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Rose
See List of Rosa speciesSynonymsHulthemia Dumort. ×Hulthemosa Juz. (Hulthemia × Rosa)A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose
Rose
plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Sogdian Language
The Sogdian language
Sogdian language
was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia, located in modern-day Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjakent, Fergana, Khujand, and Bukhara), as well as some Sogdian immigrant communities in ancient China. Sogdian is one of the most important Middle Iranian languages, along with Bactrian, Khotanese Saka, Middle Persian, and Parthian. It possesses a large literary corpus. The Sogdian language
Sogdian language
is usually assigned to a Northeastern group of the Iranian languages
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Asia
Metropolitan areas of Asia List of cities in AsiaList Bangkok Beijing Busan Chittagong Delhi Dhaka Doha Dubai Guangzhou Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Istanbul Jakarta Karachi Kuala Lumpur Manila Mumbai Osaka Pyongyang Riyadh Shanghai Shenzhen Singapore Seoul Taipei[4] Tehran Tokyo Ulaanbaatar Asia
Asia
(/ˈeɪʒə, ˈeɪʃə/ ( listen)) is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe
Europe
and the continental landmass of Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
with both Europe
Europe
and Africa
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Hybrid (biology)
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction. Hybrids are not always intermediates between their parents (such as in blending inheritance), but can show hybrid vigour, often growing larger or taller than either parent. The concept of a hybrid is interpreted differently in animal and plant breeding, where there is interest in the individual parentage. In genetics, attention is focused on the numbers of chromosomes. In taxonomy, a key question is how closely related the parent species are. Species
Species
are reproductively isolated by strong barriers to hybridisation, which include morphological differences, differing times of fertility, mating behaviors and cues, and physiological rejection of sperm cells or the developing embryo. Some act before fertilization and others after it
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Oscan
Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language
Indo-European language
of southern Italy. The language is also the namesake of the language group to which it belonged. As a member of the Italic languages, Oscan is therefore a sister language to Latin
Latin
and Umbrian. Oscan was spoken by a number of tribes, including the Samnites,[3] the Aurunci
Aurunci
(Ausones), and the Sidicini. The latter two tribes were often grouped under the name "Osci". The Oscan group is part of the Osco-Umbrian
Osco-Umbrian
or Sabellic family, and includes the Oscan language
Oscan language
and three variants (Hernican, Marrucinian and Paelignian) known only from inscriptions left by the Hernici, Marrucini and Paeligni, minor tribes of eastern central Italy
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Aeolic Greek
In linguistics, Aeolic Greek
Aeolic Greek
(/iːˈɒlɪk/; also Aeolian /iːˈoʊliən/, Lesbian or Lesbic dialect) is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
spoken mainly in Boeotia
Boeotia
(a region in Central Greece); Thessaly, in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and the Greek colonies
Greek colonies
of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(Aeolis). The Aeolic dialect shows many archaisms in comparison to the other Ancient Greek dialects
Ancient Greek dialects
(Attic, Ionic, Doric, Northwestern and Arcadocypriot), as well as many innovations. Aeolic Greek
Aeolic Greek
is widely known as the language of Sappho
Sappho
and of Alcaeus of Mytilene
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Old Persian Language
Western Iranian languages Old Persian
Old Persian
(c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian
Old Persian
cuneiform Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts
Pahlavi scripts
Manichaean alphabet
Manichaean alphabet
Avestan
Avestan
alphabet Modern Persian
Modern Persian
(from 800) Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
• Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet Old Persian
Old Persian
is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan). Old Persian
Old Persian
appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier
Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier
Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier
(3 April 1797 in Tournai
Tournai
– 9 June 1878) was a Belgian who conducted a parallel career of botanist and Member of Parliament.Contents1 Biography 2 Botanist 3 Honours 4 Works 5 Literature 6 References 7 External linksBiography[edit] Barthélemy Dumortier was a son of the merchant and city councillor Barthélemy-François Dumortier and of Mariue-Jeanne Willaumez. He married Philippine Ruteau and they had a son, Barthélemy-Noël Dumortier (1830-1915). Barthélemy-Charles became politically active in the early eighteen twenties. In 1824 he founded the Courrier de l'Escaut, a paper critical of the government. He adhered in 1830 to the Belgian revolution. In 1831 he became a member of the first elected parliament of the new kingdom, as the member for Tournai. He remained elected until 1847
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Avestan Language
Avestan
Avestan
/əˈvɛstən/,[2] also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name. The language is classified as an Iranian language, a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages within the Indo-European family
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Parthian Language
The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran. Parthian was the language of state of the Arsacid Parthian Empire (248 BC – 224 AD), as well as of its eponymous branches of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, and the Arsacid dynasty of Caucasian Albania. This language had a huge impact on Armenian, a large part of whose vocabulary was formed primarily from borrowings from Parthian. Many ancient Parthian words were preserved, and now can be seen only in Armenian.Contents1 Classification 2 Written Parthian 3 Attestations 4 Extinction 5 See also 6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 General references7 External linksClassification[edit] Parthian was a Western Middle Iranian language. Language contact made it share some features of the Eastern Iranian language group, the influence of which is attested primarily in loanwords
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Africa
Africa
Africa
is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its total land area.[3] With 1.2 billion[1] people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Red Sea
along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Pinnate
Pinnation
Pinnation
(also called pennation) is the arrangement of feather-like or multi-divided features arising from both sides of a common axis. Pinnation
Pinnation
occurs in biological morphology, in crystals,[1] such as some forms of ice or metal crystals,[2][3] and in patterns of erosion or stream beds.[4] The term derives from the Latin word pinna meaning "feather", "wing", or "fin". A similar concept is pectination, which is a comb-like arrangement of parts (arising from one side of an axis only). Pinnation
Pinnation
is commonly referred to in contrast to palmation, in which the parts or structures radiate out from a common point
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Eudicots
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots.[1] The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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