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See List of Rosa species

Synonyms

Hulthemia Dumort. ×Hulthemosa Juz. (Hulthemia × Rosa)

A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose
Rose
plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.[1] The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhódon (Aeolic βρόδον wródon), itself borrowed from Old Persian wrd- (wurdi), related to Avestan varəδa, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr.[2][3]

Contents

1 Botany

1.1 Species

2 Uses

2.1 Ornamental plants 2.2 Cut flowers 2.3 Perfume 2.4 Food and drink 2.5 Medicine 2.6 Culture

2.6.1 Art 2.6.2 Symbolism

3 Pests and diseases 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Botany

Longitudinal section through a developing rose hip

Exterior view of rose buds

Rose
Rose
leaflets

Size can be as small as a thumbnail

The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres (2.0 to 5.9 in) long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules; the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous but a few (particularly from South east Asia) are evergreen or nearly so.

The hybrid garden rose "Amber Flush"

The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Rosa sericea, four). These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. There are multiple superior ovaries that develop into achenes.[4] Roses are insect-pollinated in nature. The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose
Rose
hips of some species, especially the dog rose (Rosa canina) and rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa), are very rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches, also eat the seeds.

Rose
Rose
thorns are actually prickles – outgrowths of the epidermis.

While the sharp objects along a rose stem are commonly called "thorns", they are technically prickles—outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). (True thorns, as produced by e.g. Citrus
Citrus
or Pyracantha, are modified stems, which always originate at a node and which have nodes and internodes along the length of the thorn itself.) Rose
Rose
prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it. Some species such as Rosa rugosa
Rosa rugosa
and Rosa pimpinellifolia
Rosa pimpinellifolia
have densely packed straight prickles, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points. Species Further information: List of Rosa species The genus Rosa is subdivided into four subgenera:

Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, meaning "with single leaves") containing one or two species from southwest Asia, R. persica and Rosa berberifolia which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules. Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for "western rose") contains Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America. Platyrhodon (from the Greek for "flaky rose", referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii (also known as the chestnut rose). Rosa (the type subgenus, sometimes incorrectly called Eurosa) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.

Banksianae – white and yellow flowered roses from China. Bracteatae – three species, two from China
China
and one from India. Caninae – pink and white flowered species from Asia, Europe
Europe
and North Africa. Carolinae – white, pink, and bright pink flowered species all from North America. Chinensis – white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-color roses from China
China
and Burma. Gallicanae – pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia
Asia
and Europe. Gymnocarpae – one species in western North America
North America
(Rosa gymnocarpa), others in east Asia. Laevigatae – a single white flowered species from China Pimpinellifoliae – white, pink, bright yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia
Asia
and Europe. Rosa (syn. sect. Cinnamomeae) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but North Africa. Synstylae – white, pink, and crimson flowered roses from all areas.

Rosa gallica Evêque, painted by Redouté

Uses Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been also used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization. They also have minor medicinal uses. Ornamental plants Main article: Garden roses The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca
Rosa glauca
and Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such as Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).

Hybrid tea rose
Hybrid tea rose
cultivar 'Mrs. Herbert Stevens'

Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia, and China.[5] Many thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants. Most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens having mutated into additional petals. In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As long ago as 1840 a collection numbering over one thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges
Loddiges
nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England. Cut flowers

Bouquet of pink roses

Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale. In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in glasshouses, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pest and disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.[6] Some kind of roses are artificially coloured using dyed water, like rainbow roses. Perfume Main articles: Rose oil
Rose oil
and Rose
Rose
water Rose
Rose
perfumes are made from rose oil (also called attar of roses), which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia
Persia
and then spread through Arabia
Arabia
and India, and more recently into eastern Europe. In Bulgaria, Iran
Iran
and Germany, damask roses (Rosa × damascena 'Trigintipetala') are used. In other parts of the world Rosa × centifolia is commonly used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. ' Rose
Rose
Absolute' is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in colour. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about two thousand flowers are required to produce one gram of oil.

Geraniol
Geraniol
(C10H18O)

The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and L-citronellol and rose camphor, an odorless solid composed of alkanes, which separates from rose oil.[7] β-Damascenone is also a significant contributor to the scent. Food and drink Rose
Rose
hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, marmalade, and soup or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose
Rose
hips are also used to produce rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products.[8]

Rosa canina
Rosa canina
hips

Rose water
Rose water
has a very distinctive flavour and is used heavily in Middle Eastern, Persian, and South Asian cuisine—especially in sweets such as barfi, baklava, halva, gulab jamun, gumdrops, kanafeh, nougat, and Turkish delight.

Gulab jamun
Gulab jamun
made with rose water

Rose
Rose
jams are partially common in Iran

Rose
Rose
petals or flower buds are sometimes used to flavour ordinary tea, or combined with other herbs to make herbal teas. In France, there is much use of rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. In the Indian subcontinent, Rooh Afza, a concentrated squash made with roses, is popular, as are rose-flavoured frozen desserts such as ice cream and kulfi.[9][10] Rose
Rose
flowers are used as food, also usually as flavouring or to add their scent to food.[11] Other minor uses include candied rose petals.[12] Rose
Rose
creams (rose-flavoured fondant covered in chocolate, often topped with a crystallised rose petal) are a traditional English confectionery widely available from numerous producers in the UK. Under the American Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,[13] there are only certain Rosa species, varieties, and parts are on the Generally Recognized as Safe lists.

Rose
Rose
absolute: Rosa alba L., Rosa centifolia L., Rosa damascena Mill., Rosa gallica L., and vars. of these spp. Rose
Rose
(otto of roses, attar of roses): Ditto Rose
Rose
buds: Ditto Rose
Rose
flowers: Ditto Rose
Rose
fruit (hips):Ditto Rose
Rose
leaves: Rosa spp.[14]

Medicine The rose hip, usually from R. canina, is used as a minor source of vitamin C. The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement. Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine. This and other species have been used for stomach problems, and are being investigated for controlling cancer growth.[15] In pre-modern medicine, diarrhodon (Gr διάρροδον, "compound of roses", from ῥόδων, "of roses"[16]) is a name given to various compounds in which red roses are an ingredient. Culture Art Roses are a favored subject in art and appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements. The Luxembourg-born Belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is known for his detailed watercolours of flowers, particularly roses.

Codex Manesse
Codex Manesse
illuminated with roses, illustrated between 1305 and 1340 in Zürich. It contains love songs in Middle High German

Henri Fantin-Latour
Henri Fantin-Latour
was also a prolific painter of still life, particularly flowers including roses. The rose 'Fantin-Latour' was named after the artist. Other impressionists including Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
and Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
have paintings of roses among their works. Symbolism Further information: Rose
Rose
(symbolism) The long cultural history of the rose has led to it being used often as a symbol. They symbolised the Houses of York and Lancaster in a conflict known as the Wars of the Roses. Pests and diseases Main article: List of pests and diseases of roses Wild roses are host plants for a number of pests and diseases. Many of these are also shared with other plants, including especially other genera of the Rosaceae. Cultivated roses are often subject to severe damage from insect, arachnid and fungal pests and diseases. In many cases they cannot be usefully grown without regular treatment to control these problems. See also

Plants portal Gardening portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rosa.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Rosa

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Roses

ADR rose List of Award of Garden Merit roses List of rose cultivars named after people Rose
Rose
Hall of Fame Rose
Rose
(color) Rose
Rose
garden Rose
Rose
show Rose
Rose
trial grounds

References

^ "rose (plant) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2009-12-07.  ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, s.v. "rose." ^ "GOL – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2013-03-13.  ^ Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The plant book: A portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ^ Jack Goody. The culture of flowers. Cambridge University Press, 1993 ^ "FOODNET Uganda 2009. Commercialisation bulletin: Fresh cut roses" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-30. Retrieved 2013-03-13.  ^ Stewart, D. (2005). The Chemistry Of Essential Oils Made Simple: God's Love Manifest In Molecules. Care. ISBN 978-0-934426-99-2.  ^ " Rose
Rose
Hip / Rosehip". herbwisdom.com. Retrieved 17 January 2017.  ^ " Rose
Rose
Flavored Ice Cream with Rose
Rose
Petals". ecurry.com.  ^ Samanth Subramanian. "Rooh Afza, the syrup that sweetens the subcontinent's summers". thenational.ae.  ^ "St. Petersburg Times – Google News Archive Search". google.com.  ^ "rosepetal candy – Google Search". google.co.uk.  ^ " Generally Recognized as Safe
Generally Recognized as Safe
(GRAS)".  ^ "§182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates)".  ^ "Rosa chinensis China
China
Rose
Rose
PFAF Plant
Plant
Database". Pfaf.org. Retrieved 2013-03-13.  ^ "dia-". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

External links

World Federation of Rose
Rose
Societies  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Rose". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

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Roses

List of Rosa species

Rose
Rose
cultivars

Abraham Darby ADR rose Alain Albéric Barbier American Beauty Angel Face Anne Harkness Arthur Bell Beirut Rose Belmonte Blush Noisette Bridge of Sighs Buff Beauty Camp David Cécile Brünner Charles Austin Chopin Chrysler Imperial Conquista rose Double Delight Duchess of Cornwall Eden Elina English Miss Garden Party Général Jacqueminot Great Maiden's Blush Harison's Yellow Rosa Iceberg Ingrid Bergman Ispahan Jeanie Deans Julia Child rose Heidi Klum rose La France Line Renaud Louis de Funès rose Mister Lincoln Mrs Fred Danks Mrs. Harkness Nevada Oklahoma Old Blush Rosa Peace Perle d'Or Pink Wonder Precious Platinum Queen Sirikit Royal William rose Schoener's Nutkana Souvenir de la Malmaison Spice Twice SPIcup Sun Flare Sunsprite Veilchenblau Violet Carson Wife of Bath

Rose
Rose
classification

Floribunda Hybrid tea rose

Uses and products

Cut flowers Garden roses Rose
Rose
hip Rose hip
Rose hip
seed oil Rose hip
Rose hip
soup Rose
Rose
oil Rose
Rose
water

Threats

Diseases

Anthracnose Black spot Canker Downy mildew Grey mould Powdery mildew Phragmidium mucronatum (rust) Sooty moulds Specific replant disease Verticillium wil

Pests

Helicotylenchus nannus Lepidoptera Meloidogyne hapla Pratylenchus penetrans Pratylenchus vulnus Tylenchorhynchus Xiphinema diversicaudatum

Culture

Blue rose Gold dipped roses Kutno Rose
Rose
Festival Rainbow rose Red Rose
Rose
of Lancaster Rosalia (festival) Rose
Rose
(color) Rose
Rose
Hall of Fame Rose
Rose
of the Year Rose
Rose
show Rose
Rose
symbolism Thousand-year Rose Tudor rose White Rose
Rose
of York

Rose
Rose
gardens

Alister Clark Memorial Rose
Rose
Garden All-American Rose
Rose
Garden Berkeley Rose
Rose
Garden Château de Bagatelle Europa-Rosarium Exposition Park Rose
Rose
Garden Fontvieille Park and Princess Grace Rose
Rose
Garden Garden Society of Gothenburg Giardino delle rose Government Rose
Rose
Garden, Ooty Heritage Rose
Rose
District of New York City Hex Castle International Rose
Rose
Test Garden McGill Rose
Rose
Garden Mottisfont Abbey Nieuwesteeg Heritage Rose
Rose
Garden Parc de la Tête d'or Parnell Rose
Rose
Gardens Peninsula Park Rome Rose
Rose
Garden Rosarium Uetersen Rose
Rose
Garden, Coburg Rose
Rose
trial grounds Rosendals Trädgård Roseraie de L'Haÿ Royal National Rose Society
Royal National Rose Society
Gardens Różanka Rose
Rose
Garden San Jose Municipal Rose
Rose
Garden The Gardens of the American Rose
Rose
Center Villa Ephrussi de Rothschild White House Rose
Rose
Garden Wohl Rose
Rose
Park Zakir Hussain Rose
Rose
Garden

Rose
Rose
competitions

Concours international de roses nouvelles de Bagatelle

Organizations

Royal National Rose
Rose
Society World Federation of Rose
Rose
Societies

Related articles

List of Award of Garden Merit roses List of rose breeders List of rose cultivars named after people Miracle of the roses Roses in Portland, Oregon

Category

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National symbols of the United States

Symbols

Flag of the United States Seal of the United States Bald eagle Uncle Sam Columbia General Grant (tree) American's Creed Pledge of Allegiance Rose Oak American bison Phrygian cap

Songs

"The Star-Spangled Banner" "Dixie" "America the Beautiful" "The Stars and Stripes Forever" "Hail to the Chief" "Hail, Columbia" "My Country, 'Tis of Thee" "God Bless America" "Lift Every Voice and Sing" "The Army Goes Rolling Along" "Anchors Aweigh" "Marines' Hymn" "Semper Fidelis" "The Air Force Song" "Semper Paratus" "National Emblem" "The Washington Post March" "Battle Hymn of the Republic" "Yankee Doodle" "You're a Grand Old Flag" "When Johnny Comes Marching Home" "This Land Is Your Land"

Mottos

In God We Trust E Pluribus Unum Novus ordo seclorum Annuit cœptis

Landmarks

Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(Liberty Enlightening the World) Liberty Bell Mount Rushmore National Mall

West Potomac Park

v t e

National Symbols of Saint Lucia

National flag National coat of arms National anthem: Sons and Daughters of Saint Lucia National bird: St. Lucia amazon National flowers: Rose
Rose
& Marguerite daisy National plant: Bamboo National tree: Calabash tree

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q34687 APDB: 194483 EoL: 29911 EPPO: 1ROSG FloraBase: 21507 FoC: 128746 Fossilworks: 157343 GBIF: 3002148 GRIN: 10544 iNaturalist: 53438 IPNI: 34015-1 ITIS: 24807 NCBI: 3764 PLANTS: ROSA5 Tropicos: 40026937 VASCAN: 1627 WoRMS: 425714

Authority control

LCCN: sh85115443 GND: 40505

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