Aragon (/ˈærəɡɒn/ or /ˈærəɡən/, Spanish and Aragonese:
Aragón [aɾaˈɣon], Catalan: Aragó [əɾəˈɣo] or [aɾaˈɣo]) is
an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval
Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese
autonomous community comprises three provinces (from north to south):
Huesca, Zaragoza, and Teruel. Its capital is
Zaragoza (also called
Saragossa in English). The current
Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon
a historic nationality of Spain.
Covering an area of 47720 km2 (18420 sq mi), the
region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant
valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe
plains of the central lowlands.
Aragon is home to many rivers—most
notably, the river Ebro, Spain's largest river in volume, which runs
west-east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza.
It is also home to the highest mountains of the Pyrenees.
As of January 2016[update], the population of
7006130856300000000♠1308563, with over half of it living in its
capital city, Zaragoza. During the same year, the economy of Aragon
generates a GDP of 7004346870000000000♠€34687 million, which
represents 3.1% of Spain's national GDP, and is currently 6th in
per capita production behind Madrid, Basque Country, Navarre,
Catalonia and La Rioja.
In addition to its three provinces,
Aragon is subdivided into 33
comarcas or counties. All comarcas of
Aragon have a rich geopolitical
and cultural history from its pre-Roman, Celtic and Roman days, and
four centuries of Islamic period as Marca Superior of
kingdom (or taifa) of Saraqusta, and as lands that once belonged to
the Frankish Marca Hispanica, counties that later formed the Kingdom
Aragon and eventually the empire or Crown of Aragon.
2.2.2 Depression of the Ebro
2.2.3 Sistema Ibérico
2.3 Climate and vegetation
2.5 Protected Spaces
3.2 Ancient history
3.3 Middle Ages
3.4 Early Modern Age
3.5 Late Modern Age
4.3 Territorial division
7 Government and politics
7.1 Current political organization
10 Notable people from Aragon
10.1 Up to the 19th century
10.2 20th and 21st centuries
11 Image gallery
12 See also
14 External links
Coat of arms of Aragon
Coat of arms of Aragon and Himno de Aragón
First testimony of the coat of arms of Aragon. Fabricio Vagad, printed
Zaragoza in 1499 by Pablo Hurus.
The current coat of arms of
Aragon is composed of the four barracks
and is attested for the first time in 1499, consolidating since the
Early Modern Ages to take root decisively in the 19th century and be
approved, according to precept, by the
Real Academia de la Historia
Real Academia de la Historia in
The first quartering appears at the end of the 15th century and
commemorates, according to traditional interpretation, the legendary
kingdom of Sobrarbe; in the second quarter there is the so-called
"Cross of Íñigo Arista", innovation of
Peter IV of Aragon
Peter IV of Aragon (from an
anachronistic interpretation of the cross that symbolized the religion
of the Asturian, Navarrese and Aragonese Christian kings), who took it
as shields of the ancient kings of Aragon, although historically there
were no heraldic emblems in the peninsula (or "signal shields", as it
was said in the Middle Ages) before the union dynastic of 1137 of the
House of Aragon
House of Aragon with the House of Barcelona; in the third quartering
Saint George's Cross
Saint George's Cross escutcheoned of four heads of Moors
(the call "Cross of Alcoraz"), that is witnessed for the first time in
a seal of 1281 of
Peter III of Aragon
Peter III of Aragon and would remember, according to
tradition arising from 14th century, the battle in which Peter I of
Aragon and Pamplona and the future Alfonso I of
was considered in the Early modern Ages one of the proprietary emblems
of the kingdom of Aragon; and in the fourth is the emblem of the
so-called "bars of Aragon" or Royal Sign of Aragon, the oldest of the
heraldic emblems that are part of the current coat of arms, dated in
the second half of 12th century.
This emblem of gules and gold was used in seals, banners, shields and
standards indistinctly, not being but a familiar emblem that later
denoted the authority as King of
Aragon until, with the birth of
Modern State, began to be a territorial symbol.
La Plaza de Aragón square in Zaragoza, on Saint George's Day, with a
Aragon of flowers.
The current flag was approved in 1984, with the provisions of Article
3 of the
Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, the flag is the traditional of
the four horizontal red bars on a yellow background with the coat of
Aragon shifted towards the flagpole.
The bars of Aragon, common historic element of the current four
autonomous communities that once were integrated into the Crown of
Aragon, present in the third quartering of the coat of arms of Spain.
The anthem of
Aragon (himno de Aragón) was regulated in 1989 with
music by the Aragonese composer
Antón García Abril that combines the
old Aragonese musical tradition with popular musical elements within a
modern conception. The lyrics were elaborated by the Aragonese poets
Ildefonso Manuel Gil, Ángel Guinda, Rosendo Tello and Manuel Vilas
and highlights within its poetic framework, values such as freedom,
justice, reason, truth, open land ... that historically represent the
Aragon as a people.
The Day of
Aragon is celebrated on April 23 and commemorates Saint
George, patron of the
Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon since 15th century. It appears
in Article 3 of the
Statute of Autonomy of
Aragon since 1984.
Institutional acts such as the delivery of the
Aragon Awards by the
Aragon or the composition of a flag of
flowers, with the collaboration of citizens, in the Plaza de Aragón
square of Zaragoza.
Hermitage of la Virgen de la Peña in Aniés, La Sotonera, province of
The area of
Aragon is 7010477200000000000♠47720 km2 of which
7010156360000000000♠15636 km2 belong to the province of Huesca,
7010172750000000000♠17275 km2 to the province of
7010148100000000000♠14810 km2 to the province of Teruel. The
total represents a 9.43% of the surface of Spain, being thus the
fourth autonomous community in size behind Castile and León,
Andalusia, and Castile-La Mancha.
It is located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, at a latitude
between 39º and 43º'N in the temperate zone of the Earth. Its
boundaries and borders are in the north with France, the regions of
Midi-Pyrénées and Aquitaine), in the west with the autonomous
Castile-La Mancha (provinces of Guadalajara and
Castile and León
Castile and León (province of Soria), La Rioja and Navarre
and in the east with the autonomous communities of Catalonia
(provinces of Lérida and Tarragona) and Valencian Community
(provinces of Castellón and Valencia).
The orography of the community has as central axis the
(with heights between 150 and 300 meters approx.) which transits
between two foothills, the Pyrenean and the Ibérico, preambles of two
great mountain formations, the
Pyrenees to the north and the Sistema
Ibérico to the south; the Community has the highest peaks of both
mountain ranges, the
Aneto and the Moncayo respectively.
Aneto peak is the highest point of all Pyrenees. It is located in the
Maladeta Natural Park.
Pyrenees is located in the north of the province of
Huesca and is arranged longitudinally in three large units: High
Pyrenees, Intrapirenaic Depression and Outer Ranges.
The Aragonese High
Pyrenees contains the maximum heights of all the
Pyrenees mountainous chain. The High
Pyrenees is formed in turn by the
Pyrenees and the Inland Ranges.
In the axial
Pyrenees are the oldest materials: granites, quartzites,
slates and limestones and the highest peaks like: the Aneto
(7003340400000000000♠3404 m), Maladeta
(7003330900000000000♠3309 m) and the Perdiguero
(7003322100000000000♠3221 m). The inner Pre-Pyrenees, composed
of more modern rocks (limestones) also has large mountains such as
Monte Perdido (7003335500000000000♠3355 m), Collarada
(7003288600000000000♠2886 m) and Tendeñera
La Besurta trail in the
Benasque Pyrenean Valley.
Abbey of San Pedro de Siresa, monastic, political and cultural center
of the ancient County of Aragon, where Alfonso I was educated. It is
located in the Hecho Pyrenean Valley.
The main Pyrenean valleys are formed by the rivers that are born
there, which are:
Ansó Valley: Veral river
Hecho Valley: Aragón Subordán river
Canfranc Valley: Aragón river
Tena Valley: Gállego river
Broto Valley: Ara river
Aínsa Valley: Cinca river
Pineta Valley: Cinca river
Gistau Valley: Cinqueta river
Mallos de Riglos
Mallos de Riglos conglomerate rock formations, in Las Peñas de
The intrapirenaic depression is a broad perpendicular corridor. Its
best represented section is the Canal de Berdún. The southern limit
of the Depression corresponds to the energetic reliefs of San Juan de
la Peña (7003155200000000000♠1552 m) and Oroel Rock
(7003176900000000000♠1769 m), modeled on conglomerates of the
The pre-Pyrenean outer ranges are in the Huescan foothills and
constitute the southernmost unit of the Pyrenees; formed by
predominantly calcareous materials, reach heights between
7003150000000000000♠1500 and 7003200000000000000♠2000 meters. The
Sierra de Guara, one of the most important mountain ranges of the
Spanish Pre-Pyrenees, stands out; its summit, the Guara Peak, reaches
7003207700000000000♠2077 metres. The Mallos de Riglos, near the
town of Ayerbe, stand out for their beauty.
Depression of the Ebro
It extends a wide plain, after passing the foothills, corresponding to
the Depression of the Ebro. To the southwest is the Sierra de
Alcubierre ranges (7002811000000000000♠811 m) one of the
typical limestone plateaus of the Depression.
The depression of the
Ebro is a tectonic pit filled with sedimentary
materials, accumulated in the Tertiary age in horizontal series. In
the center, fine materials such as clays, plasters and limestones were
deposited. To the south of the
Ebro have been the limestone plateaus
of Borja and of Zaragoza.
Moncayo Massif seen from Tarazona. Moncayo, with its height of
7003231430000000000♠2314.3 m, is the maximum summit of the
Sistema Ibérico mountainous chain.
Sistema Ibérico is divided between the provinces of
Zaragoza and Teruel. It is a set of hills without a clear structural
unit, which can be divided into two zones:
Sistema Ibérico del Jalón
Sistema Ibérico turolense. In the first, the Moncayo stands out
with 7003231400000000000♠2314 m, formed by Paleozoic quartzites
and slates, partly covered by Mesozoic limestones; to the southeast of
the Moncayo the
Sistema Ibérico descends of height. The second is
formed by elevated terrain (from 7003100000000000000♠1000 to
7003200000000000000♠2000 m in general), but flattened and
massive. To the southwest of the depression the summits of the Sierra
Albarracín range are reached above
7003180000000000000♠1800 m, southeast the
7003200000000000000♠2000 m are reached in the Sierra de
Javalambre range and finally we arrive at the
Sierra de Gúdar
Sierra de Gúdar range
(7003202400000000000♠2024 m) transition to Maestrazgo.
Climate and vegetation
Formigal Ski Resort
Formigal Ski Resort near
Formigal town, Sallent de Gállego.
Although the climate of
Aragon can be considered, in general, as a
continental Mediterranean climate, its irregular orography creates
several climates or microclimates throughout the entire community.
From the High mountain climate of the central
Pyrenees to the north,
with perpetual ice (glaciers), to the steppe or semi-desert zones,
such as the Monegros, passing through the intense Continental climate
of the Teruel-
The main characteristics of the Aragonese climate are:
The aridity, product of a situation of bucket fitted between the
Pyrenean mountain ranges of the north and the
Sistema Ibérico to the
south, that makes the rains discharge in these high foothills and
creates a central situation of absence of precipitations and contrasts
of temperatures, with very prolonged extreme seasons with very cold
winters and hot summers, and of transition—spring and autumn—short
and variable, all inherent to the continental climate specific to the
Monegros site, of arid climate and extreme temperatures.
The irregularity of the rains due to the component Mediterranean
climate, with alternating dry and wet years.
The air currents that are encased in the middle
Ebro Valley from
northwest to southeast (cierzo), which stands out for its intensity
and frequency, and from southeast to northwest (heat index).
Average temperatures are very dependent on height. In the
the winters are relatively moderate, although the frosts are very
common and the thermal sensation can decrease a lot with the cierzo,
temperatures in summer can reach near the 40 °C. In mountain areas
winters are long and rigorous, average temperatures can be up to 10
°C lower than in the valley.
The two most important winds of
Aragon are the cierzo of the north and
the heat index of levant. The first is a very cold and dry wind that
Ebro Valley from northwest to southeast and that can
present great strength and speed. The second is a warm wind, more
irregular and smooth coming from the south-east.
The vegetation follows the oscillations of relief and climate. There
is a great variety, be it wild vegetation or human crops. In the high
areas you can find forests (pines, firs, beech trees, oaks), bushes
and meadows, while the areas of
Ebro Valley evergreen oak and juniper
are the most numerous trees, apart from the lands exploited for
Ebro river on its way through Zaragoza.
Most Aragonese rivers are tributaries of the Ebro, which is the
Spain and divides the community in two. Of the
tributaries of the left bank of the river, that is to say the rivers
originating in the Pyrenees, the Aragón river stands out, which was
Huesca but ends at the community of Navarre, the Gállego and
the Cinca, which joins the Segre just before emptying into the
the height of Mequinenza. On the right bank, the Jalón,
Guadalope stand out.
In the stream bed of the
Ebro river, near the limit with Catalonia,
Mequinenza Reservoir, of 7003153000000000000♠1530 hm³ and
a length of about 110 km; it is popularly known as the "Sea of
Special mention in the hydrography deserve the small Pyrenean mountain
lakes called ibones. These lakes, of great scenic beauty, have their
origin in the last glaciation and are usually found above
It should be noted that the Autonomous Community belongs to three
hydrographic confederations, the aforementioned Ebro, the Tagus (which
is born in the
Sierra de Albarracín
Sierra de Albarracín range) and the Júcar which has
as its main river in this community the Turia.
Circo glaciar de Soaso, in the Ordesa Valley, of the Ordesa y Monte
Perdido National Park.
In Aragon, protected natural spaces are managed through the Red
Natural de Aragón, an entity created in 2004 to protect all elements
with ecological, landscape and cultural value and at the same time
coordinate and establish common standards that contribute to their
conservation and sustainable use. In this entity are integrated
national parks, natural parks, nature reserves, biosphere reserves and
other protected natural areas that have been declared by the
autonomous community, the
Ramsar Convention or the Natura 2000.
Within the protected areas is the only national park of Aragon: the
Monte Perdido National Park, the second national park created
in Spain, in 1918, it is found in the
Pyrenees in the comarca of
Sobrarbe, occupies an area of 7008156080000000000♠15608 ha,
apart of the 7008196790000000000♠19679 ha of the peripheral
area of protection. At the moment it also enjoys other figures of
Protection like the
Biosphere Reserve of Ordesa-Viñamala and is
cataloged as a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
In addition there are other 4 natural parks: the Moncayo Natural Park
with an extension of 7008111440000000000♠11144 ha, the Sierra y
Cañones de Guara Natural Park with
7008474530000000000♠47453 ha and
7008332860000000000♠33286 ha of peripheral area of protection,
Posets-Maladeta Natural Park
Posets-Maladeta Natural Park with
7008334406000000000♠33440.6 ha and
7007592020000000000♠5920.2 ha of peripheral area of protection,
and the Valles Occidentales Natural Park with
7008270730000000000♠27073 ha and
7007733500000000000♠7335 ha of peripheral area of protection.
There are also three nature reserves, five natural monuments and three
Main page: Category: History of Aragon
Aragon, occupying the northeast of the
Iberian Peninsula has served as
a bridge between the Mediterranean Sea, the peninsular center and the
coasts of the Cantabrian Sea. The human presence in the lands that
today form the autonomous community date back several millennia, but
the current Aragon, like many of the current historical nationalities,
were formed during the Middle Ages.
Paleolithic in Aragon.
The oldest testimonies of human life in the lands that today make up
Aragon go back to the time of the glaciations, in the Pleistocene,
some 7005600000000000000♠600000 years ago. This population left the
Acheulean industry that found its best weapons in the hand axes of
flint or the cleavers of quartzite. In the
Upper Palaeolithic appeared
two new cultures: Solutrean and Magdalenian. The
centered in Lower Aragon, occupying the epoch between the 7th and the
In the first half of the 5th millennium BCE,
Neolithic remains are
found in the Huescan Outer Ranges and in Lower Aragon. The Eneolithic
was characterized in the province of
Huesca presenting two important
megalithic nuclei: the Pre-
Pyrenees of the Outer Ranges and the High
Bronze Age begins in
Aragon around 1100 BCE with the arrival
of the Urnfield culture. They are Indo-European people, with an
alleged origin in Central Europe, who incinerate their dead by placing
the ashes in a funeral urn. There are examples in the Cave del Moro of
Olvena, the Masada del Ratón in Fraga, Palermo and the Cabezo de
Monleón in Caspe.
From the metallurgical point of view there seems to be a boom given
the increase in foundry molds that are located in the populations.
Iron Age is the most important, since throughout the centuries it
is the true substratum of the Aragonese historical population. The
arrival of Central Europeans during the
Bronze Age by
Lower Aragon area, supposed an important ethnic
contribution that prepared the way to the invasions of
See also: Hispania
The remains of the Roman walls of Zaragoza.
Augustus found in Tarazona.
The Mediterranean contributions represented a commercial activity that
will constitute a powerful stimulus for the iron metallurgy, promoting
the modernization of the tools and the indigenous armament, replacing
the old bronze with the iron. There is presence of Phoenician, Greek
and Etruscan products.
In the 6th century BCE there are six groups with different social
organization: products Vascones, Suessetani, Sedetani, Iacetani,
Ilergetes and Citerior Celtiberians. They are Iberized groups with a
tendency towards stability, fixing their habitat in durable
populations, with dwellings that evolve towards more enduring and
stable models. There are many examples in Aragon, among which Cabezo
de Monleón in Caspe, Puntal of Fraga, Roquizal del Rullo or Loma de
los Brunos. The type of social organization was based on the family
group, consisting of four generations. Self-sufficient societies in
which the greater part of the population was dedicated to agricultural
and livestock activities. In the Iberian scope the power was
monarchical, exercised by a king; there was a democratic assembly with
participation of the male population. There were visible social
differentiations and established legal-political statutes.
The Romans arrived and progressed easily into the interior. In the
territorial distribution that
Rome made of Hispania, the current
Aragon was included in the
Hispania Citerior. In the year 197 BCE,
Sempronius Tuditanus is the praetor of the Citerior and had to face a
general uprising in their territories that ended with the Roman defeat
and the own death of Tuditanus. In view of these facts the Senate sent
the consul Marcus Porcius Cato with an army of
7004600000000000000♠60000 men. The indigenous peoples of the area
were rebelling, except for the
Ilergetes who negotiated peace with
Cato. There were different uprisings of the Iberian peoples against
the Romans, in 194 BCE sees a general uprising with elimination of
half of the Roman army, in 188 BCE Manlius Acidinus Fulvianus, praetor
of the Citerior, must confront in Calagurris (Calahorra) with the
Celtiberians, in the 184 BCE Terentius Varro did it with the
Suessetani, to those who took the capital, Corbio. In the 1st century
Aragon was the scene of the civil war to seize the power of Rome
where the governor
Quintus Sertorius made Osca (Huesca) the capital of
all the territories controlled by them.
Denarius silver from Huesca.
Already in the 1st century BCE, the today Aragonese territory became
part of the province Tarraconensis and there was the definitive
romanization of it creating roads and consolidating ancient
Celtiberian and Iberian cities such as
Turiaso (Tarazona), Osca (Huesca) or Bilbilis (Calatayud).
In the middle of the 3rd century the decay of the
Roman Empire began.
Between the years 264 and 266 the
Franks and the Alemanni, two
Germanic peoples who passed through the
Pyrenees and came to Tarazona,
which they sacked. In the agony of the Empire groups of bandits
emerged who were dedicated to pillage. The
Ebro Valley was ravaged in
the 5th century by several gangs of evildoers called Bagaudae.
Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon and Crown of Aragon
The Aljafería, of the 11th century, was residence of the Banu Hud
kings of the
Taifa of Saraqusta.
After the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire, the current area
Aragon was occupied by the Visigoths, forming the Visigothic
In the year 714 the
Arabs arrived in the central area of Aragon,
Islam the ancient Roman cities such as Saraqusta
(Zaragoza) or Wasqa (Huesca). It was at this time that an important
Muladi family was formed, the
Banu Qasi (بنو قاسي), their
domains were located in the
Ebro Valley between the 8th and 10th
centuries. After the disappearance of the
Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba at the
beginning of 11th century, the
Zaragoza arose, one of the
most important Taifas of Al-Andalus, leaving a great artistic,
cultural and philosophical legacy.
The name of
Aragon is documented for the first time during the Early
Middle Ages in the year 828, when the small
County of Aragon
County of Aragon of
Frankish origin, would emerge between the rivers that bear its name,
the Aragón river, and its brother the Aragón Subordán river.
Castle of Loarre
Castle of Loarre was built and expanded to serve as a frontier advance
towards Muslim territories. It is one of the most important intact
Romanesque castles in Europe.
Royal Monastery of San Juan de la Peña. In its Royal Pantheon a good
number of kings of
Aragon and some kings of
Navarre are buried.
County of Aragon
County of Aragon would be linked to the
Kingdom of Pamplona
Kingdom of Pamplona until
1035, and under its wing it would grow to form a dowry of García
Sánchez III of Pamplona to the death of the king Sancho "the Great",
in a period characterized by Muslim hegemony in almost the entire
Iberian Peninsula. Under the reign of
Ramiro I of Aragon
Ramiro I of Aragon would be
extended borders with the annexation of the counties of
Ribagorza (year 1044), after having incorporated populations of the
historical comarca of Cinco Villas.
In 1076, on the death of Sancho IV of Pamplona,
into its territories part of the Navarrese kingdom while Castile does
the same with the western area of the former domains of Sancho "the
Great". Through the reigns of
Sancho Ramírez and Peter I of Aragon
and Pamplona, the kingdom extends its borders to the south,
establishes threatening fortresses on the capital of
Zaragoza in El
Juslibol and takes Huesca, which become the new capital.
This leads to the reign of Alfonso I of
Aragon that would conquer the
flat lands of the middle
Ebro Valley for Aragon: Ejea de los
Valtierra , Calatayud, Tudela and Zaragoza, the capital of
Taifa of Saraqusta. At his death the nobles would choose his
brother Ramiro II of Aragon, who left his religious life to assume the
royal scepter and perpetuate the dynasty, which he achieved with the
dynastic union of the
House of Aragon
House of Aragon with the owner of the County of
Barcelona in 1137, year in which the union of both patrimonies would
give rise to the
Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon and would add the forces that to its
they would make the conquests of the
Kingdom of Majorca
Kingdom of Majorca and the
Kingdom of Valencia
Kingdom of Valencia possible. The
Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon would become the
hegemonic power of the Mediterranean, controlling territories as
important as Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia or Naples.
The monarch was known as King of
Aragon and also held the titles of
King of Valencia,
King of Majorca
King of Majorca (for a time), Count of Barcelona,
Lord of Montpellier, and (temporarily)
Duke of Athens
Duke of Athens and Neopatria.
Each of these titles gave him sovereignty over the specific region,
and the titles changed as territories were lost and won.
According to Aragonese law, the monarch had to swear allegiance to the
Kingdom's laws before being accepted as king. Like other Pyrenean and
Basque realms, the Aragonese justice and decision making system was
based on Pyrenean consuetudinary law, the King was considered primus
inter pares ('first among equals') within the nobility. A nobleman
with the title "Chustizia d'Aragón" acted as ombudsman and was
responsible for ensuring that the King obeyed the Aragonese laws. An
old saying goes, "en Aragón antes de Rey hubo Ley" ("in
came before King"), similar to the saying in Navarre, "antes fueron
Leyes que Reyes", with much the same meaning.
The subsequent legend made the Aragonese monarchy eligible and created
a phrase of coronation of the king that would be perpetuated for
We, who are worth as much as you we make you our King and Lord, as
long as you keep our fueros and liberties, and if not, not.
— The Chustizia d'Aragón
Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon in the middle of 15th century.
This situation would be repeated in the Commitment of
which avoids a war that had dismembered the
Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon when a
good handful of aspirants to the throne emerged after the death of
Martin of Aragon
Martin of Aragon a year after the death of his first-born, Martin I of
Ferdinand I of Aragon
Ferdinand I of Aragon is the chosen one, of the Castilian
House of Trastámara, but also directly connected with the Aragonese
king Peter IV of Aragon, through his mother Eleanor of Aragon.
Aragon is already a large-scale political entity: the Crown, the
Cortes, the Deputation of the Kingdom and the Foral Law constitute its
nature and its character. The marriage of
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon with
Isabella I of Castile, celebrated in 1469 in Valladolid, derived later
in the union of the crowns of
Aragon and Castile, creating the bases
of the Modern State.
Early Modern Age
The Early Modern Age, however, also witnessed the tensions between the
power of the Hispanic Monarchy and those established in the foral
states coming from the evolution of the medieval institutions, which
ended up exploding in the conflict of the Alterations of
Aragonia Regnum, map of the Blaeu based on that of João Baptista
Lavanha, and published around 1640.
After the subsequent cut to the attributions of the Generality of
Aragon in the Courts of
Tarazona of 1592, fundamentally in military
matter to avoid that could be armed against the king of
Spain an army
with the resources and prerogatives of the Deputation of the Kingdom,
the 17th century was a period of decadence of the institutions of the
Kingdom of Aragon, which was compensated with the historiographic work
and legal literature that kept the memory of the Aragonese
peculiarities. Emphasizes in this sense the creation in 1601 of
Archive of the
Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon (largely destroyed during the
Napoleonic French Invasion and the Sieges of
Zaragoza together with
the Palace of the Deputation of the Kingdom), the continuity of the
position of Chronicler of
Aragon -where had stood out authors like
Jerónimo Zurita y Castro- and its patent results in the work of the
Argensola brothers with their Information of the events of
1590 and 1591 (by Lupercio) and Popular alterations of
Zaragoza of the
year 1591 (by Bartolomé, or the Annals by Juan Costa and Jerónimo
Martel , eyewitnesses and also chroniclers of the Kingdom, that were
nevertheless destroyed by royal censorship, all of them written to
counteract the Philip II's version of the facts. On the other hand,
the Deputation of the General of
Aragon also exerted censorship, and
ordered to burn the History of the things that happened in this
Kingdom in six volumes of the Castillian Antonio de Herrera y
Tordesillas because "in said Chronicles it said many things contrary
to the truth" and entrusted to Vicencio Blasco de Lanuza the writing
of a Secular and ecclesiastical histories of Aragon, whose second
volume, which dealt with the serious events recently occurred, was
published in 1619, three years before the first, which gives an idea
of the intention to respond to the vision of Herrera. In the same
line, a Ceremonial and brief relation of all the charges and ordinary
things of the Deputation of the
Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon was commissioned, to
his Lieutenant of Alcaide, Lorenzo Ibáñez de Aoiz. The cartography
of the Kingdom of Aragon, entrusted to the Portuguese João Baptista
Lavanha, was also undertaken in this period. These last two works were
completed in 1611.
During the War of the Spanish Succession,
Aragon (like the rest of the
territories of the Crown: Catalonia, Valencia and Majorca) supported
Archduke Charles (of the House of the Habsburgs) in front of Philip V
(of the Bourbons). After the
Battle of Almansa
Battle of Almansa (1707), Philip V
abolished the Aragonese fueros, adopted several centralist measures
and all the old political dispositions of the kingdom were annulled
(Nueva Planta decrees).
Aragon became the practice in a province.
Late Modern Age
Allegorical emblem of the Political Government of
Aragon of the
Liberal Triennium (1820). The Political Constitution illuminates a
Aragon with a closed royal crown.
The Napoleonic French Invasion, after the intense destruction of the
city of Zaragoza, stopped the economic progress and significantly
delayed the incorporation of the capital to the rhythm of modernity.
With the first provincial organization of 1822 of Spain, Aragon
counted on four provinces, being
Calatayud capital of the fourth
province that included municipalities of the current provinces of
Zaragoza, Teruel, Soria and Guadalajara. Disappeared with the new
abolition of the Constitution by Ferdinand VII "the Felon king". The
provincial division of 1833 organized the Aragonese territory in the
current three provinces.
Assault of the French troops to the
Abbey of Santa Engracia
Abbey of Santa Engracia in the
second of the Sieges of
Zaragoza on February 8 of 1809, painted by
Throughout the 19th century the Carlists, who sought adepts for their
cause in this land, offered the restoration of past foral liberties of
the now old and disappeared kingdom of Aragon. It was also in this
century the passage from a rural society to an industrial and urban
operation, leading a massive exodus from the countryside to the larger
cities of Aragon, Huesca, Zaragoza,
Teruel or Calatayud, and a real
emigration to other nearby regions, such as
Catalonia or Madrid.
During the 20th century, the history of
Aragon has gone hand in hand
with that of the rest of the Spanish territory, to highlight the
"conjunctural" economic impulse in the military dictatorship Miguel
Primo de Rivera (1923-1931) and the progress in civil and individual
liberties during the Second Spanish Republic. Also in June 1936, in
the Spanish Cortes the Proposed Draft
Statute of Autonomy of Aragon
was presented but the imminent
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War prevented the
development of the autonomist project.
Aragon was divided by the two sides opposed in the Spanish Civil War.
On the one hand, the Eastern Area, closer to
Catalonia and controlled
by the Regional Defence Council of Aragon, loyal to the Republic and
on the other the Western Area, where the three provincial capitals
were located, by the rebellious side national-fascist, having a hard,
cruel and savage repression in them and during the contest.
Belchite town was destroyed during the Battle of Belchite. This ruined
town became a symbol of the Spanish Civil War.
Aragon some of the most important battles of the Spanish Civil War
were fought, such as that of Belchite, that of
Teruel or that of Ebro.
Aragon since 1939 was under the Francoist dictatorship along with the
rest of Spain.
During the 1960s an exodus and a depopulation of the rural zones
towards the industrial zones like the provincial capitals, other areas
of Spain, besides other European countries was triggered. In 1964, one
of the so-called Development Poles was created in Zaragoza.
In the 1970s a period of transition as in the rest of the Country was
experienced, after the extinction of the previous regime, with the
recovery of democratic normality and the creation of a new
It began to demand an own political autonomy, for the Aragonese
historical territory; sentiment that was reflected in the historic
manifestation of April 23 of 1978 that brought together more than
7005100000000000000♠100000 aragoneses through the streets of
Zaragoza. Not having plebiscited, in the past, affirmatively a draft
Statute of autonomy (second transitory provision of the constitution)
and not making use of the difficult access to autonomy by Article 151
whose aggravated procedure required, apart from the initiative of the
process autonomic follow the steps of article 143, which was ratified
by three quarters of the municipalities of each of the affected
provinces that represent at least the majority of the electoral
census, and that this initiative was approved by referendum by the
affirmative vote of the majority absolute of the electors of each
Aragon acceded to the self-government by the slow way of
article 143 obtaining lower competence top, and less self-management
of resources, during more than 20 years.
The August 10 of 1982, was approved by the
Cortes Generales the
Aragon's autonomy statute, signed by the then president of the
Government, Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, and sanctioned by His Majesty Juan
Carlos I of Spain.
The May 7 of 1992 a
Special Commission of the Aragonese Corts,
elaborated a reformed text that was approved by the Aragonese Corts
and by the Spanish Cortes. Again, a small statutory reform in the year
1996 extended the competence framework, forcing a definitive
comprehensive review for several years, a new statutory text was
approved in 2007, by majority but without reaching total unanimity.
In the 1990s the Aragonese society increases a significant qualitative
step in the quality of life due to the economic progress of the State
at all levels.
At the beginning of 21st century, a significant increase in
infrastructures was established, such as the arrival of the High Speed
Train (AVE), the construction of the new dual carriageway
Somport-Sagunto and the promotion of the two airports in the
Zaragoza and Huesca-Pirineos. At the same time,
large technological projects are being undertaken, such as the Walqa
Technology Park and the implementation of a telematic network
throughout the community.
General view of the
Expo 2008 from the Torre del Agua.
In 2007 the
Statute of Autonomy of
Aragon was reformed again -which
was approved by a broad consensus in the Aragonese Corts, having the
support of the PSOE, the PP, the PAR and the IU, whereas CHA
abstained- granting the Autonomous Community the recognition of
historical nationality (since the Organic Law of 1996 reform of the
statute, it had the condition of nationality), includes a new
title on the Administration of Chustizia and another on the rights and
duties of the Aragoneses and guiding principles of public policies,
the possibility of creating an own tax agency in collaboration with
that of the State, and also the obligation to public authorities to
ensure to avoid transfers from watersheds such as transfer of the
Ebro, among many other modifications of the Statute of Autonomy.
The designation of
Zaragoza as the venue for the 2008 International
Exhibition, whose thematic axis was
Water and Sustainable development,
represented a series of changes and accelerated growth for the
autonomous community. In addition, two anniversaries were celebrated
that same year, the bicentennial of Sieges of
Zaragoza of the War of
Independence against the Napoleonic invasion, occurred in 1808 and the
centenary of the
Hispano-French Exposition of 1908
Hispano-French Exposition of 1908 that it supposed as
a modern event, to demonstrate the cultural and economic thrust of
Aragon and at the same time serve to strengthen ties and staunch
wounds with the French neighbors after the events of the Napoleonic
Wars of the previous century.
As of 2015[update], half of Aragon's population, 50.45%, live in the
capital city of Zaragoza.
Huesca is the only other city in the region
with a population greater than 7004500000000000000♠50000.
The majority of Aragonese citizens, 71.8%, live in the province of
Zaragoza. 17.1% live in the province of Huesca, and 11.1% in the
province of Teruel. The population density of the region is the
second lowest in
Spain after Castilla-La Mancha: only 26.8/km². The
most densely populated areas are around the valley of the river Ebro,
particularly around Zaragoza, and in the Pyrenean foothills, while the
areas with the fewest inhabitants tend to be those that are higher up
in the Pyrenean mountains, and in most of the southern province of
Only four cities have a population of more than
Huesca 7004500000000000000♠50000, Teruel
7004350000000000000♠35000, and Calatayud
Distribution of local languages in Aragon. Red: Aragonese, Purple:
Catalan, Yellow: Spanish. Spanish is spoken in all of Aragon, and is
the only official language
Spanish is the native language in most of Aragon, and it is the only
official language, understood and spoken by virtually everyone in the
region. In addition to it, the
Aragonese language continues to be
spoken in several local varieties in the mountainous northern counties
of the Pyrenees, particularly in western Ribagorza, Sobrarbe,
Jacetania and Somontano; it is enjoying a resurgence of popularity as
a tool for regional identity. In the easternmost areas of Aragon,
along the border with Catalonia, varieties of the
Catalan language are
spoken, including the comarcas of eastern Ribagorza, La Litera, Bajo
Cinca, Bajo Aragón-Caspe,
Bajo Aragón and Matarraña. The
strip-shaped Catalan-speaking area in
Aragon is often called La
Aragon is divided into three provinces from north to south, named
after their capitals: Huesca,
Zaragoza and Teruel. The provinces are
further divided into 33 comarcas, three of which are in more than one
province. There are a total of 732 municipalities in the region.
See also: Music of Aragon
Jota musicians and dancers.
Some medieval monuments of
Zaragoza are protected by UNESCO
as part of the World Heritage Sites Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon.
The traditional dance of
Aragon is known as jota and is one of the
faster Spanish dances. It is also the most widespread in
the exact style and music depend on the area.
There are other less popular dances named "paloteaos" similar to the
sword/stick dances of other regions.
The music to one local dance, "The Dance of Majordomos" of Benasque,
was so enjoyed by
Rafael del Riego
Rafael del Riego on a visit to the town that he
ordered it to be copied resulting in the "Hymn of Riego" .
Typical Aragonese instruments include the stringed drum or
"Chicotén", bagpipes such as the "gaita de boto", oboes such as the
"Dulzaina", and small flutes like the "Chiflo". Some instruments have
been lost, such as the "trompa de Ribagorza", although there have been
efforts to reconstruct them. In contrast to other Pyrenean regions,
the "Chicotén" and "Chiflo" never have stopped being played.
The Carnival of Bielsa (Huesca) has ancient origins and includes a
group of men carrying long sticks, wearing skirts, cowbells and
boucard/goat-like horns and skins with black-painted faces called
"Trangas" symbolising "virility" who surround another man wearing
skins playing the part of a bear called "l'onso". In Aragonese
mythology the bear carried souls between the world of the living and
the world of the dead. Trangas dance with young females named
"madamas" symbolising "purity" and wearing colourful dresses. Other
traditional figures include a horse rider named "Caballé".
Main article: Aragonese cuisine
Trenza de Almudevar.
With its lush Pyrenean pastures, lamb, beef, and dairy products are,
not surprisingly, predominant in Aragonese cuisine. Also of note is
its ham from Teruel; olive oil from
Empeltre and Arbequina; longaniza
from Graus; rainbow trout and salmon, boar, truffles and wild
mushrooms from the upper river valleys of the Jacetania, Gallego,
Ribagorza regions; and wines from Cariñena, Somontano,
Calatayud, and Campo de Borja; and fruit, especially peaches, from its
fertile lower valleys. The region also features a unique local haggis,
known as chireta, several interesting seafood dishes, including
various crab pastes, which developed from an old superstition that
crabs help prevent illness, and sweets such as "Adoquines del Pilar"
and "Frutas de Aragón". There are also other sweets like "Tortas de
Teruel and "Trenza de Almudevar" or "Castañas de Huesca"
Aragon is among the richest autonomous regions in Spain, with GDP per
capita above the nation's average. The traditional agriculture-based
economy from the mid-20th century has been greatly transformed in the
past several decades and now service and industrial sectors are the
backbone of the economy in the region.
The well-developed irrigation system around the
Ebro has greatly
supported the productive agriculture. The most important crops include
wheat, barley, rye, fruit and grapes. Livestock-breeding is essential
especially in the northern areas, where the lush meadows provide
excellent conditions for sheep and cattle. The main livestock are
cattle, 7005334600000000000♠334600; sheep,
7006286210000000000♠2862100; pigs, 7006367000000000000♠3670000;
goats, 7004780000000000000♠78000; and poultry,
The chief industrial centre is the capital Zaragoza, where the largest
factories are located. The largest plant is the
Opel automotive plant
with 7003873000000000000♠8730 employees and production of
7005200000000000000♠200000 per year. It supports many related
industries in the area. Other large plants in the city include
factories for trains and household appliances. Mining of iron ore and
coal is developed to the south, near Ojos Negros. Electricity
production is concentrated to the north where numerous hydro power
plants are located along the Pyrenean rivers and in the
Teruel Power Plant. There is an
aluminium refinery in the town of Sabiñánigo. The main centres of
electronics industry are Zaragoza,
Huesca and Benabarre. Chemical
industry is developed in Zaragoza, Sabiñánigo, Monzón, Teruel, Ojos
Benabarre and others.
The transport infrastructure has been greatly improved. There are more
than[data missing] of motorways which run from
Zaragoza to Madrid,
Teruel, Basque country,
Huesca and Barcelona. The condition of the
other roads is also good. As of 2016[update] there are
7005899008000000000♠899008 cars in Aragon. Through the territory
of the province runs the new high-speed railway between
Barcelona with siding from
Zaragoza to Huesca, which is going to be
continued to the French border. There is an International Airport at
Zaragoza, as well as several smaller airports at Huesca, Caudé, Santa
Jaca and Villanueva de Gállego.
Government and politics
Current political organization
As an autonomous community of Spain,
Aragon has an elected regional
parliament (Spanish: Cortes de Aragón, Aragonese: Cortz d'Aragón,
Catalan: Corts d'Aragó) with 67 seats. It meets in the Aljafería, a
Moorish palace in the capital city, Zaragoza. The Parliament chooses a
President for the Diputación General de Aragón or
for a four-year term. The current president (since July 2015) is
Javier Lambán of the PSOE. Nationally,
Aragon elects 13 Deputies and
14 Senators to the Cortes Generales.
In addition to the Spanish-based political parties, there are a number
of Aragón-based parties, such as the Chunta Aragonesista, a left-wing
Aragonese nationalist party, and the Aragonese Party, more
Chunta Aragonesista had a seat in Spain's national
Congress of Deputies
Congress of Deputies from 2000 to 2008, while the centrist Aragonese
Party has three national senators, who are in coalition with the
ruling People's Party.
In a 2011 regional government survey, 47.6% of the population wanted
greater autonomy for Aragon, while 35.2% were satisfied with its
current level of autonomy. A total of 6% wanted an end to autonomy and
3.2% wanted full independence.
List of Aragonese monarchs,
List of Aragonese consorts,
and List of viceroys of Aragon
Aragon in the
Middle Ages was the hub of the wider Crown of Aragon.
The Crown was represented in the region from 1517 by a viceroy.
In 1479, King
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon married Isabella I of Castile, a
kingdom covering much of the rest of modern Spain. However, until the
Nueva Planta decrees
Nueva Planta decrees of 1707,
Aragon maintained its own separate laws
Aragon has media set-ups in television, radio and numerous newspapers.
On 21 April 2006, regional television broadcasts in
began with the launch of Aragón TV. The law which established the
Aragon Corporation Radio and Television) dated from 1987, but
various political disputes delayed the project for several
During the years that
Aragon had no public television, several media
groups sought to supplement their absence. For one TVE-Aragon, taking
the Territorial Centre in Zaragoza, produced several programs and
educational activities with the Aragonese town. As for private groups,
there were several projects. The most widely accepted for many years
had been Antena Aragón, which came to be regarded as regional
television. This channel was created in 1998 and disappeared in 2005
shortly after having to leave the Media Production Centre (CPA), as
this was built by the DGA for future public television host Aragon.
With the push for the creation of public television, Antena Aragón
merged with RTVA (Radio Television Aragonesa) belonging to the Herald
Group. Merging RTVA Antena Aragón and led to channel ZTV (Zaragoza
Television). Moreover, Antena 3 Televisión aired for several years,
and off to Aragon, a news report fully Aragonese, having a central
issue in the Pinares de Venecia in Zaragoza, within the premises of
the Theme Park of Zaragoza.
Aragón TV was launched in 2006 after spending a season broadcasting a
letter and a loop with images of Aragonese villages and audio of
regional radio programs.
Aragon Radio, began broadcasting on 18 August 2005 at 5PM with the
sound of drums and drums of Calanda and a group song
Fish". Estimates of its audience range from 20 000 listeners,
according to the latest EMG, to 7004700000000000000♠70000, according
to private findings. The channel has regional news bulletins every
hour from 7AM to midnight and coverage of sports.
La Romareda, home ground of Real Zaragoza.
Aragon's most successful football club is Real Zaragoza. The club was
founded in 1932 and has played at its current ground, La Romareda,
since 1957. Real
Zaragoza have won six
Copa del Rey
Copa del Rey titles from 1964
to 2004, and the 1995 European Cup Winners' Cup. Smaller clubs in
the region include CD
Teruel and SD Huesca.
Skiing is popular in the Pyrenean north of Aragon, at resorts such as
Formigal and Candanchú. The Aragonese city of
Jaca in the
Pyrennes bid to host the
Winter Olympics from 2002 to 2014.
Zaragoza was considering a bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics,
but dropped it in 2011 to strengthen the chance of
The Ciudad del Motor de Aragón, also known as Motorland Aragón, is a
motorsport race track located near
Alcañiz in Aragon. It is home to
Aragon motorcycle Grand Prix.
Notable people from Aragon
Up to the 19th century
King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
Saint Elizabeth of
Portugal (1271–1336) was queen consort of
Portugal and a saint of the Roman Catholic Church.
Antipope Benedict XIII
Antipope Benedict XIII (1328–1423) known as Papa Luna was an Avignon
pope and art patron-sponsor.
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon (1452–1516) married queen Isabella I of
Castile and united the
Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile,
giving form to the actual Spain.
Michael Servetus (1509/11–1552) was a theologian and physician who
received numerous charges of heresy by both Catholics and Protestants
and was burnt at the stake in Calvin's
Geneva during the 16th century.
Joseph Calasanz (1557–1648) was a Catholic priest who dedicated
himself to the education of poor boys at
Rome and founded a society
pledged to that work.
Baltasar Gracián (1601–1658) writer of Spanish Baroque literature.
Gaspar Sanz (1640–1710), composer, guitarist and organist.
Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre (1702–1780) was a military engineer who
discovered the ruins of Pompeii.
Francisco Garcés (1738–1781) was a missionary priest to North
America who founded two pueblo missions.
Francisco de Goya
Francisco de Goya (1746–1828) 18th-century painter.
20th and 21st centuries
Eva Amaral, Singer-songwriter and member of the Rock band Amaral.
Enrique Bunbury (Enrique Ortiz de Landázuri), is a Spanish rock
singer-songwriter for Heroes del Silencio and
Enrique Bunbury Band.
Luis Buñuel, film maker.
St. Josemaría Escrivá, Spanish Catholic priest, founder of Opus Dei.
Pablo Gargallo, sculptor and painter.
José Antonio Labordeta, singer, writer and politician.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal,
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his
research on the human brain and nervous system.
Carlos Saura, film maker.
Pablo Serrano, sculptor.
Alberto Zapater, footballer.
Teruel Cathedral in Teruel
Collegiate Church of Santa María la Mayor in Alquézar
Gothic murals of the Crypt of Santa María del Perdón of the Church
of San Esteban in Sos del Rey Católico
Puerta Baja gate in Daroca
Church of Santa María in Uncastillo
Jaca in Jaca
Crown of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
Current art's artifacts dispute between
Aragon and Catalonia, see:
Monastery of Santa María de Sigena
List of Aragonese people
List of mountains in Aragon
Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon
Music of Aragon
Fiestas del Pilar
La Vaquilla del Ángel
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Zaragoza and Fernando el Católico Institution, pp. 15-26. 2004.
^ Natural 2000 of
Aragon Government of Aragón.
^ Ordesa y
Monte Perdido National Park Government of Aragon.
^ Spaces integrated into the Natural 2000 of
Aragon Government of
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^ State Agency Official State Gazette (December 31, 1996). "Organic
Law 5/1996, of December 30, of Reform of the Organic Law 8/1982, of
August 10, of the
Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, modified by the
Organic Law 6/1994, of March 24, of reform of said Statute". Documento
BOE-A-1996-29115. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
^ "Cifras completas". Archived from the original on 2007-02-03.
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^ Grupos Parlamentarios Senado de España
^ Barómetro de Opinión de Invierno 2011 - Aragón_hoy
Spain - List of Cup Finals Archived January 2, 2010, at the Wayback
^ Season start Aragón – Ski season opening Aragón – Season begin
Jaca to bid for 2014 Winter Games
^ Juegos Olímpicos
Zaragoza Pirineos 2022 « Candidatura a los
JJOO de Invierno de 2022 (No Oficial) Archived June 15, 2013, at the
^ Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza.
Zaragoza Turismo. Candidatura Olimpica 2022
Archived January 12, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
Barcelona is now Spain's sole candidate for the 2022 Winter Olympics
News Homepage The website of the
Barcelona city Archived January
11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Chicago:
Marquis Who's Who. 1963.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Aragon.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aragon.
(in Spanish) Government of Aragon
Senderos de Aragón
Aragon government tourism site
"Aragon". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). 1911.
Guide to the
Maps of Aragon
Autonomous communities of Spain
Castile and León
Community of Madrid
Plazas de soberanía
Vélez de la Gomera
Provinces of Aragon
Comarcas of Aragon
Hoya de Huesca
Somontano de Barbastro
Tarazona y el Moncayo
Campo de Borja
Ribera Alta del Ebro
Ribera Baja del Ebro
Comunidad de Calatayud
Campo de Cariñena
Campo de Belchite
Campo de Daroca
Andorra-Sierra de Arcos
Comunidad de Teruel
Sierra de Albarracín