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The Meuse
Meuse
(/mjuːz/; French: la Meuse
Meuse
[møz]; Walloon: Moûze [muːs]) or Maas (Dutch: Maas [ˈmaːs]; Limburgish: Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France
France
and flowing through Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
before draining into the North Sea. It has a total length of 925 km (575 mi).

Contents

1 History 2 Etymology 3 Geography 4 Basin area

4.1 Tributaries

5 Distributaries 6 Départements, provinces and towns 7 Deutschlandlied mentioning 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] From 1301 the upper Meuse
Meuse
roughly marked the western border of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
with the Kingdom of France, after Count Henry III of Bar had to receive the western part of the County of Bar
County of Bar
(Barrois mouvant) as a French fief from the hands of King Philip IV. The border remained stable until the annexation of the Three Bishoprics
Three Bishoprics
Metz, Toul and Verdun
Verdun
by King Henry II in 1552 and the occupation of the Duchy of Lorraine by the forces of King Louis XIII in 1633. Its lower Belgian (Walloon) portion, part of the sillon industriel, was the first fully industrialized area in continental Europe.[2] The Meuse and its crossings were a key objective of the last major German WWII counter-offensive on the Western Front, the Battle of the Bulge (Battle of the Ardennes) in the winter of 1944/45. The Meuse
Meuse
is represented in the documentary "The River People" released in 2012 by Xavier Istasse.[3] Etymology[edit] The name Meuse
Meuse
is derived from the French name of the river which ultimately derives from the Celtic or Proto-Celtic name *Mosā. The Dutch name Maas descends from Middle Dutch Mase, which comes from the presumed but unattested Old Dutch
Old Dutch
form *Masa, from Proto-Germanic *Masō. Modern Dutch and German Maas and Limburgish
Limburgish
Maos preserve this Germanic form. Despite the similarity, the Germanic name is not derived from the Celtic name, judging from the change from earlier o into a, which is characteristic of the Germanic languages. Geography[edit]

The Meuse
Meuse
seen from SPOT satellite. The village in the lower right of the photo is Bogny-sur-Meuse; the village in the upper left is Revin

The Meuse
Meuse
rises in Pouilly-en-Bassigny, commune of Le Châtelet-sur- Meuse
Meuse
on the Langres
Langres
plateau in France
France
from where it flows northwards past Sedan (the head of navigation) and Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
into Belgium.[4] At Namur it is joined by the Sambre. Beyond Namur the Meuse
Meuse
winds eastwards, skirting the Ardennes, and passes Liège
Liège
before turning north. The river then forms part of the Belgian-Dutch border, except that at Maastricht
Maastricht
the border lies further to the west. In the Netherlands
Netherlands
it continues northwards through Venlo
Venlo
closely along the border to Germany, then turns towards the west, where it runs parallel to the Waal and forms part of the extensive Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, together with the Scheldt
Scheldt
in its south and the Rhine
Rhine
in the north. The river has been divided near Heusden
Heusden
into the Afgedamde Maas on the right and the Bergse Maas
Bergse Maas
on the left. The Bergse Maas continues under the name of Amer, which is part of De Biesbosch. The Afgedamde Maas
Afgedamde Maas
joins the Waal, the main stem of the Rhine
Rhine
at Woudrichem, and then flows under the name of Boven Merwede
Boven Merwede
to Hardinxveld-Giessendam, where it splits into Nieuwe Merwede
Nieuwe Merwede
and Beneden Merwede. Near Lage Zwaluwe, the Nieuwe Merwede
Nieuwe Merwede
joins the Amer, forming the Hollands Diep, which splits into Grevelingen
Grevelingen
and Haringvliet, before finally flowing into the North Sea. The Meuse
Meuse
is crossed by railway bridges between the following stations (on the left and right banks respectively):

Netherlands:

Hasselt
Hasselt
(Belgium) – Maastricht
Maastricht
(currently being put back online) Weert
Weert
- Roermond Blerick – Venlo Cuijk
Cuijk
– Mook-Molenhoek Ravenstein – Wijchen 's-Hertogenbosch
's-Hertogenbosch
– Zaltbommel

There are also numerous road bridges and around 32 ferry crossings. The Meuse
Meuse
is navigable over a substantial part of its total length: In the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium, the river is part of the major inland navigation infrastructure, connecting the Rotterdam-Amsterdam-Antwerp port areas to the industrial areas upstream: 's-Hertogenbosch, Venlo, Maastricht, Liège, Namur. Between Maastricht
Maastricht
and Maasbracht, an unnavigable section of the Meuse
Meuse
is bypassed by the 36 km Juliana Canal. South of Namur, further upstream, the river can only carry more modest vessels, although a barge as long as 100 m. can still reach the French border town of Givet. From Givet, the river is canalized over a distance of 272 kilometres. The canalized Meuse
Meuse
used to be called the "Canal de l'Est — Branche Nord" but was recently rebaptized into "Canal de la Meuse". The waterway can be used by the smallest barges that are still in use commercially (almost 40 metres long and just over 5 metres wide). Just upstream of the town of Commercy, the Canal de la Meuse
Meuse
connects with the Marne– Rhine
Rhine
Canal by means of a short diversion canal.[5] The Cretaceous sea reptile Mosasaur
Mosasaur
is named after the river Meuse. The first fossils of it were discovered outside Maastricht
Maastricht
1780.

A view of the Meuse
Meuse
in the French Ardennes
Ardennes
at Laifour

Basin area[edit]

The Meuse
Meuse
and the Rochers de Freÿr, in front of the Castle of Freÿr south of Dinant

The Meuse
Meuse
at Namur capital of Wallonia

The Meuse
Meuse
at Liège, third river port of Europe

The Meuse
Meuse
(Maas) at Maastricht

Meuse
Meuse
near Gennep

Meuse
Meuse
near Grave

Meuse
Meuse
near Appeltern

An international agreement was signed in 2002 in Ghent, Belgium
Belgium
about the management of the river amongst France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Belgium. Also participating in the agreement were the Belgian regional governments of Flanders, Wallonia, and Brussels (which is not in the basin of the Meuse
Meuse
but pumps running water into the Meuse). Most of the basin area (approximately 36,000 km2) is in Wallonia (12,000 km2), followed by France
France
(9,000 km2), the Netherlands
Netherlands
(8,000 km2), Germany (2,000 km2), Flanders (2,000 km2) and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(a few km2). An International Commission on the Meuse
Meuse
has the responsibility of the implementation of the treaty. The costs of this Commission are met by all these countries, in proportion of their own territory into the basin of the Meuse: Netherlands
Netherlands
and Wallonia
Wallonia
30%, France
France
15%, Germany 14.5%, Flanders
Flanders
5%, Brussels
Brussels
4.5%, Kingdom of Belgium
Belgium
and Luxemburg 0.5%. The map of the basin area of Meuse
Meuse
was joined to the text of the treaty.[6] On the cultural plan, the river Meuse, as a major communication route, is the origin of the Mosan art, principally ( Wallonia
Wallonia
and France). The first landscape painted in the Middle-Age was the landscape of Meuse. For instance Joachim Patinir
Joachim Patinir
[7] He was likely the uncle of Henri Blès who is sometimes defined as a Mosan landscape painter active during the second third of the 16th century (i.e., second generation of landscape painters) [8] Tributaries[edit] The main tributaries of the Meuse
Meuse
are listed below in downstream-upstream order, with the town where the tributary meets the river:

Dieze
Dieze
(near 's-Hertogenbosch)

Aa (in 's-Hertogenbosch) Dommel
Dommel
(in 's-Hertogenbosch)

Gender (in Eindhoven)

Raam (river in North Brabant)
Raam (river in North Brabant)
(in Grave) Niers
Niers
(in Gennep) Swalm
Swalm
(in Swalmen) Rur/Roer (in Roermond)

Wurm
Wurm
(in Heinsberg, Germany) Merzbach
Merzbach
(in Linnich, Germany) Inde
Inde
(in Jülich, Germany)

Geleenbeek
Geleenbeek
(near Maasbracht) Geul
Geul
(near Meerssen) Geer/ Jeker
Jeker
(in Maastricht) Voer/Fouron (in Eijsden) Berwinne/Berwijn (near Moelingen, part of Voeren) Ourthe
Ourthe
(in Liège)

Weser/ Vesdre
Vesdre
(near Liège) Amel/Amblève (in Comblain-au-Pont)

Salm (in Trois-Ponts) Warche
Warche
(near Malmedy)

Hoyoux
Hoyoux
(in Huy) Mehaigne
Mehaigne
(in Wanze) Sambre
Sambre
(in Namur) Houyoux
Houyoux
(in Namur) Bocq
Bocq
(in Yvoir) Molignée (in Anhée) Lesse
Lesse
(in Anseremme, part of Dinant) Viroin (in Vireux-Molhain) Semois
Semois
or Semoy (in Monthermé) Sormonne (in Warcq) Bar (near Dom-le-Mesnil) Chiers
Chiers
(in Bazeilles)

Othain
Othain
(in Montmédy)

Vair (in Maxey-sur-Meuse) Mouzon (in Neufchâteau, Vosges) Saônelle (in Coussey)

Distributaries[edit] Main articles: Bergse Maas, Afgedamde Maas, Oude Maas, and Nieuwe Maas

The lower part of the Rhine- Meuse
Meuse
Delta

The mean annual discharge rate of the Meuse
Meuse
has been relatively stable over the last few thousand years. One recent study estimates that average flow has increased about 10% since 2000 BC.[9] The hydrological distribution of the Meuse
Meuse
changed during the later Middle Ages, when a major flood forced it to shift its main course northwards towards the river Merwede. From then on, several stretches of the original Merwede
Merwede
were named "Maas" (i.e. Meuse) instead and served as the primary outflow of that river. Those branches are currently known as the Nieuwe Maas
Nieuwe Maas
and Oude Maas. However, during another series of severe floods the Meuse
Meuse
found an additional path towards the sea, resulting in the creation of the Biesbosch
Biesbosch
wetlands and Hollands Diep
Hollands Diep
estuaries. Thereafter, the Meuse split near Heusden
Heusden
into two main distributaries, one flowing north to join the Merwede, and one flowing directly to the sea. The branch of the Meuse
Meuse
leading directly to the sea eventually silted up, (and now forms the Oude Maasje
Oude Maasje
stream), but in 1904 the canalised Bergse Maas was dug to take over the functions of the silted-up branch. At the same time, the branch leading to the Merwede
Merwede
was dammed at Heusden, (and has since been known as the Afgedamde Maas) so that little water from the Meuse
Meuse
entered the old Maas courses, or the Rhine distributaries. The resulting separation of the rivers Rhine
Rhine
and Meuse is considered to be the greatest achievement in Dutch hydraulic engineering before the completion of the Zuiderzee Works
Zuiderzee Works
and Delta Works.[10][11] In 1970 the Haringvlietdam
Haringvlietdam
has been finished. Since then the reunited Rhine
Rhine
and Meuse
Meuse
waters reach the North Sea
North Sea
either at this site or, during times of lower discharges of the Rhine, at Hoek van Holland.[12] A 2008 study[13] notes that the difference between summer and winter flow volumes has increased significantly in the last 100–200 years. These workers point out that the frequency of serious floods (i.e. flows > 1000% of normal) has increased markedly. They predict that winter flooding of the Meuse
Meuse
may become a recurring problem in the coming decades. Départements, provinces and towns[edit] The Meuse
Meuse
flows through the following departments of France, provinces of Belgium, provinces of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and towns:

Haute-Marne Vosges: Neufchâteau Meuse: Commercy, Saint-Mihiel, Verdun, Stenay Ardennes: Sedan, Charleville-Mézières, Givet Namur: Dinant, Namur Liège: Huy, Liège, Visé Limburg: Maastricht, Stein, Maasbracht, Roermond, Venlo, Gennep Limburg: Maaseik
Maaseik
(between Stein and Maasbracht) North Brabant: Boxmeer, Cuijk, Grave, Ravenstein, Lith, Heusden, Aalburg, Woudrichem Gelderland: Maasdriel South Holland: Dordrecht, Maassluis, Rotterdam

Deutschlandlied mentioning[edit] The Meuse
Meuse
(Maas) is mentioned in the first stanza of the Germany's old national anthem, the Deutschlandlied. However, since German reunification in 1989, only the third stanza of the Deutschlandlied has been sung as the German national anthem: the first and second stanzas being omitted. The lyrics written in 1841 describe a then–disunited Germany with the river as its western boundary, where King William I of the Netherlands
Netherlands
had joined the German Confederation with his Duchy of Limburg in 1839. Though the duchy's territory officially became an integral part of the Netherlands
Netherlands
by the 1867 Treaty of London, the text passage remained unchanged when the Deutschlandlied was declared the national anthem of the Weimar Republic in 1922. See also[edit]

1930 Meuse
Meuse
Valley fog

References[edit]

^ Marcel de Wit, Robert Leander, Adri Buishand: Extreme discharges in the Meuse
Meuse
basin Archived 2014-01-06 at the Wayback Machine., p. 2 (The frequently mentioned figure of 250 m³/s refers to the Borgharen gauge near the frontier between Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands representing two thirds of the basin.) ^ "Wallonie : une région en Europe" (in French). Ministère de la Région wallonne. Retrieved September 29, 2007.  ^ Presentation of The River People on Eurochannel ^ (in French) SANDRE Fiche cours d'eau La Meuse
Meuse
(B---0000) ^ NoorderSoft Waterways database ^ Accord international sur la Meuse ^ French: Les rochers par lesquels l'art gothique suggère conventionnellement un site sauvage et désertique, sont présents. Comme d'aucuns l'ont remarqué, ces pics rocheux qui vont devenir chez Patinier, indissociables de l'évocation d'un paysage ressemblent à ceux qu'il a pu voir dans la région dinantaise (...) Mais il va de soi que les paysages représentés ne sont jamais dans leur ensemble la transposition de sites existants. L'espace tel que le conçoit Patinier est d'un autre ordre que celui qui s'offre au spectateur dans la réalité. in 'L'essor du paysage' in Jacques Stiennon, Jean-Patrick Duchesne, Yves Randaxhe, Cinq siècles de peinture en Wallonie, Les éditeurs d'art associés, Bruxelles, 1988, p. 67-72. The landscape of the Mosan valley is the inspiration of Patinier but the result of this inspiration was not a painture of this landscape. ^ Contribution of scientific methods to the understanding of the work of the 16th century painter, Henri Bles Université de Liège ^ Ward PJ, H Renssen, JCJH Aerts, RT van Balen & J Vandenberghe (2008), "Strong increases in flood frequency and discharge of the River Meuse
Meuse
over the Late Holocene: impacts of long-term anthropogenic land use change and climate variability". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 12: 159-175. http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/12/159/2008/hess-12-159-2008.pdf [Ward et al., 2008] ^ Van der Aalst & De Jongh (2004). Honderd Jaar Bergse Maas
Bergse Maas
(in Dutch). Pictures Publishing. ISBN 90 73187 50 8.  ^ Wols, Rien (2011). "De Uitvoering van de Maasmondingswerken". Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum (in Dutch).  ^ Rijkswaterstaat: Water Management in the Netherlands, 2011 ^ Ward et al., 2008

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Meuse
Meuse
River.

Peace Palace Library's Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law regarding Meuse
Meuse
River Peace Palace Library's Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law regarding Meuse
Meuse
River

v t e

Rhine–Meuse– Scheldt
Scheldt
delta

Rhine Rijn Rhin

Current distributaries Waal Nederrijn IJssel Lek Merwede Boven Merwede Nieuwe Merwede Beneden Merwede Oude Maas Dordtsche Kil Noord Nieuwe Maas Het Scheur Nieuwe Waterweg

Former distributaries Kromme Rijn Leidse Rijn Oude Rijn Hollandse IJssel Vecht Waaltje Brielse Maas Spui

Current estuaries Nieuwe Waterweg IJsselmeer

Former estuaries Hollands Diep Haringvliet Volkerak Krammer Grevelingen Keeten-Mastgat Oosterschelde

Associated canals Bijlands Kanaal Pannerdens Kanaal Amsterdam– Rhine
Rhine
Canal Vaartse Rijn Nieuwe Merwede Nieuwe Waterweg Scheldt– Rhine
Rhine
Canal Maas–Waal Canal

Meuse Maas

Current distributaries Bergse Maas Amer

Former distributaries Oude Maasje Afgedamde Maas Merwede Boven Merwede Beneden Merwede Oude Maas Dordtsche Kil Noord Nieuwe Maas Het Scheur Nieuwe Waterweg

Current estuaries

Former estuaries Hollands Diep Haringvliet Volkerak Krammer Grevelingen Keeten-Mastgat Oosterschelde

Associated canals Heusden
Heusden
Canal Bergse Maas Maas–Waal Canal

Scheldt Schelde Escaut

Current distributaries Western Scheldt

Former distributaries Oosterschelde Eendracht

Current estuaries Western Scheldt

Former estuaries Oosterschelde Krammer Grevelingen

Associated canals Scheldt– Rhine
Rhine
Canal Canal through Walcheren

Other rivers (directly draining into the delta)

Linge Mark Donge Rotte Oude IJssel

Islands and Peninsulas

Rozenburg IJsselmonde Het Eiland van Dordt Voorne and Putten Hoeksche Waard Tiengemeten Goeree-Overflakkee Schouwen-Duiveland Tholen Sint Philipsland Walcheren Noord-Beveland Zuid-Beveland

Towns

Rotterdam Antwerp Dordrecht Bergen-op-Zoom Schiedam Vlissingen Vlaardingen Middelburg Spijkenisse

Other topics

Delta Works Verdronken Land van Reimerswaal Verdronken Land van Saeftinghe St. Elizabeth's flood (1421) St. Felix's Flood All Saints' Flood (1570)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 264054074 LCCN: sh85084469 GND: 4074410-3 BNF:

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