See List of _Rosa_ species
* _Hulthemia_ Dumort. * ×_Hulthemosa_ Juz. (_Hulthemia_ × _Rosa_)
A ROSE is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus _ROSA_, in the family Rosaceae , or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars . They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles . Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia , with smaller numbers native to Europe , North America , and northwestern Africa . Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses .
The name _rose_ comes from French, itself from Latin _rosa_, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan , from Greek ρόδον _rhódon_ (Aeolic βρόδον _wródon_), itself borrowed from Old Persian _wrd-_ (_wurdi_), related to Avestan _varəδa_, Sogdian _ward_, Parthian _wâr_.
* 1 Botany
* 1.1 Species
* 2 Uses
* 2.1 Ornamental plants * 2.2 Cut flowers * 2.3 Perfume * 2.4 Food and drink * 2.5 Medicine
* 2.6 Culture
* 2.6.1 Art * 2.6.2 Symbolism
* 3 Pests and diseases * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links
Longitudinal section through a developing rose hip Exterior view of rose buds Rose leaflets Size can be as small as a thumbnail
The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres (2.0 to 5.9 in) long, pinnate , with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules ; the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous but a few (particularly from South east Asia ) are evergreen or nearly so. The hybrid garden rose "Amber Flush"
The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of _ Rosa sericea _, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some _Rosa sericea_, four). These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. There are multiple superior ovaries that develop into achenes . Roses are insect-pollinated in nature.
The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip . Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. _Rosa pimpinellifolia _) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium , which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes ) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the dog rose (_Rosa canina_) and rugosa rose (_Rosa rugosa_), are very rich in vitamin C , among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings , which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches , also eat the seeds. Rose thorns are actually prickles – outgrowths of the epidermis.
While the sharp objects along a rose stem are commonly called "thorns", they are technically prickles —outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). (True thorns, as produced by e.g. _ Citrus _ or _ Pyracantha _, are modified stems, which always originate at a node and which have nodes and internodes along the length of the thorn itself.) Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it. Some species such as _ Rosa rugosa _ and _Rosa pimpinellifolia _ have densely packed straight prickles, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes ). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer . A few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points.
Further information: List of Rosa species
The genus _Rosa_ is subdivided into four subgenera:
* _HULTHEMIA_ (formerly _Simplicifoliae_, meaning "with single leaves") containing one or two species from southwest Asia , _R. persica _ and _Rosa berberifolia _ which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules . * _HESPERRHODOS_ (from the Greek for "western rose") contains _Rosa minutifolia _ and _ Rosa stellata _, from North America. * _PLATYRHODON_ (from the Greek for "flaky rose", referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia, _Rosa roxburghii _ (also known as the chestnut rose).
* _ROSA_ (the type subgenus, sometimes incorrectly called _Eurosa_) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.
* _BANKSIANAE_ – white and yellow flowered roses from China . * _BRACTEATAE_ – three species, two from China and one from India . * _CANINAE_ – pink and white flowered species from Asia , Europe and North Africa . * _CAROLINAE_ – white, pink, and bright pink flowered species all from North America . * _CHINENSIS_ – white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-color roses from China and Burma . * _GALLICANAE_ – pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia and Europe . * _GYMNOCARPAE_ – one species in western North America (_Rosa gymnocarpa _), others in east Asia. * _LAEVIGATAE_ – a single white flowered species from China * _PIMPINELLIFOLIAE_ – white, pink, bright yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe. * _ROSA_ (syn. sect. _Cinnamomeae_) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but North Africa . * _SYNSTYLAE_ – white, pink, and crimson flowered roses from all areas.
_ Rosa gallica Evêque_, painted by Redouté
Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been also used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization. They also have minor medicinal uses.
Main article: Garden roses
The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as _ Rosa glauca _ and _ Rosa rubiginosa _), ornamental thorns (such as _ Rosa sericea _) or for their showy fruit (such as _ Rosa moyesii _). Hybrid tea rose cultivar 'Mrs. Herbert Stevens'
Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia , and China . Many thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants. Most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens having mutated into additional petals .
In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison . As long ago as 1840 a collection numbering over one thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery , an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.
Bouquet of pink roses
Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers . Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale.
In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in glasshouses , and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pest and disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.
Some kind of roses are artificially coloured using dyed water, like rainbow roses .
Rose perfumes are made from rose oil (also called attar of roses), which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia and then spread through Arabia and India , and more recently into eastern Europe. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (_Rosa_ × _damascena_ 'Trigintipetala') are used. In other parts of the world _Rosa_ × _centifolia_ is commonly used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. ' Rose Absolute' is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in colour. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about two thousand flowers are required to produce one gram of oil. Geraniol (C10H18O)
The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and L-citronellol and rose camphor, an odorless solid composed of alkanes , which separates from rose oil. β-Damascenone is also a significant contributor to the scent.
FOOD AND DRINK
See also: Rose hip
Rose hips are occasionally made into jam , jelly , marmalade , and soup or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also used to produce rose hip seed oil , which is used in skin products and some makeup products. _ Rosa canina _ hips
Rose water has a very distinctive flavour and is used heavily in Middle Eastern , Persian , and South Asian cuisine —especially in sweets such as barfi , baklava , halva , gulab jamun , gumdrops , kanafeh , nougat , and Turkish delight . Gulab jamun made with rose water
Rose petals or flower buds are sometimes used to flavour ordinary tea , or combined with other herbs to make herbal teas .
In France, there is much use of rose syrup , most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. In the Indian subcontinent , Rooh Afza , a concentrated squash made with roses, is popular, as are rose-flavoured frozen desserts such as ice cream and kulfi .
Rose flowers are used as food, also usually as flavouring or to add their scent to food. Other minor uses include candied rose petals.
Rose creams (rose-flavoured fondant covered in chocolate , often topped with a crystallised rose petal) are a traditional English confectionery widely available from numerous producers in the UK.
* Rose absolute: _Rosa alba_ L., _Rosa centifolia_ L., _Rosa damascena_ Mill., _Rosa gallica_ L., and vars. of these spp. * Rose (otto of roses, attar of roses): Ditto * Rose buds: Ditto * Rose flowers: Ditto * Rose fruit (hips):Ditto * Rose leaves: _Rosa_ _spp._
The rose hip , usually from _R. canina_, is used as a minor source of vitamin C . The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement. Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines. _Rosa chinensis_ has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine. This and other species have been used for stomach problems, and are being investigated for controlling cancer growth.
Roses are a favored subject in art and appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements. The Luxembourg-born Belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is known for his detailed watercolours of flowers, particularly roses. Codex Manesse illuminated with roses, illustrated between 1305 and 1340 in Zürich. It contains love songs in Middle High German
Henri Fantin-Latour was also a prolific painter of still life, particularly flowers including roses. The rose 'Fantin-Latour' was named after the artist.
Further information: Rose (symbolism)
The long cultural history of the rose has led to it being used often as a symbol. They symbolised the Houses of York and Lancaster in a conflict known as the Wars of the Roses .
PESTS AND DISEASES
Main article: List of pests and diseases of roses
Wild roses are host plants for a number of pests and diseases. Many of these are also shared with other plants, including especially other genera of the Rosaceae .
Cultivated roses are often subject to severe damage from insect , arachnid and fungal pests and diseases. In many cases they cannot be usefully grown without regular treatment to control these problems.
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* ^ "rose (plant) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2009-12-07. * ^ _American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language_, Fourth Edition, s.v. "rose." * ^ "GOL – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2013-03-13. * ^ Mabberley, D.J. 1997. _The plant book: A portable dictionary of the vascular plants_. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. * ^ Jack Goody. The culture of flowers. Cambridge University Press, 1993 * ^ "FOODNET Uganda 2009. Commercialisation bulletin: Fresh cut roses" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-03-13. * ^ Stewart, D. (2005). _The Chemistry Of Essential Oils Made Simple: God\'s Love Manifest In Molecules_. Care. ISBN 978-0-934426-99-2 . * ^ " Rose Hip / Rosehip". _herbwisdom.com_. Retrieved 17 January 2017. * ^ " Rose Flavored Ice Cream with Rose Petals". _ecurry.com_. * ^ Samanth Subramanian . "Rooh Afza, the syrup that sweetens the subcontinent\'s summers". _thenational.ae_. * ^ "St. Petersburg Times – Google News Archive Search". _google.com_. * ^ "rosepetal candy – Google Search". _google.co.uk_. * ^ " Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)". * ^ "§182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).". * ^ "Rosa chinensis China Rose PFAF Plant Database". Pfaf.org. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
* World Federation of Rose Societies * _ Chisholm,