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Verdun
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Imperial City of Verdun Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
of the Holy Roman Empire? – 1552Coat of armsCapital VerdunGovernment RepublicHistorical era Middle Ages •  Established Uncertain Enter start year •  Three Bis
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Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon
Napoleon
I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution
and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon; the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
(1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth (1813), and the Seventh and final (1815). Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France
France
in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic; he subsequently created a state with stable finances, a strong bureaucracy, and a well-trained army
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Central European Time
Central European Time
Central European Time
(CET), used in most parts of Europe
Europe
and a few North African
North African
countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC). The time offset from UTC
UTC
can be written as UTC+01:00
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Arrondissement
An arrondissement (/əˈrɒndɪsmənt/; French: [aʁɔ̃dismɑ̃]) is any of various administrative divisions of France, Belgium, Haiti, certain other Francophone countries, and the Netherlands.Contents1 Europe1.1 France1.1.1 Municipal arrondissement1.2 Belgium 1.3 Netherlands 1.4 Switzerland 1.5 Post-Soviet states2 Francophone
Francophone
Africa 3 North America3.1 Haiti 3.2 Quebec4 External linksEurope[edit] France[edit] Main article: Arrondissements of France The 101 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be roughly translated into English as districts. The capital of an arrondissement is called a subprefecture. When an arrondissement contains the prefecture (capital) of the department, that prefecture is the capital of the arrondissement, acting both as a prefecture and as a subprefecture
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Early Modern France
The Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
in the early modern period, from the Renaissance (circa 1500–1550) to the Revolution (1789–1804), was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(a Capetian cadet branch). This corresponds to the so-called Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
("old rule")
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Gauls
The Gauls
Gauls
were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul
Gaul
in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD). Their Gaulish language
Gaulish language
forms the main branch of the Continental Celtic languages. The Gauls
Gauls
emerged around the 5th century BC as the bearers of the La Tène culture north of the Alps
Alps
(spread across the lands between the Seine, Middle Rhine
Middle Rhine
and upper Elbe)
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4th Century
The 4th century
4th century
(per the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
and Anno Domini/Common era) was the time period which lasted from 301
301
to 400. In the West, the early part of the century was shaped by Constantine the Great, who became the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. Gaining sole reign of the empire, he is also noted for re-establishing a single imperial capital, choosing the site of ancient Byzantium
Byzantium
in 330 (over the current capitals, which had effectively been changed by Diocletian's reforms to Milan
Milan
in the West, and Nicomedeia in the East) to build the city soon called Nova Roma (New Rome); it was later renamed Constantinople
Constantinople
in his honor. The last emperor to control both the eastern and western halves of the empire was Theodosius I
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Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy or autocracy
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Population Without Double Counting
Population without double counting is an English translation of the French phrase Population sans doubles comptes. In France, for the purposes of the census, the INSEE has defined several population indicators that allow people who live in more than one place to be counted in each place, to study and keep count of population movement. So each commune in France
France
does not have only one figure for the population, but several; for example students may be counted both where they study and where they live when not studying
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INSEE Code
The INSEE code is a numerical indexing code used by the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) to identify various entities, including communes, départements. They are also used as national identification numbers given to people.Contents1 Created under Vichy 2 National identification numbers 3 History 4 SIREN and SIRET codes 5 Geographical codes 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksCreated under Vichy[edit]This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Central European Summer Time
Central European Summer Time
European Summer Time
(CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time
Central European Time
(UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year
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Daylight Saving Time
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
(DST), also daylight savings time or daylight time (United States) and summer time (United Kingdom, European Union, and others), is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn.[1] In effect, DST causes a lost hour of sleep in the spring and an extra hour of sleep in the fall.[2][3] George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895.[4] The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the 1970s energy crisis
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Latinisation Of Names
Latinisation (also spelled Latinization[1]: see spelling differences) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style.[1] It is commonly found with historical personal names, with toponyms and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation, which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic). This was often done in the classical to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by:transforming the name into Latin
Latin
sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir), or adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Time Zone
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. Time
Time
zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC) by a whole number of hours (UTC−12:00 to UTC+14:00), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (e.g. Newfoundland
Newfoundland
Standard Time
Time
is UTC−03:30, Nepal
Nepal
Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour
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