See List of Rosa species
Hulthemia Dumort. ×Hulthemosa Juz. (Hulthemia × Rosa)
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the
family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred
species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that
can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often
armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are
usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows
and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native
to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars
and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are
fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies.
2.1 Ornamental plants 2.2 Cut flowers 2.3 Perfume 2.4 Food and drink 2.5 Medicine 2.6 Culture
2.6.1 Art 2.6.2 Symbolism
3 Pests and diseases 4 See also 5 References 6 External links
Longitudinal section through a developing rose hip
Exterior view of rose buds
Size can be as small as a thumbnail
The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres (2.0 to 5.9 in) long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules; the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous but a few (particularly from South east Asia) are evergreen or nearly so.
The hybrid garden rose "Amber Flush"
The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of
Rosa sericea, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into
two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few
species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the
case of some Rosa sericea, four). These may be long enough to be
visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating
with the rounded petals. There are multiple superior ovaries that
develop into achenes. Roses are insect-pollinated in nature.
The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a
rose hip. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the
flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for
pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. Rosa
pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an
outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds"
(technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a
matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs.
While the sharp objects along a rose stem are commonly called
"thorns", they are technically prickles—outgrowths of the epidermis
(the outer layer of tissue of the stem). (True thorns, as produced by
Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, meaning "with single leaves") containing one or two species from southwest Asia, R. persica and Rosa berberifolia which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules. Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for "western rose") contains Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America. Platyrhodon (from the Greek for "flaky rose", referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii (also known as the chestnut rose). Rosa (the type subgenus, sometimes incorrectly called Eurosa) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.
Banksianae – white and yellow flowered roses from China.
Bracteatae – three species, two from
Rosa gallica Evêque, painted by Redouté
Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in
the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been also used for
commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as
landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such
as game cover and slope stabilization. They also have minor medicinal
Main article: Garden roses
The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their
flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or
scented foliage (such as
Hybrid tea rose
Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest
known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean
countries, Persia, and China. Many thousands of rose hybrids and
cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering
plants. Most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens
having mutated into additional petals.
In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized
the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As long
ago as 1840 a collection numbering over one thousand different
cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was
Bouquet of pink roses
Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers.
Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in
refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of
In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in glasshouses, and
in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to
ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pest and
disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities
are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to
markets across the world.
Some kind of roses are artificially coloured using dyed water, like
The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols
geraniol and L-citronellol and rose camphor, an odorless solid
composed of alkanes, which separates from rose oil. β-Damascenone
is also a significant contributor to the scent.
Food and drink
Medicine The rose hip, usually from R. canina, is used as a minor source of vitamin C. The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement. Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine. This and other species have been used for stomach problems, and are being investigated for controlling cancer growth. In pre-modern medicine, diarrhodon (Gr διάρροδον, "compound of roses", from ῥόδων, "of roses") is a name given to various compounds in which red roses are an ingredient. Culture Art Roses are a favored subject in art and appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements. The Luxembourg-born Belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is known for his detailed watercolours of flowers, particularly roses.
Plants portal Gardening portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rosa.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Roses
^ "rose (plant) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com.
2007-11-19. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth
Edition, s.v. "rose."
^ "GOL – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved
^ Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The plant book: A portable dictionary of the
vascular plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
^ Jack Goody. The culture of flowers. Cambridge University Press, 1993
^ "FOODNET Uganda 2009. Commercialisation bulletin: Fresh cut roses"
(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-30. Retrieved
^ Stewart, D. (2005). The Chemistry Of Essential Oils Made Simple:
God's Love Manifest In Molecules. Care.
World Federation of
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List of Rosa species
Abraham Darby ADR rose Alain Albéric Barbier American Beauty Angel Face Anne Harkness Arthur Bell Beirut Rose Belmonte Blush Noisette Bridge of Sighs Buff Beauty Camp David Cécile Brünner Charles Austin Chopin Chrysler Imperial Conquista rose Double Delight Duchess of Cornwall Eden Elina English Miss Garden Party Général Jacqueminot Great Maiden's Blush Harison's Yellow Rosa Iceberg Ingrid Bergman Ispahan Jeanie Deans Julia Child rose Heidi Klum rose La France Line Renaud Louis de Funès rose Mister Lincoln Mrs Fred Danks Mrs. Harkness Nevada Oklahoma Old Blush Rosa Peace Perle d'Or Pink Wonder Precious Platinum Queen Sirikit Royal William rose Schoener's Nutkana Souvenir de la Malmaison Spice Twice SPIcup Sun Flare Sunsprite Veilchenblau Violet Carson Wife of Bath
Floribunda Hybrid tea rose
Uses and products
Anthracnose Black spot Canker Downy mildew Grey mould Powdery mildew Phragmidium mucronatum (rust) Sooty moulds Specific replant disease Verticillium wil
Helicotylenchus nannus Lepidoptera Meloidogyne hapla Pratylenchus penetrans Pratylenchus vulnus Tylenchorhynchus Xiphinema diversicaudatum
Gold dipped roses
Alister Clark Memorial
Concours international de roses nouvelles de Bagatelle
List of Award of Garden Merit roses List of rose breeders List of rose cultivars named after people Miracle of the roses Roses in Portland, Oregon
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National anthem: Sons and Daughters of Saint Lucia
National bird: St. Lucia amazon
Wd: Q34687 APDB: 194483 EoL: 29911 EPPO: 1ROSG FloraBase: 21507 FoC: 128746 Fossilworks: 157343 GBIF: 3002148 GRIN: 10544 iNaturalist: 53438 IPNI: 34015-1 ITIS: 24807 NCBI: 3764 PLANTS: ROSA5 Tropicos: 40026937 VASCAN: 1627 WoRMS: 425714
LCCN: sh85115443 GND: 40505