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Athens (/ˈæθɪnz/;[3] Greek: Αθήνα, Athína [aˈθina], Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years[4] and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BCE.[5] Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, which had been a distinct city prior to its 5th century BCE incorporation with Athens. A centre for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum,[6][7] it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy,[8][9] largely because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, and in particular the Romans.[10] In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, political and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power[11] and the 67th most expensive[12] in a UBS study. Athens is a global city and one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe. It has a large financial sector, and its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe,[13][14][15][16] and the second largest in the world.[17] The Municipality of Athens (also City of Athens) had a population of 664,046 (in 2011)[2] within its administrative limits, and a land area of 38.96 km2 (15.04 sq mi).[18][19] The urban area of Athens (Greater Athens and Greater Piraeus) extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 (in 2011)[20] over an area of 412 km2 (159 sq mi).[19] According to Eurostat[21] in 2011, the functional urban area (FUA) of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union (the 6th most populous capital city of the EU), with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is also the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city also retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery. Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is also home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, and 108 years later it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics.[22]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Cityscape / skyline 2.2 Geology 2.3 Environment

2.3.1 Climate

2.4 Locations

2.4.1 Neighbourhoods 2.4.2 Parks and zoos

2.5 Surrounding areas

2.5.1 Urban and suburban municipalities 2.5.2 Athens Urban Area 2.5.3 Athens Metropolitan Area

2.6 Demographics

2.6.1 Population in modern times

2.6.1.1 Population of the Athens Metropolitan Area

2.6.2 Population in ancient times

3 Government and politics

3.1 International relations and influence

3.1.1 Twin towns – sister cities 3.1.2 Partnerships 3.1.3 Other locations named after Athens

4 History 5 Culture

5.1 Archaeological hub 5.2 Architecture 5.3 Urban sculpture 5.4 Museums 5.5 Tourism 5.6 Entertainment and performing arts

5.6.1 Music

5.7 Sports

5.7.1 Olympic Games

5.7.1.1 1896 Summer Olympics 5.7.1.2 1906 Summer Olympics 5.7.1.3 2004 Summer Olympics 5.7.1.4 Special Olympics 2011

6 Economy and infrastructure

6.1 Transport

6.1.1 Bus transport 6.1.2 Athens Metro

6.1.2.1 Electric railway (ISAP)

6.1.3 Commuter/suburban rail (Proastiakos) 6.1.4 Tram 6.1.5 Athens International Airport 6.1.6 Railways and ferry connections 6.1.7 Motorways

7 Education 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] Further information: Names of European cities in different languages: A

Athena, patron goddess of Athens; (Varvakeion Athena, National Archaeological Museum)

In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι (Athēnai, pronounced [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯] in Classical Attic) a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη (Athēnē).[23] It was possibly rendered in the plural later on, like those of Θῆβαι (Thêbai) and Μυκῆναι (Μukênai). The root of the word is probably not of Greek or Indo-European origin,[24] and is possibly a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica.[24] In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena (Attic Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, Ionic Ἀθήνη, Athēnē, and Doric Ἀθάνα, Athānā) or Athena took her name from the city.[25] Modern scholars now generally agree that the goddess takes her name from the city,[25] because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names.[25] During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, and partly due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι [aˈθine] became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, Athena, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city;[26] they agreed that whoever gave the Athenians the better gift would become their patron[26] and appointed Cecrops, the king of Athens, as the judge.[26] According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.[26] In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse.[26] In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree.[26][27] Cecrops accepted this gift[26] and declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens.[26][27] Different etymologies, now commonly rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος (áthos) or ἄνθος (ánthos) meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- (tháō, thē-, "to suck") to denote Athens as having fertile soil.[28] In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι (iostéphanoi Athânai), or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ (tò kleinòn ásty, "the glorious city"). In medieval texts, variant names include Setines, Satine, and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of prepositional phrases.[29] Today the caption η πρωτεύουσα (ī protévousa), "the capital", has become somewhat common. Geography[edit] Cityscape / skyline[edit]

Panoramic view of Lycabettus, Stadiou Street and Panepistimiou Street.

View of parts of central Athens and its eastern suburbs from Mount Lycabettus.

Geology[edit]

View of Mount Penteli, the second tallest mountain surrounding Athens.

Mount Lycabettus.

Athens sprawls across the central plain of Attica that is often referred to as the Athens or Attica Basin (Greek: Λεκανοπέδιο Αττικής). The basin is bounded by four large mountains: Mount Aigaleo to the west, Mount Parnitha to the north, Mount Pentelicus to the northeast and Mount Hymettus to the east.[30] Beyond Mount Aegaleo lies the Thriasian plain, which forms an extension of the central plain to the west. The Saronic Gulf lies to the southwest. Mount Parnitha is the tallest of the four mountains (1,413 m (4,636 ft)),[31] and has been declared a national park. Athens is built around a number of hills. Lycabettus is one of the tallest hills of the city proper and provides a view of the entire Attica Basin. The geomorphology of Athens is deemed to be one of the most complex in the world because its mountains cause a temperature inversion phenomenon which, along with the Greek Government's difficulties controlling industrial pollution, was responsible for the air pollution problems the city has faced.[32] This issue is not unique to Athens; for instance, Los Angeles and Mexico City also suffer from similar geomorphology inversion problems.[32] The Cephissus river, the Ilisos and the Eridanos stream are the historical rivers of Athens. Environment[edit]

Recycling machine in Athens

By the late 1970s, the pollution of Athens had become so destructive that according to the then Greek Minister of Culture, Constantine Trypanis, "...the carved details on the five the caryatids of the Erechtheum had seriously degenerated, while the face of the horseman on the Parthenon's west side was all but obliterated."[33] A series of measures taken by the authorities of the city throughout the 1990s resulted in the improvement of air quality; the appearance of smog (or nefos as the Athenians used to call it) has become less common. Measures taken by the Greek authorities throughout the 1990s have improved the quality of air over the Attica Basin. Nevertheless, air pollution still remains an issue for Athens, particularly during the hottest summer days. In late June 2007,[34] the Attica region experienced a number of brush fires,[34] including a blaze that burned a significant portion of a large forested national park in Mount Parnitha,[35] considered critical to maintaining a better air quality in Athens all year round.[34] Damage to the park has led to worries over a stalling in the improvement of air quality in the city.[34] The major waste management efforts undertaken in the last decade (particularly the plant built on the small island of Psytalia) have improved water quality in the Saronic Gulf, and the coastal waters of Athens are now accessible again to swimmers. In January 2007, Athens faced a waste management problem when its landfill near Ano Liosia, an Athenian suburb, reached capacity.[36] The crisis eased by mid-January when authorities began taking the garbage to a temporary landfill.[36] Climate[edit] Athens has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa). The dominant feature of Athens' climate is alternation between prolonged hot and dry summers and mild winters with moderate rainfall.[37] With an average of 416.8 millimetres (16.41 in) of yearly precipitation, rainfall occurs largely between the months of October and April. July and August are the driest months, where thunderstorms occur sparsely once or twice a month. The annual precipitation of Athens is typically lower than in other parts of Greece, mainly in western Greece. As an example, Ioannina receives around 1,300 mm (51 in) per year, and Agrinio around 800 mm (31 in) per year. Daily average highs for July (1988–2017) have been measured at 34.4 °C (94 °F),[38] but some parts of the city may be even warmer, in particular its western areas partly because of industrialization and partly because of a number of natural factors, knowledge of which has been available from the mid-19th century.[39][40][41] Athens is affected by the urban heat island effect in some areas which is caused by human activity,[42][43] altering its temperatures compared to the surrounding rural areas,[44][45][46][47] and bearing detrimental effects on energy usage, expenditure for cooling,[48][49] and health.[43] The urban heat island of the city has also been found to be partially responsible for alterations of the climatological temperature time-series of specific Athens meteorological stations, because of its impact on the temperatures and the temperature trends recorded by some meteorological stations.[50][51][52][53][54] On the other hand, specific meteorological stations, such as the National Garden station and Thiseio meteorological station, are less affected or do not experience the urban heat island.[44][55] Athens holds the World Meteorological Organization record for the highest temperature ever recorded in Europe, at 48.0 °C (118.4 °F), which was recorded in the Elefsina and Tatoi suburbs of Athens on 10 July 1977.[56]

Climate data for Downtown Athens (1988–2017). Extremes from 1890

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 22.6 (72.7) 25.3 (77.5) 28.9 (84) 32.2 (90) 36.7 (98.1) 44.8 (112.6) 43.0 (109.4) 42.6 (108.7) 38.6 (101.5) 36.5 (97.7) 30.5 (86.9) 22.9 (73.2) 44.8 (112.6)

Average high °C (°F) 13.4 (56.1) 14.3 (57.7) 17.1 (62.8) 21.2 (70.2) 26.6 (79.9) 31.7 (89.1) 34.4 (93.9) 34.3 (93.7) 29.7 (85.5) 24.1 (75.4) 18.7 (65.7) 14.4 (57.9) 23.3 (73.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 10.2 (50.4) 10.8 (51.4) 13.1 (55.6) 16.8 (62.2) 21.7 (71.1) 26.6 (79.9) 29.3 (84.7) 29.2 (84.6) 25.0 (77) 20.1 (68.2) 15.4 (59.7) 11.5 (52.7) 19.1 (66.4)

Average low °C (°F) 7.1 (44.8) 7.3 (45.1) 9.2 (48.6) 12.3 (54.1) 16.9 (62.4) 21.5 (70.7) 24.2 (75.6) 24.2 (75.6) 20.3 (68.5) 16.0 (60.8) 12.0 (53.6) 8.5 (47.3) 15.0 (59)

Record low °C (°F) −6.5 (20.3) −5.7 (21.7) −2.6 (27.3) 1.7 (35.1) 6.2 (43.2) 11.8 (53.2) 16 (61) 15.5 (59.9) 8.9 (48) 5.9 (42.6) −1.1 (30) −4 (25) −6.5 (20.3)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 51.4 (2.024) 43.9 (1.728) 46.0 (1.811) 25.4 (1) 18.6 (0.732) 9.7 (0.382) 8.9 (0.35) 5.0 (0.197) 23.1 (0.909) 39.8 (1.567) 72.3 (2.846) 72.7 (2.862) 416.8 (16.409)

Source: Meteoclub.gr[38]

Climate data for Elliniko, Athens (rain data for Nea Filadelfeia, Athens)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 13.3 (55.9) 13.9 (57) 16.6 (61.9) 20.0 (68) 25.2 (77.4) 30.4 (86.7) 33.4 (92.1) 33.7 (92.7) 28.7 (83.7) 23.5 (74.3) 18.8 (65.8) 14.7 (58.5) 22.7 (72.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 9.9 (49.8) 10.2 (50.4) 12.5 (54.5) 15.7 (60.3) 20.5 (68.9) 25.5 (77.9) 28.5 (83.3) 28.6 (83.5) 24.1 (75.4) 19.5 (67.1) 15.1 (59.2) 11.7 (53.1) 18.5 (65.3)

Average low °C (°F) 6.8 (44.2) 6.8 (44.2) 8.8 (47.8) 11.7 (53.1) 15.8 (60.4) 20.6 (69.1) 23.6 (74.5) 23.8 (74.8) 19.8 (67.6) 15.9 (60.6) 11.7 (53.1) 8.8 (47.8) 14.5 (58.1)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 56.9 (2.24) 46.7 (1.839) 40.7 (1.602) 30.8 (1.213) 22.7 (0.894) 10.6 (0.417) 5.8 (0.228) 6.0 (0.236) 13.9 (0.547) 52.6 (2.071) 58.3 (2.295) 69.1 (2.72) 414.1 (16.303)

Average rainy days 12.6 10.4 10.2 8.1 6.2 3.7 1.9 1.7 3.3 7.2 9.7 12.1 87.1

Average relative humidity (%) 70.7 68.9 67.0 62.9 59.5 52.6 48.7 47.6 57.2 64.6 71.9 71.8 62.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours 158.1 168.0 189.1 225.0 303.8 360.0 384.4 359.6 252.0 198.4 144.0 105.4 2,847.8

Source: Climatebase (temperatures, RH, and sun 1980–2000)[57] World Meteorological Organization (precipitation 1955–1997),[58]

Climate data for Athens

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average sea temperature °C (°F) 15.4 (59.7) 15.0 (59.0) 15.2 (59.4) 15.7 (60.3) 18.5 (65.3) 22.6 (72.7) 25.7 (78.3) 26.3 (79.3) 25.0 (77.0) 22.2 (72.0) 19.1 (66.4) 16.6 (61.9) 19.8 (67.6)

Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 14.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 12.2

Average Ultraviolet index 2 3 5 6 8 9 10 9 7 5 3 2 5.8

Source: Weather Atlas[59]

Locations[edit] Neighbourhoods[edit]

Changing of the Greek Presidential Guard in front of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Syntagma Square.

The municipality of Athens, the city centre of the Athens Urban Area, is divided into several districts: Omonoia, Syntagma, Exarcheia, Agios Nikolaos, Neapolis, Lykavittos, Lofos Strefi, Lofos Finopoulou, Lofos Filopappou, Pedion Areos, Metaxourgeio, Aghios Kostantinos, Larissa Station, Kerameikos, Psiri, Monastiraki, Gazi, Thission, Kapnikarea, Aghia Irini, Aerides, Anafiotika, Plaka, Acropolis, Pnyka, Makrygianni, Lofos Ardittou, Zappeion, Aghios Spyridon, Pangration, Kolonaki, Dexameni, Evaggelismos, Gouva, Aghios Ioannis, Neos Kosmos, Koukaki, Kynosargous, Fix, Ano Petralona, Kato Petralona, Rouf, Votanikos, Profitis Daniil, Akadimia Platonos, Kolonos, Kolokynthou, Attikis Square, Lofos Skouze, Sepolia, Kypseli, Aghios Meletios, Nea Kypseli, Gyzi, Polygono, Ampelokipoi, Panormou-Gerokomeio, Pentagono, Ellinorosson, Nea Filothei, Ano Kypseli, Tourkovounia-Lofos Patatsou, Lofos Elikonos, Koliatsou, Thymarakia, Kato Patisia, Treis Gefyres, Aghios Eleftherios, Ano Patisia, Kypriadou, Menidi, Prompona, Aghios Panteleimonas, Pangrati, Goudi and Ilisia.

Omonoia, Omonoia Square, (Greek: Πλατεία Ομονοίας) is the oldest square in Athens. It is surrounded by hotels and fast food outlets, and contains a train station used by the Athens Metro and the Ilektrikos, named Omonoia station. The square is the focus for celebration of sporting victories, as seen after the country's winning of the Euro 2004 and the Eurobasket 2005 tournaments. Metaxourgeio (Greek: Μεταξουργείο) is a neighborhood of Athens. The neighborhood is located north of the historical centre of Athens, between Kolonos to the east and Kerameikos to the west, and north of Gazi. Metaxourgeio is frequently described as a transition neighborhood. After a long period of abandonment in the late 20th century, the area is acquiring a reputation as an artistic and fashionable neighborhood following the opening of art galleries, museums, restaurants and cafés. [1] Local efforts to beautify and invigorate the neighborhood have reinforced a sense of community and artistic expression. Anonymous art pieces containing quotes and statements in both English and Ancient Greek have sprung up throughout the neighborhood, bearing statements such as "Art for art's sake" (Τέχνη τέχνης χάριν). Guerilla gardening has also helped to beautify the area. Psiri and Gazi – The reviving Psiri (Greek: Ψυρρή) neighbourhood – also known as Athens's "meat packing district" – is dotted with renovated former mansions, artists' spaces, and small gallery areas. A number of its renovated buildings also host fashionable bars, making it a hotspot for the city in the last decade, while live music restaurants known as "rebetadika", after rebetiko, a unique form of music that blossomed in Syros and Athens from the 1920s until the 1960s, are to be found. Rebetiko is admired by many, and as a result rebetadika are often crammed with people of all ages who will sing, dance and drink till dawn.

The Gazi (Greek: Γκάζι) area, one of the latest in full redevelopment, is located around a historic gas factory, now converted into the Technopolis cultural multiplex, and also includes artists' areas, small clubs, bars and restaurants, as well as Athens's "Gay village". The metro's expansion to the western suburbs of the city has brought easier access to the area since spring 2007, as the blue line now stops at Gazi (Kerameikos station).

Syntagma, Syntagma Square, (Greek: Σύνταγμα/Constitution Square), is the capital's central and largest square, lying adjacent to the Greek Parliament (the former Royal Palace) and the city's most notable hotels. Ermou Street, an approximately one-kilometre-long (0.62-mile) pedestrian road connecting Syntagma Square to Monastiraki, is a consumer paradise for both Athenians and tourists. Complete with fashion shops and shopping centres promoting most international brands, it now finds itself in the top five most expensive shopping streets in Europe, and the tenth most expensive retail street in the world.[60] Nearby, the renovated Army Fund building in Panepistimiou Street includes the "Attica" department store and several upmarket designer stores. Plaka, Monastiraki, and Thission – Plaka (Greek: Πλάκα), lying just beneath the Acropolis, is famous for its plentiful neoclassical architecture, making up one of the most scenic districts of the city. It remains a prime tourist destination with tavernas, live performances and street salesmen. Nearby Monastiraki (Greek: Μοναστηράκι), for its part, is known for its string of small shops and markets, as well as its crowded flea market and tavernas specialising in souvlaki. Another district known for its student-crammed, stylish cafés is Theseum or Thission (Greek: Θησείο), lying just west of Monastiraki. Thission is home to the ancient Temple of Hephaestus, standing atop a small hill. This area also has a picturesque 11th-century Byzantine church, as well as a 15th-century Ottoman mosque. Exarcheia (Greek: Εξάρχεια), located north of Kolonaki, is the location of the city's anarchist scene and as a student quarter with cafés, bars and bookshops. Exarcheia is home to the Athens Polytechnic and the National Archaeological Museum; it also contains important buildings of several 20th-century styles: Neoclassicism, Art Deco and Early Modernism (including Bauhaus influences).[citation needed] Kolonaki (Greek: Κολωνάκι) is the area at the base of Lycabettus hill, full of boutiques catering to well-heeled customers by day, and bars and more fashionable restaurants by night, with galleries and museums. This is often regarded as one of the more prestigious areas of the capital.

Panoramic view of Kolonaki Square

Parks and zoos[edit]

The entrance of the National Gardens, commissioned by Queen Amalia in 1838 and completed by 1840

Parnitha National Park is punctuated by well-marked paths, gorges, springs, torrents and caves dotting the protected area. Hiking and mountain-biking in all four mountains are popular outdoor activities for residents of the city. The National Garden of Athens was completed in 1840 and is a green refuge of 15.5 hectares in the centre of the Greek capital. It is to be found between the Parliament and Zappeion buildings, the latter of which maintains its own garden of seven hectares. Parts of the city centre have been redeveloped under a masterplan called the Unification of Archeological Sites of Athens, which has also gathered funding from the EU to help enhance the project.[61][62] The landmark Dionysiou Areopagitou Street has been pedestrianised, forming a scenic route. The route starts from the Temple of Olympian Zeus at Vasilissis Olgas Avenue, continues under the southern slopes of the Acropolis near Plaka, and finishes just beyond the Temple of Hephaestus in Thiseio. The route in its entirety provides visitors with views of the Parthenon and the Agora (the meeting point of ancient Athenians), away from the busy city centre. The hills of Athens also provide green space. Lycabettus, Philopappos hill and the area around it, including Pnyx and Ardettos hill, are planted with pines and other trees, with the character of a small forest rather than typical metropolitan parkland. Also to be found is the Pedion tou Areos (Field of Mars) of 27.7 hectares, near the National Archaeological Museum. Athens' largest zoo is the Attica Zoological Park, a 20-hectare (49-acre) private zoo located in the suburb of Spata. The zoo is home to around 2000 animals representing 400 species, and is open 365 days a year. Smaller zoos exist within public gardens or parks, such as the zoo within the National Garden of Athens. Surrounding areas[edit] The large City Centre of the Greek capital falls directly within the municipality of Athens, which is the largest in population size in Greece. Piraeus[63] also forms a significant city centre on its own, within the Athens Urban Area and being the second largest in population size within it, with Peristeri and Kallithea following. Urban and suburban municipalities[edit]

Ano Vrilissia maisonette block

Beach in Vouliagmeni, one of the many beaches in the southern coast of Athens

The Athens Metropolitan Area consists of 58[20] densely populated municipalities, sprawling around the municipality of Athens (the city centre) in virtually all directions. For the Athenians, all the urban municipalities surrounding the city centre are called suburbs. According to their geographic location in relation to the City of Athens, the suburbs are divided into four zones; the northern suburbs (including Agios Stefanos, Dionysos, Ekali, Nea Erythraia, Kifissia, Maroussi, Pefki, Lykovrysi, Metamorfosi, Nea Ionia, Nea Filadelfeia, Irakleio, Vrilissia, Melissia, Penteli, Chalandri, Agia Paraskevi, Galatsi, Psychiko and Filothei); the southern suburbs (including Alimos, Nea Smyrni, Moschato, Kallithea, Agios Dimitrios, Palaio Faliro, Elliniko, Glyfada, Argyroupoli, Ilioupoli, Voula and Vouliagmeni); the eastern suburbs (including Zografou, Dafni, Vyronas, Kaisariani, Cholargos and Papagou); and the western suburbs (including Peristeri, Ilion, Egaleo, Koridallos, Agia Varvara, Chaidari, Petroupoli, Agioi Anargyroi and Kamatero). The Athens city coastline, extending from the major commercial port of Piraeus to the southernmost suburb of Varkiza for some 25 km (20 mi),[64] is also connected to the city centre by a tram. In the northern suburb of Maroussi, the upgraded main Olympic Complex (known by its Greek acronym OAKA) dominates the skyline. The area has been redeveloped according to a design by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, with steel arches, landscaped gardens, fountains, futuristic glass, and a landmark new blue glass roof which was added to the main stadium. A second Olympic complex, next to the sea at the beach of Palaio Faliro, also features modern stadia, shops and an elevated esplanade. Work is underway to transform the grounds of the old Athens Airport – named Elliniko – in the southern suburbs, into one of the largest landscaped parks in Europe, to be named the Hellenikon Metropolitan Park.[65] Many of the southern suburbs (such as Alimos, Palaio Faliro, Elliniko, Voula, Vouliagmeni and Varkiza) known as the Athens Riviera, host a number of sandy beaches, most of which are operated by the Greek National Tourism Organisation and require an entrance fee. Casinos operate on both Mount Parnitha, some 25 km (16 mi)[66] from downtown Athens (accessible by car or cable car), and the nearby town of Loutraki (accessible by car via the Athens – Corinth National Highway, or the suburban rail service Proastiakos).

Coastline of Palaio Faliro

Athens Urban Area[edit] The Athens Urban Area today consists of 40 municipalities, 35 of which make up what is referred to as the Greater Athens municipalities, located within 4 regional units (North Athens, West Athens, Central Athens, South Athens); and a further 5, which make up the Greater Piraeus municipalities, located within the regional unit of Piraeus as mentioned above. The densely built up urban area of the Greek capital sprawls across 412 km2 (159 sq mi)[19] throughout the Attica Basin and has a total population of 3,074,160 (in 2011). The Athens municipality forms the core and center of Greater Athens, which consists of the Athens municipality and 34 more municipalities, divided in four regional units (Central, North, South and West Athens), accounting for 2,641,511 people (in 2011)[2] within an area of 361 km2 (139 sq mi).[19] Until 2010, these four regional units made up the abolished Athens Prefecture. The municipality of Piraeus, the historic Athenian port, with its 4 suburban municipalities make up the regional unit of Piraeus, which in turn forms Greater Piraeus. Greater Athens and Greater Piraeus combined make up the continuous built up Athens Urban Area (Greek: Πολεοδομικό Συγκρότημα Αθηνών), also called the Urban Area of the Capital (Greek: Πολεοδομικό Συγκρότημα Πρωτεύουσας) or simply Athens (the most common use of the term), spanning over 412 km2 (159 sq mi),[67] with a population of 3,090,508 people as of 2011. The Athens Urban Area is considered to form the city of Athens as a whole, despite its administrative divisions, which is the largest in Greece and one of the most populated urban areas in Europe.

Municipalities of Greater Athens

Central Athens: 1. City of Athens 2. Dafni-Ymittos 3. Ilioupoli 4. Vyronas 5. Kaisariani 6. Zografou 7. Galatsi 8. Filadelfeia-Chalkidona

West Athens:

29. Egaleo

30. Agia Varvara

31. Chaidari

32. Peristeri

33. Petroupoli

34. Ilion

35. Agioi Anargyroi-Kamatero

North Athens:

9. Nea Ionia

10. Irakleio

11. Metamorfosi

12. Lykovrysi-Pefki

13. Kifissia

14. Penteli

15. Marousi

16. Vrilissia

17. Agia Paraskevi

18. Papagou-Cholargos

19. Chalandri

20. Filothei-Psychiko

South Athens: 21. Glyfada 22. Elliniko-Argyroupoli 23. Alimos 24. Agios Dimitrios 25. Nea Smyrni 26. Palaio Faliro 27. Kallithea 28. Moschato-Tavros

Athens Urban Area

Regional units:

Central Athens: *     Athens municipality *     Other municipalities

     North Athens

     South Athens

     West Athens

     Piraeus

Aerial view of the Athens urban area and the Saronic Gulf.

Athens Metropolitan Area[edit] The Athens Metropolitan Area spans 2,928.717 km2 (1,131 sq mi) within the Attica region and includes a total of 58 municipalities, which are organized in 7 regional units (those outlined above, along with East Attica and West Attica), having reached a population of 3,737,550 based on the preliminary results of the 2011 census. Athens and Piraeus municipalities serve as the two metropolitan centres of the Athens Metropolitan Area.[68] There are also some inter-municipal centres serving specific areas. For example, Kifissia and Glyfada serve as inter-municipal centres for northern and southern suburbs respectively. Demographics[edit]

The Athens Urban Area within the Attica Basin from space

Athens population distribution

Population in modern times[edit]

The seven districts of the Athens municipality

The municipality of Athens has an official population of 664,046 people.[2] The four regional units that make up what is referred to as Greater Athens have a combined population of 2,640,701. They together with the regional unit of Piraeus (Greater Piraeus) make up the dense Athens Urban Area which reaches a total population of 3,090,508 inhabitants (in 2011).[20] As Eurostat the FUA of Athens had in 2013 3,828,434 inhabitants, being apparently decreasing compared with the pre-economic crisis date of 2009 (4,164,175)[21] The municipality (City) of Athens is the most populous in Greece, with a population of 664,046 people (in 2011)[2] and an area of 38.96 km2 (15.04 sq mi),[18] forming the core of the Athens Urban Area within the Attica Basin. The current mayor of Athens is Giorgos Kaminis. The municipality is divided into seven municipal districts which are mainly used for administrative purposes. As of the 2011 census, the population for each of the seven municipal districts of Athens is as follows:[69]

1st: 75,810 2nd: 103,004 3rd: 46,508 4th: 85,629 5th: 98,665 6th: 130,582 7th: 123,848

For the Athenians the most popular way of dividing the city proper is through its neighbourhoods such as Pagkrati, Ambelokipi, Exarcheia, Patissia, Ilissia, Petralona, Koukaki and Kypseli, each with its own distinct history and characteristics. Population of the Athens Metropolitan Area[edit] The Athens Metropolitan Area, with an area of 2,928.717 km2 (1,131 sq mi) and inhabited by 3,753,783 people in 2011,[2] consists of the Athens Urban Area with the addition of the towns and villages of East and West Attica, which surround the dense urban area of the Greek capital. It actually sprawls over the whole peninsula of Attica, which is the best part of the region of Attica, excluding the islands.

Classification of regional units within Greater Athens, Athens Urban Area and Athens Metropolitan Area

Regional unit Population (2011)

Central Athens 1,029,520 Greater Athens 2,641,511 Athens Urban Area 3,090,508 Athens Metropolitan Area 3,753,783

North Athens 592,490

South Athens 529,826

West Athens 489,675

Piraeus 448,997 Greater Piraeus 448,997

East Attica 502,348

West Attica 160,927

Population in ancient times[edit] Mycenean Athens in 1600–1100 BCE could have reached the size of Tiryns; that would put the population at the range of 10,000 – 15,000.[70] During the Greek Dark Ages the population of Athens was around 4,000 people. In 700 BC the population grew to 10,000. In 500 BCE the area probably contained 200,000 people. During the classical period the city's population is estimated from 150,000 – 350,000 and up to 610,000 according to Thucydides. When Demetrius of Phalerum conducted a population census in 317 BCE the population was 21,000 free citizens, plus 10,000 resident aliens and 400,000 slaves. This suggests a total population of 431,000.[71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79] This figure is highly suspect because of the lopsided number of slaves and does not include free women and children and resident foreigners: an estimated based on Thucydides is: 40,000 male citizens, 100,000 family members, 70,000 metics (resident foreigners) and 150,000-400,000 slaves. However the numbers would include Attica and not just Athens the city, Urban History of Athens, 2008. The ancient site of Athens is centred on the rocky hill of the acropolis. In ancient times the port of Piraeus was a separate city, but it has now been absorbed into the Athens Urban Area. The rapid expansion of the city, which continues to this day, was initiated in the 1950s and 1960s, because of Greece's transition from an agricultural to an industrial nation.[80] The expansion is now particularly toward the East and North East (a tendency greatly related to the new Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport and the Attiki Odos, the freeway that cuts across Attica). By this process Athens has engulfed many former suburbs and villages in Attica, and continues to do so. The table below shows the historical population of Athens in recent times.

Year City population Urban population Metro population

1833 4,000[81] – –

1870 44,500[81] – –

1896 123,000[81] – –

1921 (Pre-Population exchange) 473,000[32] – –

1921 (Post-Population exchange) 718,000[81] – –

1971 867,023 - 2,540,241 [82] – –

1981 885,737 – 3,369,443

1991 772,072 3,444,358 3,523,407 [83]

2001 745,514[84] 3,165,823[84] 3,761,810[84]

2011 664,046 3,090,508 3,753,783[20]

Government and politics[edit] Athens became the capital of Greece in 1834, following Nafplion, which was the provisional capital from 1829. The municipality (City) of Athens is also the capital of the Attica region. The term Athens can refer either to the municipality of Athens, to Greater Athens, or to the entire Athens Urban Area. International relations and influence[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Greece Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Athens is twinned with:[85]

Beijing, China (2005)[85][86] Bethlehem, Palestine (1986)[85] Los Angeles, United States (1984)[85][87] Nicosia, Cyprus (1988)[85][88] Ammochostos, Cyprus (2005)[85]

Partnerships[edit]

Belgrade, Serbia (1966)[89] Paris, France (2000)[90] Ljubljana, Slovenia[91] Naples, Italy[92]

Other locations named after Athens[edit]

United States

Athens, Alabama (pop. 24,234) Athens, Arkansas[93] Athens, California West Athens, California (pop. 9,101) Athens, Georgia (pop. 114,983) Athens, Illinois (pop. 1,726) New Athens, Illinois (pop. 2,620) New Athens Township, St. Clair County, Illinois (pop. 2,620)      Athens, Indiana Athens, Kentucky Athens, Louisiana (pop. 262) Athens Township, Jewell County, Kansas (pop. 74) Athens, Maine (pop. 847) Athens, Michigan (pop. 1,111) Athens Township, Michigan (pop. 2,571) Athens, Minnesota Athens Township, Minnesota (pop. 2,322)

Athens, Mississippi Athens (town), New York (pop. 3,991) Athens (village), New York (pop. 1,695) Athens, Ohio (pop. 21,909) Athens County, Ohio (pop. 62,223) Athens Township, Athens County, Ohio (pop. 27,714) Athens Township, Harrison County, Ohio (pop. 520) New Athens, Ohio (pop. 342) Athena, Oregon (pop. 1,270) Athens, Pennsylvania (pop. 3,415) Athens Township, Bradford County, Pennsylvania (pop. 5,058) Athens Township, Crawford County, Pennsylvania (pop. 775) Athens, Tennessee (pop. 13,220) Athens, Texas (pop. 11,297) Athens, Vermont (pop. 340) Athens, West Virginia (pop. 1,102) Athens, Wisconsin (pop. 1,095)

Canada

Athens Township, Ontario (pop. 3,086)                                  

Costa Rica

Atenas (pop. 7,716) Atenas (canton) (pop. 23,743)

Germany

Athenstedt, Saxony-Anhalt (pop. 431)                

Honduras

Atenas De San Cristóbal, Atlántida[94]

Italy

Atena Lucana, Province of Salerno, Campania (pop. 2,344) Atina, Province of Frosinone, Lazio (pop. 4,480)

Poland

Ateny, Podlaskie Voivodeship (pop. 40)

Ukraine

Afini (Zoria – Зоря), Donetsk (pop. 200)

History[edit] Main articles: History of Athens and Timeline of Athens

Acropolis of Athens, with the Roman-era Odeon of Herodes Atticus seen on bottom left

The oldest known human presence in Athens is the Cave of Schist, which has been dated to between the 11th and 7th millennia BCE.[95] Athens has been continuously inhabited for at least 7000 years.[96][32] By 1400 BCE the settlement had become an important centre of the Mycenaean civilization and the Acropolis was the site of a major Mycenaean fortress, whose remains can be recognised from sections of the characteristic Cyclopean walls.[97] Unlike other Mycenaean centers, such as Mycenae and Pylos, it is not known whether Athens suffered destruction in about 1200 BCE, an event often attributed to a Dorian invasion, and the Athenians always maintained that they were "pure" Ionians with no Dorian element. However, Athens, like many other Bronze Age settlements, went into economic decline for around 150 years afterwards.

Statue of Theseus at Thiseio. Theseus was responsible, according to the myth, for the synoikismos ("dwelling together")—the political unification of Attica under Athens.

Iron Age burials, in the Kerameikos and other locations, are often richly provided for and demonstrate that from 900 BCE onwards Athens was one of the leading centres of trade and prosperity in the region.[98] The leading position of Athens may well have resulted from its central location in the Greek world, its secure stronghold on the Acropolis and its access to the sea, which gave it a natural advantage over inland rivals such as Thebes and Sparta.

Delian League, under the leadership of Athens before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE

By the 6th century BCE, widespread social unrest led to the reforms of Solon. These would pave the way for the eventual introduction of democracy by Cleisthenes in 508 BCE. Athens had by this time become a significant naval power with a large fleet, and helped the rebellion of the Ionian cities against Persian rule. In the ensuing Greco-Persian Wars Athens, together with Sparta, led the coalition of Greek states that would eventually repel the Persians, defeating them decisively at Marathon in 490 BCE, and crucially at Salamis in 480 BCE. However, this did not prevent Athens from being captured and sacked twice by the Persians within one year, after a heroic resistance at Thermopylae by Spartans and other Greeks led by King Leonidas,[99] after both Boeotia and Attica fell to the Persians. The decades that followed became known as the Golden Age of Athenian democracy, during which time Athens became the leading city of Ancient Greece, with its cultural achievements laying the foundations for Western civilization. The playwrights Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides flourished in Athens during this time, as did the historians Herodotus and Thucydides, the physician Hippocrates, and the philosopher Socrates. Guided by Pericles, who promoted the arts and fostered democracy, Athens embarked on an ambitious building program that saw the construction of the Acropolis of Athens (including the Parthenon), as well as empire-building via the Delian League. Originally intended as an association of Greek city-states to continue the fight against the Persians, the league soon turned into a vehicle for Athens's own imperial ambitions. The resulting tensions brought about the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BCE), in which Athens was defeated by its rival Sparta. By the mid-4th century BCE, the northern Greek kingdom of Macedon was becoming dominant in Athenian affairs. In 338 BCE the armies of Philip II defeated an alliance of some of the Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea, effectively ending Athenian independence. Later, under Rome, Athens was given the status of a free city because of its widely admired schools. The Roman emperor Hadrian, in the 2nd century CE, constructed a library, a gymnasium, an aqueduct which is still in use, several temples and sanctuaries, a bridge and financed the completion of the Temple of Olympian Zeus. By the end of Late Antiquity, the city experienced decline followed by recovery in the second half of the Middle Byzantine Period, in the 9th to 10th centuries CE, and was relatively prosperous during the Crusades, benefiting from Italian trade. After the Fourth Crusade the Duchy of Athens was established. In 1458 it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and entered a long period of decline.

The Temple of Olympian Zeus with river Ilisos by Edward Dodwell, 1821

The Entry of King Otto in Athens, Peter von Hess, 1839.

Following the Greek War of Independence and the establishment of the Greek Kingdom, Athens was chosen as the capital of the newly independent Greek state in 1834, largely because of historical and sentimental reasons. At the time it was a town of modest size built around the foot of the Acropolis. The first King of Greece, Otto of Bavaria, commissioned the architects Stamatios Kleanthis and Eduard Schaubert to design a modern city plan fit for the capital of a state. The first modern city plan consisted of a triangle defined by the Acropolis, the ancient cemetery of Kerameikos and the new palace of the Bavarian king (now housing the Greek Parliament), so as to highlight the continuity between modern and ancient Athens. Neoclassicism, the international style of this epoch, was the architectural style through which Bavarian, French and Greek architects such as Hansen, Klenze, Boulanger or Kaftantzoglou designed the first important public buildings of the new capital. In 1896, Athens hosted the first modern Olympic Games. During the 1920s a number of Greek refugees, expelled from Asia Minor after the Greco-Turkish War, swelled Athens's population; nevertheless it was most particularly following World War II, and from the 1950s and 1960s, that the population of the city exploded, and Athens experienced a gradual expansion. In the 1980s it became evident that smog from factories and an ever-increasing fleet of automobiles, as well as a lack of adequate free space due to congestion, had evolved into the city's most important challenge. A series of anti-pollution measures taken by the city's authorities in the 1990s, combined with a substantial improvement of the city's infrastructure (including the Attiki Odos motorway, the expansion of the Athens Metro, and the new Athens International Airport), considerably alleviated pollution and transformed Athens into a much more functional city. In 2004 Athens hosted the 2004 Summer Olympics. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Greece

Temple of Olympian Zeus

The Temple of Hephaestus is the best-preserved of all ancient Greek temples.

The Byzantine Church of the Holy Apostles next to the Stoa of Attalos

View of the Odeon of Herodes Atticus in 2012. Sets for Tosca performed by the Greek National Opera

Archaeological hub[edit] The city is a world centre of archaeological research. Along with national institutions, such as the Athens University and the Archaeological Society, there are multiple archaeological Museums including the National Archaeological Museum, the Cycladic Museum, the Epigraphic Museum, the Byzantine & Christian Museum, as well as museums at the ancient Agora, Acropolis, Kerameikos, and the Kerameikos Archaeological Museum. The city is also home to the Demokritos laboratory for Archaeometry, alongside regional and national archaeological authorities that form part of the Greek Department of Culture. Athens hosts 17 Foreign Archaeological Institutes which promote and facilitate research by scholars from their home countries. As a result, Athens has more than a dozen archaeological libraries and three specialized archaeological laboratories, and is the venue of several hundred specialized lectures, conferences and seminars, as well as dozens of archaeological exhibitions, each year. At any given time, hundreds of international scholars and researchers in all disciplines of archaeology are to be found in the city. Architecture[edit] See also: Modern architecture in Athens

Rooftops of traditional style houses in Plaka

The Zappeion Hall

The City Hall (arch. Panagis Kalkos) at Kotzia Square

Two apartment buildings in central Athens. The left one is a modernist building of the 1930s, while the right one was built in the 1950s.

Athens Tower, the tallest building in Greece

Athens incorporates architectural styles ranging from Greco-Roman and Neoclassical to modern times. They are often to be found in the same areas, as Athens is not marked by a uniformity of architectural style. For the greatest part of the 19th century Neoclassicism dominated Athens, as well as some deviations from it such as Eclecticism, especially in the early 20th century. Thus, the Old Royal Palace was the first important public building to be built, between 1836 and 1843. Later in the mid and late 19th century, Theophil Freiherr von Hansen and Ernst Ziller took part in the construction of many neoclassical buildings such as the Athens Academy and the Zappeion Hall. Ziller also designed many private mansions in the centre of Athens which gradually became public, usually through donations, such as Schliemann's Iliou Melathron. Beginning in the 1920s, Modern architecture including Bauhaus and Art Deco began to exert an influence on almost all Greek architects, and buildings both public and private were constructed in accordance with these styles. Localities with a great number of such buildings include Kolonaki, and some areas of the centre of the city; neighbourhoods developed in this period include Kypseli.[100] In the 1950s and 1960s during the extension and development of Athens, other modern movements such as the International style played an important role. The centre of Athens was largely rebuilt, leading to the demolition of a number of neoclassical buildings. The architects of this era employed materials such as glass, marble and aluminium, and many blended modern and classical elements.[101] After World War II, internationally known architects to have designed and built in the city included Walter Gropius, with his design for the US Embassy, and, among others, Eero Saarinen, in his postwar design for the east terminal of the Ellinikon Airport. Urban sculpture[edit] All over the city can be found several statues or busts. Apart from the neoclassicals by Leonidas Drosis at the Academy of Athens (Plato, Socrates, Apollo, Athena), other notable include the statue of Theseus by Georgios Fytalis at Thiseion, of philhellenes like Lord Byron, George Canning and William Gladstone, the equestrian statue of Theodoros Kolokotronis by Lazaros Sochos in front of the Old Parliament, statues of Ioannis Kapodistrias, Rigas Feraios and Adamantios Korais at the University, of Evangelos Zappas and Konstantinos Zappas at Zappeion, of Ioannis Varvakis at the National Garden, the "woodbreaker" by Dimitrios Filippotis, the equestrian statue of Alexandros Papagos at Papagou district and various busts of fighters of Greek independence at the Pedion tou Areos. An important landmark is also the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Syntagma. Museums[edit]

The National Archaeological Museum in central Athens

The Acropolis Museum

Further information: List of museums in Greece Athens' most important museums include:

the National Archaeological Museum, the largest archaeological museum in the country, and one of the most important internationally, as it contains a vast collection of antiquities; its artifacts cover a period of more than 5,000 years, from late Neolithic Age to Roman Greece; the Benaki Museum with its several branches for each of its collections including ancient, Byzantine, Ottoman-era, and Chinese art and beyond; the Byzantine and Christian Museum, one of the most important museums of Byzantine art; the Numismatic Museum, housing a major collection of ancient and modern coins; the Museum of Cycladic Art, home to an extensive collection of Cycladic art, including its famous figurines of white marble; the New Acropolis Museum, opened in 2009, and replacing the old museum on the Acropolis. The new museum has proved considerably popular; almost one million people visited during the summer period June–October 2009 alone. A number of smaller and privately owned museums focused on Greek culture and arts are also to be found. the Kerameikos Archaeological Museum, a museum which displays artifacts from the burial site of Kerameikos. Much of the pottery and other artifacts relate to Athenian attitudes towards death and the afterlife, throughout many ages. the Jewish Museum of Greece, a museum which describes the history and culture of the Greek Jewish community.

Tourism[edit] Athens has been a destination for travellers since antiquity. Over the past decade, the city's infrastructure and social amenities have improved, in part because of its successful bid to stage the 2004 Olympic Games. The Greek Government, aided by the EU, has funded major infrastructure projects such as the state-of-the-art Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport,[102] the expansion of the Athens Metro system,[61] and the new Attiki Odos Motorway.[61] Athens was voted as the third best European city to visit in 2015 by European Best Destination. More than 240,000 people voted. Entertainment and performing arts[edit] Athens is home to 148 theatrical stages, more than any other city in the world, including the ancient Odeon of Herodes Atticus, home to the Athens Festival, which runs from May to October each year.[103][104] In addition to a large number of multiplexes, Athens plays host to open air garden cinemas. The city also supports music venues, including the Athens Concert Hall (Megaron Moussikis), which attracts world class artists.[105] The Athens Planetarium,[106] located in Andrea Syngrou Avenue, is one of the largest and best equipped digital planetaria in the world.[107][108] The Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center, inaugurated in 2016, will house the National Library of Greece and the Greek National Opera.[109] Music[edit]

People dance in a nightclub in Psirri, a district of Athens with very active nightlife.

The "Theatro Vrachon" (Theater of the Rocks) at Vyronas is a venue for popular music concerts

The most successful songs during the period 1870–1930 were the so-called Athenian serenades (Αθηναϊκές καντάδες), based on the Heptanesean kantádhes (καντάδες 'serenades'; sing.: καντάδα) and the songs performed on stage (επιθεωρησιακά τραγούδια 'theatrical revue songs') in revues, musical comedies, operettas and nocturnes that were dominating Athens' theatre scene. Notable composers of operettas or nocturnes were Kostas Giannidis, Dionysios Lavrangas, Nikos Hatziapostolou, while Theophrastos Sakellaridis' The Godson remains probably the most popular operetta. Despite the fact that the Athenian songs were not autonomous artistic creations (in contrast with the serenades) and despite their original connection with mainly dramatic forms of Art, they eventually became hits as independent songs. Notable actors of Greek operettas, who made also a series of melodies and songs popular at that time, include Orestis Makris, Kalouta sisters, Vasilis Avlonitis, Afroditi Laoutari, Eleni Papadaki, Marika Nezer, Marika Krevata and others. After 1930, wavering among American and European musical influences as well as the Greek musical tradition. Greek composers begin to write music using the tunes of the tango, waltz, swing, foxtrot, some times combined with melodies in the style of Athenian serenades' repertory. Nikos Gounaris was probably the most renowned composer and singer of the time. In 1923, after the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, many ethnic Greeks from Asia Minor fled to Athens as a result of the Greco-Turkish War. They settled in poor neighborhoods and brought with them Rebetiko music, making it popular also in Greece, which became later the base for the Laïko music. Other forms of song popular today in Greece are elafrolaika, entechno, dimotika, and skyladika.[110] Greece's most notable, and internationally famous, composers of Greek song, mainly of the entechno form, are Manos Hadjidakis and Mikis Theodorakis. Both composers have achieved fame abroad for their composition of film scores.[110] Sports[edit] Athens has a long tradition in sports and sporting events, serving as home to the most important clubs in Greek sport and housing a large number of sports facilities. The city has also been host to sports events of international importance. Athens has hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice, in 1896 and 2004. The 2004 Summer Olympics required the development of the Athens Olympic Stadium, which has since gained a reputation as one of the most beautiful stadiums in the world, and one of its most interesting modern monuments.[111] The biggest stadium in the country, it hosted two finals of the UEFA Champions League, in 1994 and 2007. Athens' other major stadium, located in the Piraeus area, is the Karaiskakis Stadium, a sports and entertainment complex, host of the 1971 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final. Athens has hosted the Euroleague final three times, the first in 1985 and second in 1993, both at the Peace and Friendship Stadium, most known as SEF, a large indoor arena,[112] and the third time in 2007 at the Olympic Indoor Hall. Events in other sports such as athletics, volleyball, water polo etc., have been hosted in the capital's venues. Athens is home to three European multi-sport clubs: Olympiacos, Panathinaikos, AEK Athens. In football, Olympiacos have dominated the domestic competitions, Panathinaikos made it to the 1971 European Cup Final, while AEK Athens is the other member of the big three. These clubs also have basketball teams; Panathinaikos and Olympiacos are among the top powers in European basketball, having won the Euroleague six times and three respectively, whilst AEK Athens was the first Greek team to win a European trophy in any team sport. Other notable clubs within Athens are Athinaikos, Panionios, Atromitos, Apollon, Panellinios, Ethnikos Piraeus, Maroussi BCE and Peristeri B.C.. Athenian clubs have also had domestic and international success in other sports.

Interior of the Nikos Galis Olympic Indoor Hall

The Athens area encompasses a variety of terrain, notably hills and mountains rising around the city, and the capital is the only major city in Europe to be bisected by a mountain range. Four mountain ranges extend into city boundaries and thousands of miles of trails criss-cross the city and neighbouring areas, providing exercise and wilderness access on foot and bike. Beyond Athens and across the prefecture of Attica, outdoor activities include skiing, rock climbing, hang gliding and windsurfing. Numerous outdoor clubs serve these sports, including the Athens Chapter of the Sierra Club, which leads over 4,000 outings annually in the area.

Notable sport clubs based inside the boundaries of Athens Municipality

Club Founded Sports District Achievements

Panellinios G.S. 1891 Basketball, Volleyball, Handball, Track and Field and others Kypseli Panhellenic titles in Basketball, Volleyball, Handball, many honours in Track and Field

Apollon Smyrni 1891 (originally in Smyrni) Football, Basketball, Volleyball and others Rizoupoli Earlier long-time presence in A Ethniki

Ethnikos G.S. Athens 1893 Track and Field, Wrestling, Shooting and others Zappeion Many honours in Athletics and Wrestling

Panathinaikos 1908 (originally as Football Club of Athens) Football, Basketball, Volleyball, Water Polo, Track and Field and others Ampelokipoi One of the most successful Greek clubs, many titles in several sports

Ilisiakos 1927 Football, Basketball Ilisia Earlier presence in A1 Ethniki basketball

Asteras Exarchion 1928 (originally as Achilleus Neapoleos) Football, Basketball Exarcheia Earlier presence in A1 Ethniki women basketball

Ampelokipoi B.C. 1929 (originally as Hephaestus Athens) Basketball Ampelokipoi Earlier presence in A1 Ethniki basketball

Thriamvos Athens 1930 (originally as Doxa Athens) Football, Basketball Neos Kosmos Panhellenic title in women Basketball

Sporting B.C. 1936 Basketball Patisia Many Panhellenic titles in women Basketball

Pagrati B.C. 1938 Basketball Pagrati Earlier presence in A1 Ethniki

Beside the above clubs, inside the boundaries of Athens municipality there are some more clubs with presence in national divisions or notable action for short periods. Some of them are PAO Rouf (Rouf) with earlier presence in Gamma Ethniki, Petralona F.C.(el) (Petralona), football club founded in 1963, with earlier presence in Beta Ethniki, Attikos F.C.(el) (Kolonos), football club founded in 1919 with short presence in Gamma Ethniki, Athinais Kypselis(el) (Kypseli), football club founded in 1938 with short presence in Gamma Ethniki, Gyziakos (Gyzi), basketball club founded in 1937 with short presence in Beta Ethniki basketball and Aetos B.C.(el) (Agios Panteleimonas), basketball club founded in 1992 with earlier presence in A2 Ethniki Basketball. Another important Athenian sport club is the Athens Tennis Club founded in 1895 with important offer for the Greek tennis.[113] Olympic Games[edit] 1896 Summer Olympics[edit] Main article: 1896 Summer Olympics

View of the Panathenaic Stadium (Kallimarmaro)

Spyridon Louis entering the Panathenaic Stadium at the end of the marathon race

Central Athens, c. 1900, showing Zappeion, Kallimarmaron and their environs

1896 brought forth the revival of the modern Olympic Games, by Frenchman Pierre de Coubertin. Thanks to his efforts, Athens was awarded the first modern Olympic Games. In 1896, the city had a population of 123,000[81] and the event helped boost the city's international profile. Of the venues used for these Olympics, the Kallimarmaro Stadium, and Zappeion were most crucial. The Kallimarmaro is a replica of the ancient Athenian stadiums, and the only major stadium (in its capacity of 60,000) to be made entirely of white marble from Mount Penteli, the same material used for construction of the Parthenon. 1906 Summer Olympics[edit] Main article: 1906 Intercalated Games The 1906 Summer Olympics, or the 1906 Intercalated games, were held in Athens. The intercalated competitions were intermediate games to the internationally organized Olympics, and were meant to be organized in Greece every four years, between the main Olympics. This idea later lost support from the IOC and these games were discontinued. 2004 Summer Olympics[edit] Main article: 2004 Summer Olympics

10,000-meter final during the 2004 Olympic Games

Athens was awarded the 2004 Summer Olympics on 5 September 1997 in Lausanne, Switzerland, after having lost a previous bid to host the 1996 Summer Olympics, to Atlanta, United States.[22] It was to be the second time Athens would host the games, following the inaugural event of 1896. After an unsuccessful bid in 1990, the 1997 bid was radically improved, including an appeal to Greece's Olympic history. In the last round of voting, Athens defeated Rome with 66 votes to 41.[22] Prior to this round, the cities of Buenos Aires, Stockholm and Cape Town had been eliminated from competition, having received fewer votes.[22] During the first three years of preparations, the International Olympic Committee had expressed concern over the speed of construction progress for some of the new Olympic venues. In 2000 the Organising Committee's president was replaced by Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, who was the president of the original Bidding Committee in 1997. From that point forward, preparations continued at a highly accelerated, almost frenzied pace. Although the heavy cost was criticized, estimated at $1.5 billion, Athens was transformed into a more functional city that enjoys modern technology both in transportation and in modern urban development.[114] Some of the finest sporting venues in the world were created in the city, all of which were fully ready for the games. The games welcomed over 10,000 athletes from all 202 countries.[114] The 2004 Games were judged a success, as both security and organization worked well, and only a few visitors reported minor problems mainly concerning accommodation issues. The 2004 Olympic Games were described as Unforgettable, dream Games, by IOC President Jacques Rogge for their return to the birthplace of the Olympics, and for meeting the challenges of holding the Olympic Games.[114] The only observable problem was a somewhat sparse attendance of some early events. Eventually, however, a total of more than 3.5 million tickets were sold, which was higher than any other Olympics with the exception of Sydney (more than 5 million tickets were sold there in 2000).[115] In 2008 it was reported that most of the Olympic venues had fallen into disrepair: according to those reports, 21 of the 22 facilities built for the games had either been left abandoned or are in a state of dereliction, with several squatter camps having sprung up around certain facilities, and a number of venues afflicted by vandalism, graffiti or strewn with rubbish.[116][117] These claims, however, are disputed and likely to be inaccurate, as most of the facilities used for the Athens Olympics are either in use or in the process of being converted for post-Olympics use. The Greek Government has created a corporation, Olympic Properties SA, which is overseeing the post-Olympics management, development and conversion of these facilities, some of which will be sold off (or have already been sold off) to the private sector,[118] while other facilities are still in use just as during the Olympics, or have been converted for commercial use or modified for other sports.[119] Concerts and theatrical shows, such as those by the troupe Cirque du Soleil, have recently been held in the complex.[110] Special Olympics 2011[edit] The 2011 Special Olympics World Summer Games was in Athens. The opening ceremony of the games took place on 25 June 2011 at the Panathinaiko Stadium and the closing ceremony was held on 4 July 2011. Over 7,500 athletes, from 185 countries, competed in a total of 22 sports. Economy and infrastructure[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2012)

Ermou street near the Syntagma Square

Athens is the financial capital of Greece, and multinational companies such as Ericsson, Siemens, Motorola and Coca-Cola have their regional research and development headquarters there. Transport[edit] Main article: Public transport in Athens

Athens metropolitan railway network (metró and proastiakós)

Agios Dimitrios station with an island platform

Athens is serviced by a variety of transportation means, forming the largest mass transit system of Greece. The Athens Mass Transit System consists of a large bus fleet, a trolleybus fleet that mainly serves Athens's city center, the city's Metro, a commuter rail service[120] and a tram network, connecting the southern suburbs to the city centre.[121] Bus transport[edit] Ethel (Greek: ΕΘΕΛ) (Etaireia Thermikon Leoforeion), or Thermal Bus Company, is the main operator of buses in Athens. Its network consists of about 300 bus lines which span the Athens Metropolitan Area,[122] with an operating staff of 5,327, and a fleet of 1,839 buses.[123] Of those 1,839 buses 416 run on compressed natural gas,[123] making up the largest fleet of natural gas-powered buses in Europe.[124] Besides being served by a fleet of natural-gas and diesel buses, the Athens Urban Area is also served by trolleybuses – or electric buses, as they are referred to in the name of the operating company. The network is operated by Electric Buses of the Athens and Piraeus Region, or ILPAP (Greek: ΗΛΠΑΠ) and consists of 22 lines with an operating staff of 1,137.[125] All of the 366 trolleybuses are equipped to enable them to run on diesel in case of power failure.[125] International and regional bus links are provided by KTEL from two InterCity Bus Terminals, Kifissos Bus Terminal A and Liosion Bus Terminal B, both located in the north-western part of the city. Kifissos provides connections towards the Peloponnese and Attica, whereas Liosion is used for most northerly mainland destinations. Athens Metro[edit] Main article: Athens Metro

Athens Metro train (3rd generation stock)

The Athens Metro is more commonly known in Greece as the Attiko Metro (Greek: Αττικό Mετρό) and provides public transport throughout the Athens Urban Area. While its main purpose is transport, it also houses Greek artifacts found during construction of the system.[126] The Athens Metro has an operating staff of 387 and runs two of the three metro lines; namely the Red (line 2) and Blue (line 3) lines, which were constructed largely during the 1990s, with the initial sections opened in January 2000. All routes run entirely underground and a fleet of 42 trains consisting of 252 cars operate within the network,[127] with a daily occupancy of 550,000 passengers.[127] The Red Line (line 2) runs from Anthoupoli station to Elliniko station and covers a distance of 17.5 km (10.9 mi).[127] The line connects the western suburbs of Athens with the southeast suburbs passing through the center of Athens. The line associated with Green (line 1) stations at Attiki and Omonoia Square station. Also the line connected with the Blue (line 3) at Syntagma Square station and connected with Tram at Syntagma Square, Sygrou-Fix and Agios Ioannis station. The Blue Line (line 3) runs from the western suburbs, namely Agia Marina to the Egaleo station, through the central Monastiraki and Syntagma stations to Doukissis Plakentias avenue in the northeastern suburb of Halandri, covering a distance of 16 km (10 mi),[127] then ascending to ground level and reaching Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, using the Suburban Railway infrastructure and extending its length to 39 km (24 mi).[127] The spring 2007 extension from Monastiraki westwards, to Egaleo, connected some of the main night life hubs of the city, namely the ones of Gazi (Kerameikos station) with Psirri (Monastiraki station) and the city centre (Syntagma station). Extensions are under construction to the west southwest suburbs of Athens, reaching to the port and the center of Piraeus. The new stations will be Agia Barvara, Koridallos, Nikaia, Maniatika, Piraeus and Dimotiko Theatro station. The stations will be ready in 2017, connecting the biggest port of Greece Piraeus Port with the biggest airport of Greece the Athens International Airport. Electric railway (ISAP)[edit] Main article: ISAP

An ISAP train (Green Line) passes by the Stoa of Attalos in central Athens

Not run by the Athens Metro company, is the ISAP (Greek: ΗΣΑΠ), the Electric Railway Company line, which for many years served as Athens's primary urban rail transport. This is today the Green Line (line 1) of the Athens Metro network as shown on maps, and unlike the red and blue lines, ISAP has many above-ground sections on its route. This was the original metro line from Piraeus to Kifisia; serving 22 stations,[128] with a network length of 25.6 km (15.9 mi),[128] an operating staff of 730 and a fleet of 44 trains and 243 cars.[128] ISAP's occupancy rate is 600,000 passengers daily.[128] The Green Line (line 1) now serves 24 stations, and forms the oldest line of the Athens metro network and for the most part runs at ground level,[129] connecting the port of Piraeus with the northern suburb of Kifissia. The line is set to be extended to Agios Stefanos, a suburb located 23 km (14 mi)[citation needed] to the north of Athens, reaching to 36 km (22 mi).[citation needed] The Athens Metropolitan Railway system is managed by three companies; namely ISAP (line 1),[130] Attiko Metro (lines 2 & 3), while its commuter rail, the Proastiakós is considered as line 4.[citation needed] Commuter/suburban rail (Proastiakos)[edit] Main article: Proastiakos

Suburban rail

The Athens commuter rail service, referred to as the "Proastiakós", connects Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport to the city of Kiato, 106 km (66 mi)[131] west of Athens, via Larissa station, the city's central rail station and the port of Piraeus. The service is sometimes considered the fourth line of the Athens Metro. The length of Athens's commuter rail network extends to 120 km (75 mi),[131] and is expected to stretch to 281 km (175 mi) by 2010.[131] The Proastiakos will be extended to Xylokastro west of Athens and Chalkida.[131] Tram[edit] Main article: Athens Tram

A modern Athens Tram station and vehicles

Athens Tram SA operates a fleet of 35 Sirio type vehicles[132] which serve 48 stations,[132] employ 345 people with an average daily occupancy of 65,000 passengers.[132] The tram network spans a total length of 27 km (17 mi) and covers ten Athenian suburbs.[132] The network runs from Syntagma Square to the southwestern suburb of Palaio Faliro, where the line splits in two branches; the first runs along the Athens coastline toward the southern suburb of Voula, while the other heads toward the Piraeus district of Neo Faliro. The network covers the majority of the Saronic coastline.[133] Further extensions are planned towards the major commercial port of Piraeus.[132] The expansion to Piraeus will include 12 new stations, increase the overall length of tram route by 5.4 km (3 mi), and increase the overall transportation network.[134] Athens International Airport[edit] Main article: Athens International Airport

Athens International Airport Check-in-area

Athens is served by the Athens International Airport (ATH), located near the town of Spata, in the eastern Messoghia plain, some 35 km (22 mi) east of Athens.[135] The airport, awarded the "European Airport of the Year 2004" Award,[136] is intended as an expandable hub for air travel in southeastern Europe and was constructed in 51 months, costing 2.2 billion euros. It employs a staff of 14,000.[136] The airport is served by the Metro, the suburban rail, buses to Piraeus port, Athens' city centre and its suburbs, and also taxis. The airport accommodates 65 landings and take-offs per hour,[135] with its 24-passenger boarding bridges,[135] 144 check-in counters and broader 150,000 m2 (1,614,587 sq ft) main terminal;[135] and a commercial area of 7,000 m2 (75,347 sq ft) which includes cafés, duty-free shops,[136] and a small museum. In 2014, the airport handled 15,196,369 passengers, an increase of 21.2% over the previous year of 2013.[137] Of those 15,196,369 passengers, 5,267,593 passed through the airport for domestic flights,[138] and 9,970,006 passengers travelled through for international flights.[138] Beyond the dimensions of its passenger capacity, ATH handled 205,294 total flights in 2007, or approximately 562 flights per day.[139] Railways and ferry connections[edit] Athens is the hub of the country's national railway system (OSE), connecting the capital with major cities across Greece and abroad (Istanbul, Sofia and Bucharest).The Port of Piraeus connects Athens to the numerous Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, with ferries departing, while also serving the cruise ships that arrive. Motorways[edit] Further information: Highways in Greece

Interchange at the Attiki Odos airport entrance

View of Hymettus tangent (Periferiaki Imittou) from Kalogeros Hill

Two main motorways of Greece begin in Athens, namely the A1/E75, which crosses through Athens's Urban Area from Piraeus, heading north towards Greece's second largest city, Thessaloniki; and the A8/E94 heading west, towards Patras, which incorporated the GR-8A. Before their completion much of the road traffic used the GR-1 and the GR-8. Athens' Metropolitan Area is served by the motorway network of the Attiki Odos toll-motorway (code: A6). Its main section extends from the western industrial suburb of Elefsina to Athens International Airport; while two beltways, namely the Aigaleo Beltway (A65) and the Hymettus Beltway (A64) serve parts of western and eastern Athens respectively. The span of the Attiki Odos in all its length is 65 km (40 mi),[140] making it the largest metropolitan motorway network in all of Greece.

Motorways:

A1/E75 N (Lamia, Larissa, Thessaloniki) A8 (GR-8A)/E94 W (Elefsina, Corinth, Patras) A6 W (Elefsina) E (Airport)

National roads:

GR-1 Ν (Lamia, Larissa, Thessaloniki) GR-8 W (Corinth, Patras) GR-3 N (Elefsina, Lamia, Larissa)

Education[edit]

The Propylaea, part of the "Trilogy" of Theofil Hansen, serves as the ceremony hall and rectory of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Facade of the Academy of Athens

Located on Panepistimiou Street, the old campus of the University of Athens, the National Library, and the Athens Academy form the "Athens Trilogy" built in the mid-19th century. Most of the university's workings have been moved to a much larger, modern campus located in the eastern suburb of Zografou. The second higher education institution in the city is the Athens Polytechnic School, found in Patission Street. This was the location where on 17 November 1973, more than 13 students were killed and hundreds injured inside the university during the Athens Polytechnic uprising,[141] against the military junta that ruled the nation from 21 April 1967 until 23 July 1974. Other universities that lie within Athens are the Athens University of Economics and Business, the Panteion University, the Agricultural University of Athens and the University of Piraeus. There are overall eleven state-supported Institutions of Higher (or Tertiary) education located in the Metropolitan Area of Athens, these are by chronological order: Athens School of Fine Arts (1837), National Technical University of Athens (1837), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (1837), Agricultural University of Athens (1920), Athens University of Economics and Business (1920), Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences (1927), University of Piraeus (1938), Technological Educational Institute of Piraeus (1976), Technological Educational Institute of Athens (1983), Harokopio University (1990), School of Pedagogical and Technological Education (2002). There are also several other private colleges, as they called formally in Greece, as the establishment of private universities is prohibited by the constitution. Many of them are accredited by a foreign state or university such as the American College of Greece and the Athens Campus of the University of Indianapolis.[142] See also[edit]

Outline of Athens

References[edit]

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Grad Beograd. www.beograd.rs. Retrieved 26 January 2008.  ^ "International: Special partners". Mairie de Paris. www.paris.fr. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2008.  ^ "Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje". Mestna občina Ljubljana (Ljubljana City) (in Slovenian). Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.  ^ Vacca, Maria Luisa. "Comune di Napoli -Gemellaggi" [Naples – Twin Towns]. Comune di Napoli (in Italian). Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  ^ The population of the unincorporated communities below is not mentioned here ^ "Where is Atenas De San Cristobal in Atlantida, Honduras Located?".  ^ "v4.ethnos.gr – Οι πρώτοι... Αθηναίοι – τεχνες, πολιτισμος". Ethnos.gr. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ S. Immerwahr, The Athenian Agora XIII: the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, Princeton 1971 ^ Iakovides, S. 1962. 'E mykenaïke akropolis ton Athenon'. Athens. ^ Osborne, R. 1996, 2009. Greece in the Making 1200 – 479 BC. ^ "Nothing Less than Victory: Decisive Wars and the Lessons of History". Retrieved 24 December 2014.  ^ Fessas-Emmanouil, Helen. Ελληνική Αρχιτεκτονική Εταιρεία: Αρχιτέκτονες του 20ού αιώνα: Μέλη της Εταιρείας, Ποταμός, Athens, 2009, p. XXV and p. XXI, ISBN 960-6691-38-1 ^ Fessas-Emmanouil, Helen. Ελληνική Αρχιτεκτονική Εταιρεία: Αρχιτέκτονες του 20ού αιώνα: Μέλη της Εταιρείας, Ποταμός, Athens, 2009, p. XXXI, ISBN 960-6691-38-1 ^ "AIA: Finance" (PDF). Athens International Airport, S.A. www.AIA.gr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2007.  ^ "Home Page". Urban Audit. Archived from the original on 6 February 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2009.  ^ "Athens – Epidaurus Festival 2008". Greekfestival.gr. Archived from the original on 22 February 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2009.  ^ "Megaron Events Chart". Megaron.gr. 26 October 1997. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2009.  ^ Ίδρυμα Ευγενίδου. Εκπαιδευτικό Κοινωφελές Ίδρυμα (in Greek). Eugenfound.edu.gr. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2009.  ^ ΙΔΡΥΜΑ ΕΥΓΕΝΙΔΟΥ 1954 / Ιστορικό (in Greek). Eugenfound.edu.gr. Retrieved 25 October 2009.  ^ "Athens Eugenides Planetarium". Barco. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.  ^ "Vision". SNFCC. Retrieved 16 November 2016.  ^ a b c Athens – The Truth: Searching for Mános, Just Before the Bubble Burst. Tales of Orpheus. 1 September 2013. ISBN 9780955209031. Retrieved 24 October 2013.  ^ "Athens 21st Century – Athens Olympic Stadium". Athens-today.com. Retrieved 26 December 2008.  ^ "Athens 21st Century – The Olympic Coastal Complex". Athens-today.com. Retrieved 26 December 2008.  ^ "Ιστορικό". oaa.gr. Retrieved 13 April 2015.  ^ a b c "Athens bids farewell to the Games". CNN. CNN.com. 30 August 2004. Retrieved 29 March 2007.  ^ Athens News Agency (27 August 2004). "Olympic ticket sales officially top 3.5-million mark". Embassy of Greece. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 30 March 2007.  ^ Rogers, Martin. "Beijing trumps Athens... and then some". Sports.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2009.  ^ Itano, Nicole (21 July 2008). "As Olympic Glow Fades, Athens Questions $15 Billion Cost". Csmonitor.com. Archived from the original on 9 March 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2009.  ^ "After The Party: What happens when the Olympics leave town". London: Independent.co.uk. 19 August 2008. Archived from the original on 6 September 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2009.  ^ "Four years after Athens Greeks have Olympics blues". Afp.google.com. 30 July 2008. Archived from the original on 6 August 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2009.  ^ "Προαστιακός". Proastiakos.gr. Archived from the original on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2009.  ^ "Tram Sa". Tramsa.gr. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2009.  ^ "Athens Urban Transport Network in Facts and Figures (pdf) page 5" (PDF). OASA. www.oasa.gr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2006. Retrieved 28 January 2007.  ^ a b "Athens Urban Transport Network in Facts and Figures (pdf) page 6" (PDF). OASA. www.oasa.gr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2006. Retrieved 28 January 2007.  ^ Ilias Tatsiopoulos & Georgios Tziralis. "New, Post-Olympics Athens" (PDF). www.minpress.gr. Secretariat General of Communication – Secretariat General of Information. p. 79. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2008. Retrieved 23 August 2008.  ^ a b "Athens Urban Transport Network in Facts and Figures (pdf) page 11" (PDF). OASA. www.oasa.gr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2006. Retrieved 28 January 2007.  ^ "Athens Metro". Hellenic Ministry of Culture. www.culture.gr. Archived from the original on 7 December 2006. Retrieved 26 January 2007.  ^ a b c d e "Athens Urban Transport Network in Facts and Figures (pdf) page 15" (PDF). OASA. www.oasa.gr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2006. Retrieved 4 February 2007.  ^ a b c d "Athens Urban Transport Network in Facts and Figures (pdf) page 9" (PDF). OASA. www.oasa.gr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2006. Retrieved 4 February 2007.  ^ "ISAP – Athens Piraeus Electric Railways". Isap.gr. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009.  ^ "ΗΣΑΠ". Isap.gr. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2009.  ^ a b c d "Proastiakos". www.proastiakos.gr. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009.  ^ a b c d e "Tram Sa". Tramsa.gr. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2009.  ^ "Athens Urban Transport Network in Facts and Figures (pdf) page 13" (PDF). OASA. www.oasa.gr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2006. Retrieved 28 January 2007.  ^ "Tram Sa". Tramsa.gr. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2009.  ^ a b c d "Athens International Airport: Facts and Figures". Athens International Airport. www.aia.gr. Retrieved 11 February 2007.  ^ a b c "Athens International Airport: Airport Profile". Athens International Airport. www.aia.gr. Retrieved 11 February 2007.  ^ "ATHENS INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT "EL.VENIZELOS"". aia.gr. Retrieved 7 May 2015.  ^ a b "Athens International Airport: Passenger Traffic Development 2007" (PDF). Athens International Airport. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2008.  ^ "Athens International Airport: Air Traffic Movements Development 2007" (PDF). Athens International Airport. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2008.  ^ Aodos.gr[dead link] ^ "1973: Army deposes 'hated' Greek president". BBC News. 25 November 1973. Retrieved 22 March 2009.  ^ "ΙδιωτικάΠανεπιστήμιαστην Ελλάδα – PrivateUniversities in Greece". 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutAthensat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official

Official website

Historical

EIE.gr – Page on Archaeology of the City of Athens in the National Hellenic Research Foundation website Rg.ancients.info/owls – Athenian owl coins Kronoskaf.com – Simulation of Athens in 421 BCE Athens Museums Information – Guide with pictures, visitor comments and reviews

Travel

Athens - The Greek National Tourism Organization This is Athens - The official City of Athens guide Athens Urban Transport Organisation

Visual

Timelapse video of Athens Timelapse showing Athens in the Attica region Athens 1973 Athens In Pictures Athens Photo Guide

Places adjacent to Athens

Peristeri Nea Filadelfeia, Nea Ionia and Galatsi Psychiko, Neo Psychiko and Papagou

Aigaleo and Tavros

Athens

Zografou and Kaisariani

Kallithea Nea Smyrni Vyronas, Ymittos and Dafni

Government

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Neighbourhoods of Athens

Aerides Agios Eleftherios Agios Panteleimonas Akadimia Akadimia Platonos Acropolis Ampelokipi Anafiotika Ano Petralona Asyrmatos Asteroskopeio Attiki Eleonas Ellinoroson Erythros Stavros Exarcheia Gazi Girokomeio Gyzi Goudi Gouva Ilisia Kallimarmaro Kato Petralona Keramikos Kolokynthou Kolonaki Kolonos Koukaki Kountouriotika Kypriadou Kypseli Kynosargous Lykavittos Makrygianni Metaxourgeio Mets Monastiraki Nea Filothei Neapoli Neos Kosmos Omonoia Pangrati Patisia Pedion tou Areos Petralona Philopappou Plaka Polygono Probonas Profitis Daniil Profitis Ilias Psyri Rizoupoli Rouf Sepolia Syntagma Thiseio Thymarakia Treis Gefyres Votanikos

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  Prefectural capitals of Greece

Agios Nikolaos Alexandroupoli Amfissa Argostoli Arta Athens Chalcis Chania Chios Corfu Corinth Drama Edessa Ermoupoli Florina Grevena Heraklion Igoumenitsa Ioannina Kalamata Karditsa Karpenisi Kastoria Katerini Kavala Kilkis Komotini Kozani Lamia Larissa Lefkada Livadeia Missolonghi Mytilene Nafplion Pallini Patras Piraeus Polygyros Preveza Pyrgos Rethymno Rhodes Serres Sparta Thessaloniki Trikala Tripoli Vathy Veria Volos Xanthi Zakynthos

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  Capitals of regions of Greece

Athens (Attica) Corfu (Ionian Islands) Heraklion (Crete) Ioannina (Epirus) Komotini (East Macedonia and Thrace) Kozani (West Macedonia) Lamia (Central Greece) Larissa (Thessaly) Mytilene (North Aegean) Patras (West Greece) Ermoupoli (South Aegean) Thessaloniki (Central Macedonia) Tripoli (Peloponnese)

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Administrative division of the Attica Region

Area 3,808 km2 (1,470 sq mi) Population 3,827,624 (as of 2011) Municipalities 66 (since 2011) Capital Athens

Regional unit of Central Athens

Athens Dafni-Ymittos Filadelfeia-Chalkidona Galatsi Ilioupoli Kaisariani Vyronas Zografou

Regional unit of North Athens

Agia Paraskevi Chalandri Filothei-Psychiko Irakleio Kifissia Lykovrysi-Pefki Marousi Metamorfosi Nea Ionia Papagou-Cholargos Penteli Vrilissia

Regional unit of West Athens

Agia Varvara Agioi Anargyroi-Kamatero Aigaleo Chaidari Ilion Peristeri Petroupoli

Regional unit of South Athens

Agios Dimitrios Alimos Elliniko-Argyroupoli Glyfada Kallithea Moschato-Tavros Nea Smyrni Palaio Faliro

Regional unit of Piraeus

Keratsini-Drapetsona Korydallos Nikaia-Agios Ioannis Rentis Perama Piraeus

Regional unit of East Attica

Acharnes Dionysos Kropia Lavreotiki Marathon Markopoulo Oropos Paiania Pallini Rafina-Pikermi Saronikos Spata-Artemida Vari-Voula-Vouliagmeni

Regional unit of West Attica

Aspropyrgos Eleusis Fyli Mandra-Eidyllia Megara

Regional unit of Islands

Aegina Agistri Hydra Kythira Poros Salamis Spetses Troizinia-Methana

Regional governor Rena Dourou (since 2014) Decentralized Administration Attica

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Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

Culture and history

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Major landmarks of Athens

Ancient

Acropolis Ancient Agora Arch of Hadrian Areopagus Aristotle’s Lyceum Hadrian's Library Kerameikos Monument of Lysicrates Odeon of Herodes Atticus Panathenaic Stadium Philopappos Hill/Monument Platonic Academy Pnyx Remains of the Acharnian Road, Acharnian Gate and Cemetery Site Remains of the Long Walls Roman Agora Stoa of Attalos Temple of Hephaestus Temple of Olympian Zeus Theatre of Dionysus Tower of the Winds

Byzantine

Agios Eleftherios/Mikri Mitropoli/Panagia Gorgoepikoos Daphni Monastery Holy Apostles Church Kapnikarea Church Pantanassa Church

Ottoman

Fethiye Mosque House of Saint Philothei/Manor house of Benizelos-Palaiologos family Tzistarakis Mosque

Modern

Hansen's "Trilogy"

Academy Kapodistrian University of Athens National Library of Greece

Museums

Acropolis Museum Benaki Museum Byzantine and Christian Museum Museum of Cycladic Art Kerameikos Museum National Archaeological Museum National Gallery National Historical Museum Numismatic Museum

Churches

Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens Cathedral Basilica of St. Dionysius the Areopagite

Gardens/Parks

National Gardens Pedion tou Areos

Squares and Neighbourhoods

Anafiotika Kolonaki Square Kotzia Square Monastiraki Omonoia Square Plaka Syntagma Thiseio

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Athens Concert Hall Gennadius Library National Observatory of Athens National Theatre Old Parliament House Old Royal Palace Olympic Sports Complex Presidential Mansion Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center Zappeion

Marinas

Agios Kosmas Marina Alimos Marina Athens Marina (formerly Faliro Marina) Marinas of Glyfada Olympic Marine Floisvos Marina Marina of Vouliagmeni Marina of Zea Marina Tzitzifies

Others

Dionysiou Areopagitou Street Lycabettus Hill

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Museums in Athens

Archaeological

Acropolis Museum Epigraphical Museum Goulandris Museum of Cycladic Art Kerameikos Kanellopoulou Museum National Archaeological Museum Stoa of Attalos Old Acropolis Museum Syntagma Metro Station Archaeological Collection Museum of the Center for the Acropolis Studies Athens International Airport Archaeological Collection

Byzantine and ecclesiastic

Byzantine and Christian Museum

Ethnological/historical

Athens War Museum Drossinis Museum Eleftherios Venizelos Historical Museum Goulandris Natural History Museum Jewish Museum of Greece Museum of the City of Athens National Historical Museum

Folklore

Museum of Greek Folk Art Museum of Greek Folk Musical Instruments Centre for the Study of Traditional Pottery Museum of the History of the Greek Costume

Art museums/galleries

Benaki Museum Emfietzoglou Gallery Museum Frissiras Museum Ilias Lalaounis Jewelry Museum Municipal Gallery of Athens National Gallery (Athens) National Glyptotheque National Museum of Contemporary Art

Industry/technology

Evgenidio Foundation Hellenic Air Force Museum Hellenic Motor Museum Railway Museum of Athens Electric Railways Museum Technopolis (Gazi)

Education/sports/ Special Interests

Athens University Museum Hellenic Children's Museum Hellenic Cosmos Numismatic Museum of Athens Theatrical Museum of Greece Postal & Philatelic Museum of Greece

Museum ships

Georgios Averof Velos D16 SS Hellas Liberty Olympias

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Streets in Athens

Major streets

3 Septemvriou Street Agiou Konstantinou Street Aiolou Street Akadimias Street Alexandras Avenue Amalias Avenue Andrea Syngrou Avenue Athanasiou Diakou Street Athinas Street Athinon Avenue Acharnon Street Benaki Street Ermou Street Ioanninon Avenue Iera Odos Kallirois Avenue Katechaki Avenue Kifisias Avenue Kifissou Avenue Konstantinoupoleos Avenue Lenorman Street Makri Street Mavromichali Street Mesogeion Avenue Michalopoulou Street Mitropoleos Street Pangratiou Street Panepistimiou Street Patission Street Patsi Street Peiraios Street Petrou Ralli Avenue Rizari Street Sofokleous Street Stadiou Street Vasileos Konstantinou Avenue Vasilissis Sofias Avenue Vouliagmenis Avenue

Secondary and local streets

Antigonis Street Dionysiou Areopagitou Street Fokionos Negri Herodou Attikou Street Kallirois Street Lykourgou Street Pandrossou Street Petmeza Street Santa Rosa Street Veikou Street Voukourestiou Street

Main squares

Kolonaki Square Kotzia Square Monastiraki Square Omonoia Square Syntagma Square

Suburban roads

Alimou Street Athinas Avenue Ulof Palme Street Doukissis Plakentias Avenue Poseidonos Avenue Thisseos Street

Highways

Attiki Odos (Aigaleo Beltway Hymettus Beltway)

List of streets in Athens List of streets in Attica List of streets in Greece

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Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union and Brussels and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

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European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

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World Book Capitals

2001: Madrid 2002: Alexandria 2003: New Delhi 2004: Antwerp 2005: Montreal 2006: Turin 2007: Bogotá 2008: Amsterdam 2009: Beirut 2010: Ljubljana 2011: Buenos Aires 2012: Yerevan 2013: Bangkok 2014: Port Harcourt 2015: Incheon 2016: Wrocław 2017: Conakry 2018: Athens 2019: Sharjah

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Summer Olympic Games host cities

1896: Athens 1900: Paris 1904: St. Louis 1908: London 1912: Stockholm 1916: None[c1] 1920: Antwerp 1924: Paris 1928: Amsterdam 1932: Los Angeles 1936: Berlin 1940: None[c2] 1944: None[c2] 1948: London 1952: Helsinki 1956: Melbourne 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Mexico City 1972: Munich 1976: Montreal 1980: Moscow 1984: Los Angeles 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II

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Summer Paralympic Games host cities

1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Tel Aviv 1972: Heidelberg 1976: Toronto

1980: Arnhem 1984: New York City / Stoke Mandeville 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona / Madrid 1996: Atlanta

2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London

2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

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Host cities of the IAAF World Championships in Athletics

1983: Helsinki 1987: Rome 1991: Tokyo 1993: Stuttgart 1995: Gothenburg 1997: Athens 1999: Seville 2001: Edmonton 2003: Saint-Denis 2005: Helsinki 2007: Osaka 2009: Berlin 2011: Daegu 2013: Moscow 2015: Beijing 2017: London 2019: Doha 2021: Eugene

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Eurovision Song Contest

History Host cities Languages Presenters Rules Voting Winners Winners discography

Contests

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Countries

Active

Albania Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Inactive

Andorra Bosnia and Herzegovina Luxembourg Monaco Morocco Slovakia Turkey

Former

Lebanon Serbia and Montenegro Yugoslavia

Relations

Armenia–Azerbaijan Russia–Ukraine

National selections

Current

Albania Armenia Belarus Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Former

Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Finland Greece

Ellinikós Telikós Eurosong - A MAD Show

Ireland

The Late Late Show You're a Star

Israel Latvia

Eirodziesma Dziesma

Lithuania Macedonia Malta Montenegro Netherlands Serbia and Montenegro Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Yugoslavia

Other awards

Marcel Bezençon Awards OGAE

OGAE Video Contest OGAE Second Chance Contest

Television and concerts

Eurovision Song Contest Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision Song Contest Best of Eurovision Eurovision Song Contest's Greatest Hits

Category Portal

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Ancient Greece

Outline Timeline

History Geography

Periods

Cycladic civilization Minoan civilization Mycenaean civilization Greek Dark Ages Archaic period Classical Greece Hellenistic Greece Roman Greece

Geography

Aegean Sea Aeolis Alexandria Antioch Cappadocia Crete Cyprus Doris Ephesus Epirus Hellespont Ionia Ionian Sea Macedonia Magna Graecia Miletus Peloponnesus Pergamon Pontus Taurica Ancient Greek colonies

City states Politics Military

City states

Argos Athens Byzantion Chalcis Corinth Eretria Kerkyra Larissa Megalopolis Megara Rhodes Samos Sparta Syracuse Thebes

Politics

Boeotarch Boule Koinon Proxeny Strategos Tagus Tyrant Amphictyonic League

Athenian

Agora Areopagus Ecclesia Graphē paranómōn Heliaia Ostracism

Spartan

Apella Ephor Gerousia Harmost

Macedon

Synedrion Koinon

Military

Wars Athenian military Antigonid Macedonian army Army of Macedon Ballista Cretan archers Hellenistic armies Hippeis Hoplite Hetairoi Macedonian phalanx Phalanx Peltast Pezhetairos Sarissa Sacred Band of Thebes Sciritae Seleucid army Spartan army Toxotai Xiphos Xyston

People

List of ancient Greeks

Rulers

Kings of Argos Archons of Athens Kings of Athens Kings of Commagene Diadochi Kings of Lydia Kings of Macedonia Kings of Paionia Attalid kings of Pergamon Kings of Pontus Kings of Sparta Tyrants of Syracuse

Philosophers

Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Antisthenes Aristotle Democritus Diogenes of Sinope Empedocles Epicurus Gorgias Heraclitus Hypatia Leucippus Parmenides Plato Protagoras Pythagoras Socrates Thales Zeno

Authors

Aeschylus Aesop Alcaeus Archilochus Aristophanes Bacchylides Euripides Herodotus Hesiod Hipponax Homer Ibycus Lucian Menander Mimnermus Panyassis Philocles Pindar Plutarch Polybius Sappho Simonides Sophocles Stesichorus Theognis Thucydides Timocreon Tyrtaeus Xenophon

Others

Agesilaus II Agis II Alcibiades Alexander the Great Aratus Archimedes Aspasia Demosthenes Epaminondas Euclid Hipparchus Hippocrates Leonidas Lycurgus Lysander Milo of Croton Miltiades Pausanias Pericles Philip of Macedon Philopoemen Praxiteles Ptolemy Pyrrhus Solon Themistocles

Groups

Philosophers Playwrights Poets Tyrants

By culture

Ancient Greek tribes Thracian Greeks Ancient Macedonians

Society Culture

Society

Agriculture Calendar Clothing Coinage Cuisine Economy Education Festivals Funeral and burial practices Homosexuality Law Olympic Games Pederasty Philosophy Prostitution Religion Slavery Warfare Wedding customs Wine

Arts and science

Architecture

Greek Revival architecture

Astronomy Literature Mathematics Medicine Music

Musical system

Pottery Sculpture Technology Theatre

Religion

Funeral and burial practices Mythology

mythological figures

Temple Twelve Olympians Underworld

Sacred places

Eleusis Delphi Delos Dodona Mount Olympus Olympia

Structures

Athenian Treasury Lion Gate Long Walls Philippeion Theatre of Dionysus Tunnel of Eupalinos

Temples

Aphaea Artemis Athena Nike Erechtheion Hephaestus Hera, Olympia Parthenon Samothrace Zeus, Olympia

Language

Proto-Greek Mycenaean Homeric Dialects

Aeolic Arcadocypriot Attic Doric Ionic Locrian Macedonian Pamphylian

Koine

Writing

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Second Journey of Paul the Apostle

1. Cilicia 2. Derbe 3. Lystra 4. Phrygia 5. Galatia 6. Mysia (Alexandria Troas) 7. Samothrace 8. Neapolis 9. Philippi 9. Amphipolis 10. Apollonia 11. Thessalonica 12. Beroea 13. Athens 14. Corinth 15. Cenchreae 16. Ephesus 17. Syria 18. Caesarea 19. Jerusalem 20. Antioch

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Mediterranean Games

Alexandria 1951 Barcelona 1955 Beirut 1959 Naples 1963 Tunis 1967 İzmir 1971 Algiers 1975 Split 1979 Casablanca 1983 Latakia 1987 Athens 1991 Languedoc-Roussillon 1993 Bari 1997 Tunis 2001 Almeria 2005 Pescara 2009 Mersin 2013 Tarragona 2018 Oran 2021

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131280462 LCCN: n79018143 GND: 4003366-1 BNF: cb11936474k (data) N