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Aragon
Aragon
(/ˈærəɡɒn/ or /ˈærəɡən/, Spanish and Aragonese: Aragón [aɾaˈɣon], Catalan: Aragó [əɾəˈɣo] or [aɾaˈɣo]) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces (from north to south): Huesca, Zaragoza, and Teruel. Its capital is Zaragoza
Zaragoza
(also called Saragossa in English). The current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a historic nationality of Spain. Covering an area of 47720 km2 (18420 sq mi)[2], the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands. Aragon
Aragon
is home to many rivers—most notably, the river Ebro, Spain's largest river in volume, which runs west-east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza. It is also home to the highest mountains of the Pyrenees. As of January 2016[update], the population of Aragon
Aragon
was 7006130856300000000♠1308563[2], with over half of it living in its capital city, Zaragoza. During the same year, the economy of Aragon generates a GDP of 7004346870000000000♠€34687 million, which represents 3.1% of Spain's national GDP[3], and is currently 6th in per capita production behind Madrid, Basque Country, Navarre, Catalonia
Catalonia
and La Rioja.[4] In addition to its three provinces, Aragon
Aragon
is subdivided into 33 comarcas or counties. All comarcas of Aragon
Aragon
have a rich geopolitical and cultural history from its pre-Roman, Celtic and Roman days, and four centuries of Islamic period as Marca Superior of Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
or kingdom (or taifa) of Saraqusta, and as lands that once belonged to the Frankish Marca Hispanica, counties that later formed the Kingdom of Aragon
Aragon
and eventually the empire or Crown of Aragon.

Contents

1 Symbols 2 Geography

2.1 Location 2.2 Relief

2.2.1 Pyrenees 2.2.2 Depression of the Ebro 2.2.3 Sistema Ibérico

2.3 Climate and vegetation 2.4 Hydrography 2.5 Protected Spaces

3 History

3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Ancient history 3.3 Middle Ages 3.4 Early Modern Age 3.5 Late Modern Age

4 Demographics

4.1 Population 4.2 Languages 4.3 Territorial division

5 Culture

5.1 Cuisine

6 Economy 7 Government and politics

7.1 Current political organization 7.2 Historic

8 Media

8.1 Television 8.2 Radio

9 Sport 10 Notable people from Aragon

10.1 Up to the 19th century 10.2 20th and 21st centuries

11 Image gallery 12 See also 13 Footnotes 14 External links

Symbols[edit] Main articles: Coat of arms of Aragon
Coat of arms of Aragon
and Himno de Aragón

First testimony of the coat of arms of Aragon. Fabricio Vagad, printed in Zaragoza
Zaragoza
in 1499 by Pablo Hurus.

The current coat of arms of Aragon
Aragon
is composed of the four barracks and is attested for the first time in 1499, consolidating since the Early Modern Ages to take root decisively in the 19th century and be approved, according to precept, by the Real Academia de la Historia
Real Academia de la Historia
in 1921. The first quartering appears at the end of the 15th century and commemorates, according to traditional interpretation, the legendary kingdom of Sobrarbe; in the second quarter there is the so-called "Cross of Íñigo Arista", innovation of Peter IV of Aragon
Peter IV of Aragon
(from an anachronistic interpretation of the cross that symbolized the religion of the Asturian, Navarrese and Aragonese Christian kings), who took it as shields of the ancient kings of Aragon, although historically there were no heraldic emblems in the peninsula (or "signal shields", as it was said in the Middle Ages) before the union dynastic of 1137 of the House of Aragon
House of Aragon
with the House of Barcelona; in the third quartering appears the Saint George's Cross
Saint George's Cross
escutcheoned of four heads of Moors (the call "Cross of Alcoraz"), that is witnessed for the first time in a seal of 1281 of Peter III of Aragon
Peter III of Aragon
and would remember, according to tradition arising from 14th century, the battle in which Peter I of Aragon
Aragon
and Pamplona and the future Alfonso I of Aragon
Aragon
took Huesca
Huesca
and was considered in the Early modern Ages one of the proprietary emblems of the kingdom of Aragon; and in the fourth is the emblem of the so-called "bars of Aragon" or Royal Sign of Aragon, the oldest of the heraldic emblems that are part of the current coat of arms, dated in the second half of 12th century. This emblem of gules and gold was used in seals, banners, shields and standards indistinctly, not being but a familiar emblem that later denoted the authority as King of Aragon
Aragon
until, with the birth of Modern State, began to be a territorial symbol.

La Plaza de Aragón square in Zaragoza, on Saint George's Day, with a flag of Aragon
Aragon
of flowers.

The current flag was approved in 1984, with the provisions of Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, the flag is the traditional of the four horizontal red bars on a yellow background with the coat of arms of Aragon
Aragon
shifted towards the flagpole. The bars of Aragon, common historic element of the current four autonomous communities that once were integrated into the Crown of Aragon, present in the third quartering of the coat of arms of Spain. The anthem of Aragon
Aragon
(himno de Aragón) was regulated in 1989 with music by the Aragonese composer Antón García Abril that combines the old Aragonese musical tradition with popular musical elements within a modern conception. The lyrics were elaborated by the Aragonese poets Ildefonso Manuel Gil, Ángel Guinda, Rosendo Tello and Manuel Vilas and highlights within its poetic framework, values such as freedom, justice, reason, truth, open land ... that historically represent the expression of Aragon
Aragon
as a people. The Day of Aragon
Aragon
is celebrated on April 23 and commemorates Saint George, patron of the Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
since 15th century. It appears in Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon
Aragon
since 1984. Institutional acts such as the delivery of the Aragon
Aragon
Awards by the Government of Aragon
Aragon
or the composition of a flag of Aragon
Aragon
of flowers, with the collaboration of citizens, in the Plaza de Aragón square of Zaragoza. Geography[edit] Location[edit]

Hermitage of la Virgen de la Peña in Aniés, La Sotonera, province of Huesca.

The area of Aragon
Aragon
is 7010477200000000000♠47720 km2 of which 7010156360000000000♠15636 km2 belong to the province of Huesca, 7010172750000000000♠17275 km2 to the province of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
and 7010148100000000000♠14810 km2 to the province of Teruel[2]. The total represents a 9.43% of the surface of Spain, being thus the fourth autonomous community in size behind Castile and León, Andalusia, and Castile-La Mancha. It is located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, at a latitude between 39º and 43º'N in the temperate zone of the Earth. Its boundaries and borders are in the north with France, the regions of ( Midi-Pyrénées
Midi-Pyrénées
and Aquitaine), in the west with the autonomous communities of Castile-La Mancha
Castile-La Mancha
(provinces of Guadalajara and Cuenca), Castile and León
Castile and León
(province of Soria), La Rioja and Navarre and in the east with the autonomous communities of Catalonia (provinces of Lérida and Tarragona) and Valencian Community (provinces of Castellón and Valencia). Relief[edit] The orography of the community has as central axis the Ebro
Ebro
valley (with heights between 150 and 300 meters approx.) which transits between two foothills, the Pyrenean and the Ibérico, preambles of two great mountain formations, the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
to the north and the Sistema Ibérico to the south; the Community has the highest peaks of both mountain ranges, the Aneto
Aneto
and the Moncayo respectively. Pyrenees[edit]

Aneto
Aneto
peak is the highest point of all Pyrenees. It is located in the Posets- Maladeta
Maladeta
Natural Park.

The Aragonese Pyrenees
Pyrenees
is located in the north of the province of Huesca
Huesca
and is arranged longitudinally in three large units: High Pyrenees, Intrapirenaic Depression and Outer Ranges. The Aragonese High Pyrenees
Pyrenees
contains the maximum heights of all the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
mountainous chain. The High Pyrenees
Pyrenees
is formed in turn by the axial Pyrenees
Pyrenees
and the Inland Ranges. In the axial Pyrenees
Pyrenees
are the oldest materials: granites, quartzites, slates and limestones and the highest peaks like: the Aneto (7003340400000000000♠3404 m), Maladeta (7003330900000000000♠3309 m) and the Perdiguero (7003322100000000000♠3221 m). The inner Pre-Pyrenees, composed of more modern rocks (limestones) also has large mountains such as Monte Perdido
Monte Perdido
(7003335500000000000♠3355 m), Collarada (7003288600000000000♠2886 m) and Tendeñera (7003285300000000000♠2853 m).

La Besurta trail in the Benasque
Benasque
Pyrenean Valley.

Abbey of San Pedro de Siresa, monastic, political and cultural center of the ancient County of Aragon, where Alfonso I was educated. It is located in the Hecho Pyrenean Valley.

The main Pyrenean valleys are formed by the rivers that are born there, which are:

Ansó
Ansó
Valley: Veral river Hecho Valley: Aragón Subordán river Canfranc Valley: Aragón river Tena Valley: Gállego river Broto Valley: Ara river Aínsa
Aínsa
Valley: Cinca river

Pineta Valley: Cinca river Gistau Valley: Cinqueta river

Benasque
Benasque
Valley: Ésera
Ésera
river

Mallos de Riglos
Mallos de Riglos
conglomerate rock formations, in Las Peñas de Riglos.

The intrapirenaic depression is a broad perpendicular corridor. Its best represented section is the Canal de Berdún. The southern limit of the Depression corresponds to the energetic reliefs of San Juan de la Peña (7003155200000000000♠1552 m) and Oroel Rock (7003176900000000000♠1769 m), modeled on conglomerates of the Campodarbe Formation. The pre-Pyrenean outer ranges are in the Huescan foothills and constitute the southernmost unit of the Pyrenees; formed by predominantly calcareous materials, reach heights between 7003150000000000000♠1500 and 7003200000000000000♠2000 meters. The Sierra de Guara, one of the most important mountain ranges of the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees, stands out; its summit, the Guara Peak, reaches 7003207700000000000♠2077 metres[5]. The Mallos de Riglos, near the town of Ayerbe, stand out for their beauty. Depression of the Ebro[edit] It extends a wide plain, after passing the foothills, corresponding to the Depression of the Ebro. To the southwest is the Sierra de Alcubierre ranges (7002811000000000000♠811 m) one of the typical limestone plateaus of the Depression. The depression of the Ebro
Ebro
is a tectonic pit filled with sedimentary materials, accumulated in the Tertiary age in horizontal series. In the center, fine materials such as clays, plasters and limestones were deposited. To the south of the Ebro
Ebro
have been the limestone plateaus of Borja and of Zaragoza. Sistema Ibérico[edit]

Moncayo Massif
Moncayo Massif
seen from Tarazona. Moncayo, with its height of 7003231430000000000♠2314.3 m, is the maximum summit of the Sistema Ibérico
Sistema Ibérico
mountainous chain.

The Aragonese Sistema Ibérico
Sistema Ibérico
is divided between the provinces of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
and Teruel. It is a set of hills without a clear structural unit, which can be divided into two zones: Sistema Ibérico
Sistema Ibérico
del Jalón and Sistema Ibérico
Sistema Ibérico
turolense. In the first, the Moncayo stands out with 7003231400000000000♠2314 m, formed by Paleozoic quartzites and slates, partly covered by Mesozoic limestones; to the southeast of the Moncayo the Sistema Ibérico
Sistema Ibérico
descends of height. The second is formed by elevated terrain (from 7003100000000000000♠1000 to 7003200000000000000♠2000 m in general), but flattened and massive. To the southwest of the depression the summits of the Sierra de Albarracín
Albarracín
range are reached above 7003180000000000000♠1800 m, southeast the 7003200000000000000♠2000 m are reached in the Sierra de Javalambre range and finally we arrive at the Sierra de Gúdar
Sierra de Gúdar
range (7003202400000000000♠2024 m) transition to Maestrazgo. Climate and vegetation[edit]

Formigal Ski Resort
Formigal Ski Resort
near Formigal
Formigal
town, Sallent de Gállego.

Although the climate of Aragon
Aragon
can be considered, in general, as a continental Mediterranean climate, its irregular orography creates several climates or microclimates throughout the entire community. From the High mountain climate of the central Pyrenees
Pyrenees
to the north, with perpetual ice (glaciers), to the steppe or semi-desert zones, such as the Monegros, passing through the intense Continental climate of the Teruel- Daroca
Daroca
area. The main characteristics of the Aragonese climate are:[6]

The aridity, product of a situation of bucket fitted between the Pyrenean mountain ranges of the north and the Sistema Ibérico
Sistema Ibérico
to the south, that makes the rains discharge in these high foothills and creates a central situation of absence of precipitations and contrasts of temperatures, with very prolonged extreme seasons with very cold winters and hot summers, and of transition—spring and autumn—short and variable, all inherent to the continental climate specific to the Iberian Peninsula.

Monegros
Monegros
site, of arid climate and extreme temperatures.

The irregularity of the rains due to the component Mediterranean climate, with alternating dry and wet years. The air currents that are encased in the middle Ebro
Ebro
Valley from northwest to southeast (cierzo), which stands out for its intensity and frequency, and from southeast to northwest (heat index).

Average temperatures are very dependent on height. In the Ebro
Ebro
Valley the winters are relatively moderate, although the frosts are very common and the thermal sensation can decrease a lot with the cierzo, temperatures in summer can reach near the 40 °C. In mountain areas winters are long and rigorous, average temperatures can be up to 10 °C lower than in the valley. The two most important winds of Aragon
Aragon
are the cierzo of the north and the heat index of levant. The first is a very cold and dry wind that crosses the Ebro
Ebro
Valley from northwest to southeast and that can present great strength and speed. The second is a warm wind, more irregular and smooth coming from the south-east. The vegetation follows the oscillations of relief and climate. There is a great variety, be it wild vegetation or human crops. In the high areas you can find forests (pines, firs, beech trees, oaks), bushes and meadows, while the areas of Ebro
Ebro
Valley evergreen oak and juniper are the most numerous trees, apart from the lands exploited for agricultural use. Hydrography[edit]

The Ebro
Ebro
river on its way through Zaragoza.

Most Aragonese rivers are tributaries of the Ebro, which is the strongest in Spain
Spain
and divides the community in two. Of the tributaries of the left bank of the river, that is to say the rivers originating in the Pyrenees, the Aragón river stands out, which was born in Huesca
Huesca
but ends at the community of Navarre, the Gállego and the Cinca, which joins the Segre just before emptying into the Ebro
Ebro
at the height of Mequinenza. On the right bank, the Jalón, Huerva
Huerva
and Guadalope
Guadalope
stand out. In the stream bed of the Ebro
Ebro
river, near the limit with Catalonia, the Mequinenza
Mequinenza
Reservoir, of 7003153000000000000♠1530 hm³ and a length of about 110 km; it is popularly known as the "Sea of Aragon". Special
Special
mention in the hydrography deserve the small Pyrenean mountain lakes called ibones. These lakes, of great scenic beauty, have their origin in the last glaciation and are usually found above 7003200000000000000♠2000 m. It should be noted that the Autonomous Community belongs to three hydrographic confederations, the aforementioned Ebro, the Tagus (which is born in the Sierra de Albarracín
Sierra de Albarracín
range) and the Júcar which has as its main river in this community the Turia. Protected Spaces[edit]

Circo glaciar de Soaso, in the Ordesa Valley, of the Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park.

In Aragon, protected natural spaces are managed through the Red Natural de Aragón, an entity created in 2004 to protect all elements with ecological, landscape and cultural value and at the same time coordinate and establish common standards that contribute to their conservation and sustainable use. In this entity are integrated national parks, natural parks, nature reserves, biosphere reserves and other protected natural areas that have been declared by the autonomous community, the Ramsar Convention
Ramsar Convention
or the Natura 2000.[7] Within the protected areas is the only national park of Aragon: the Ordesa y Monte Perdido
Monte Perdido
National Park, the second national park created in Spain, in 1918, it is found in the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
in the comarca of Sobrarbe, occupies an area of 7008156080000000000♠15608 ha, apart of the 7008196790000000000♠19679 ha of the peripheral area of protection. At the moment it also enjoys other figures of Protection like the Biosphere Reserve
Biosphere Reserve
of Ordesa-Viñamala and is cataloged as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO.[8] In addition there are other 4 natural parks: the Moncayo Natural Park with an extension of 7008111440000000000♠11144 ha, the Sierra y Cañones de Guara Natural Park with 7008474530000000000♠47453 ha and 7008332860000000000♠33286 ha of peripheral area of protection, the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park
Posets-Maladeta Natural Park
with 7008334406000000000♠33440.6 ha and 7007592020000000000♠5920.2 ha of peripheral area of protection, and the Valles Occidentales Natural Park with 7008270730000000000♠27073 ha and 7007733500000000000♠7335 ha of peripheral area of protection. There are also three nature reserves, five natural monuments and three protected landscapes.[9] History[edit] Main page: Category: History of Aragon Aragon, occupying the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
has served as a bridge between the Mediterranean Sea, the peninsular center and the coasts of the Cantabrian Sea. The human presence in the lands that today form the autonomous community date back several millennia, but the current Aragon, like many of the current historical nationalities, were formed during the Middle Ages. Prehistory[edit]

Paleolithic
Paleolithic
in Aragon.

The oldest testimonies of human life in the lands that today make up Aragon
Aragon
go back to the time of the glaciations, in the Pleistocene, some 7005600000000000000♠600000 years ago. This population left the Acheulean industry that found its best weapons in the hand axes of flint or the cleavers of quartzite. In the Upper Palaeolithic
Upper Palaeolithic
appeared two new cultures: Solutrean and Magdalenian. The Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
was centered in Lower Aragon, occupying the epoch between the 7th and the 5th millennium. In the first half of the 5th millennium BCE, Neolithic
Neolithic
remains are found in the Huescan Outer Ranges and in Lower Aragon. The Eneolithic was characterized in the province of Huesca
Huesca
presenting two important megalithic nuclei: the Pre- Pyrenees
Pyrenees
of the Outer Ranges and the High Pyrenean valleys. The Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
begins in Aragon
Aragon
around 1100 BCE with the arrival of the Urnfield culture. They are Indo-European people, with an alleged origin in Central Europe, who incinerate their dead by placing the ashes in a funeral urn. There are examples in the Cave del Moro of Olvena, the Masada del Ratón in Fraga, Palermo and the Cabezo de Monleón in Caspe. From the metallurgical point of view there seems to be a boom given the increase in foundry molds that are located in the populations. The Iron Age
Iron Age
is the most important, since throughout the centuries it is the true substratum of the Aragonese historical population. The arrival of Central Europeans during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
by Pyrenees
Pyrenees
until reaching the Lower Aragon
Lower Aragon
area, supposed an important ethnic contribution that prepared the way to the invasions of Iron
Iron
Age. Ancient history[edit] See also: Hispania

The remains of the Roman walls of Zaragoza.

Bust of Augustus
Augustus
found in Tarazona.

The Mediterranean contributions represented a commercial activity that will constitute a powerful stimulus for the iron metallurgy, promoting the modernization of the tools and the indigenous armament, replacing the old bronze with the iron. There is presence of Phoenician, Greek and Etruscan products. In the 6th century BCE there are six groups with different social organization: products Vascones, Suessetani, Sedetani, Iacetani, Ilergetes and Citerior Celtiberians. They are Iberized groups with a tendency towards stability, fixing their habitat in durable populations, with dwellings that evolve towards more enduring and stable models. There are many examples in Aragon, among which Cabezo de Monleón in Caspe, Puntal of Fraga, Roquizal del Rullo or Loma de los Brunos. The type of social organization was based on the family group, consisting of four generations. Self-sufficient societies in which the greater part of the population was dedicated to agricultural and livestock activities. In the Iberian scope the power was monarchical, exercised by a king; there was a democratic assembly with participation of the male population. There were visible social differentiations and established legal-political statutes. The Romans arrived and progressed easily into the interior. In the territorial distribution that Rome
Rome
made of Hispania, the current Aragon
Aragon
was included in the Hispania
Hispania
Citerior. In the year 197 BCE, Sempronius Tuditanus is the praetor of the Citerior and had to face a general uprising in their territories that ended with the Roman defeat and the own death of Tuditanus. In view of these facts the Senate sent the consul Marcus Porcius Cato with an army of 7004600000000000000♠60000 men. The indigenous peoples of the area were rebelling, except for the Ilergetes who negotiated peace with Cato. There were different uprisings of the Iberian peoples against the Romans, in 194 BCE sees a general uprising with elimination of half of the Roman army, in 188 BCE Manlius Acidinus Fulvianus, praetor of the Citerior, must confront in Calagurris (Calahorra) with the Celtiberians, in the 184 BCE Terentius Varro did it with the Suessetani, to those who took the capital, Corbio. In the 1st century BCE Aragon
Aragon
was the scene of the civil war to seize the power of Rome where the governor Quintus Sertorius
Quintus Sertorius
made Osca (Huesca) the capital of all the territories controlled by them.

Denarius
Denarius
silver from Huesca.

Already in the 1st century BCE, the today Aragonese territory became part of the province Tarraconensis and there was the definitive romanization of it creating roads and consolidating ancient Celtiberian and Iberian cities such as Caesaraugusta
Caesaraugusta
(Zaragoza), Turiaso (Tarazona), Osca (Huesca) or Bilbilis (Calatayud). In the middle of the 3rd century the decay of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
began. Between the years 264 and 266 the Franks
Franks
and the Alemanni, two Germanic peoples who passed through the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
and came to Tarazona, which they sacked. In the agony of the Empire groups of bandits emerged who were dedicated to pillage. The Ebro
Ebro
Valley was ravaged in the 5th century by several gangs of evildoers called Bagaudae. Middle Ages[edit] See also: Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
and Crown of Aragon

The Aljafería, of the 11th century, was residence of the Banu Hud kings of the Taifa
Taifa
of Saraqusta.

After the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire, the current area of Aragon
Aragon
was occupied by the Visigoths, forming the Visigothic Kingdom. In the year 714 the Arabs
Arabs
arrived in the central area of Aragon, converting to Islam
Islam
the ancient Roman cities such as Saraqusta (Zaragoza) or Wasqa (Huesca). It was at this time that an important Muladi
Muladi
family was formed, the Banu Qasi
Banu Qasi
(بنو قاسي), their domains were located in the Ebro
Ebro
Valley between the 8th and 10th centuries. After the disappearance of the Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba
at the beginning of 11th century, the Taifa
Taifa
of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
arose, one of the most important Taifas of Al-Andalus, leaving a great artistic, cultural and philosophical legacy. The name of Aragon
Aragon
is documented for the first time during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in the year 828, when the small County of Aragon
County of Aragon
of Frankish origin, would emerge between the rivers that bear its name, the Aragón river, and its brother the Aragón Subordán river.

Castle of Loarre
Castle of Loarre
was built and expanded to serve as a frontier advance towards Muslim territories. It is one of the most important intact Romanesque castles in Europe.

Royal Monastery of San Juan de la Peña. In its Royal Pantheon a good number of kings of Aragon
Aragon
and some kings of Navarre
Navarre
are buried.

That County of Aragon
County of Aragon
would be linked to the Kingdom of Pamplona
Kingdom of Pamplona
until 1035, and under its wing it would grow to form a dowry of García Sánchez III of Pamplona to the death of the king Sancho "the Great", in a period characterized by Muslim hegemony in almost the entire Iberian Peninsula. Under the reign of Ramiro I of Aragon
Ramiro I of Aragon
would be extended borders with the annexation of the counties of Sobrarbe
Sobrarbe
and Ribagorza
Ribagorza
(year 1044), after having incorporated populations of the historical comarca of Cinco Villas. In 1076, on the death of Sancho IV of Pamplona, Aragon
Aragon
incorporates into its territories part of the Navarrese kingdom while Castile does the same with the western area of the former domains of Sancho "the Great". Through the reigns of Sancho Ramírez
Sancho Ramírez
and Peter I of Aragon and Pamplona, the kingdom extends its borders to the south, establishes threatening fortresses on the capital of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
in El Castellar and Juslibol
Juslibol
and takes Huesca, which become the new capital. This leads to the reign of Alfonso I of Aragon
Aragon
that would conquer the flat lands of the middle Ebro
Ebro
Valley for Aragon: Ejea de los Caballeros, Valtierra , Calatayud, Tudela and Zaragoza, the capital of the Taifa
Taifa
of Saraqusta. At his death the nobles would choose his brother Ramiro II of Aragon, who left his religious life to assume the royal scepter and perpetuate the dynasty, which he achieved with the dynastic union of the House of Aragon
House of Aragon
with the owner of the County of Barcelona
Barcelona
in 1137, year in which the union of both patrimonies would give rise to the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
and would add the forces that to its they would make the conquests of the Kingdom of Majorca
Kingdom of Majorca
and the Kingdom of Valencia
Kingdom of Valencia
possible. The Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
would become the hegemonic power of the Mediterranean, controlling territories as important as Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia or Naples. The monarch was known as King of Aragon
Aragon
and also held the titles of King of Valencia, King of Majorca
King of Majorca
(for a time), Count of Barcelona, Lord of Montpellier, and (temporarily) Duke of Athens
Duke of Athens
and Neopatria. Each of these titles gave him sovereignty over the specific region, and the titles changed as territories were lost and won. According to Aragonese law, the monarch had to swear allegiance to the Kingdom's laws before being accepted as king. Like other Pyrenean and Basque realms, the Aragonese justice and decision making system was based on Pyrenean consuetudinary law, the King was considered primus inter pares ('first among equals') within the nobility. A nobleman with the title "Chustizia d'Aragón"[10] acted as ombudsman and was responsible for ensuring that the King obeyed the Aragonese laws. An old saying goes, "en Aragón antes de Rey hubo Ley" ("in Aragon
Aragon
Law came before King"), similar to the saying in Navarre, "antes fueron Leyes que Reyes", with much the same meaning. The subsequent legend made the Aragonese monarchy eligible and created a phrase of coronation of the king that would be perpetuated for centuries:

We, who are worth as much as you we make you our King and Lord, as long as you keep our fueros and liberties, and if not, not. — The Chustizia d'Aragón

The Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
in the middle of 15th century.

This situation would be repeated in the Commitment of Caspe
Caspe
(1412), which avoids a war that had dismembered the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
when a good handful of aspirants to the throne emerged after the death of Martin of Aragon
Martin of Aragon
a year after the death of his first-born, Martin I of Sicily. Ferdinand I of Aragon
Ferdinand I of Aragon
is the chosen one, of the Castilian House of Trastámara, but also directly connected with the Aragonese king Peter IV of Aragon, through his mother Eleanor of Aragon. Aragon
Aragon
is already a large-scale political entity: the Crown, the Cortes, the Deputation of the Kingdom and the Foral Law constitute its nature and its character. The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
with Isabella I of Castile, celebrated in 1469 in Valladolid, derived later in the union of the crowns of Aragon
Aragon
and Castile, creating the bases of the Modern State. Early Modern Age[edit] The Early Modern Age, however, also witnessed the tensions between the power of the Hispanic Monarchy and those established in the foral states coming from the evolution of the medieval institutions, which ended up exploding in the conflict of the Alterations of Aragon
Aragon
of 1591.

Aragonia Regnum, map of the Blaeu based on that of João Baptista Lavanha, and published around 1640.

After the subsequent cut to the attributions of the Generality of Aragon
Aragon
in the Courts of Tarazona
Tarazona
of 1592, fundamentally in military matter to avoid that could be armed against the king of Spain
Spain
an army with the resources and prerogatives of the Deputation of the Kingdom, the 17th century was a period of decadence of the institutions of the Kingdom of Aragon, which was compensated with the historiographic work and legal literature that kept the memory of the Aragonese peculiarities. Emphasizes in this sense the creation in 1601 of Archive of the Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
(largely destroyed during the Napoleonic French Invasion and the Sieges of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
together with the Palace of the Deputation of the Kingdom), the continuity of the position of Chronicler of Aragon
Aragon
-where had stood out authors like Jerónimo Zurita y Castro- and its patent results in the work of the Argensola brothers with their Information of the events of Aragon
Aragon
of 1590 and 1591 (by Lupercio) and Popular alterations of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
of the year 1591 (by Bartolomé, or the Annals by Juan Costa and Jerónimo Martel , eyewitnesses and also chroniclers of the Kingdom, that were nevertheless destroyed by royal censorship, all of them written to counteract the Philip II's version of the facts. On the other hand, the Deputation of the General of Aragon
Aragon
also exerted censorship, and ordered to burn the History of the things that happened in this Kingdom in six volumes of the Castillian Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas because "in said Chronicles it said many things contrary to the truth" and entrusted to Vicencio Blasco de Lanuza the writing of a Secular and ecclesiastical histories of Aragon, whose second volume, which dealt with the serious events recently occurred, was published in 1619, three years before the first, which gives an idea of the intention to respond to the vision of Herrera. In the same line, a Ceremonial and brief relation of all the charges and ordinary things of the Deputation of the Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
was commissioned, to his Lieutenant of Alcaide, Lorenzo Ibáñez de Aoiz. The cartography of the Kingdom of Aragon, entrusted to the Portuguese João Baptista Lavanha, was also undertaken in this period. These last two works were completed in 1611. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Aragon
Aragon
(like the rest of the territories of the Crown: Catalonia, Valencia and Majorca) supported Archduke Charles (of the House of the Habsburgs) in front of Philip V (of the Bourbons). After the Battle of Almansa
Battle of Almansa
(1707), Philip V abolished the Aragonese fueros, adopted several centralist measures and all the old political dispositions of the kingdom were annulled (Nueva Planta decrees). Aragon
Aragon
became the practice in a province. Late Modern Age[edit]

Allegorical emblem of the Political Government of Aragon
Aragon
of the Liberal Triennium (1820). The Political Constitution illuminates a shield of Aragon
Aragon
with a closed royal crown.

The Napoleonic French Invasion, after the intense destruction of the city of Zaragoza, stopped the economic progress and significantly delayed the incorporation of the capital to the rhythm of modernity. With the first provincial organization of 1822 of Spain, Aragon counted on four provinces, being Calatayud
Calatayud
capital of the fourth province that included municipalities of the current provinces of Zaragoza, Teruel, Soria and Guadalajara. Disappeared with the new abolition of the Constitution by Ferdinand VII "the Felon king". The provincial division of 1833 organized the Aragonese territory in the current three provinces.

Assault of the French troops to the Abbey of Santa Engracia
Abbey of Santa Engracia
in the second of the Sieges of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
on February 8 of 1809, painted by Lejeune.

Throughout the 19th century the Carlists, who sought adepts for their cause in this land, offered the restoration of past foral liberties of the now old and disappeared kingdom of Aragon. It was also in this century the passage from a rural society to an industrial and urban operation, leading a massive exodus from the countryside to the larger cities of Aragon, Huesca, Zaragoza, Teruel
Teruel
or Calatayud, and a real emigration to other nearby regions, such as Catalonia
Catalonia
or Madrid. During the 20th century, the history of Aragon
Aragon
has gone hand in hand with that of the rest of the Spanish territory, to highlight the "conjunctural" economic impulse in the military dictatorship Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923-1931) and the progress in civil and individual liberties during the Second Spanish Republic. Also in June 1936, in the Spanish Cortes the Proposed Draft Statute of Autonomy of Aragon was presented but the imminent Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
prevented the development of the autonomist project. Aragon
Aragon
was divided by the two sides opposed in the Spanish Civil War. On the one hand, the Eastern Area, closer to Catalonia
Catalonia
and controlled by the Regional Defence Council of Aragon, loyal to the Republic and on the other the Western Area, where the three provincial capitals were located, by the rebellious side national-fascist, having a hard, cruel and savage repression in them and during the contest.

Belchite
Belchite
town was destroyed during the Battle of Belchite. This ruined town became a symbol of the Spanish Civil War.

In Aragon
Aragon
some of the most important battles of the Spanish Civil War were fought, such as that of Belchite, that of Teruel
Teruel
or that of Ebro. Aragon
Aragon
since 1939 was under the Francoist dictatorship along with the rest of Spain. During the 1960s an exodus and a depopulation of the rural zones towards the industrial zones like the provincial capitals, other areas of Spain, besides other European countries was triggered. In 1964, one of the so-called Development Poles was created in Zaragoza. In the 1970s a period of transition as in the rest of the Country was experienced, after the extinction of the previous regime, with the recovery of democratic normality and the creation of a new constitutional framework. It began to demand an own political autonomy, for the Aragonese historical territory; sentiment that was reflected in the historic manifestation of April 23 of 1978 that brought together more than 7005100000000000000♠100000 aragoneses through the streets of Zaragoza. Not having plebiscited, in the past, affirmatively a draft Statute of autonomy (second transitory provision of the constitution) and not making use of the difficult access to autonomy by Article 151 whose aggravated procedure required, apart from the initiative of the process autonomic follow the steps of article 143, which was ratified by three quarters of the municipalities of each of the affected provinces that represent at least the majority of the electoral census, and that this initiative was approved by referendum by the affirmative vote of the majority absolute of the electors of each province, Aragon
Aragon
acceded to the self-government by the slow way of article 143 obtaining lower competence top, and less self-management of resources, during more than 20 years. The August 10 of 1982, was approved by the Cortes Generales
Cortes Generales
the Aragon's autonomy statute, signed by the then president of the Government, Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, and sanctioned by His Majesty Juan Carlos I of Spain. The May 7 of 1992 a Special
Special
Commission of the Aragonese Corts, elaborated a reformed text that was approved by the Aragonese Corts and by the Spanish Cortes. Again, a small statutory reform in the year 1996 extended the competence framework, forcing a definitive comprehensive review for several years, a new statutory text was approved in 2007, by majority but without reaching total unanimity. In the 1990s the Aragonese society increases a significant qualitative step in the quality of life due to the economic progress of the State at all levels. At the beginning of 21st century, a significant increase in infrastructures was established, such as the arrival of the High Speed Train (AVE), the construction of the new dual carriageway Somport-Sagunto and the promotion of the two airports in the Autonomous Community, Zaragoza
Zaragoza
and Huesca-Pirineos. At the same time, large technological projects are being undertaken, such as the Walqa Technology Park and the implementation of a telematic network throughout the community.

General view of the Expo 2008
Expo 2008
from the Torre del Agua.

In 2007 the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon
Aragon
was reformed again -which was approved by a broad consensus in the Aragonese Corts, having the support of the PSOE, the PP, the PAR and the IU, whereas CHA abstained- granting the Autonomous Community the recognition of historical nationality (since the Organic Law of 1996 reform of the statute, it had the condition of nationality[11]), includes a new title on the Administration of Chustizia and another on the rights and duties of the Aragoneses and guiding principles of public policies, the possibility of creating an own tax agency in collaboration with that of the State, and also the obligation to public authorities to ensure to avoid transfers from watersheds such as transfer of the Ebro, among many other modifications of the Statute of Autonomy. The designation of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
as the venue for the 2008 International Exhibition, whose thematic axis was Water
Water
and Sustainable development, represented a series of changes and accelerated growth for the autonomous community. In addition, two anniversaries were celebrated that same year, the bicentennial of Sieges of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
of the War of Independence against the Napoleonic invasion, occurred in 1808 and the centenary of the Hispano-French Exposition of 1908
Hispano-French Exposition of 1908
that it supposed as a modern event, to demonstrate the cultural and economic thrust of Aragon
Aragon
and at the same time serve to strengthen ties and staunch wounds with the French neighbors after the events of the Napoleonic Wars of the previous century. Demographics[edit] Population[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1787 623,055 —    

1857 880,643 +41.3%

1900 912,711 +3.6%

1910 952,743 +4.4%

1920 997,154 +4.7%

1930 1,031,559 +3.5%

1940 1,058,806 +2.6%

1950 1,094,002 +3.3%

1960 1,105,498 +1.1%

1970 1,152,708 +4.3%

1981 1,213,099 +5.2%

1991 1,221,546 +0.7%

2001 1,204,215 −1.4%

2011 1,344,509 +11.7%

2017 1,313,581 −2.3%

Source: INE

As of 2015[update], half of Aragon's population, 50.45%, live in the capital city of Zaragoza. Huesca
Huesca
is the only other city in the region with a population greater than 7004500000000000000♠50000. The majority of Aragonese citizens, 71.8%, live in the province of Zaragoza. 17.1% live in the province of Huesca, and 11.1% in the province of Teruel.[12] The population density of the region is the second lowest in Spain
Spain
after Castilla-La Mancha: only 26.8/km². The most densely populated areas are around the valley of the river Ebro, particularly around Zaragoza, and in the Pyrenean foothills, while the areas with the fewest inhabitants tend to be those that are higher up in the Pyrenean mountains, and in most of the southern province of Teruel. Only four cities have a population of more than 7004200000000000000♠20000: Zaragoza
Zaragoza
7005700000000000000♠700000, Huesca
Huesca
7004500000000000000♠50000, Teruel 7004350000000000000♠35000, and Calatayud 7004200000000000000♠20000. Languages[edit]

Distribution of local languages in Aragon. Red: Aragonese, Purple: Catalan, Yellow: Spanish. Spanish is spoken in all of Aragon, and is the only official language

Spanish is the native language in most of Aragon, and it is the only official language, understood and spoken by virtually everyone in the region. In addition to it, the Aragonese language
Aragonese language
continues to be spoken in several local varieties in the mountainous northern counties of the Pyrenees, particularly in western Ribagorza, Sobrarbe, Jacetania
Jacetania
and Somontano; it is enjoying a resurgence of popularity as a tool for regional identity. In the easternmost areas of Aragon, along the border with Catalonia, varieties of the Catalan language
Catalan language
are spoken, including the comarcas of eastern Ribagorza, La Litera, Bajo Cinca, Bajo Aragón-Caspe, Bajo Aragón
Bajo Aragón
and Matarraña. The strip-shaped Catalan-speaking area in Aragon
Aragon
is often called La Franja. Territorial division[edit] Aragon
Aragon
is divided into three provinces from north to south, named after their capitals: Huesca, Zaragoza
Zaragoza
and Teruel. The provinces are further divided into 33 comarcas, three of which are in more than one province. There are a total of 732 municipalities in the region. Culture[edit] See also: Music of Aragon

Jota musicians and dancers.

Some medieval monuments of Teruel
Teruel
and Zaragoza
Zaragoza
are protected by UNESCO as part of the World Heritage Sites Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon. The traditional dance of Aragon
Aragon
is known as jota and is one of the faster Spanish dances. It is also the most widespread in Aragon
Aragon
and the exact style and music depend on the area. There are other less popular dances named "paloteaos" similar to the sword/stick dances of other regions. The music to one local dance, "The Dance of Majordomos" of Benasque, was so enjoyed by Rafael del Riego
Rafael del Riego
on a visit to the town that he ordered it to be copied resulting in the "Hymn of Riego" . Typical Aragonese instruments include the stringed drum or "Chicotén", bagpipes such as the "gaita de boto", oboes such as the "Dulzaina", and small flutes like the "Chiflo". Some instruments have been lost, such as the "trompa de Ribagorza", although there have been efforts to reconstruct them. In contrast to other Pyrenean regions, the "Chicotén" and "Chiflo" never have stopped being played.[13] The Carnival of Bielsa[14] (Huesca) has ancient origins and includes a group of men carrying long sticks, wearing skirts, cowbells and boucard/goat-like horns and skins with black-painted faces called "Trangas" symbolising "virility" who surround another man wearing skins playing the part of a bear called "l'onso". In Aragonese mythology the bear carried souls between the world of the living and the world of the dead. Trangas dance with young females named "madamas" symbolising "purity" and wearing colourful dresses. Other traditional figures include a horse rider named "Caballé". Cuisine[edit] Main article: Aragonese cuisine

Trenza de Almudevar.

With its lush Pyrenean pastures, lamb, beef, and dairy products are, not surprisingly, predominant in Aragonese cuisine. Also of note is its ham from Teruel; olive oil from Empeltre and Arbequina; longaniza from Graus; rainbow trout and salmon, boar, truffles and wild mushrooms from the upper river valleys of the Jacetania, Gallego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza
Ribagorza
regions; and wines from Cariñena, Somontano, Calatayud, and Campo de Borja; and fruit, especially peaches, from its fertile lower valleys. The region also features a unique local haggis, known as chireta, several interesting seafood dishes, including various crab pastes, which developed from an old superstition that crabs help prevent illness, and sweets such as "Adoquines del Pilar" and "Frutas de Aragón". There are also other sweets like "Tortas de alma" from Teruel
Teruel
and "Trenza de Almudevar" or "Castañas de Huesca" from Huesca. Economy[edit] Aragon
Aragon
is among the richest autonomous regions in Spain, with GDP per capita above the nation's average. The traditional agriculture-based economy from the mid-20th century has been greatly transformed in the past several decades and now service and industrial sectors are the backbone of the economy in the region. The well-developed irrigation system around the Ebro
Ebro
has greatly supported the productive agriculture. The most important crops include wheat, barley, rye, fruit and grapes. Livestock-breeding is essential especially in the northern areas, where the lush meadows provide excellent conditions for sheep and cattle. The main livestock are cattle, 7005334600000000000♠334600; sheep, 7006286210000000000♠2862100; pigs, 7006367000000000000♠3670000; goats, 7004780000000000000♠78000; and poultry, 7007205450000000000♠20545000.[15] The chief industrial centre is the capital Zaragoza, where the largest factories are located. The largest plant is the Opel
Opel
automotive plant with 7003873000000000000♠8730 employees and production of 7005200000000000000♠200000 per year. It supports many related industries in the area. Other large plants in the city include factories for trains and household appliances. Mining of iron ore and coal is developed to the south, near Ojos Negros. Electricity production is concentrated to the north where numerous hydro power plants are located along the Pyrenean rivers and in the 7009115000000000000♠1150 MW Teruel
Teruel
Power Plant. There is an aluminium refinery in the town of Sabiñánigo. The main centres of electronics industry are Zaragoza, Huesca
Huesca
and Benabarre. Chemical industry is developed in Zaragoza, Sabiñánigo, Monzón, Teruel, Ojos Negros, Fraga, Benabarre
Benabarre
and others. The transport infrastructure has been greatly improved. There are more than[data missing] of motorways which run from Zaragoza
Zaragoza
to Madrid, Teruel, Basque country, Huesca
Huesca
and Barcelona. The condition of the other roads is also good. As of 2016[update] there are 7005899008000000000♠899008 cars in Aragon.[2] Through the territory of the province runs the new high-speed railway between Madrid
Madrid
and Barcelona
Barcelona
with siding from Zaragoza
Zaragoza
to Huesca, which is going to be continued to the French border. There is an International Airport at Zaragoza, as well as several smaller airports at Huesca, Caudé, Santa Cilia de Jaca
Jaca
and Villanueva de Gállego. Government and politics[edit] Current political organization[edit] As an autonomous community of Spain, Aragon
Aragon
has an elected regional parliament (Spanish: Cortes de Aragón, Aragonese: Cortz d'Aragón, Catalan: Corts d'Aragó) with 67 seats. It meets in the Aljafería, a Moorish palace in the capital city, Zaragoza. The Parliament chooses a President for the Diputación General de Aragón or Aragon
Aragon
Government, for a four-year term. The current president (since July 2015) is Javier Lambán of the PSOE. Nationally, Aragon
Aragon
elects 13 Deputies and 14 Senators to the Cortes Generales. In addition to the Spanish-based political parties, there are a number of Aragón-based parties, such as the Chunta Aragonesista, a left-wing Aragonese nationalist party, and the Aragonese Party, more conservative. Chunta Aragonesista
Chunta Aragonesista
had a seat in Spain's national Congress of Deputies
Congress of Deputies
from 2000 to 2008, while the centrist Aragonese Party has three national senators, who are in coalition with the ruling People's Party.[16] In a 2011 regional government survey, 47.6% of the population wanted greater autonomy for Aragon, while 35.2% were satisfied with its current level of autonomy. A total of 6% wanted an end to autonomy and 3.2% wanted full independence.[17] Historic[edit] Main articles: List of Aragonese monarchs, List of Aragonese consorts, and List of viceroys of Aragon Aragon
Aragon
in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
was the hub of the wider Crown of Aragon. The Crown was represented in the region from 1517 by a viceroy. In 1479, King Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
married Isabella I of Castile, a kingdom covering much of the rest of modern Spain. However, until the Nueva Planta decrees
Nueva Planta decrees
of 1707, Aragon
Aragon
maintained its own separate laws and institutions. Media[edit] Aragon
Aragon
has media set-ups in television, radio and numerous newspapers. Television[edit] On 21 April 2006, regional television broadcasts in Aragon
Aragon
officially began with the launch of Aragón TV. The law which established the CARTV ( Aragon
Aragon
Corporation Radio and Television) dated from 1987, but various political disputes delayed the project for several legislatures. During the years that Aragon
Aragon
had no public television, several media groups sought to supplement their absence. For one TVE-Aragon, taking the Territorial Centre in Zaragoza, produced several programs and educational activities with the Aragonese town. As for private groups, there were several projects. The most widely accepted for many years had been Antena Aragón, which came to be regarded as regional television. This channel was created in 1998 and disappeared in 2005 shortly after having to leave the Media Production Centre (CPA), as this was built by the DGA for future public television host Aragon. With the push for the creation of public television, Antena Aragón merged with RTVA (Radio Television Aragonesa) belonging to the Herald Group. Merging RTVA Antena Aragón and led to channel ZTV (Zaragoza Television). Moreover, Antena 3 Televisión aired for several years, and off to Aragon, a news report fully Aragonese, having a central issue in the Pinares de Venecia in Zaragoza, within the premises of the Theme Park of Zaragoza. Aragón TV
Aragón TV
was launched in 2006 after spending a season broadcasting a letter and a loop with images of Aragonese villages and audio of regional radio programs. Radio[edit] Aragon
Aragon
Radio, began broadcasting on 18 August 2005 at 5PM with the sound of drums and drums of Calanda and a group song Zaragoza
Zaragoza
"The Fish". Estimates of its audience range from 20 000 listeners, according to the latest EMG, to 7004700000000000000♠70000, according to private findings. The channel has regional news bulletins every hour from 7AM to midnight and coverage of sports. Sport[edit]

La Romareda, home ground of Real Zaragoza.

Aragon's most successful football club is Real Zaragoza. The club was founded in 1932 and has played at its current ground, La Romareda, since 1957. Real Zaragoza
Zaragoza
have won six Copa del Rey
Copa del Rey
titles from 1964 to 2004,[18] and the 1995 European Cup Winners' Cup. Smaller clubs in the region include CD Teruel
Teruel
and SD Huesca. Skiing
Skiing
is popular in the Pyrenean north of Aragon, at resorts such as Formigal
Formigal
and Candanchú.[19] The Aragonese city of Jaca
Jaca
in the Pyrennes bid to host the Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
from 2002 to 2014.[20] Zaragoza
Zaragoza
was considering a bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics,[21][22] but dropped it in 2011 to strengthen the chance of Barcelona
Barcelona
winning the games.[23] The Ciudad del Motor de Aragón, also known as Motorland Aragón, is a motorsport race track located near Alcañiz
Alcañiz
in Aragon. It is home to the Aragon
Aragon
motorcycle Grand Prix. Notable people from Aragon[edit] Up to the 19th century[edit]

King Ferdinand II of Aragon.

Saint Elizabeth of Portugal
Portugal
(1271–1336) was queen consort of Portugal
Portugal
and a saint of the Roman Catholic Church. Antipope Benedict XIII
Antipope Benedict XIII
(1328–1423) known as Papa Luna was an Avignon pope and art patron-sponsor. King Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
(1452–1516) married queen Isabella I of Castile and united the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
with the Crown of Castile, giving form to the actual Spain. Michael Servetus
Michael Servetus
(1509/11–1552) was a theologian and physician who received numerous charges of heresy by both Catholics and Protestants and was burnt at the stake in Calvin's Geneva
Geneva
during the 16th century. Joseph Calasanz
Joseph Calasanz
(1557–1648) was a Catholic priest who dedicated himself to the education of poor boys at Rome
Rome
and founded a society pledged to that work. Baltasar Gracián
Baltasar Gracián
(1601–1658) writer of Spanish Baroque literature. Gaspar Sanz
Gaspar Sanz
(1640–1710), composer, guitarist and organist. Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre (1702–1780) was a military engineer who discovered the ruins of Pompeii. Francisco Garcés
Francisco Garcés
(1738–1781) was a missionary priest to North America who founded two pueblo missions.[24] Francisco de Goya
Francisco de Goya
(1746–1828) 18th-century painter.

20th and 21st centuries[edit]

Eva Amaral, Singer-songwriter and member of the Rock band Amaral. Enrique Bunbury
Enrique Bunbury
(Enrique Ortiz de Landázuri), is a Spanish rock singer-songwriter for Heroes del Silencio and Enrique Bunbury
Enrique Bunbury
Band. Luis Buñuel, film maker. St. Josemaría Escrivá, Spanish Catholic priest, founder of Opus Dei. Pablo Gargallo, sculptor and painter. José Antonio Labordeta, singer, writer and politician. Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
for his research on the human brain and nervous system. Carlos Saura, film maker. Pablo Serrano, sculptor. Alberto Zapater, footballer.

Image gallery[edit]

Aragon
Aragon
gallery

Teruel
Teruel
Cathedral in Teruel

Aínsa, Aínsa-Sobrarbe

Albarracín

Ansó

Collegiate Church of Santa María la Mayor in Alquézar

Gothic murals of the Crypt of Santa María del Perdón of the Church of San Esteban in Sos del Rey Católico

Puerta Baja gate in Daroca

Valderrobres

Church of Santa María in Uncastillo

Tarazona

Benasque

Calaceite

Citadel of Jaca
Jaca
in Jaca

See also[edit]

Spain
Spain
portal

Aragonese Crown of Aragon Kingdom of Aragon Expo 2008 Current art's artifacts dispute between Aragon
Aragon
and Catalonia, see: Monastery of Santa María de Sigena Auberge d'Aragon List of Aragonese people List of mountains in Aragon Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon Music of Aragon Fiestas del Pilar La Vaquilla del Ángel

Footnotes[edit]

^ "LEY 10/2009, de 22 de diciembre, de uso, protección y promoción de las lenguas propias de Aragón" (PDF). Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-29.  ^ a b c d " Aragon
Aragon
Basic Data, 2017" (PDF). aragon.es. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-03-18. Retrieved 2018-03-18.  ^ jiriarte (2010-07-16). "Aragon". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2018-03-17.  ^ "PIB de las Comunidades Autónomas" [GDP of the Autonomous Communities]. datosmacro.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 December 2015.  ^ "folleto_guara_fr_en.pdf" (PDF). Sierra de Guara. 2018-03-17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-03-17. Retrieved 2018-03-17.  ^ José María Cuadrat Prats, "El clima de Aragón", in J. L. Peña, L. A. Longares and M. Sánchez (editions), Geografía Física de Aragón. Aspectos generales y temáticos, Zaragoza, University of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
and Fernando el Católico Institution, pp. 15-26. 2004. ^ Natural 2000 of Aragon
Aragon
Government of Aragón. ^ Ordesa y Monte Perdido
Monte Perdido
National Park Government of Aragon. ^ Spaces integrated into the Natural 2000 of Aragon
Aragon
Government of Aragon. ^ "El Justicia de Aragón". Eljusticiadearagon.com. 2007-02-27. Retrieved 2012-06-04.  ^ State Agency Official State Gazette (December 31, 1996). "Organic Law 5/1996, of December 30, of Reform of the Organic Law 8/1982, of August 10, of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, modified by the Organic Law 6/1994, of March 24, of reform of said Statute". Documento BOE-A-1996-29115. Retrieved February 17, 2015.  ^ "Cifras completas". Archived from the original on 2007-02-03.  ^ Alberto Turón Lanuza. "El Web de la Música Tradicional Aragonesa". Arafolk. Retrieved 2012-06-04.  ^ "Carnabal de la Balle de Bielsa". Carnaval de Bielsa. Retrieved 2012-06-04.  ^ "Gobierno de Aragón". Portal.aragob.es. Archived from the original on 2009-08-13. Retrieved 2010-04-26.  ^ Grupos Parlamentarios Senado de España ^ Barómetro de Opinión de Invierno 2011 - Aragón_hoy ^ Spain
Spain
- List of Cup Finals Archived January 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Season start Aragón – Ski season opening Aragón – Season begin Aragón ^ Jaca
Jaca
to bid for 2014 Winter Games ^ Juegos Olímpicos Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Pirineos 2022 « Candidatura a los JJOO de Invierno de 2022 (No Oficial) Archived June 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza. Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Turismo. Candidatura Olimpica 2022 Archived January 12, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Barcelona
Barcelona
is now Spain's sole candidate for the 2022 Winter Olympics News Homepage The website of the Barcelona
Barcelona
city Archived January 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Aragon.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aragon.

(in Spanish) Government of Aragon Senderos de Aragón Aragon
Aragon
government tourism site  "Aragon". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 313–314.  Guide to the Aragon
Aragon
Pyrenees
Pyrenees
Mountains Maps of Aragon

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Autonomous communities of Spain

Autonomous communities

 Andalusia  Aragon  Asturias  Balearic Islands  Basque Country  Canary Islands  Cantabria  Castilla–La Mancha  Castile and León  Catalonia  Extremadura  Galicia  La Rioja  Community of Madrid  Murcia  Navarre  Valencian Community

Autonomous cities

 Ceuta  Melilla

Plazas de soberanía

Alhucemas Chafarinas Vélez de la Gomera

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Provinces of Aragon

Huesca Teruel Zaragoza

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Comarcas of Aragon

Jacetania Alto Gállego Sobrarbe Ribagorza Cinco Villas Hoya de Huesca Somontano
Somontano
de Barbastro Cinca Medio La Litera Bajo Cinca Monegros Tarazona
Tarazona
y el Moncayo Campo de Borja Aranda Ribera Alta del Ebro Valdejalón Zaragoza Ribera Baja del Ebro Bajo Aragón-Caspe Comunidad de Calatayud Campo de Cariñena Campo de Belchite Bajo Martín Campo de Daroca Jiloca Cuencas Mineras Andorra-Sierra de Arcos Bajo Aragón Comunidad de Teruel Maestrazgo Sierra de Albarracín Gúdar-Jav

.