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The 1996 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially referred to as the Centennial Olympic Games, was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated from July 19 to August 4, 1996, in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. A record 197 nations, all current IOC member nations, took part in the Games, fielding a total of 10,318 athletes. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) had voted in 1986 to separate the Summer and Winter Olympics (which had been held in the same year, every four years, since 1924) and to place them in alternating even-numbered years, beginning with the Winter Olympics in 1994. Thus, the 1996 Summer Games were the first to be staged in a different year from the Winter Games. Atlanta
Atlanta
became the fifth American city to host the Olympic Games and the third to host the Summer Olympics.

Contents

1 Organization

1.1 Bid 1.2 Costs 1.3 Venues 1.4 Marketing

2 Calendar 3 Games

3.1 Opening ceremony 3.2 Closing ceremony 3.3 Sports

4 Records

4.1 Medal count

5 Participating National Olympic Committees 6 Appraisal 7 Centennial Olympic Park
Centennial Olympic Park
bombing 8 Legacy 9 Broadcast rights 10 See also 11 Notes 12 External links

Organization[edit] Bid[edit] Main article: Bids for the 1996 Summer Olympics Atlanta
Atlanta
was selected on September 18, 1990, in Tokyo, Japan, over Athens, Belgrade, Manchester, Melbourne, and Toronto
Toronto
at the 96th IOC Session. Atlanta's bid to host the Summer Games that began in 1987 was considered a long-shot, since the U.S. had hosted the Summer Olympics 12 years earlier in Los Angeles. Atlanta's main rivals were Toronto, whose front-running bid that began in 1986 seemed almost sure to succeed after Canada
Canada
had held a successful 1988 Winter Olympics
1988 Winter Olympics
in Calgary, and Melbourne, Australia, who hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and after Brisbane, Australia's failed bid for the 1992 games (which were awarded to Barcelona) and prior to Sydney, Australia's successful 2000 Summer Olympics
2000 Summer Olympics
bid, they felt that the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
should return to Australia. If Melbourne
Melbourne
was awarded the games, 1996 would mark the 40th anniversary of the 1956 Summer Olympics, which were held in the same city. This would be Toronto's fourth failed attempt since 1960 (tried in 1960, 1964, and 1976, but defeated by Rome, Tokyo and Montreal).[1] The Athens
Athens
bid was based on the fact that 1996 marked 100 years since the first Summer Games in Greece
Greece
in 1896, though Athens
Athens
would eventually host the 2004 Summer Olympics. The initial push for 1996 coming to Atlanta
Atlanta
originated from Billy Payne
Billy Payne
and then Atlanta
Atlanta
mayor Andrew Young; their main push for the Olympics to come to Atlanta
Atlanta
was a motivation to showcase a changed and resurgent American South which was overcoming racial tensions from the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s and featured a robust and growing Southern economy to help offset international stereotypes that the region was still plagued with poverty.[2]

1996 Summer Olympics
1996 Summer Olympics
bidding results[3]

City NOC Name Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4 Round 5

Atlanta  United States 19 20 26 34 51

Athens  Greece 23 23 26 30 35

Toronto  Canada 14 17 18 22 —

Melbourne  Australia 12 21 16 — —

Manchester  Great Britain 11 5 — — —

Belgrade  FR Yugoslavia 7 — — — —

Costs[edit] The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Atlanta
Atlanta
1996 Summer Olympics
1996 Summer Olympics
at USD 4.1 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 151% in real terms.[4] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Atlanta
Atlanta
1996 compares with costs of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40-44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%. The 1996 Olympics was predicated on the financial model established by the 1984 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in Los Angeles. The cost to stage the Games was US$1.8 billion. U.S. Government funds were used for security, and around $500 million of taxpayer money was used on the physical infrastructure including streetscaping, road improvements, Centennial Olympic Park, expansion of airport, improvements in public transportation, and redevelopment of public housing projects[5] but neither paid for the actual Games nor the new Venues themselves.[6] To pay for the games, Atlanta
Atlanta
relied on commercial sponsorship and ticket sales, resulting in a profit of $19 million.[7][better source needed] Venues[edit] Main article: Venues of the 1996 Summer Olympics

The Georgia Dome

Bird's-eye view of the Omni Coliseum

The Alexander Memorial Coliseum

Events of the 1996 Games were held in a variety of areas. A number were held within the Olympic Ring, a 3 mi (4.8 km) circle from the center of Atlanta. Others were held at Stone Mountain, about 20 miles (32 km) outside of the city. To broaden ticket sales, other events, such as soccer, occurred in various cities in the Southeast.[8][9]

Alexander Memorial Coliseum
Alexander Memorial Coliseum
– Boxing Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium
Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium
– Baseball Centennial Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
– Opening/Closing Ceremonies, Athletics Clayton County International Park (Jonesboro, Georgia) – Beach Volleyball Forbes Arena – Basketball Georgia Dome
Georgia Dome
– Basketball (final), Gymnastics (artistic), Handball (men's final) Georgia International Horse Park
Georgia International Horse Park
(Conyers, Georgia) – Cycling (mountain), Equestrian, Modern pentathlon (riding, running) Georgia State University Sports Arena
Georgia State University Sports Arena
– Badminton Georgia Tech Aquatic Center – Diving, Modern pentathlon (swimming), Swimming, Synchronized Swimming, Water Polo Georgia World Congress Center
Georgia World Congress Center
– Fencing, Handball, Judo, Modern pentathlon (fencing, shooting), Table Tennis, Weightlifting, Wrestling Golden Park
Golden Park
(Columbus, Georgia) – Softball Herndon Stadium
Herndon Stadium
– Field hockey (final) Lake Lanier
Lake Lanier
(Gainesville, Georgia) – Canoeing (sprint), Rowing Legion Field
Legion Field
(Birmingham, Alabama) – Football Miami Orange Bowl
Miami Orange Bowl
(Miami, Florida) – Football Omni Coliseum
Omni Coliseum
– Volleyball (indoor final) Ocoee Whitewater Center
Ocoee Whitewater Center
(Polk County, Tennessee) – Canoeing (slalom) Panther Stadium
Panther Stadium
– Field hockey RFK Stadium
RFK Stadium
(Washington, D.C.) – Football Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
Tennis Center (Stone Mountain, Georgia) – Tennis Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
Park Archery Center (Stone Mountain, Georgia) – Archery Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
Park Velodrome (Stone Mountain, Georgia) – Cycling (track) Sanford Stadium
Sanford Stadium
(Athens, Georgia) at the University of Georgia
University of Georgia
– Football (final) Stegeman Coliseum
Stegeman Coliseum
(Athens, Georgia) at the University of Georgia
University of Georgia
– Gymnastics (rhythmic), Volleyball (indoor) Wassaw Sound
Wassaw Sound
(Savannah, Georgia) – Sailing Wolf Creek Shooting Complex – Shooting

Marketing[edit] The Olympiad's official theme, "Summon the Heroes", was written by John Williams, making it the third Olympiad at that point for which he had composed (official composer 1984; NBC's coverage composer 1988). The opening ceremony featured Céline Dion
Céline Dion
singing "The Power of the Dream", the official theme song of the 1996 Olympics. The mascot for the Olympiad was an abstract, animated character named Izzy. In contrast to the standing tradition of mascots of national or regional significance in the city hosting the Olympiad, Izzy was an amorphous, fantasy figure. The 1996 Olympics were the first to have two separate opening ceremony events. Savannah, because of its geographical separation from Atlanta, had its own opening ceremonies on July 18, 1996. The event featured "Worldwide Connection", a song composed by Savannah native Jeffrey Reed and a concert by Trisha Yearwood, a Georgia native. Atlanta's Olympic slogan "Come Celebrate Our Dream" was written by Jack Arogeti, a Managing Director at McCann-Erickson in Atlanta
Atlanta
at the time. The slogan was selected from more than 5,000[10] submitted by the public to the Atlanta
Atlanta
Convention and Visitors Bureau. Billy Payne noted that Jack "captured the spirit and our true motivation for the Olympic games."[11] Calendar[edit]

All times are in Eastern Daylight Time
Eastern Daylight Time
(UTC-4); the other, Birmingham, Alabama uses Central Daylight Time
Central Daylight Time
(UTC-5)

 ●  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  ●  Event finals  ●  Closing ceremony

Date July August

19th Fri 20th Sat 21st Sun 22nd Mon 23rd Tue 24th Wed 25th Thu 26th Fri 27th Sat 28th Sun 29th Mon 30th Tue 31st Wed 1st Thu 2nd Fri 3rd Sat 4th Sun

Archery

● ● ● ●

Athletics

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Badminton

● ● ● ● ●

Baseball

Basketball

Boxing

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Canoeing

● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Cycling

● ● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ●

● ●

Diving

Equestrian

● ● ●

● ●

Fencing

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Field hockey

● ●

Association football

Gymnastics

● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Handball

● ●

Judo

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Modern pentathlon

Rowing

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Sailing

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Shooting

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Softball

Swimming

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Synchronized swimming

Table tennis

● ● ● ●

Tennis

● ● ● ●

Volleyball

● ●

● ●

Water polo

Weightlifting

● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ●

Wrestling

● ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Total gold medals

16 13 17 10 15 10 15 20 24 22 10 16 17 19 29 18

Ceremonies ●

Date 19th Fri 20th Sat 21st Sun 22nd Mon 23rd Tue 24th Wed 25th Thu 26th Fri 27th Sat 28th Sun 29th Mon 30th Tue 31st Wed 1st Thu 2nd Fri 3rd Sat 4th Sun

July August

Games[edit] Opening ceremony[edit] Main article: 1996 Summer Olympics
1996 Summer Olympics
opening ceremony The ceremony began with a flashback from Barcelona
Barcelona
1992 Summer Olympics closing ceremony in August 1992 which showed the then president of the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
Juan Antonio Samaranch asking the athletes to compete in Atlanta
Atlanta
in 1996. Then, spirits rose in the northwest corner of the stadium, each representing one of the colors in the Olympic rings. They called the tribes of the world which after mixed percussion formed the Olympic rings while the youth of Atlanta
Atlanta
formed the number 100. Famed film composer John Williams composed the official overture for the 1996 Olympics, Summon the Heroes, his second overture for an Olympic games (the first being Olympic Fanfare and Theme
Olympic Fanfare and Theme
written for the 1984 Summer Olympics). The song "The Power of the Dream", composed by David Foster, was performed by Céline Dion
Céline Dion
accompanied by Foster on the piano, the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and the Centennial Choir (Morehouse College Glee Club, Spelman College
Spelman College
Glee Club and the Atlanta
Atlanta
Symphony Orchestra Chorus). Gladys Knight
Gladys Knight
sang "Georgia on My Mind", Georgia's official state song. There was also a showcase called "Welcome To The World", which featured cheerleaders, Chevrolet
Chevrolet
pick-up trucks, marching bands, and steppers, showcasing the American youth and a college football Saturday in the South, including the wave commonly seen in sporting events around the world. A showcase entitled "Summertime" focused on Atlanta
Atlanta
and the Old South with a placement on its beauty, spirit, music, history, culture, and rebirth after the American Civil War. Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali
lit the Olympic torch and later received a replacement gold medal for his boxing victory in the 1960 Summer Olympics. For the torch ceremony, more than 10,000 Olympic torches were manufactured by the American Meter Company and electroplated by Erie Plating Company. Each torch weighed about 3.5 pounds (1.6 kg) and was made primarily of aluminum, with a Georgia pecan wood handle and gold ornamentation.[12][13] Note: In 1996, Poledouris composed "The Tradition of the Games" for the Atlanta
Atlanta
Olympics opening ceremony that accompanied the memorable dance tribute to the athletes and goddesses of victory of the ancient Greek Olympics using silhouette imagery. Closing ceremony[edit] Main article: 1996 Summer Olympics
1996 Summer Olympics
closing ceremony Sports[edit]

Gold medal from the 1996 Summer Games

The 1996 Summer Olympic programme featured 271 events in the 26 sports. Softball, beach volleyball and mountain biking debuted on the Olympic program, together with women's association football and lightweight rowing.

Aquatics

Diving (4) Swimming (32) Synchronized swimming (1) Water polo (1)

Archery (4) Athletics (44) Badminton (5) Baseball (1) Basketball (2) Boxing (12)

Canoeing

Sprint (12) Slalom (4)

Cycling

Road (4) Track (8) Mountain biking
Mountain biking
(2)

Equestrian

Dressage (2) Eventing (2) Show jumping (2)

Fencing (10) Field hockey (2) Football (2) Gymnastics

Artistic (14) Rhythmic (2)

Handball (2) Judo (14) Modern pentathlon (1) Rowing (14) Sailing (10)

Shooting (15) Softball
Softball
(1) Table tennis (4) Tennis (4) Volleyball

Volleyball (2) Beach volleyball
Beach volleyball
(2)

Weightlifting (10) Wrestling

Freestyle (10) Greco-Roman (10)

In women's gymnastics, Lilia Podkopayeva
Lilia Podkopayeva
became the all-around Olympic champion. Podkopayeva also won a second gold medal in the floor exercise final and a silver on the beam – becoming the only female gymnast since Nadia Comăneci
Nadia Comăneci
to win an individual event gold after winning the all-round title in the same Olympics. Kerri Strug of the United States
United States
women's gymnastics team vaulted with an injured ankle and landed on one foot. The US women's gymnastics team won its first gold medal. Shannon Miller
Shannon Miller
of the United States
United States
won the gold medal on the balance beam event, the first time an American gymnast had won an individual gold medal in a non-boycotted Olympic games. The Spanish team won the first gold medal in the new competition of women's rhythmic group all-around. The team was formed by Estela Giménez, Marta Baldó, Nuria Cabanillas, Lorena Guréndez, Estíbaliz Martínez and Tania Lamarca. Amy Van Dyken
Amy Van Dyken
won four gold medals in the Olympic swimming pool, the first American woman to win four titles in a single Olympiad. Penny Heyns, swimmer of South Africa, won the gold medals in both the 100 metres and 200 metres breaststroke events. Michelle Smith of Ireland won three gold medals and a bronze in swimming. She remains her nation's most decorated Olympian. However, her victories were overshadowed by doping allegations even though she did not test positive in 1996. She received a four-year suspension in 1998 for tampering with a urine sample, though her medals and records were allowed to stand.

Women's 100 m hurdles at the Olympic stadium

In track and field, Donovan Bailey of Canada
Canada
won the men's 100 m, setting a new world record of 9.84 seconds at that time. He also anchored his team's gold in the 4 × 100 m relay. Michael Johnson won gold in both the 200 m and 400 m, setting a new world record of 19.32 seconds in the 200 m. Johnson afterward began disputing Bailey's unofficial title as the "world's fastest man", which later culminated in a 150-metre race between the two to settle the issue. Marie-José Pérec equaled Johnson's performance, although without a world record, by winning the rare 200 m/400 m double. Carl Lewis won his 4th long jump gold medal at the age of 35. In tennis, Andre Agassi
Andre Agassi
won the gold medal, which would eventually make him the first man and second singles player overall (after his eventual wife, Steffi Graf) to win the career Golden Slam, which consists of an Olympic gold medal and victories in the singles tournaments held at professional tennis' four major events (Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon, and US Open).

The Olympic flag waves at the 1996 games

There were a series of national firsts realized during the Games. Deon Hemmings became the first woman to win an Olympic gold medal for Jamaica
Jamaica
and the English-speaking West Indies. Lee Lai Shan
Lee Lai Shan
won a gold medal in sailing, the only Olympic medal
Olympic medal
that Hong Kong
Hong Kong
ever won as a British colony (1842–1997). This meant that for the only time, the colonial flag of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
was raised to the accompaniment of the British national anthem "God Save the Queen", as Hong Kong's sovereignty was later transferred to China
China
in 1997. The US women's soccer team won the gold medal in the first ever women's soccer event. For the first time, Olympic medals were won by athletes from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Burundi, Ecuador, Georgia, Hong Kong, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Mozambique, Slovakia, Tonga, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Another first in Atlanta
Atlanta
was that this was the first Olympics ever that not a single nation swept all three medals in a single event. Records[edit] Main article: World and Olympic records set at the 1996 Summer Olympics Medal count[edit] Main article: 1996 Summer Olympics
1996 Summer Olympics
medal table These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1996 Games.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total

1   United States
United States
(host nation) 44 32 25 101

2  Russia 26 21 16 63

3  Germany 20 18 27 65

4  China 16 22 12 50

5  France 15 7 15 37

6  Italy 13 10 12 35

7  Australia 9 9 23 41

8  Cuba 9 8 8 25

9  Ukraine 9 2 12 23

10  South Korea 7 15 5 27

Participating National Olympic Committees[edit]

Participants at Summer olympics 1996 Blue = Participating for the first time. Green = Have previously participated. Yellow square is host city (Atlanta)

Number of athletes

A total of 197 nations were represented at the 1996 Games, and the combined total of athletes was about 10,318.[14] Twenty-four countries made their Olympic debut this year, including eleven of the ex-Soviet countries that competed as part of the Unified Team in 1992. Russia competed independently for the first time since 1912, when it was the Russian Empire. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
competed as Yugoslavia. The 14 countries making their Olympic debut were: Azerbaijan, Burundi, Cape Verde, Comoros, Dominica, Guinea-Bissau, Macedonia, Nauru, Palestinian Authority, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Turkmenistan. The ten countries making their Summer Olympic debut (after competing at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer) were: Armenia, Belarus, Czech Republic, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Slovakia, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Uzbekistan. The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia
Slovakia
attended the games as independent nations for the first time since the breakup of Czechoslovakia, while the rest of the nations that made their Summer Olympic debut were formerly part of the Soviet Union.

Participating National Olympic Committees

 Afghanistan (1)  Albania (7)  Algeria (45)  American Samoa (7)  Andorra (8)  Angola (28)  Antigua and Barbuda (13)  Argentina (178)  Armenia (32)  Aruba (3)  Australia (424)  Austria (72)  Azerbaijan (23)  Bahamas (26)  Bahrain (5)  Bangladesh (4)  Barbados (13)  Belarus (157)  Belgium (61)  Belize (5)  Benin (5)  Bermuda (9)  Bhutan (2)  Bolivia (8)  Bosnia and Herzegovina (9)  Botswana (7)  Brazil (225)  British Virgin Islands (7)  Brunei (1)  Bulgaria (110)  Burkina Faso (5)  Burundi (7)  Cambodia (5)  Cameroon (15)  Canada (303)  Cape Verde (4)  Cayman Islands (9)  Central African Republic (5)  Chad (4)  Chile (21)  China (294)  Colombia (48)  Comoros (4)  Congo (5)  Cook Islands (3)  Costa Rica (11)  Croatia (84)  Cuba (164)  Cyprus (17)  Czech Republic (115)  Denmark (119)  Djibouti (5)  Dominica (6)  Dominican Republic (16)  Ecuador (19)  Egypt (29)  El Salvador (7)  Equatorial Guinea (5)  Estonia (43)  Ethiopia (18)  Fiji (17)  Finland (76)  France (299)  Gabon (7)  The Gambia (9)  Georgia (34)  Germany (465)  Ghana (35)  Great Britain (300)  Greece (121)  Grenada (5)  Guam (8)  Guatemala (26)  Guinea (5)  Guinea-Bissau (3)  Guyana (7)  Haiti (7)  Honduras (7)  Hong Kong (23)  Hungary (214)  Iceland (9)  India (49)  Indonesia (40)  Iran (18)  Iraq (3)  Ireland (78)  Israel (25)  Italy (346)  Ivory Coast (11)  Jamaica (45)  Japan (306)  Jordan (5)  Kazakhstan (96)  Kenya (52)  North Korea (24)  South Korea (300)  Kuwait (25)  Kyrgyzstan (33)  Laos (5)  Latvia (48)  Lebanon (1)  Lesotho (9)  Liberia (5)  Libya (5)  Liechtenstein (2)  Lithuania (61)  Luxembourg (6)  Macedonia (11)  Madagascar (11)  Malawi (2)  Malaysia (35)  Maldives (6)  Mali (3)  Malta (7)  Mauritania (4)  Mauritius (26)  Mexico (97)  Moldova (40)  Monaco (3)  Mongolia (16)  Morocco (34)  Mozambique (3)  Myanmar (3)  Namibia (8)  Nauru (3)  Nepal (6)  Netherlands (235)   Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles (6)  New Zealand (97)  Nicaragua (26)  Niger (3)  Nigeria (65)  Norway (98)  Oman (4)  Pakistan (24)  Palestine (2)  Panama (7)  Papua New Guinea (11)  Paraguay (7)  Peru (29)  Philippines (12)  Poland (165)  Portugal (106)  Puerto Rico (69)  Qatar (12)  Romania (165)  Russia (390)  Rwanda (4)  Saint Kitts and Nevis (10)  Saint Lucia (6)  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (8)  San Marino (1)  São Tomé and Príncipe (2)  Saudi Arabia (29)  Senegal (11)  Seychelles (9)  Sierra Leone (14)  Singapore (14)  Slovakia (71)  Slovenia (37)  Solomon Islands (1)  Somalia (4)  South Africa (84)  Spain (294)  Sri Lanka (9)  Sudan (4)  Suriname (7)  Swaziland (6)  Sweden (177)  Switzerland (114)  Syria (7)   Taiwan
Taiwan
(74)  Tajikistan (8)  Tanzania (7)  Thailand (37)  Togo (5)  Tonga (5)  Trinidad and Tobago (12)  Tunisia (51)  Turkey (53)  Turkmenistan (7)  Uganda (10)  Ukraine (231)  United Arab Emirates (4)  United States (646) (host)  Uruguay (14)  Uzbekistan (71)  Vanuatu (4)  Venezuela (39)  Vietnam (6)  Virgin Islands (12)  Samoa (5)  Yemen (4)  Yugoslavia (68)  Zaire (14)  Zambia (8)  Zimbabwe (13)

Appraisal[edit] Atlanta's heavy reliance on corporate sponsorship caused European Olympic officials to consider the Games to be overly commercialized. Coca-Cola, whose corporate headquarters is in Atlanta, received criticism for being the exclusive provider of soft drinks at Olympics venues.[15] In addition, the city of Atlanta
Atlanta
was found to have been competing with the IOC for advertising and sponsorship dollars. The city licensed street vendors who sold certain products over others, and therefore provided a presence for companies who were not official Olympic sponsors.[16][17] A report prepared by European Olympic officials after the Games was critical of Atlanta's performance in several key issues, including the level of crowding in the Olympic Village, the quality of available food, the accessibility and convenience of transportation, and the Games' general atmosphere of commercialism.[18] At the closing ceremony, IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch
Juan Antonio Samaranch
said in his closing speech, "Well done, Atlanta" and simply called the Games "most exceptional." This broke precedent for Samaranch, who had traditionally labeled each Games "the best Olympics ever" at each closing ceremony, a practice he resumed at the subsequent Games in Sydney in 2000.[19] Centennial Olympic Park
Centennial Olympic Park
bombing[edit] Main article: Centennial Olympic Park
Centennial Olympic Park
bombing

The marker at the entrance to Centennial Park in downtown Atlanta

The 1996 Olympics were marred by the Centennial Olympic Park
Centennial Olympic Park
bombing on July 27. Security guard Richard Jewell
Richard Jewell
discovered the pipe bomb and immediately notified law enforcement and helped evacuate as many people as possible from the area before it exploded. Although Jewell's quick actions are credited for saving many lives, the bombing killed spectator Alice Hawthorne, wounded 111 others, and caused the death of Melih Uzunyol by heart attack. Jewell was later considered a suspect in the bombing but was never charged, and he was exonerated in October 1996. In 2003, Eric Robert Rudolph was charged with and confessed to this bombing as well as the bombings of two abortion clinics and a gay bar. He stated "the purpose of the attack on July 27th was to confound, anger and embarrass the Washington government in the eyes of the world for its abominable sanctioning of abortion on demand."[20] He was sentenced to a life sentence at ADX Florence
ADX Florence
prison in Florence, Colorado. Legacy[edit]

The 1996 Olympic cauldron in 2011

The Flair Monument, erected in remembrance of the games

Preparations for the Olympics lasted more than six years and had an economic impact of at least $5.14 billion. Over two million visitors came to Atlanta, and approximately 3.5 billion people around the world watched part of the games on television. Although marred by the tragedy of the Centennial Olympic Park
Centennial Olympic Park
bombing, they were a financial success, due in part to TV rights contracts and sponsorships at record levels.[21] William Porter Payne
William Porter Payne
and Steve Spinner
Steve Spinner
led the U.S. marketing program which became a model for future Games. Beyond international recognition, the Games resulted in many modern infrastructure improvements. The mid-rise dormitories built for the Olympic Village, which became the first residential housing for Georgia State University
Georgia State University
(Georgia State Village), are now used by the Georgia Institute of Technology
Georgia Institute of Technology
(North Avenue Apartments). As designed, Centennial Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
was converted into Turner Field, which became the home of the Atlanta
Atlanta
Braves baseball team from 1997 to 2016. The Braves' former home, Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium, was demolished and the site became a parking lot for Turner Field. The Omni Coliseum
Omni Coliseum
was demolished that same year to make way for Philips Arena. Centennial Olympic Park, which was built for the events, is the city's lasting memorial of the games. The park initiated a revitalization of the surrounding area, and now serves as the hub for Atlanta's tourism district.[21] After the Braves' departure from Turner Field, Georgia State University acquired the stadium and surrounding parking lots and reconfigured the former Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
a second time into an American football stadium tentatively named Georgia State Stadium. The 1996 Olympics are the most recent edition of the Summer Olympics to be held in the United States. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
will host the 2028 Summer Olympics, 32 years after the games were held in Atlanta.[22] Broadcast rights[edit] revenue for television rights follows.[9]

 Argentina: ATC, El Trece, Telefe, América TV, Canal 9 Libertad, Telered Sports 24 (now TyC Sports), Video Cable Sport (now Cable Sport), CV Sports (now América Sports), 365 Sports, DeporTV, Buenos Aires Cable (BAC), Cablevisión, Multicanal, VCC and Telecentro  Australia: Seven Network, $30 million  Belgium: BRTN and RTBF  Brazil: Rede Globo, Rede Manchete, Rede Bandeirantes, Rede Record, SBT, SporTV
SporTV
and ESPN Brasil  Brunei: RTB and Astro  Bulgaria: BNT 1  Canada: CBC and Radio-Canada, $20.75 million  Chile: TVN, Universidad Católica de Chile
Chile
Televisión, Megavisión
Megavisión
and Chilevisión  China: CCTV  Colombia: Inravisión  Croatia: HRT  Czech Republic: ČT  Ecuador: Ecuavisa, SíTV  France: TF1
TF1
and FTV, EuroSports  FR Yugoslavia: RTS, RTCG  Germany: ARD and ZDF  Hong Kong: RTHK, ATV and TVB, $5 million  Hungary: Magyar Televízió  India: Doordarshan  Indonesia: RCTI, SCTV, TPI, ANTeve and Indosiar  Ireland: RTÉ  Italy: RAI  Japan: Atlanta
Atlanta
Japan
Japan
Pool, consortium of four Japanese broadcasters including NHK, $99.5 million  Macau: TDM  Macedonia (11) MKRTV  Malaysia: RTM, STMB, Mega TV and Philips ASTRO  Mexico: Televisa, TV Azteca  Netherlands: NPO  New Zealand: TVNZ  Norway: NRK  Paraguay: PTC, Telefuturo, SNT, Red Guaraní, Canal 13 RPC, Tigo Sports, Movistar Deportes, Personal Sports, CMM Sports, Antelco Sports, CMM, PCC, CVC, Mi Cable and VCC  Philippines: People's Television Network, and SkyCable  Poland: TVP  Portugal: RTP  Russia: Public Russian Television, VGTRK Olympiade  Singapore: Singapore
Singapore
Television Twelve (STV12) Prime 12 and Premiere 12[23]  South Korea: KBS, MBC and SBS, $9.75 million  Spain: TVE  Sweden: SVT   Switzerland: SRG SSR idee suisse  Taiwan: TTV, CTV and CTS, $1.9 million  Thailand: National Sports, $465 million  United Kingdom: BBC  United States: NBC (WXIA-11)  Venezuela: Venevision

See also[edit]

1990s portal United States
United States
portal Atlanta
Atlanta
portal

Olympics portal

1996 Summer Paralympics Olympic Games
Olympic Games
celebrated in the United States

1904 Summer Olympics
1904 Summer Olympics
– St. Louis 1932 Summer Olympics
1932 Summer Olympics
– Los Angeles 1932 Winter Olympics
1932 Winter Olympics
– Lake Placid 1960 Winter Olympics
1960 Winter Olympics
– Squaw Valley 1980 Winter Olympics
1980 Winter Olympics
– Lake Placid 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
– Los Angeles 1996 Summer Olympics
1996 Summer Olympics
– Atlanta 2002 Winter Olympics
2002 Winter Olympics
– Salt Lake City

Summer Olympic Games Olympic Games International Olympic Committee List of IOC country codes Use of performance-enhancing drugs in the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
– 1996 Atlanta

Notes[edit]

^ Edwards, Peter (July 24, 2015). " Toronto
Toronto
has made 5 attempts to host the Olympics. Could the sixth be the winner?" – via Toronto Star.  ^ "1996 Olympic Games". Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved February 24, 2013.  ^ "IOC Vote History". www.aldaver.com.  ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 18–20. SSRN 2804554 .  ^ "The Olympic Legacy in Atlanta
Atlanta
– [1999] UNSWLJ 38; (1999) 22(3) University of New South Wales Law Journal 902". Archived from the original on June 19, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.  ^ Applebome, Peter (August 4, 1996). "So, You Want to Hold an Olympics". The New York Times. Retrieved August 17, 2008.  ^ "Beijing Olympiad: Profit or Loss?". China
China
Internet Information Center. Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved August 17, 2008.  ^ Burbank, Matthew; et al. (2001). Olympic Dreams: The Impact of Mega Events on Local Politics. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 97.  ^ a b "Centennial Olympic Games" (PDF). la84foundation.org. Retrieved October 12, 2009.  ^ " Atlanta
Atlanta
Redefines Image With 'Come Celebrate Our Dream' Slogan". Seattle Times. February 19, 1995.  ^ "Congratulations Note from Billy Payne".  ^ Erie Times-News, "Erie Company's Olympic Work Shines", June 10, 1996, by Greg Lavine ^ Plating and Surface Finishing Magazine, August 1996 Issue ^ "Olympics OFFICIAL Recap". Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved 2007-05-19. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Collins, Glenn. "Coke's Hometown Olympics;The Company Tries the Big Blitz on Its Own Turf". New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2013.  ^ "Reporter Volume 29 Number 1". reporter-archive.mcgill.ca.  ^ Olympic bid smacks into $10M hurdle – fact mentioned in the 5th paragraph ^ "Olympic Games: Maligned Atlanta
Atlanta
meets targets". The Independent. United Kingdom. November 15, 1996. Archived from the original on May 26, 2010. Retrieved October 25, 2010.  ^ ESPN.com
ESPN.com
(October 1, 2000). "Samaranch calls these Olympics 'best ever'". Retrieved March 13, 2009.  ^ "On This Day: Bomb Explodes in Atlanta's Olympic Park". www.findingdulcinea.com. Retrieved 2015-09-28.  ^ a b Glanton, Dahleen (September 21, 2009). "Olympics' impact on Atlanta
Atlanta
still subject to debate". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 14, 2012.  ^ "L.A. officially awarded 2028 Olympic Games". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.  ^ "YouTube". www.youtube.com. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1996 Summer Olympics.

" Atlanta
Atlanta
1996". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  "Results and Medalists". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.  Official Report Vol. 1 Digital Archive from the LA84 Foundation of Los Angeles Official Report Vol. 2 Digital Archive from the LA84 Foundation of Los Angeles Official Report Vol. 3 Digital Archive from the LA84 Foundation of Los Angeles Time article New York Times article S. Zebulon Baker. "Whatwuzit?: The 1996 Atlanta
Atlanta
Summer Olympics Reconsidered", Southern Spaces, March 21, 2006.

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