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Rose
See List of _Rosa_ species SYNONYMS * _Hulthemia_ Dumort. * ×_Hulthemosa_ Juz. (_Hulthemia_ × _Rosa_)A ROSE is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus _ROSA_, in the family Rosaceae , or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars . They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles . Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia , with smaller numbers native to Europe , North America , and northwestern Africa . Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height
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Roses (other)
ROSES are woody perennials of the genus Rosa. ROSES or ROSE\'S may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 In places * 2 In food and drink * 3 In media, arts, and entertainment * 3.1 In art * 3.2 In film and television * 3.3 In music * 4 In sports * 5 In other uses * 6 See also IN PLACES * Roses, Girona , Spain * Roses Stores , a discount store * Roses Theatre , cinema/theatre/venue in Gloucestershire, EnglandIN FOOD AND DRINKROSES may refer to: * Cadbury Roses , a confectionery * Rose\'s (marmalade) , a British marmalade owned by Premier Foods * Rose\'s lime juice , a British concentrated drinkIN MEDIA, ARTS, AND ENTERTAINMENTIN ART * Roses (Krøyer) , an 1893 painting by Danish painter P. S
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Rosa (other)
The name ROSA
ROSA
is derived from the Latin and botanic name of the flowering shrub Rose
Rose
, and also refers to the color pink in many Indo-European languages
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Rosa Rubiginosa
_ROSA RUBIGINOSA_ (SWEET BRIAR, SWEETBRIAR ROSE, SWEET BRIER or EGLANTINE; syn. _R. eglanteria_) is a species of rose native to Europe and western Asia . It is a dense deciduous shrub 2–3 m high and across, with the stems bearing numerous hooked prickles . The foliage has a strong apple -like fragrance. The leaves are pinnate, 5–9 cm long, with 5–9 rounded to oval leaflets with a serrated margin, and numerous glandular hairs. The flowers are 1.8–3 cm diameter, the five petals being pink with a white base, and the numerous stamens yellow; the flowers are produced in clusters of 2–7 together, from late spring to mid summer. The fruit is a globose to oblong red hip 1–2 cm diameter
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Eukaryota
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi are sometimes grouped in the kingdom PROTISTA . A EUKARYOTE (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/ ) is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes . Eukaryotes belong to the taxon EUKARYA or EUKARYOTA. The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells ( Bacteria and Archaea ) is that they have membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the genetic material and is enclosed by the nuclear envelope . The presence of a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name, which comes from the Greek εὖ (_eu_, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (_karyon_, "nut" or "kernel"). Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus . In addition, plants and algae contain chloroplasts
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Angiosperms
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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Rosids
The ROSIDS are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants , containing about 70,000 species , more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders , depending upon circumscription and classification . These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families . Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Relationships * 3 Classification * 3.1 Orders * 4 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
* 5 References * 6 External links NAMEThe name is based upon the name " Rosidae ", which had usually been understood to be a subclass
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Rosales
Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae (oleaster / Russian olive family) Moraceae (mulberry family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Rosaceae (rose family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) SYNONYMS Rhamnales Rosanae Urticales ROSALES is an order of flowering plants . It is sister to a clade consisting of Fagales and Cucurbitales . It contains about 7700 species , distributed into about 260 genera . Rosales comprise nine families , the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae . The largest of these families are Rosaceae (90/2500) and Urticaceae (54/2600). The order Rosales is divided into three clades that have never been assigned a taxonomic rank
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Rosaceae
ROSACEAE, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants , including 4,828 known species in 91 genera. The name is derived from the type genus _Rosa _. Among the most species-rich genera are _ Alchemilla _ (270), _ Sorbus _ (260), _ Crataegus _ (260), _ Cotoneaster _ (260), _ Rubus _ (250), and _Prunus _ (plums, cherries, peaches, apricots, and almonds) with about 200 species. However, all of these numbers should be seen as estimates – much taxonomic work remains. The Rosaceae family includes herbs, shrubs, and trees. Most species are deciduous, but some are evergreen. They have a worldwide range, but are most diverse in the Northern Hemisphere
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Rosoideae
About 35–40; see text The rose subfamily ROSOIDEAE consists of more than 850 species , including many shrubs , perennial herbs , and fruit plants such as strawberries and brambles . Only a few are annual herbs. The circumscription of the Rosoideae is still not wholly certain; recent genetic research has resulted in several changes at the genus level and the removal from Rosoideae of some genera (notably _ Cercocarpus _, _Cowania _, _Dryas _ and _ Purshia _) previously included in the subfamily
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala
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List Of Rosa Species
There is significant disagreement over the number of true rose species. Some species are so similar that they could easily be considered variations of a single species, while other species show enough variation that they could easily be considered to be different species. Lists of rose species usually show more than 360. CONTENTS * 1 Subgenera and sections * 2 Selected species * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SUBGENERA AND SECTIONS _ Rosa banksiae _ _ Rosa persica _ The genus _Rosa_ is subdivided into four subgenera: * _HULTHEMIA_ (formerly _Simplicifoliae_, meaning "with single leaves") containing one or two species from southwest Asia , _R. persica _ and _R. berberifolia_ (syn. _R. persica_ var. _berberifolia_) which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules . * _HESPERRHODOS_ (from the Greek for "western rose") has two species, both from southwestern North America
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