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A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbs, shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, and are usually under 6 m (20 ft) tall.[1] Plants of many species may grow either into shrubs or trees, depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs, generally less than 2 m (6.6 ft) tall, such as lavender, periwinkle and most small garden varieties of roses, are often termed "subshrubs".[2]

Contents

1 Use in parks 2 Botanical structure 3 List of shrubs (bushes) 4 References

Use in parks[edit]

Euonymus
Euonymus
bushes in a garden

An area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery.[3] When clipped as topiary, suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together.[4] Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning, in which hard cutting back to a "stool" results in long new stems known as "canes".[clarification needed] Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to reveal their structure and character. Shrubs in common garden practice are generally considered broad-leaved plants, though some smaller conifers such as mountain pine and common juniper are also shrubby in structure. Species
Species
that grow into a shrubby habit may be either deciduous or evergreen.[5] Botanical structure[edit] See also: Shrubland

Shrub
Shrub
vegetation (with some cactus) in Webb County, Texas.

In botany and ecology, a shrub is more specifically used to describe the particular physical structural or plant life-form of woody plants which are less than 8 metres (26 ft) high and usually have many stems arising at or near the base. For example, a descriptive system widely adopted in Australia
Australia
is based on structural characteristics based on life-form, plus the height and amount of foliage cover of the tallest layer or dominant species.[6] For shrubs 2–8 metres (6.6–26.2 ft) high the following structural forms are categorized:

dense foliage cover (70–100%) — closed-shrub mid-dense foliage cover (30–70%) — open-shrub sparse foliage cover (10–30%) — tall shrubland very sparse foliage cover (<10%) — tall open shrubland

For shrubs less than 2 metres (6.6 ft) high the following structural forms are categorized:

dense foliage cover (70–100%) — closed-heath or closed low shrubland—(North America) mid-dense foliage cover (30–70%) — open-heath or mid-dense low shrubland—(North America) sparse foliage cover (10–30%) — low shrubland very sparse foliage cover (<10%) — low open shrubland

List of shrubs (bushes)[edit] Those marked with * can also develop into tree form.

A

Abelia (Abelia) Acer (Maple) * Actinidia
Actinidia
(Actinidia) Aloe
Aloe
(Aloe) Aralia
Aralia
(Angelica Tree, Hercules' Club) * Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
(Bearberry, Manzanita) * Aronia
Aronia
(Chokeberry) Artemisia (Sagebrush) Aucuba
Aucuba
(Aucuba)

B

Berberis
Berberis
(Barberry) Bougainvillea
Bougainvillea
(Bougainvillea) Brugmansia
Brugmansia
(Angel's trumpet) Buddleja
Buddleja
(Butterfly bush) Buxus
Buxus
(Box) *

C

Calia
Calia
(Mescalbean) Callicarpa
Callicarpa
(Beautyberry) * Callistemon
Callistemon
(Bottlebrush) * Calluna
Calluna
(Heather) Calycanthus
Calycanthus
(Sweetshrub) Camellia
Camellia
(Camellia, Tea) * Caragana
Caragana
(Pea-tree) * Carpenteria
Carpenteria
(Carpenteria) Caryopteris
Caryopteris
(Blue Spiraea) Cassiope
Cassiope
(Moss-heather) Ceanothus
Ceanothus
(Ceanothus) * Celastrus
Celastrus
(Staff vine) * Ceratostigma
Ceratostigma
(Hardy Plumbago) Cercocarpus
Cercocarpus
(Mountain-mahogany) * Chaenomeles
Chaenomeles
(Japanese Quince) Chamaebatiaria
Chamaebatiaria
(Fernbush) Chamaedaphne
Chamaedaphne
(Leatherleaf) Chimonanthus
Chimonanthus
(Wintersweet) Chionanthus
Chionanthus
(Fringe-tree) * Choisya
Choisya
(Mexican-orange Blossom) * Cistus
Cistus
(Rockrose) Clerodendrum
Clerodendrum
(Clerodendrum) Clethra
Clethra
(Summersweet, Pepperbush) * Clianthus
Clianthus
(Glory Pea) Colletia
Colletia
(Colletia) Colutea (Bladder Senna) Comptonia (Sweetfern) Cornus (Dogwood) * Corylopsis
Corylopsis
(Winter-hazel) * Cotinus
Cotinus
(Smoketree) * Cotoneaster
Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster) * Cowania (Cliffrose) Crataegus
Crataegus
(Hawthorn) * Crinodendron
Crinodendron
(Crinodendron) * Cytisus
Cytisus
and allied genera (Broom) *

D

Daboecia
Daboecia
(Heath) Danae (Alexandrian laurel) Daphne (Daphne) Decaisnea
Decaisnea
(Decaisnea) Dasiphora
Dasiphora
(Shrubby Cinquefoil) Dendromecon
Dendromecon
( Tree
Tree
poppy) Desfontainea
Desfontainea
(Desfontainea) Deutzia
Deutzia
(Deutzia) Diervilla
Diervilla
(Bush honeysuckle) Dipelta
Dipelta
(Dipelta) Dirca
Dirca
(Leatherwood) Dracaena (Dragon tree) * Drimys
Drimys
(Winter's Bark) * Dryas (Mountain Avens)

E

Edgeworthia
Edgeworthia
(Paper Bush) * Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus
(Elaeagnus) * Embothrium
Embothrium
(Chilean Firebush) * Empetrum
Empetrum
(Crowberry) Enkianthus
Enkianthus
(Pagoda Bush) Ephedra (Ephedra) Epigaea
Epigaea
(Trailing Arbutus) Erica
Erica
(Heath) Eriobotrya
Eriobotrya
(Loquat) * Escallonia
Escallonia
(Escallonia) Eucryphia
Eucryphia
(Eucryphia) * Euonymus
Euonymus
(Spindle) * Exochorda
Exochorda
(Pearl Bush)

F

Fabiana (Fabiana) Fallugia
Fallugia
(Apache Plume) Fatsia
Fatsia
(Fatsia) Forsythia
Forsythia
(Forsythia) Fothergilla
Fothergilla
(Fothergilla) Franklinia
Franklinia
(Franklinia) * Fremontodendron
Fremontodendron
(Flannelbush) Fuchsia
Fuchsia
(Fuchsia) *

G

Garrya
Garrya
(Silk-tassel) * Gaultheria
Gaultheria
(Salal) Gaylussacia
Gaylussacia
(Huckleberry) Genista
Genista
(Broom) * Gordonia (Loblolly-bay) * Grevillea
Grevillea
(Grevillea) Griselinia
Griselinia
(Griselinia) *

H

Hakea
Hakea
(Hakea) * Halesia
Halesia
(Silverbell) * Halimium
Halimium
(Rockrose) Hamamelis
Hamamelis
(Witch-hazel) * Hebe (Hebe) Hedera
Hedera
(Ivy) Helianthemum
Helianthemum
(Rockrose) Hibiscus
Hibiscus
(Hibiscus) * Hippophae
Hippophae
(Sea-buckthorn) * Hoheria
Hoheria
(Lacebark) * Holodiscus
Holodiscus
(Creambush) Hudsonia
Hudsonia
(Hudsonia) Hydrangea
Hydrangea
(Hydrangea) Hypericum
Hypericum
( Rose
Rose
of Sharon) Hyssopus (Hyssop)

I

Ilex
Ilex
(Holly) * Illicium
Illicium
(Star Anise) * Indigofera
Indigofera
(Indigo) Itea (Sweetspire)

J

Jamesia
Jamesia
(Cliffbush) Jasminum
Jasminum
(Jasmine) Juniperus
Juniperus
(Juniper) *

K

Kalmia
Kalmia
(Mountain-laurel) Kerria (Kerria) Kolkwitzia
Kolkwitzia
(Beauty-bush)

L

Lagerstroemia
Lagerstroemia
(Crape-myrtle) * Lapageria
Lapageria
(Copihue) Lantana
Lantana
(Lantana) Lavandula
Lavandula
(Lavender) Lavatera
Lavatera
( Tree
Tree
Mallow) Ledum
Ledum
(Ledum) Leitneria
Leitneria
(Corkwood) * Lespedeza
Lespedeza
(Bush Clover) * Leptospermum
Leptospermum
(Manuka) * Leucothoe (Doghobble) Leycesteria
Leycesteria
(Leycesteria) Ligustrum
Ligustrum
(Privet) * Lindera
Lindera
(Spicebush) * Linnaea
Linnaea
(Twinflower) Lonicera
Lonicera
(Honeysuckle) Lupinus
Lupinus
( Tree
Tree
Lupin) Lycium
Lycium
(Boxthorn)

M

Magnolia
Magnolia
(Magnolia) Mahonia
Mahonia
(Mahonia) Malpighia
Malpighia
(Acerola) Menispermum
Menispermum
(Moonseed) Menziesia (Menziesia) Mespilus
Mespilus
(Medlar) * Microcachrys
Microcachrys
(Microcachrys) Myrica
Myrica
(Bayberry) * Myricaria (Myricaria) Myrtus
Myrtus
and allied genera (Myrtle) *

N

Neillia
Neillia
(Neillia) Nerium
Nerium
(Oleander)

O

Olearia
Olearia
(Daisy bush) * Osmanthus
Osmanthus
(Osmanthus)

P

Pachysandra
Pachysandra
(Pachysandra) Paeonia (Tree-peony) Perovskia
Perovskia
(Russian Sage) Persoonia
Persoonia
(Geebungs) Philadelphus
Philadelphus
(Mock orange) * Phlomis
Phlomis
(Jerusalem Sage) Photinia
Photinia
(Photinia) * Physocarpus
Physocarpus
(Ninebark) * Pieris (Pieris) Pistacia
Pistacia
(Pistachio, Mastic) * Pittosporum
Pittosporum
(Pittosporum) * Plumbago
Plumbago
(Leadwort) Polygala
Polygala
(Milkwort) Poncirus
Poncirus
* Prunus
Prunus
(Cherry) * Purshia
Purshia
(Antelope Bush) Pyracantha
Pyracantha
(Firethorn)

Q

Quassia
Quassia
(Quassia) * Quercus (Oak) * Quillaja
Quillaja
(Quillay) Quintinia
Quintinia
(Tawheowheo) *

R

Rhamnus (Buckthorn) * Rhododendron
Rhododendron
(Rhododendron, Azalea) * Rhus
Rhus
(Sumac) * Ribes
Ribes
(Currant) Romneya
Romneya
( Tree
Tree
poppy) Rosa (Rose) Rosmarinus
Rosmarinus
(Rosemary) Rubus
Rubus
(Bramble) Ruta
Ruta
(Rue)

S

Sabia * Salix
Salix
(Willow) * Salvia
Salvia
(Sage) Sambucus
Sambucus
(Elder) * Santolina
Santolina
( Lavender
Lavender
Cotton) Sapindus
Sapindus
(Soapberry) * Senecio
Senecio
(Senecio) Simmondsia (Jojoba) Skimmia
Skimmia
(Skimmia) Smilax
Smilax
(Smilax) Sophora
Sophora
(Kowhai) * Sorbaria
Sorbaria
(Sorbaria) Spartium
Spartium
(Spanish Broom) Spiraea
Spiraea
(Spiraea) * Staphylea
Staphylea
(Bladdernut) * Stephanandra
Stephanandra
(Stephanandra) Styrax
Styrax
* Symphoricarpos
Symphoricarpos
(Snowberry) Syringa
Syringa
(Lilac) *

T

Tamarix
Tamarix
(Tamarix) * Taxus
Taxus
(Yew) * Telopea (Waratah) * Thuja
Thuja
cvs. (Arborvitae) * Thymelaea Thymus (Thyme) Trochodendron
Trochodendron
*

U

Ulex
Ulex
(Gorse) Ulmus pumila celer (Turkestan elm – Wonder Hedge)] Ungnadia
Ungnadia
(Mexican Buckeye)

V

Vaccinium
Vaccinium
(Bilberry, Blueberry, Cranberry) Verbena (Vervain) Viburnum
Viburnum
(Viburnum) * Vinca
Vinca
(Periwinkle) Viscum
Viscum
(Mistletoe)

W

Weigela
Weigela
(Weigela)

X

Xanthoceras Xanthorhiza
Xanthorhiza
(Yellowroot) Xylosma

Y

Yucca
Yucca
(Yucca, Joshua tree) *

Z

Zanthoxylum
Zanthoxylum
* Zauschneria Zenobia Ziziphus
Ziziphus
*

References[edit]

^ Anna Lawrence; William Hawthorne (2006). Plant
Plant
Identification: Creating User-friendly Field Guides for Biodiversity Management. Routledge. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-1-84407-079-4.  ^ Peggy Fischer (1990). Essential shrubs: the 100 best for design and cultivation. Friedman/Fairfax Publishers. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-56799-319-6. ... Examples of subshrubs include candytuft, lavender, and rosemary. These broad definitions are ...  ^ Patrick Whitefield (2002). How to Make a Forest Garden. Permanent Publications. pp. 113–. ISBN 978-1-85623-008-7.  ^ Varkulevicius, Jane (17 May 2010). " Pruning
Pruning
for Flowers and Fruit". Csiro Publishing. Retrieved 19 December 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Elliott, Franklin Reuben (1 November 2008). "Popular Deciduous
Deciduous
and Evergreen
Evergreen
Trees and Shrubs". Applewood Books. Retrieved 19 December 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Costermans, L. F. (1993) Native trees and shrubs of South-Eastern Australia. rev. ed. ISBN 0-947116-76-1

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