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Ankara
Ankara
(English /ˈæŋkərə/;[2] Turkish [ˈɑŋkɑɾɑ] ( listen) Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Greek: Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey. With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban center (2014) and 5,150,072 in its province (2015),[3] it is Turkey's second largest city after former imperial capital Istanbul, having overtaken İzmir. Ankara
Ankara
was Atatürk's headquarters from 1920 and has been the capital of the Republic since the latter's founding in 1923, replacing Istanbul
Istanbul
(once the Byzantine capital Constantinople) following the fall of the Ottoman Empire. The government is a prominent employer, but Ankara
Ankara
is also an important commercial and industrial city, located at the center of Turkey's road and railway networks. The city gave its name to the Angora wool
Angora wool
shorn from Angora rabbits, the long-haired Angora goat
Angora goat
(the source of mohair), and the Angora cat. The area is also known for its pears, honey and muscat grapes. Although situated in one of the driest places of Turkey
Turkey
and surrounded mostly by steppe vegetation except for the forested areas on the southern periphery, Ankara
Ankara
can be considered a green city in terms of green areas per inhabitant, at 72 square metres (775 square feet) per head.[4] Ankara
Ankara
is a very old city with various Hittite, Phrygian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman archaeological sites. The historical center of town is a rocky hill rising 150 m (500 ft) over the left bank of the Ankara
Ankara
Çayı, a tributary of the Sakarya River, the classical Sangarius. The hill remains crowned by the ruins of the old citadel. Although few of its outworks have survived, there are well-preserved examples of Roman and Ottoman architecture
Ottoman architecture
throughout the city, the most remarkable being the 20 BC Temple of Augustus and Rome
Rome
that boasts the Monumentum Ancyranum, the inscription recording the Res Gestae Divi Augusti.[5]

Contents

1 Etymology and names 2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Demographics

3 History

3.1 Ancient history 3.2 Celtic history 3.3 Roman history 3.4 Byzantine history 3.5 Turkic rulers 3.6 Turkish republican capital 3.7 Ecclesiastical history

3.7.1 Armenian Catholic
Armenian Catholic
(titular) see 3.7.2 Latin
Latin
titular archbishopric

4 Economy and infrastructure

4.1 Transportation

4.1.1 Ankara
Ankara
Public Transportation Statistics

5 Politics 6 Main sights

6.1 Ancient/archeological sites

6.1.1 Ankara
Ankara
Citadel 6.1.2 Roman Theatre 6.1.3 Temple of Augustus
Augustus
and Rome 6.1.4 Roman Baths 6.1.5 Roman Road 6.1.6 Column of Julian

6.2 Mosques

6.2.1 Kocatepe Mosque 6.2.2 Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque 6.2.3 Yeni (Cenab Ahmet) Mosque 6.2.4 Hacı Bayram Mosque 6.2.5 Ahi Elvan Mosque 6.2.6 Alâeddin Mosque

6.3 Modern monuments

6.3.1 Victory Monument 6.3.2 Statue of Atatürk 6.3.3 Monument to a Secure, Confident Future 6.3.4 Hatti Monument

6.4 Inns

6.4.1 Suluhan 6.4.2 Çengelhan Rahmi Koç Museum

7 Shopping 8 Culture

8.1 The arts

8.1.1 Music 8.1.2 Theatre

8.2 Museums

8.2.1 Museum of Anatolian Civilizations 8.2.2 Anıtkabir 8.2.3 Ankara
Ankara
Ethnography Museum 8.2.4 State Art and Sculpture Museum 8.2.5 Cer Modern 8.2.6 War of Independence Museum 8.2.7 Mehmet Akif Literature Museum Library 8.2.8 TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum 8.2.9 Ankara
Ankara
Aviation Museum 8.2.10 METU
METU
Science and Technology Museum

8.3 Sports

9 Parks 10 Education

10.1 Universities

11 Fauna

11.1 Angora cat 11.2 Angora rabbit 11.3 Angora goat

12 Gallery 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns and sister cities 13.2 Partner cities

14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Further reading 18 Sources and external links

Etymology and names[edit] The orthography of the name Ankara
Ankara
has varied over the ages. It has been identified with the Hittite cult center Ankuwaš,[6][7] although this remains a matter of debate.[8] In classical antiquity and during the medieval period, the city was known as Ánkyra (Ἄγκυρα, lit "anchor") in Greek and Ancyra in Latin; the Galatian Celtic name was probably a similar variant. Following its annexation by the Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
in 1073, the city became known in many European languages as Angora; it was also known in Ottoman Turkish as Engürü.[9][5] The form "Angora" is preserved in the names of breeds of many different kinds of animals, and in the names of several locations in the US (see Angora). Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Ankara
Ankara
has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa) with strong humid continental climate (Dsa) characteristics under the Köppen climate classification. Under the Trewartha climate classification, Ankara
Ankara
has a middle latitude steppe climate (BSks). Due to its elevation and inland location, Ankara
Ankara
has cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers, with cool nightly temperatures. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn. Ankara
Ankara
lies in USDA
USDA
Hardiness zone
Hardiness zone
7b, and its annual average precipitation is fairly low at 400 millimeters (16 in), nevertheless precipitation can be observed throughout the year. Monthly mean temperatures range from 0.3 °C (32.5 °F) in January to 23.5 °C (74.3 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.02 °C (53.6 °F).

Climate data for Ankara
Ankara
(1950–2015)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.6 (61.9) 20.4 (68.7) 27.8 (82) 31.1 (88) 33.0 (91.4) 37.0 (98.6) 41.0 (105.8) 40.4 (104.7) 36.0 (96.8) 33.3 (91.9) 24.4 (75.9) 20.4 (68.7) 41 (105.8)

Average high °C (°F) 4.4 (39.9) 6.6 (43.9) 11.6 (52.9) 17.3 (63.1) 22.2 (72) 26.6 (79.9) 30.2 (86.4) 30.3 (86.5) 26.0 (78.8) 19.8 (67.6) 12.9 (55.2) 6.6 (43.9) 17.88 (64.18)

Daily mean °C (°F) 0.4 (32.7) 1.9 (35.4) 6.0 (42.8) 11.3 (52.3) 16.1 (61) 20.1 (68.2) 23.6 (74.5) 23.4 (74.1) 18.8 (65.8) 13.0 (55.4) 7.0 (44.6) 2.6 (36.7) 12.02 (53.63)

Average low °C (°F) −3.0 (26.6) −2.2 (28) 0.9 (33.6) 5.6 (42.1) 9.7 (49.5) 13.0 (55.4) 15.9 (60.6) 16.0 (60.8) 11.8 (53.2) 7.2 (45) 2.4 (36.3) −0.7 (30.7) 6.38 (43.48)

Record low °C (°F) −24.4 (−11.9) −22.2 (−8) −19.2 (−2.6) −6.7 (19.9) −1.6 (29.1) 3.8 (38.8) 4.5 (40.1) 6.3 (43.3) 2.5 (36.5) −5.3 (22.5) −13.4 (7.9) −18.0 (−0.4) −24.4 (−11.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 42.1 (1.657) 36.6 (1.441) 40.3 (1.587) 46.5 (1.831) 52.0 (2.047) 36.7 (1.445) 14.2 (0.559) 10.9 (0.429) 18.7 (0.736) 29.1 (1.146) 32.0 (1.26) 43.1 (1.697) 402.2 (15.835)

Average precipitation days 12.3 11.0 11.1 11.7 12.6 8.9 3.7 2.8 3.9 6.9 8.4 11.5 104.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 77.5 98.8 161.2 192.0 260.4 306.0 350.3 359.6 276.0 201.5 132.0 71.3 2,486.6

Percent possible sunshine 26.0 32.9 43.6 48.2 58.4 68.1 76.8 84.4 73.9 58.3 44.1 24.6 53.28

Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[10]

Demographics[edit]

Ankara
Ankara
metropolitan area

Ankara
Ankara
had a population of 75,000 in 1927. In 2013, Ankara
Ankara
Province had a population of 5,045,083.[11] When Ankara
Ankara
became the capital of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
in 1923, it was designated as a planned city for 500,000 future inhabitants. During the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, the city grew in a planned and orderly pace. However, from the 1950s onward, the city grew much faster than envisioned, because unemployment and poverty forced people to migrate from the countryside into the city in order to seek a better standard of living. As a result, many illegal houses called gecekondu were built around the city, causing the unplanned and uncontrolled urban landscape of Ankara, as not enough planned housing could be built fast enough. Although precariously built, the vast majority of them have electricity, running water and modern household amenities. Nevertheless, many of these gecekondus have been replaced by huge public housing projects in the form of tower blocks such as Elvankent, Eryaman and Güzelkent; and also as mass housing compounds for military and civil service accommodation. Although many gecekondus still remain, they too are gradually being replaced by mass housing compounds, as empty land plots in the city of Ankara
Ankara
for new construction projects are becoming impossible to find. History[edit]

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Main articles: History of Ankara
History of Ankara
and Timeline of Ankara

Alaca Höyük bronze standard on display at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara.

The region's history can be traced back to the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Hattic civilization, which was succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC
2nd millennium BC
by the Hittites, in the 10th century BC by the Phrygians, and later by the Lydians, Persians, Greeks, Galatians, Romans, Byzantines, and Turks (the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and finally republican Turkey). Ancient history[edit] The oldest settlements in and around the city center of Ankara belonged to the Hattic civilization which existed during the Bronze Age and was gradually absorbed c. 2000–1700 BC by the Indo-European Hittites. The city grew significantly in size and importance under the Phrygians starting around 1000 BC, and experienced a large expansion following the mass migration from Gordion, (the capital of Phrygia), after an earthquake which severely damaged that city around that time. In Phrygian tradition, King Midas
Midas
was venerated as the founder of Ancyra, but Pausanias mentions that the city was actually far older, which accords with present archaeological knowledge.[12] Phrygian rule was succeeded first by Lydian and later by Persian rule, though the strongly Phrygian character of the peasantry remained, as evidenced by the gravestones of the much later Roman period. Persian sovereignty lasted until the Persians' defeat at the hands of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
who conquered the city in 333 BC. Alexander came from Gordion to Ankara
Ankara
and stayed in the city for a short period. After his death at Babylon
Babylon
in 323 BC and the subsequent division of his empire among his generals, Ankara
Ankara
and its environs fell into the share of Antigonus. Another important expansion took place under the Greeks
Greeks
of Pontos who came there around 300 BC and developed the city as a trading center for the commerce of goods between the Black Sea
Black Sea
ports and Crimea to the north; Assyria, Cyprus, and Lebanon
Lebanon
to the south; and Georgia, Armenia
Armenia
and Persia to the east. By that time the city also took its name Ἄγκυρα (Ánkyra, meaning anchor in Ancient Greek) which, in slightly modified form, provides the modern name of Ankara. Celtic history[edit]

The Dying Galatian
Dying Galatian
was a famous statue commissioned some time between 230–220 BC by King Attalos I of Pergamon
Pergamon
to honor his victory over the Celtic Galatians in Anatolia. Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late 3rd century BC, at the Capitoline Museums, Rome.

In 278 BC, the city, along with the rest of central Anatolia, was occupied by a Celtic group, the Galatians, who were the first to make Ankara
Ankara
one of their main tribal centers, the headquarters of the Tectosages
Tectosages
tribe.[13] Other centers were Pessinos, today's Balhisar, for the Trocmi tribe, and Tavium, to the east of Ankara, for the Tolstibogii tribe. The city was then known as Ancyra. The Celtic element was probably relatively small in numbers; a warrior aristocracy which ruled over Phrygian-speaking peasants. However, the Celtic language continued to be spoken in Galatia
Galatia
for many centuries. At the end of the 4th century, St. Jerome, a native of Dalmatia, observed that the language spoken around Ankara
Ankara
was very similar to that being spoken in the northwest of the Roman world near Trier. Roman history[edit]

Ancyra was the capital of the Celtic kingdom of Galatia, and later of the Roman province
Roman province
with the same name, after its conquest by Augustus in 25 BC.

The city was subsequently passed under the control of the Roman Empire. In 25 BC, Emperor Augustus
Augustus
raised it to the status of a polis and made it the capital city of the Roman province
Roman province
of Galatia.[14] Ankara
Ankara
is famous for the Monumentum Ancyranum
Monumentum Ancyranum
(Temple of Augustus
Augustus
and Rome) which contains the official record of the Acts of Augustus, known as the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, an inscription cut in marble on the walls of this temple. The ruins of Ancyra still furnish today valuable bas-reliefs, inscriptions and other architectural fragments. Two other Galatian tribal centers, Tavium near Yozgat, and Pessinus (Balhisar) to the west, near Sivrihisar, continued to be reasonably important settlements in the Roman period, but it was Ancyra that grew into a grand metropolis.

The Res Gestae is the self-laudatory autobiography completed in 13 AD, just before his death, by the first Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Augustus. Most of the text is preserved in the Monumentum Ancyranum.

The Roman Baths of Ankara
Roman Baths of Ankara
were constructed by the Roman emperor Caracalla
Caracalla
(212–217) in honor of Asclepios, the God of Medicine, and built around three principal rooms: the caldarium (hot bath), the tepidarium (warm bath) and the frigidarium (cold bath) in a typically laid-out 80-by-120-metre (260-by-390-foot) classical complex.

An estimated 200,000 people lived in Ancyra in good times during the Roman Empire, a far greater number than was to be the case from after the fall of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the early 20th century. A small river, the Ankara
Ankara
Çayı, ran through the center of the Roman town. It has now been covered and diverted, but it formed the northern boundary of the old town during the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. Çankaya, the rim of the majestic hill to the south of the present city center, stood well outside the Roman city, but may have been a summer resort. In the 19th century, the remains of at least one Roman villa or large house were still standing not far from where the Çankaya Presidential Residence stands today. To the west, the Roman city extended until the area of the Gençlik Park and Railway Station, while on the southern side of the hill, it may have extended downwards as far as the site presently occupied by Hacettepe University. It was thus a sizeable city by any standards and much larger than the Roman towns of Gaul
Gaul
or Britannia.[citation needed] Ancyra's importance rested on the fact that it was the junction point where the roads in northern Anatolia
Anatolia
running north-south and east-west intersected, giving it major strategic importance for Rome's eastern frontier.[14] The great imperial road running east passed through Ankara
Ankara
and a succession of emperors and their armies came this way. They were not the only ones to use the Roman highway network, which was equally convenient for invaders. In the second half of the 3rd century, Ancyra was invaded in rapid succession by the Goths
Goths
coming from the west (who rode far into the heart of Cappadocia, taking slaves and pillaging) and later by the Arabs. For about a decade, the town was one of the western outposts of one of Palmyrean empress Zenobia
Zenobia
in the Syrian Desert, who took advantage of a period of weakness and disorder in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to set up a short-lived state of her own. The town was reincorporated into the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
under Emperor Aurelian
Aurelian
in 272. The tetrarchy, a system of multiple (up to four) emperors introduced by Diocletian
Diocletian
(284–305), seems to have engaged in a substantial programme of rebuilding and of road construction from Ankara
Ankara
westwards to Germe and Dorylaeum
Dorylaeum
(now Eskişehir). In its heyday, Roman Ankara
Ankara
was a large market and trading center but it also functioned as a major administrative capital, where a high official ruled from the city's Praetorium, a large administrative palace or office. During the 3rd century, life in Ancyra, as in other Anatolian towns, seems to have become somewhat militarized in response to the invasions and instability of the town. Byzantine history[edit] The city is well known during the 4th century as a centre of Christian activity (see also below), due to frequent imperial visits, and through the letters of the pagan scholar Libanius.[14] Bishop Marcellus of Ancyra and Basil of Ancyra were active in the theological controversies of their day, and the city was the site of no less than three church synods in 314, in 358, and in 375, the latter two in favour of Arianism.[14] The city was visited by Emperor Constans I (r. 337–350– ) in 347 and 350, Julian (r. 361–363– ) during his Persian campaign in 362, and Julian's successor Jovian (r. 363–364– ) in winter 363/364 (he entered his consulship while in the city). After Jovian's death soon after, Valentinian I(r. 364–375– ) was acclaimed emperor at Ancyra, and in the next year his brother Valens(r. 364–378– ) used Ancyra as his base against the usurper Procopius.[14] When the province of Galatia
Galatia
was divided sometime in 396/99, Ancyra remained the civil capital of Galatia
Galatia
I, as well as its ecclesiastical centre (metropolitan see).[14] Emperor Arcadius
Arcadius
(r. 395–408– ) frequently used the city as his summer residence, and some information about the ecclesiastical affairs of the city during the early 5th century is found in the works of Palladius of Galatia
Galatia
and Nilus of Galatia.[14] In 479, the rebel Marcian attacked the city, without being able to capture it.[14] In 610/11, Comentiolus, brother of Emperor Phocas (r. 602–610– ), launched his own unsuccessful rebellion in the city against Heraclius
Heraclius
(r. 610–641– ).[14] Ten years later, in 620 or more likely 622, it was captured by the Sassanid Persians during the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628. Although the city returned to Byzantine hands after the end of the war, the Persian presence left traces in the city's archaeology, and likely began the process of its transformation from a late antique city to a medieval fortified settlement.[14] In 654, the city was captured for the first time by the Arabs
Arabs
of the Rashidun Caliphate, under Muawiyah, the future founder of the Umayyad Caliphate.[14] At about the same time, the themes were established in Anatolia, and Ancyra became capital of the Opsician Theme, which was the largest and most important theme until it was split up under Emperor Constantine V
Constantine V
(r. 741–775– ); Ancyra then became the capital of the new Bucellarian Theme.[14] The city was attacked without success by Abbasid
Abbasid
forces in 776 and in 798/99. In 805, Emperor Nikephoros I
Nikephoros I
(r. 802–811– ) strengthened its fortifications, a fact which probably saved it from sack during the large-scale invasion of Anatolia
Anatolia
by Caliph Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
in the next year.[14] Arab sources report that Harun and his successor al-Ma'mun (r. 813–833– ) took the city, but this information is later invention. In 838, however, during the Amorium
Amorium
campaign, the armies of Caliph al-Mu'tasim (r. 833–842– ) converged and met at the city; abandoned by its inhabitants, Ancara was razed to the ground, before the Arab armies went on to besiege and destroy Amorium.[14] In 859, Emperor Michael III
Michael III
(r. 842–867– ) came to the city during a campaign against the Arabs, and ordered its fortifications restored.[14] In 872, the city was menaced, but not taken, by the Paulicians
Paulicians
under Chrysocheir.[14] The last Arab raid to reach the city was undertaken in 931, by the Abbasid
Abbasid
governor of Tarsus, Thamal al-Dulafi, but the city again was not captured.[14] Turkic rulers[edit]

President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
(center) and Prime Minister İsmet İnönü (left) leaving the Grand National Assembly of Turkey
Turkey
during the 7th anniversary celebrations of the Turkish Republic in 1930.

A view of the old general directorate building of Ziraat Bank. It was designed by Istanbul-born Italian Levantine architect Giulio Mongeri and built between 1926 and 1929.

After the Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
in 1071, the Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
overran much of Anatolia. By 1073, the Turkish settlers had reached the vicinity of Ancyra, and the city was captured shortly after, at the latest by the time of the rebellion of Nikephoros Melissenos in 1081.[14] In 1101, when the Crusade under Raymond IV of Toulouse
Raymond IV of Toulouse
arrived, the city had been under Danishmend
Danishmend
control for some time. The Crusaders captured the city, and handed it over to the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118– ).[14] Byzantine rule did not last long, and the city was captured by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Sultanate of Rum
at some unknown point; in 1127, it returned to Danishmend
Danishmend
control until 1143, when the Seljuks of Rum retook it.[14] After the Battle of Köse Dağ
Battle of Köse Dağ
in 1243, in which the Mongols defeated the Seljuks, most of Anatolia
Anatolia
became part of the dominion of the Mongols. Taking advantage of Seljuk decline, a semi-religious cast of craftsmen and trade people named Ahiler chose Ankara
Ankara
as their independent city-state in 1290. Orhan I, the second Bey of the Ottoman Empire, captured the city in 1356. Timur
Timur
defeated Bayezid I
Bayezid I
at the Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
in 1402 and took the city, but in 1403 Ankara
Ankara
was again under Ottoman control. The Levant Company
Levant Company
maintained a factory in the town from 1639 to 1768.[5] In the 19th century, its population was estimated at 20,000 to 60,000.[9] It was sacked by Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha in 1832.[5] Prior to World War I, the town had a British consulate and a population of around 28,000, roughly ⅓ of whom were Christian.[5] Turkish republican capital[edit]

Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays such as Republic Day on October 29.

Kızılay Square
Kızılay Square
during the early years of the Turkish Republic, with the later relocated Su Perileri (Water Fairies) fountain, c. 1930.[15][16]

Following the Ottoman defeat at World War I, the Ottoman capital Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern Istanbul) and much of Anatolia
Anatolia
were occupied by the Allies, who planned to share these lands between Armenia, France, Greece, Italy and the United Kingdom, leaving for the Turks the core piece of land in central Anatolia. In response, the leader of the Turkish nationalist movement, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, established the headquarters of his resistance movement in Ankara
Ankara
in 1920. After the Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence
was won and the Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres
was superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne, the Turkish nationalists replaced the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
with the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
on 29 October 1923. A few days earlier, Ankara
Ankara
had officially replaced Constantinople
Constantinople
as the new Turkish capital city, on 13 October 1923. After Ankara
Ankara
became the capital of the newly founded Republic of Turkey, new development divided the city into an old section, called Ulus, and a new section, called Yenişehir. Ancient buildings reflecting Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman history and narrow winding streets mark the old section. The new section, now centered on Kızılay Square, has the trappings of a more modern city: wide streets, hotels, theaters, shopping malls, and high-rises. Government offices and foreign embassies are also located in the new section. Ankara
Ankara
has experienced a phenomenal growth since it was made Turkey's capital in 1923, when it was "a small town of no importance".[17] In 1924, the year after the government had moved there, Ankara
Ankara
had about 35,000 residents. By 1927 there were 44,553 residents and by 1950 the population had grown to 286,781. Ankara
Ankara
continued to grow rapidly during the latter half of the 20th century and eventually outranked Izmir
Izmir
as Turkey's second largest city, after Istanbul. Ankara's urban population reached 4,587,558 in 2014, while the population of Ankara Province reached 5,150,072 in 2015.[3]

A panoramic view of the city from the Ankara
Ankara
castle and citadel

Ecclesiastical history[edit] Early Christian martyrs of Ancyra, about whom little is known, included Proklos and Hilarios who were natives of the otherwise unknown nearby village of Kallippi, and suffered repression under the emperor Trajan
Trajan
(98–117). In the 280s we hear of Philumenos, a Christian corn merchant from southern Anatolia, being captured and martyred in Ankara, and Eustathius.

St. Theodotus of Ancyra

As in other Roman towns, the reign of Diocletian
Diocletian
marked the culmination of the persecution of the Christians. In 303, Ancyra was one of the towns where the co-Emperors Diocletian
Diocletian
and his deputy Galerius
Galerius
launched their anti-Christian persecution. In Ancyra, their first target was the 38-year-old Bishop of the town, whose name was Clement. Clement's life describes how he was taken to Rome, then sent back, and forced to undergo many interrogations and hardship before he, and his brother, and various companions were put to death. The remains of the church of St. Clement can be found today in a building just off Işıklar Caddesi in the Ulus district. Quite possibly this marks the site where Clement was originally buried. Four years later, a doctor of the town named Plato and his brother Antiochus also became celebrated martyrs under Galerius. Theodotus of Ancyra is also venerated as a saint. However, the persecution proved unsuccessful and in 314 Ancyra was the center of an important council of the early church;[18] its 25 disciplinary canons constitute one of the most important documents in the early history of the administration of the Sacrament of Penance.[18] The synod also considered ecclesiastical policy for the reconstruction of the Christian Church
Christian Church
after the persecutions, and in particular the treatment of lapsi—Christians who had given in to forced paganism (sacrifices) to avoid martyrdom during these persecutions.[18]

The Column of Julian (362) was erected in honor of the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate's visit to Ancyra.

Though paganism was probably tottering in Ancyra in Clement's day, it may still have been the majority religion. Twenty years later, Christianity and monotheism had taken its place. Ancyra quickly turned into a Christian city, with a life dominated by monks and priests and theological disputes. The town council or senate gave way to the bishop as the main local figurehead. During the middle of the 4th century, Ancyra was involved in the complex theological disputes over the nature of Christ, and a form of Arianism
Arianism
seems to have originated there.[19] In 362–363, the Emperor Julian passed through Ancyra on his way to an ill-fated campaign against the Persians, and according to Christian sources, engaged in a persecution of various holy men.[20] The stone base for a statue, with an inscription describing Julian as "Lord of the whole world from the British Ocean to the barbarian nations", can still be seen, built into the eastern side of the inner circuit of the walls of Ankara
Ankara
Castle. The Column of Julian which was erected in honor of the emperor's visit to the city in 362 still stands today. In 375, Arian bishops met at Ancyra and deposed several bishops, among them St. Gregory of Nyssa. In the late 4th century, Ancyra became something of an imperial holiday resort. After Constantinople
Constantinople
became the East Roman capital, emperors in the 4th and 5th centuries would retire from the humid summer weather on the Bosporus to the drier mountain atmosphere of Ancyra. Theodosius II
Theodosius II
(408–450) kept his court in Ancyra in the summers. Laws issued in Ancyra testify to the time they spent there. The Metropolis of Ancyra
Metropolis of Ancyra
continued to be a residential see of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
until the 20th century, with about 40,000 faithful, mostly Turkish-speaking, but that situation ended as a result of the 1923 Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations. The earlier Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
put an end to the residential eparchy of Ancyra of the Armenian Catholic
Armenian Catholic
Church, which had been established in 1850.[21][22] It is also a titular metropolis of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Both the Ancient Byzantine Metropolitan archbishopric and the 'modern' Armenian eparchy are now listed by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as titular sees,[23] with separate apostolic successions. Armenian Catholic
Armenian Catholic
(titular) see[edit] In 1735 an Armenian Catholic
Armenian Catholic
diocese was established (Curiate Italian: Ancira degli Ameni). Having fallen into disuse, on 1850.04.30 it was restored. The Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
brought an effective end to the residential diocese,[21][22] which was only formally suppressed in 1972 and instantly transformed into an Armenian Catholic
Armenian Catholic
titular bishopric. The titular see has had a single occupant:

Mikail Nersès Sétian (1981.07.03 – death 2002.09.09), as Apostolic Exarch of United States
United States
of America and Canada of the Armenians (USA) (1981.07.03 – retired 1993.09.18) and as emeritate.

Latin
Latin
titular archbishopric[edit] No later than 1696, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
also established a Latin
Latin
Rite titular archbishopric of Ancyra. The last incumbent died in 1976. Economy and infrastructure[edit]

BDDK Building (1975)

A view of Kızılay Square
Kızılay Square
from the northwest, with the Kahramanlar Business Center (1959–1965).

Söğütözü
Söğütözü
business district in Ankara, as seen from the Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo, with the Armada Tower & Mall (2002) rising behind the Turkish flag.

The city has exported mohair (from the Angora goat) and Angora wool (from the Angora rabbit) internationally for centuries. In the 19th century, the city also exported substantial amounts of goat and cat skins, gum, wax, honey, berries, and madder root.[9] It was connected to Istanbul
Istanbul
by railway before the First World War, continuing to export mohair, wool, berries, and grain.[5] The Central Anatolia Region
Central Anatolia Region
is one of the primary locations of grape and wine production in Turkey, and Ankara
Ankara
is particularly famous for its Kalecik Karası
Kalecik Karası
and Muscat
Muscat
grapes; and its Kavaklıdere wine, which is produced in the Kavaklıdere neighbourhood within the Çankaya district of the city. Ankara
Ankara
is also famous for its pears. Another renowned natural product of Ankara
Ankara
is its indigenous type of honey ( Ankara
Ankara
Balı) which is known for its light color and is mostly produced by the Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo
Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo
in the Gazi district, and by other facilities in the Elmadağ, Çubuk and Beypazarı
Beypazarı
districts. Ankara
Ankara
is the center of the state-owned and private Turkish defence and aerospace companies, where the industrial plants and headquarters of the Turkish Aerospace Industries, MKE, ASELSAN, Havelsan, Roketsan, FNSS,[24] Nurol Makina,[25] and numerous other firms are located. Exports to foreign countries from these defence and aerospace firms have steadily increased in the past decades. The IDEF in Ankara
Ankara
is one of the largest international expositions of the global arms industry. A number of the global automotive companies also have production facilities in Ankara, such as the German bus and truck manufacturer MAN SE.[26] Ankara
Ankara
hosts the OSTIM Industrial Zone, Turkey's largest industrial park. A large percentage of the complicated employment in Ankara
Ankara
is provided by the state institutions; such as the ministries, undersecretariats, and other administrative bodies of the Turkish government. There are also many foreign citizens working as diplomats or clerks in the embassies of their respective countries. Transportation[edit] See also: Ankara
Ankara
Metro, Ankara
Ankara
Central Station, and Esenboğa International Airport

A subway train of the M2 line at the Kızılay station of the Ankara Metro

A TCDD HT65000
TCDD HT65000
high-speed train at the Ankara Central Station
Ankara Central Station
(1937)

The Electricity, Gas, Bus General Directorate (EGO)[27] operates the Ankara Metro
Ankara Metro
and other forms of public transportation. Ankara
Ankara
is currently served by a suburban rail named Ankaray
Ankaray
(A1) and three subway lines (M1, M2, M3) of the Ankara Metro
Ankara Metro
with about 300,000 total daily commuters, while an additional subway line (M4) is currently under construction. A 3.2 km (2.0 mi) long gondola lift with four stations connects the district of Şentepe to the Yenimahalle metro station.[28] The Ankara Central Station
Ankara Central Station
is a major rail hub in Turkey. The Turkish State Railways operates passenger train service from Ankara
Ankara
to other major cities, such as: Istanbul, Eskişehir, Balıkesir, Kütahya, İzmir, Kayseri, Adana, Kars, Elâzığ, Malatya, Diyarbakır, Karabük, Zonguldak
Zonguldak
and Sivas. Commuter rail
Commuter rail
also runs between the stations of Sincan and Kayaş. On 13 March 2009, the new Yüksek Hızlı Tren (YHT) high-speed rail service began operation between Ankara
Ankara
and Eskişehir. On 23 August 2011, another YHT high-speed line commercially started its service between Ankara
Ankara
and Konya. On 25 July 2014, the Ankara– Istanbul
Istanbul
high-speed line of YHT entered service.[29] Esenboğa International Airport, located in the north-east of the city, is Ankara's main airport. Ankara
Ankara
Public Transportation Statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Ankara, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 71 min. 17% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 16 min, while 28.% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 9.9 km, while 27% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[30]

Esenboğa International Airport

Politics[edit]

Ankara
Ankara
district Municipalities Turkish local elections, 2014

AK Party

20 / 25

CHP

2 / 25

MHP

2 / 25

Democrat

1 / 25

Ankara
Ankara
is politically a triple battleground between the ruling conservative Justice and Development Party (AKP), the opposition Kemalist centre-left Republican People's Party (CHP) and the nationalist far-right Nationalist Movement Party
Nationalist Movement Party
(MHP). The province of Ankara
Ankara
is divided into 25 districts. The CHP's key and almost only political stronghold in Ankara
Ankara
lies within the central area of Çankaya, which is the city's most populous district. While the CHP has always gained between 60 and 70% of the vote in Çankaya since 2002, political support elsewhere throughout Ankara
Ankara
is minimal. The high population within Çankaya, as well as Yenimahalle
Yenimahalle
to an extent, has allowed the CHP to take overall second place behind the AKP in both local and general elections, with the MHP a close third, despite the fact that the MHP is politically stronger than the CHP in almost every other district. Overall, the AKP enjoys the most support throughout the city. The electorate of Ankara
Ankara
thus tend to vote in favour of the political right, far more so than the other main cities of Istanbul
Istanbul
and İzmir. In retrospect, the 2013–14 protests against the AKP government were particularly strong in Ankara, proving to be fatal on multiple occasions.[31] Melih Gökçek
Melih Gökçek
has been the Metropolitan Mayor of Ankara
Ankara
since 1994 as a politician from the Welfare Party. He later joined the Virtue Party and then the AKP. Initially elected in the 1994 local elections, he was re-elected in 1999, 2004 and 2009. In the 2014 local election, Gökçek stood for a fifth term. The MHP metropolitan mayoral candidate for the 2009 local elections, conservative politician Mansur Yavaş, stood as the CHP candidate against Gökçek. In a heavily controversial election, Gökçek was declared the winner by just 1% ahead of Yavaş amid allegations of systematic electoral fraud. With the Supreme Electoral Council and courts rejecting Yavaş's appeals, he has declared intention to take the irregularities to the European Court of Human Rights. Although Gökçek was inaugurated for a fifth term, most election observers believe[32] that Yavaş was the winner of the election.[33][34][35][36][37][38] The city suffered from a series of terrorist attacks in 2015 and 2016, most notably on 10 October 2015; 17 February 2016; 13 March 2016; and 15 July 2016. Main sights[edit] Ancient/archeological sites[edit]

Ankara
Ankara
castle and citadel

At the Monumentum Ancyranum
Monumentum Ancyranum
(Temple of Augustus
Augustus
and Rome) in Ulus, the primary intact copy of Res Gestae written by the first Roman emperor Augustus
Augustus
survives.

Roman Baths of Ankara

Ankara
Ankara
Citadel[edit] The foundations of the Ankara
Ankara
castle and citadel were laid by the Galatians on a prominent lava outcrop (39°56′28″N 32°51′50″E / 39.941°N 32.864°E / 39.941; 32.864), and the rest was completed by the Romans. The Byzantines and Seljuks further made restorations and additions. The area around and inside the citadel, being the oldest part of Ankara, contains many fine examples of traditional architecture. There are also recreational areas to relax. Many restored traditional Turkish houses inside the citadel area have found new life as restaurants, serving local cuisine. The citadel was depicted in various Turkish banknotes during 1927–1952 and 1983–1989.[39] Roman Theatre[edit] The remains, the stage, and the backstage of the Roman theatre can be seen outside the castle. Roman statues that were found here are exhibited in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. The seating area is still under excavation. Temple of Augustus
Augustus
and Rome[edit] Main article: Monumentum Ancyranum The Augusteum,[40] now known as the Temple of Augustus
Augustus
and Rome, was built 25 x 20 BC following the conquest of Central Anatolia
Anatolia
by the Roman Empire. Ancyra then formed the capital of the new province of Galatia. After the death of Augustus
Augustus
in AD 14, a copy of the text of the Res Gestae Divi Augusti
Res Gestae Divi Augusti
(the Monumentum Ancyranum) was inscribed on the interior of the temple's pronaos in Latin
Latin
and a Greek translation on an exterior wall of the cella. The temple on the ancient acropolis of Ancyra was enlarged in the 2nd century and converted into a church in the 5th century. It is located in the Ulus quarter of the city. It was subsequently publicized by the Austrian ambassador Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq
Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq
in the 16th century. Roman Baths[edit] The Roman Baths of Ankara
Roman Baths of Ankara
have all the typical features of a classical Roman bath complex: a frigidarium (cold room), a tepidarium (warm room) and a caldarium (hot room). The baths were built during the reign of the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Caracalla
Caracalla
in the early 3rd century to honor Asclepios, the God of Medicine. Today, only the basement and first floors remain. It is situated in the Ulus quarter. Roman Road[edit] The Roman Road of Ankara
Roman Road of Ankara
or Cardo Maximus was found in 1995 by Turkish archaeologist Cevdet Bayburtluoğlu. It is 216 metres (709 feet) long and 6.7 metres (22.0 feet) wide. Many ancient artifacts were discovered during the excavations along the road and most of them are currently displayed at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations.[41][42] Column of Julian[edit] The Column of Julian or Julianus, now in the Ulus district, was erected in honor of the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Julian the Apostate's visit to Ancyra in 362. Mosques[edit] Kocatepe Mosque[edit]

Kocatepe Mosque
Kocatepe Mosque
is the largest mosque in Ankara

Kocatepe Mosque
Kocatepe Mosque
is the largest mosque in the city. Located in the Kocatepe quarter, it was constructed between 1967 and 1987 in classical Ottoman style with four minarets. Its size and prominent location have made it a landmark for the city. Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque[edit] Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque is located near the Presidency of Religious Affairs on the Eskişehir
Eskişehir
Road. Built in the Turkish neoclassical style, it is one of the largest new mosques in the city, completed and opened in 2013. It can accommodate 6 thousand people during general prayers, and up to 30 thousand people during funeral prayers. The mosque was decorated with Anatolian Seljuk style patterns.[43] Yeni (Cenab Ahmet) Mosque[edit] It is the largest Ottoman mosque in Ankara
Ankara
and was built by the famous architect Sinan in the 16th century. The mimber (pulpit) and mihrap (prayer niche) are of white marble, and the mosque itself is of Ankara stone, an example of very fine workmanship. Hacı Bayram Mosque[edit]

Hacı Bayram Mosque
Hacı Bayram Mosque
(1428)

This mosque, in the Ulus quarter next to the Temple of Augustus, was built in the early 15th century in Seljuk style by an unknown architect. It was subsequently restored by architect Mimar Sinan
Mimar Sinan
in the 16th century, with Kütahya
Kütahya
tiles being added in the 18th century. The mosque was built in honor of Hacı Bayram-ı Veli, whose tomb is next to the mosque, two years before his death (1427–28).[44] The usable space inside this mosque is 437 m2 (4,704 sq ft) on the first floor and 263 m2 (2,831 sq ft) on the second floor. Ahi Elvan Mosque[edit] It was founded in the Ulus quarter near the Ankara
Ankara
Citadel and was constructed by the Ahi fraternity during the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The finely carved walnut mimber (pulpit) is of particular interest.[45] Alâeddin Mosque[edit] The Alâeddin Mosque is the oldest mosque in Ankara. It has a carved walnut mimber, the inscription on which records that the mosque was completed in early AH 574 (which corresponds to the summer of 1178 AD) and was built by the Seljuk prince Muhiddin Mesud Şah (d. 1204), the Bey of Ankara, who was the son of the Anatolian Seljuk sultan Kılıç Arslan II (reigned 1156–1192.) Modern monuments[edit] Victory Monument[edit]

Top: Victory Monument (1927) Bottom: Hatti Monument (1978)

The Victory Monument (Turkish: Zafer Anıtı) was crafted by Austrian sculptor Heinrich Krippel in 1925 and was erected in 1927 at Ulus Square. The monument is made of marble and bronze and features an equestrian statue of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who wears a Republic era modern military uniform, with the rank Field Marshal.[46] Statue of Atatürk[edit] Located at Zafer Square
Zafer Square
(Turkish: Zafer Meydanı), the marble and bronze statue was crafted by the renowned Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica in 1927 and depicts a standing Atatürk who wears a Republic era modern military uniform, with the rank Field Marshal. Monument to a Secure, Confident Future[edit] This monument, located in Güven Park near Kızılay Square, was erected in 1935 and bears Atatürk's advice to his people: "Turk! Be proud, work hard, and believe in yourself." The monument was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 5 lira banknote of 1937–1952[47] and of the 1000 lira banknotes of 1939–1946.[48] Hatti Monument[edit] Erected in 1978 at Sıhhiye Square, this impressive monument symbolizes the Hatti Sun Disc (which was later adopted by the Hittites) and commemorates Anatolia's earliest known civilization. The Hatti Sun Disc has been used in the previous logo of Ankara Metropolitan Municipality. It was also used in the previous logo of the Ministry of Culture & Tourism. Inns[edit] Suluhan[edit]

Suluhan
Suluhan
Inn (1511)

Suluhan
Suluhan
is a historical Inn in Ankara. It is also called the Hasanpaşa Han. It is about 400 meters (1,300 ft) southeast of Ulus Square
Ulus Square
and situated in the Hacıdoğan neighbourhood. According to the vakfiye (inscription) of the building, the Ottoman era han was commissioned by Hasan Pasha, a regional beylerbey, and was constructed between 1508 and 1511, during the final years of the reign of Sultan Bayezid II.[49] There are 102 rooms (now shops) which face the two yards.[50] In each room there is a window, a niche and a chimney.[51] Çengelhan Rahmi Koç Museum[edit] Çengelhan Rahmi Koç Museum
Çengelhan Rahmi Koç Museum
is a museum of industrial technology situated in Çengel Han, an Ottoman era Inn which was completed in 1523, during the early years of the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. The exhibits include industrial/technological artifacts from the 1850s onwards. There are also sections about Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey; Vehbi Koç, Rahmi Koç's father and one of the first industrialists of Turkey, and Ankara
Ankara
city. Shopping[edit]

Atakule
Atakule
Tower (1989)

Armada shopping center (top) Kızılay shopping center (bottom)

Foreign visitors to Ankara
Ankara
usually like to visit the old shops in Çıkrıkçılar Yokuşu (Weavers' Road) near Ulus, where myriad things ranging from traditional fabrics, hand-woven carpets and leather products can be found at bargain prices. Bakırcılar Çarşısı (Bazaar of Coppersmiths) is particularly popular, and many interesting items, not just of copper, can be found here like jewelry, carpets, costumes, antiques and embroidery. Up the hill to the castle gate, there are many shops selling a huge and fresh collection of spices, dried fruits, nuts, and other produce. Modern shopping areas are mostly found in Kızılay, or on Tunalı Hilmi Avenue, including the modern mall of Karum (named after the ancient Assyrian merchant colonies called Kârum that were established in central Anatolia
Anatolia
at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC) which is located towards the end of the Avenue; and in Çankaya, the quarter with the highest elevation in the city. Atakule
Atakule
Tower next to Atrium Mall in Çankaya has views over Ankara
Ankara
and also has a revolving restaurant at the top. The symbol of the Armada Shopping Mall is an anchor, and there's a large anchor monument at its entrance, as a reference to the ancient Greek name of the city, Ἄγκυρα (Ánkyra), which means anchor. Likewise, the anchor monument is also related with the Spanish name of the mall, Armada, which means naval fleet. As Ankara
Ankara
started expanding westward in the 1970s, several modern, suburbia-style developments and mini-cities began to rise along the western highway, also known as the Eskişehir
Eskişehir
Road. The Armada,CEPA and Kentpark malls on the highway, the Galleria, Arcadium and Gordion in Ümitköy, and a huge mall, Real in Bilkent Center, offer North American and European style shopping opportunities (these places can be reached through the Eskişehir
Eskişehir
Highway.) There is also the newly expanded ANKAmall
ANKAmall
at the outskirts, on the Istanbul
Istanbul
Highway, which houses most of the well-known international brands. This mall is the largest throughout the Ankara
Ankara
region. In 2014 a few more shopping malls were open in Ankara. They are Next Level and Taurus on the Boulevard of Mevlana
Mevlana
(also known as Konya
Konya
Road). Culture[edit] The arts[edit]

The historic Evkaf Apartment (1929) is the headquarters of the Turkish State Theatres. The building also houses the Küçük Tiyatro
Küçük Tiyatro
and Oda Tiyatrosu.

Ankara Opera House
Ankara Opera House
of the Turkish State Opera and Ballet
Turkish State Opera and Ballet
(1933)

Bilkent Concert Hall

Turkish State Opera and Ballet, the national directorate of opera and ballet companies of Turkey, has its headquarters in Ankara, and serves the city with three venues:

Ankara Opera House
Ankara Opera House
(Opera Sahnesi, also known as Büyük Tiyatro) is the largest of the three venues for opera and ballet in Ankara.

Music[edit] Ankara
Ankara
is host to five classical music orchestras:

Presidential Symphony Orchestra
Presidential Symphony Orchestra
(Turkish Presidential Symphony Orchestra) Bilkent Symphony Orchestra
Bilkent Symphony Orchestra
(BSO) is a major symphony orchestra of Turkey. Hacettepe Symphony Orchestra was founded in 2003 and is currently conducted by Erol Erdinç. Başkent Oda Orkestrası (Chamber Orchestra of the Capital)[52]

There are four concert halls in the city:

CSO Concert Hall Bilkent Concert Hall
Bilkent Concert Hall
is a performing arts center in Ankara. It is located in the Bilkent University
Bilkent University
campus. MEB Şura Salonu (also known as the Festival Hall), It is noted for its tango performances. Çankaya Çağdaş Sanatlar Merkezi Concert Hall was founded in 1994.

The city has been host to several well-established, annual theatre, music, film festivals:

Ankara
Ankara
International Music Festival, a music festival organized in the Turkish capital presenting classical music and ballet programmes.

Ankara
Ankara
also has a number of concert venues such as Eskiyeni, IF Performance Hall, Jolly Joker, Kite, Nefes Bar, Noxus Pub, Passage Pub and Route, which host the live performances and events of popular musicians. Theatre[edit] The Turkish State Theatres
Turkish State Theatres
also has its head office in Ankara
Ankara
and runs the following stages in the city:

125. Yıl Çayyolu
Çayyolu
Sahnesi Büyük Tiyatro, Küçük Tiyatro, Şinasi Sahnesi, Akün Sahnesi, Altındağ Tiyatrosu, İrfan Şahinbaş Atölye Sahnesi, Oda Tiyatrosu, Mahir Canova Sahnesi, Muhsin Ertuğrul Sahnesi.

In addition, the city is served by several private theatre companies, among which Ankara
Ankara
Sanat Tiyatrosu, who have their own stage in the city center, is a notable example. Museums[edit] There are about 50 museums in the city. Museum of Anatolian Civilizations[edit]

A statue at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations

The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
(Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi) is situated at the entrance of the Ankara
Ankara
Castle. It is an old 15th century bedesten (covered bazaar)[53] that has been restored and now houses a collection of Paleolithic, Neolithic, Hatti, Hittite, Phrygian, Urartian and Roman works as well as a major section dedicated to Lydian treasures. Anıtkabir[edit] Anıtkabir
Anıtkabir
is located on an imposing hill, which forms the Anıttepe quarter of the city, where the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Republic of Turkey, stands. Completed in 1953, it is an impressive fusion of ancient and modern architectural styles. An adjacent museum houses a wax statue of Atatürk, his writings, letters and personal items, as well as an exhibition of photographs recording important moments in his life and during the establishment of the Republic. Anıtkabir
Anıtkabir
is open every day, while the adjacent museum is open every day except Mondays.

A panorama of Atatürk's Mausoleum. It is the most popular sight of Ankara. (Image with notes).

Ethnography Museum (1928)

State Art and Sculpture Museum
State Art and Sculpture Museum
(1930)

Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
(1921)

War of Independence Museum
War of Independence Museum
(1961)

METU Science and Technology Museum
METU Science and Technology Museum
(2003)

Ankara
Ankara
Ethnography Museum[edit] Ankara
Ankara
Ethnography Museum (Etnoğrafya Müzesi) is located opposite to the Ankara Opera House
Ankara Opera House
on Talat Paşa Boulevard, in the Ulus district. There is a fine collection of folkloric items, as well as artifacts from the Seljuk and Ottoman periods. In front of the museum building, there is a marble and bronze equestrian statue of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (who wears a Republic era modern military uniform, with the rank Field Marshal) which was crafted in 1927[54] by the renowned Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica.

The Ballet Dancers statues in Kavaklıdere were crafted by sculptor Metin Yurdanur

State Art and Sculpture Museum[edit] The State Art and Sculpture Museum
State Art and Sculpture Museum
(Resim-Heykel Müzesi) which opened to the public in 1980[55] is close to the Ethnography Museum and houses a rich collection of Turkish art from the late 19th century to the present day. There are also galleries which host guest exhibitions. Cer Modern[edit] Cer Modern is the modern-arts museum of Ankara, inaugurated on 1 April 2010. It is situated in the renovated building of the historic TCDD Cer Atölyeleri, formerly a workshop of the Turkish State Railways. The museum incorporates the largest exhibition hall in Turkey. The museum holds periodic exhibitions of modern and contemporary art as well as hosting other contemporary arts events. War of Independence Museum[edit] The War of Independence Museum
War of Independence Museum
(Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi) is located on Ulus Square. It was originally the first Parliament building (TBMM) of the Republic of Turkey. The War of Independence was planned and directed here as recorded in various photographs and items presently on exhibition. In another display, wax figures of former presidents of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
are on exhibit. Mehmet Akif Literature Museum Library[edit] The Mehmet Akif Literature Museum Library is an important literary museum and archive opened in 2011 and dedicated to Mehmet Akif Ersoy (1873–1936), the poet of the Turkish National Anthem. TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum[edit] The TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum
TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum
is an open-air museum which traces the history of steam locomotives. Ankara
Ankara
Aviation Museum[edit] Ankara
Ankara
Aviation Museum (Hava Kuvvetleri Müzesi Komutanlığı) is located near the Istanbul
Istanbul
Road in Etimesgut. The museum opened to the public in September 1998.[56] It is home to various missiles, avionics, aviation materials and aircraft that have served in the Turkish Air Force
Turkish Air Force
(e.g. combat aircraft such as the F-86 Sabre, F-100 Super Sabre, F-102 Delta Dagger, F-104 Starfighter, F-5 Freedom Fighter, F-4 Phantom; and cargo planes such as the Transall C-160.) Also a Hungarian MiG-21, a Pakistani MiG-19, and a Bulgarian MiG-17 are on display at the museum. METU
METU
Science and Technology Museum[edit] The METU Science and Technology Museum
METU Science and Technology Museum
(ODTÜ Bilim ve Teknoloji Müzesi) is located inside the Middle East Technical University campus. Sports[edit]

Ankara Arena
Ankara Arena
(2010)

As with all other cities of Turkey, football is the most popular sport in Ankara. The city has one football club currently competing in the Turkish Super League: Gençlerbirliği, founded in 1923, is known as the Ankara
Ankara
Gale or the Poppies because of their colors: red and black. They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1987 and 2001. Ankaragücü, founded in 1910, is the oldest club in Ankara
Ankara
and is associated with Ankara's military arsenal manufacturing company MKE. Ankaragücü used to play in the Turkish Super League until being relegated to the TFF First League at the end of the 2011–2012 season. They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1972 and 1981. Gençlerbirliği's B team, Hacettepe S.K.
Hacettepe S.K.
(formerly known as Gençlerbirliği OFTAŞ) played in the Turkish Super League for a while until being relegated. All of the aforementioned teams have their home at the Ankara
Ankara
19 Mayıs Stadium in Ulus, which has a capacity of 21,250 (all-seater).[57] A fourth team, Büyükşehir Belediye Ankaraspor, played in the Turkish Super League until 2010, when they were expelled. They have since returned to the Turkish Super League after winning the TFF First League
TFF First League
in the 2014–15 season and now go by the name of Osmanlıspor. Their home is the Osmanlı Stadyumu in the Sincan district of Yenikent, outside the city center. Ankara
Ankara
has a large number of minor teams, playing at regional levels: Bugsaşspor in Sincan; Etimesgut Şekerspor
Etimesgut Şekerspor
in Etimesgut; Türk Telekomspor owned by the phone company in Yenimahalle; Ankara Demirspor in Çankaya; Keçiörengücü, Keçiörenspor, Pursaklarspor, Bağlumspor in Keçiören; and Petrol Ofisi Spor
Petrol Ofisi Spor
owned by the oil company in Altındağ. Most of them, including Hacettepespor, play their matches at Cebeci İnönü Stadium
Cebeci İnönü Stadium
in the Cebeci district. In the Turkish Basketball League, Ankara
Ankara
is represented by Türk Telekom, whose home is the Ankara
Ankara
Arena, and CASA TED Kolejliler, whose home is the TOBB Sports Hall. Halkbank Ankara
Halkbank Ankara
is currently the leading domestic powerhouse in Men's Volleyball, having won many championships and cups in the Turkish Men's Volleyball League and even the CEV Cup
CEV Cup
in 2013. Ankara
Ankara
Buz Pateni Sarayı is where the ice skating and ice hockey competitions take place in the city. There are many popular spots for skateboarding which is active in the city since the 1980s. Skaters in Ankara
Ankara
usually meet in the park near the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The 2012-built THF Sport Hall hosts the Handball Super League and Women's Handball Super League matches scheduled in Ankara.[58] Parks[edit]

Göksu Park

Gençlik Parkı
Gençlik Parkı
(The Youth Park)

Ankara
Ankara
has many parks and open spaces mainly established in the early years of the Republic and well maintained and expanded thereafter. The most important of these parks are: Gençlik Parkı
Gençlik Parkı
(houses an amusement park with a large pond for rowing), the Botanical garden, Seğmenler Park, Anayasa Park, Kuğulu Park
Kuğulu Park
(famous for the swans received as a gift from the Chinese government), Abdi İpekçi
Abdi İpekçi
Park, Esertepe Parkı, Güven Park (see above for the monument), Kurtuluş Park (has an ice-skating rink), Altınpark
Altınpark
(also a prominent exposition/fair area), Harikalar Diyarı (claimed to be Biggest Park of Europe inside city borders) and Göksu Park. Gençlik Park was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 100 lira banknotes of 1952–1976.[59] Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo
Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo
(Atatürk Orman Çiftliği) is an expansive recreational farming area which houses a zoo, several small agricultural farms, greenhouses, restaurants, a dairy farm and a brewery. It is a pleasant place to spend a day with family, be it for having picnics, hiking, biking or simply enjoying good food and nature. There is also an exact replica of the house where Atatürk was born in 1881, in Thessaloniki, Greece. Visitors to the "Çiftlik" (farm) as it is affectionately called by Ankarans, can sample such famous products of the farm such as old-fashioned beer and ice cream, fresh dairy products and meat rolls/kebaps made on charcoal, at a traditional restaurant (Merkez Lokantası, Central Restaurant), cafés and other establishments scattered around the farm. Education[edit] Universities[edit] Ankara
Ankara
is noted, within Turkey, for the multitude of universities it is home to. These include the following, several of them being among the most reputable in the country:

Ankara
Ankara
University Başkent University TED University Altın Koza University Atılım University Turkish Aeronautical Association University Bilkent University Çankaya University Gazi University Hacettepe University Middle East Technical University TOBB University of Economics and Technology Ufuk University Yıldırım Beyazıt University Gülhane Military Medical Academy Turkish Military Academy Turkish National Police Academy

TOBB University of Economics and Technology

Ankara University
Ankara University
Faculty of History and Geography (1940)

Part of the METU
METU
campus, as seen from its MM Building

An auditorium in METU

The Medical School on the main campus of Hacettepe University
Hacettepe University
(1967)

Çankaya University
Çankaya University
(1997)

Fauna[edit] Angora cat[edit] Main article: Turkish Angora

Angora cat

Ankara
Ankara
is home to a world-famous domestic cat breed – the Turkish Angora, called Ankara
Ankara
kedisi ( Ankara
Ankara
cat) in Turkish. Turkish Angoras are one of the ancient, naturally occurring cat breeds, having originated in Ankara
Ankara
and its surrounding region in central Anatolia. They mostly have a white, silky, medium to long length coat, no undercoat and a fine bone structure. There seems to be a connection between the Angora Cats and Persians, and the Turkish Angora
Turkish Angora
is also a distant cousin of the Turkish Van. Although they are known for their shimmery white coat, currently there are more than twenty varieties including black, blue and reddish fur. They come in tabby and tabby-white, along with smoke varieties, and are in every color other than pointed, lavender, and cinnamon (all of which would indicate breeding to an outcross.) Eyes may be blue, green, or amber, or even one blue and one amber or green. The W gene which is responsible for the white coat and blue eye is closely related to the hearing ability, and the presence of a blue eye can indicate that the cat is deaf to the side the blue eye is located. However, a great many blue and odd-eyed white cats have normal hearing, and even deaf cats lead a very normal life if kept indoors. Ears are pointed and large, eyes are almond shaped and the head is massive with a two plane profile. Another characteristic is the tail, which is often kept parallel to the back. Angora rabbit[edit] Main article: Angora rabbit

Angora rabbit

The Angora rabbit
Angora rabbit
(Turkish: Ankara
Ankara
tavşanı) is a variety of domestic rabbit bred for its long, soft hair. The Angora is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, originating in Ankara
Ankara
and its surrounding region in central Anatolia, along with the Angora cat
Angora cat
and Angora goat. The rabbits were popular pets with French royalty in the mid-18th century, and spread to other parts of Europe by the end of the century. They first appeared in the United States
United States
in the early 20th century. They are bred largely for their long Angora wool, which may be removed by shearing, combing, or plucking (gently pulling loose wool.) Angoras are bred mainly for their wool because it is silky and soft. They have a humorous appearance, as they oddly resemble a fur ball. Most are calm and docile but should be handled carefully. Grooming is necessary to prevent the fiber from matting and felting on the rabbit. A condition called "wool block" is common in Angora rabbits and should be treated quickly.[60] Sometimes they are shorn in the summer as the long fur can cause the rabbits to overheat. Angora goat[edit] Main article: Angora goat

Angora goat

The Angora goat
Angora goat
(Turkish: Ankara
Ankara
keçisi) is a breed of domestic goat that originated in Ankara
Ankara
and its surrounding region in central Anatolia.[61] This breed was first mentioned in the time of Moses, roughly in 1500 BC.[62] The first Angora goats were brought to Europe by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, about 1554, but, like later imports, were not very successful. Angora goats were first introduced in the United States
United States
in 1849 by Dr. James P. Davis. Seven adult goats were a gift from Sultan Abdülmecid I
Abdülmecid I
in appreciation for his services and advice on the raising of cotton. The fleece taken from an Angora goat
Angora goat
is called mohair. A single goat produces between five and eight kilograms (11 and 18 pounds) of hair per year. Angoras are shorn twice a year, unlike sheep, which are shorn only once. Angoras have high nutritional requirements due to their rapid hair growth. A poor quality diet will curtail mohair development. The United States, Turkey, and South Africa are the top producers of mohair. For a long period of time, Angora goats were bred for their white coat. In 1998, the Colored Angora Goat
Goat
Breeders Association was set up to promote breeding of colored Angoras. Today, Angora goats produce white, black (deep black to greys and silver), red (the color fades significantly as the goat gets older), and brownish fiber. Angora goats were depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50 lira banknotes of 1938–1952.[63] Gallery[edit]

Atakule
Atakule
Tower (1989)

Sheraton Hotel & Convention Center (1991)

BDDK Building (1975), formerly Türkiye İş Bankası
Türkiye İş Bankası
headquarters, on Atatürk Boulevard

Kahramanlar Business Center
Kahramanlar Business Center
(1965) at Kızılay Square

Esenboğa International Airport
Esenboğa International Airport
(2006)

Esenboğa International Airport
Esenboğa International Airport
(2006)

The historic Ankara Palas
Ankara Palas
Hotel (1927)

The historic Ankara Palas
Ankara Palas
Hotel (1927)

Entrance of the State Art and Sculpture Museum
State Art and Sculpture Museum
(1927)

Yunus Emre Institute, originally the Tekel
Tekel
Building (1928)

The historic Ziraat Bank
Ziraat Bank
Building (1929)

Statue of Leyla Gencer in front of the Ankara Opera House
Ankara Opera House
(1933)

View of central Ankara
Ankara
from the Botanical Park

Güvenpark
Güvenpark
in Kızılay Square

The third and current Grand National Assembly of Turkey
Turkey
building (1938)

Crowne Plaza Hotel (2006)

Radisson Blu Hotel, originally Stad Oteli (1970), was designed in 1964 by Doğan Tekeli, Sami Sisa and Metin Hepgüler

Söğütözü
Söğütözü
business district in Yenimahalle, with the Armada Tower & Mall (2002) rising behind the Turkish flag

Armada Tower & Mall (2002)

Söğütözü
Söğütözü
business district in Yenimahalle

Intercity Bus Terminal in Yenimahalle, Ankara

TOBB Towers (2001)

Portakal Çiçeği Residence in Ankara

Halkbank Tower (1993) designed by Doğan Tekeli and Sami Sisa

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Turkey Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Ankara
Ankara
is twinned with:[64]

Seoul, South Korea
South Korea
(since 1971)[65][66] Islamabad, Pakistan
Pakistan
(since 1982) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Malaysia
(since 1984) Beijing, China
China
(since 1990)[67] Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(since 1992) Budapest, Hungary
Hungary
(since 1992) Khartoum, Sudan
Sudan
(since 1992) Moscow, Russia
Russia
(since 1992) Sofia, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(since 1992) Havana, Cuba
Cuba
(since 1993) Kiev, Ukraine
Ukraine
(since 1993) Ashgabat, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(since 1994) Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait
Kuwait
(since 1994) Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(since 1994)[68] Tirana, Albania
Albania
(since 1995)[69] Tbilisi, Georgia (since 1996)[70] Ufa, Bashkortostan, Russia
Russia
(since 1997) Bucharest, Romania
Romania
(since 1998) Hanoi, Vietnam
Vietnam
(since 1998) Manama, Bahrain
Bahrain
(since 2000) Mogadishu, Somalia
Somalia
(since 2000) Santiago, Chile
Chile
(since 2000) Astana, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(since 2001) Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(since 2003) Kabul, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(since 2003) Ulan Bator, Mongolia
Mongolia
(since 2003) Cairo, Egypt
Egypt
(since 2004) Chișinău, Moldova
Moldova
(since 2004)[71] Sana'a, Yemen
Yemen
(since 2004) Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(since 2004) Pristina, Kosovo
Kosovo
(since 2005) Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia
Russia
(since 2005) Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
(since 2005) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(since 2006) Minsk, Belarus
Belarus
(since 2007)[72] Zagreb, Croatia
Croatia
(since 2008)[73] Damascus, Syria
Syria
(since 2010) Bissau, Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
(since 2011) Washington, D.C., USA (since 2011)[74] Bangkok, Thailand
Thailand
(since 2012)[75] Tehran, Iran
Iran
(since 2013)[76]

Partner cities[edit]

Skopje, Macedonia (since 1995)[77] Vienna, Austria

See also[edit]

Ankara
Ankara
portal

Angora cat Angora goat Angora rabbit Ankara
Ankara
Agreement Ankara
Ankara
Arena Ankara
Ankara
Central Station Ankara
Ankara
Esenboğa International Airport Ankara
Ankara
Metro Ankara
Ankara
Province Ankara
Ankara
University ATO Congresium Basil of Ancyra Battle of Ancyra Battle of Ankara Clement of Ancyra Gemellus of Ancyra History of Ankara List of hospitals in Ankara
Ankara
Province List of mayors of Ankara List of municipalities in Ankara
Ankara
Province List of people from Ankara List of tallest buildings in Ankara Marcellus of Ancyra Monumentum Ancyranum Nilus of Ancyra Roman Baths of Ankara Synod of Ancyra Theodotus of Ancyra (bishop) Theodotus of Ancyra (martyr) Timeline of Ankara Treaty of Ankara Victory Monument (Ankara)

Notes[edit]

^ http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=27587 ^ "Ankara". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ a b "Turkey: Major cities and provinces". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2015-02-08.  ^ "Municipality of Ankara: Green areas per head". Ankara.bel.tr. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2010.  ^ a b c d e f Chisholm 1911, pp. 40–41. ^ "Judy Turman: Early Christianity
Early Christianity
in Turkey". Socialscience.tjc.edu. Archived from the original on 15 November 2002. Retrieved 29 June 2010.  ^ "Saffet Emre Tonguç: Ankara
Ankara
(Hürriyet Seyahat)". Hurriyet.com.tr. Retrieved 29 June 2010.  ^ Gorny, Ronald L. "Zippalanda and Ankuwa: The Geography of Central Anatolia
Anatolia
in the Second Millennium B.C." The Journal of the American Oriental Society. Vol. 117 (1997). ^ a b c Baynes 1878, p. 45. ^ "Ankara" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 16 April 2016.  ^ Türkiye istatistik kurumu Address-based population survey 2007. Retrieved on 9 October 2008. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.4.1., "Ancyra was actually older even than that." ^ Livy, xxxviii. 16 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Belke, Klaus (1984). "Ankyra". Tabula Imperii Byzantini, Band 4: Galatien und Lykaonien (in German). Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. pp. 126–130. ISBN 978-3-7001-0634-0.  ^ "Gezenadam: "Susuz Su Perileri"". GezenAdam.  ^ "İnat değil kent kazandı". hurriyet.com.tr. 2010-12-20.  ^ Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer ^ a b c Rockwell 1911. ^ Parvis 2006, pp. 325–345. ^ Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. p. Chapter 23.  ^ a b Bull Universi Dominici gregis, in Giovanni Domenico Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova et Amplissima Collectio, vol. XL, coll. 779–780 ^ a b F. Tournebize, v. II. Ancyre, évêché arménien catholique, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. II, Paris
Paris
1914, coll. 1543–1546 ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 832 ^ FNSS Savunma Sistemleri A.Ş. "FNSS Savunma Sistemleri A.Ş." FNSS Savunma Sistemleri A.Ş.  ^ " Nurol Makina ve Sanayi A.Ş." nurolmakina.com.tr.  ^ "MAN Turkiye". man.com.tr.  ^ "EGO Genel Müdürlüğü". Ego.gov.tr. Archived from the original on 23 November 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ "Largest urban ropeway on Eurasian continent opens to celebrations in Ankara". Leitner ropeways. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-21.  ^ "Successful inauguration of Ankara
Ankara
Istanbul
Istanbul
High Speed Line". uic.org.  ^ " Ankara
Ankara
Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017.  Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ^ "Turkish Protester Ethem Sarısülük Is Dead, Family Says [UPDATED]". The Huffington Post.  ^ "Turkey's Prime Minister: Erdoğan v. judges, again". The Economist. 411 (8883): 32–36. 19 April 2014.  ^ "Turkish opposition party will challenge Ankara
Ankara
vote – Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor.  ^ "Is Something Rotten In Ankara's Mayoral Election? A Very Preliminary Statistical Analysis – Erik Meyersson". Erik Meyersson.  ^ Joe Parkinson And Emre Peker (1 April 2014). "Turkish Opposition Cries Vote Fraud Amid Crackdown – WSJ". WSJ.  ^ "Turkey's opposition to contest Ankara
Ankara
local poll result, citing election fraud". voiceofrussia.com.  ^ "CHP's Ankara
Ankara
candidate vows to defend votes as police crack down on protest – POLITICS". hurriyetdailynews.com.  ^ "Turkey's Weirdest Mayor Won't Be Distracted By Electoral Fraud Allegations". VICE News.  ^ The citadel was depicted in the following Turkish banknotes:

On the obverse of the 1 lira banknote of 1927–1939 (1. Emission Group – One Turkish Lira – I. Series Archived 17 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine.). On the obverse of the 5 lira banknote of 1927–1937 (1. Emission Group – Five Turkish Lira – I. Series Archived 26 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine.). On the reverse of the 10 lira banknote of 1927–1938 (1. Emission Group – Ten Turkish Lira – I. Series Archived 26 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine.). On the reverse of the 10 lira banknote of 1938–1952 (2. Emission Group – Ten Turkish Lira – I. Series Archived 25 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.). On the reverse of the 100 lira banknotes of 1983–1989 (7. Emission Group – One Hundred Turkish Lira – I. Series Archived 3 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine. & II. Series Archived 3 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine.).

Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
Archived 3 June 2009 at WebCite. Banknote Museum. – Links retrieved on 20 April 2009. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-20.  ^ Chisholm 1911b, p. 953. ^ "Roma Yolu". arkitera.com. 14 March 2007. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ Sargın, Haluk (2012). Antik Ankara
Ankara
(in Turkish). Ankara: Arkadaş Yayınevi. pp. 126, 127, 128. ISBN 978-975-509-719-0.  ^ (in Turkish)Ahmet Hamdi Akseki Mosque has been opened for prayers Archived 18 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ SonTech Yazılım. ": Hacı Bayram-ı Veli :. hacıbayramveli, hacı bayramveli, haci bayrami veli, hacıbayram, nasihatleri, hacı bayram cami, hayatı, hacıbayram-ı veli". Hacibayramiveli.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ "Museums – Ankara.com: City guide of Turkey's Capital". Retrieved 8 July 2016.  ^ Ministry of Culture page. (in Turkish) ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
Archived 3 June 2009 at WebCite. The Banknotes of 2. Emission Group – Five Turkish Lira – I. SeriesArchived 3 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
Archived 3 June 2009 at WebCite. Banknote Museum: 2. Emission Group – One Thousand Turkish Lira – I. Series Archived 25 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. & II. Series Archived 12 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ History of Ankara
History of Ankara
(in Turkish) ^ "Eski Han'a yeni çehre: Suluhan/Kent Tarihi/milliyet blog". Retrieved 8 July 2016.  ^ Tuncer, Mehmet. "Ankara: ESKİ HAN'A YENİ ÇEHRE : SULUHAN". Retrieved 8 July 2016.  ^ "Index of /". Boorkestrasi.com. Archived from the original on 22 March 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2009.  ^ Planet, Lonely. "Museum of Anatolian Civilisations – Lonely Planet". Retrieved 8 July 2016.  ^ " Ethnography Museum of Ankara
Ethnography Museum of Ankara
– Müze". Retrieved 8 July 2016.  ^ " Ankara
Ankara
Art and Sculpture Museum Directorate". Retrieved 8 July 2016.  ^ " Turkish Air Force
Turkish Air Force
> Turkish Air Force
Turkish Air Force
> Air Force Museums > Ankara
Ankara
Aviation Museum". Retrieved 8 July 2016.  ^ " Ankara
Ankara
19 Mayıs Stadium". World Stadiums. Retrieved 29 June 2010.  ^ "Hentbol-Şampiyon kim olacak?". Sports TV (in Turkish). 20 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
Archived 3 June 2009 at WebCite. Banknote Museum: 5. Emission Group – One Hundred Turkish Lira – I. Series Archived 4 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine., II. Series Archived 4 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine., III. Series Archived 4 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine., IV. Series Archived 4 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine., V. Series Archived 4 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. & VI. Series Archived 4 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Angora Rabbit Breeds – How to Care for Your Angora Rabbit". Archived from the original on 25 January 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2009.  ^ Carol Ekarius (10 September 2008). Storey's Illustrated Breed Guide to Sheep, Goats, Cattle, and Pigs: 163 Breeds from Common to Rare. Storey Publishing. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-60342-037-2.  ^ "Angora Goats history". Daisyshillfarm.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2010.  ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
Archived 3 June 2009 at WebCite. Banknote Museum: 2. Emission Group – Fifty Turkish Lira – I. Series Archived 25 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.; 3. Emission Group – Fifty Turkish Lira – I. Series Archived 25 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. & II. Series Archived 12 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Sister Cities of Ankera". Ankera, Turkey: T.C. Ankara
Ankara
Büyükþehir Belediyesi Baþkanlýðý. Retrieved 2016-08-13.  ^ "International Cooperation: Sister Cities". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. www.seoul.go.kr. Archived from the original on 10 December 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2008.  ^ " Seoul
Seoul
-Sister Cities [via WayBackMachine]". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government (archived 2012-04-25). Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2013.  ^ "Sister Cities". Beijing
Beijing
Municipal Government. Retrieved 23 June 2009.  ^ daenet d.o.o. " Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Official Web Site: Sister cities". Sarajevo.ba. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2009.  ^ " Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Sister Cities". Tbilisi
Tbilisi
City Hall. Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Municipal Portal. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.  ^ "Oraşe înfrăţite (Twin cities of Minsk) [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Romanian). Primăria Municipiului Chişinău. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2013.  ^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk
Minsk
[via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk
Minsk
City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013.  ^ "Signing Sister City Protocol between Zagreb
Zagreb
and Ankara". Ankara Metropolitan Municipality. 27 October 2008. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012.  ^ "Frequently Asked Questions – Office of Protocol and International Affairs". District of Columbia. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ Bangkok
Bangkok
Metropolitan Administration; Greater Ankara
Ankara
Municipality (21 March 2012). "Friendship and cooperation agreement between Bangkok Metropolitan Administration of the Kingdom of Thailand
Thailand
and the Greater Ankara
Ankara
Municipality of the Republic of Turkey" (PDF).  ^ "Tehran, Ankara
Ankara
to Sign Sister City Agreement Today". FarsNews. Retrieved 2013-12-18.  ^ "Kardeş Kentleri Lists ve 5 Mayıs Avrupa Günü Kutlaması [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Turkish). Ankara
Ankara
Büyükşehir Belediyesi – Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2013. 

References[edit]

 Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878). "Angora". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 45.   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911b). "Ancyra". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 953.  Parvis, Sarah (2006). Marcellus of Ancyra And the Lost Years of the Arian Controversy 325–345. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-928013-1. 

43. ilişki durumu evli izle Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Angora". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 40–41.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rockwell, William Walker (1911). "Ancyra". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Further reading[edit]

"Members of Staff of the Museum" (2006). Guide book to The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. Ankara: "The association for the support and encouragement of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations." Dönmez offset (Printer). ISBN 978-975-17-2198-3. 

Sources and external links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Ankara
Ankara
(category)

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ankara.

Governorate of Ankara Municipality of Ankara GCatholic – (former and) Latin
Latin
titular see GCatholic – former and titular Armenian Catholic
Armenian Catholic
see Ankara
Ankara
Development Agency Esenboğa International Airport Geographic data related to Ankara
Ankara
at OpenStreetMap

v t e

City of Ankara

Bridges Culture Cycling Economy Education History (Timeline) Libraries Mayors Tallest buildings Topography Tourism

Transportation

AŞTİ Esenboğa Etimesgut Metro EGO

Museums

Anıtkabir Atatürk Museum Mansion Pembe Köşk Museum of Anatolian Civilizations Çengelhan Rahmi M. Koç Museum Ethnography Museum Feza Gürsey Science Center Mehmet Akif Ersoy
Mehmet Akif Ersoy
Literature Museum Library METU
METU
Science and Technology Museum MİT Museum of Espionage Roman Baths of Ankara State Art and Sculpture Museum TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum Ulucanlar Prison Museum War of Independence Museum

Theatres

125th Anniversary Çayyolu
Çayyolu
Stage Altındağ Theatre Ankara
Ankara
Opera House İrfan Şahinbaş Workshop Stage Küçük Theatre Mahir Canova Stage Muhsin Ertuğrul Stage Oda Theatre Şinasi Stage

Concert halls

Ankara
Ankara
Opera House Bilkent Concert Hall Çankaya Çağdaş Sanatlar Merkezi Concert Hall CSO Concert Hall IF Performance Hall Jolly Joker MEB Şura Salonu

Sport venues

Ankara
Ankara
19 Mayıs Stadium Ankara
Ankara
75th Anniversary Race Course Ankara
Ankara
Aktepe Stadium Ankara
Ankara
Arena ASKI Sport Hall Ankara
Ankara
Atatürk Sport Hall Başkent Volleyball Hall Cebeci İnönü Stadium Ankara
Ankara
Ice Skating Palace Selim Sırrı Tarcan Sport Hall THF Sport Hall Osmanlı Stadyumu

High schools

Atatürk Anadolu Lisesi Atatürk Lisesi Milli Piyango Anadolu Lisesi Science High School Dr. Binnaz Rıdvan Ege Anadolu Lisesi Gazi Anadolu Lisesi Lycée Français Charles de Gaulle, Ankara TED Ankara
Ankara
College Foundation Schools TVF Fine Arts and Sports High School

Universities Colleges

Ankara
Ankara
University Atılım University Bilkent University Çankaya University Gazi University Hacettepe University Hacettepe University
Hacettepe University
Ankara
Ankara
State Conservatory Middle East Technical University TOBB University of Economics and Technology Turkish National Police Academy Yıldırım Beyazıt University

Religious buildings

Ankara
Ankara
Synagogue Aslanhane Mosque Hacı Bayram Mosque Kocatepe Mosque Maltepe Mosque St. Térèse Church

Parks

Altınpark Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo Esertepe Park Gençlik Parkı Gökçek Park Göksu Park Güvenpark Kuğulu Park Wonderland Ankara

Streets Squares

7th Street Atatürk Boulevard Ayten Sokak Cinnah Caddesi Gazi Mustafa Kemal Boulevard İsmet İnönü
İsmet İnönü
Boulevard Kızılay Square Mevlana
Mevlana
Boulevard Mithatpaşa Avenue Sıhhiye Square Süslü Sokak Ulus Square Zafer Square

Others

Ankara
Ankara
Castle Çayyolu Hittite Sun Course Monument Kavaklıdere Keçiören
Keçiören
Gondola Roman Road of Ankara Victory Monument Tomb of Karyağdı Hatun

Central Anatolia
Anatolia
Region Turkey

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Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

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Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

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Capital cities of the Candidate Countries of the European Union

Turkey: Ankara

Serbia: Belgrade

Montenegro: Podgorica

Republic of Macedonia: Skopje

Albania: Tirana

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Ankara
Ankara
in Ankara Province
Ankara Province
of Turkey

Districts

Akyurt Altındağ Ayaş Bala Beypazarı Çamlıdere Çankaya Çubuk Elmadağ Etimesgut Evren Gölbaşı Güdül Haymana Kalecik Kazan Keçiören Kızılcahamam Mamak Nallıhan Polatlı Pursaklar Sincan Şereflikoçhisar Yenimahalle

List of Provinces by Region

Istanbul

Istanbul

West Marmara

Balıkesir Çanakkale Edirne Kırklareli Tekirdağ

Aegean

Afyonkarahisar Aydın Denizli İzmir Kütahya Manisa Muğla Uşak

East Marmara

Bilecik Bolu Bursa Düzce Eskişehir Kocaeli Sakarya Yalova

West Anatolia

Ankara Karaman Konya

Mediterranean

Adana Antalya Burdur Hatay Isparta Kahramanmaraş Mersin Osmaniye

Central Anatolia

Aksaray Kayseri Kırıkkale Kırşehir Nevşehir Niğde Sivas Yozgat

West Black Sea

Amasya Bartın Çankırı Çorum Karabük Kastamonu Samsun Sinop Tokat Zonguldak

East Black Sea

Artvin Giresun Gümüşhane Ordu Rize Trabzon

Northeast Anatolia

Ağrı Ardahan Bayburt Erzincan Erzurum Iğdır Kars

Central East Anatolia

Bingöl Bitlis Elazığ Hakkâri Malatya Muş Tunceli Van

Southeast Anatolia

Adıyaman Batman Diyarbakır Gaziantep Kilis Mardin Siirt Şanlıurfa Şırnak

Metropolitan municipalities are bolded.

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Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey

Adana Ankara Antalya Aydın Balıkesir Bursa Denizli Diyarbakır Erzurum Eskişehir Gaziantep Hatay İstanbul İzmir Kayseri Kocaeli Konya Kahramanmaraş Malatya Manisa Mardin Mersin Muğla Ordu Sakarya Samsun Şanlıurfa Tekirdağ Trabzon Van

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134850266 LCCN: n78095510 GND: 40020

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