harmony that characterizes the style.
The baritone singer is often the one required to support or "fill" the bass sound (typically by singing the fifth above the bass root) and to complete a chord. On the other hand, the baritone will occasionally find himself harmonizing above the melody, which calls for a tenor-like quality. Because the baritone fills the chord, the part is often not very melodic.
In bluegrass music , the melody line is called the lead.
sung an interval of a third above the lead.
* _ Opera portal
* ^ Or BARYTONE, although this spelling is essentially archaic and
little-used since the 1920s.
* ^ _Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia_. "Baritone".
Merriam-Webster (2000) p. 142. ISBN 0-87779-017-5
* ^ Knapp, Raymond; Morris, Mitchell; Wolf. Stacy (eds.) (2011)_The
Oxford Handbook of The American Musical_, p. 322. Oxford University
Press. ISBN 0199874727
* ^ Franchino Gaffurio , Practica musicae, liber tertius, 1496
* ^ Owen Jander,
J. B. Steane , Elizabeth Forbes , Ellen T. Harris,
and Gerald Waldman, '
* Faure, Jean-Baptiste (1886) _La voix et le chant: traité pratique_, Heugel, published in English translation as _The Voice and Singing_ (Francis Keeping and Roberta Prada, translators), Vox Mentor, 2005. * Matheopoulos, H. (1989) _Bravo – The World's Great Male Singers Discuss Their Roles_, Victor Gollancz Ltd. * Bruder, Harold, Liner Notes, _Maurice Renaud: The Complete Gramophone Recordings 1901–1908_, Marston Records, 1997. (Discusses Renaud and many of his baritone contemporaries as well as the stylistic change in operatic singing at the turn of the 20th century.) Retrieved 4 March 2008.
_ Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica_ article _BARYTONE _.